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Sample records for actual feed intake

  1. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  2. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472

  3. Physiological basis for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F

    2009-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency that is independent of level of production, such as size and growth rate in beef cattle, and thus is a useful new trait for studying the physiological mechanisms underlying variation in feed efficiency. Five major physiological processes are likely to contribute to variation in RFI, these being processes associated with intake of feed, digestion of feed, metabolism (anabolism and catabolism associated with and including variation in body composition), physical activity, and thermoregulation. Studies on Angus steers following divergent selection for RFI estimated that heat production from metabolic processes, body composition, and physical activity explained 73% of the variation in RFI. The proportions of variation in RFI that these processes explain are protein turnover, tissue metabolism and stress (37%); digestibility (10%); heat increment and fermentation (9%); physical activity (9%); body composition (5%); and feeding patterns (2%). Other studies in cattle and studies in poultry similarly found these processes to be important in explaining RFI. The physiological mechanisms identified so far are based on very few studies, some of which have small sample sizes. The genomic basis to variation in these physiological processes remains to be determined. Early studies have shown many hundred genes to be associated with differences in RFI, perhaps in hindsight not surprising given the diversity of physiological processes involved. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the variation in RFI in target populations and to marry the physiological information with molecular genetics information that will become the basis for commercial tests for genetically superior animals.

  4. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency.

  5. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  6. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  7. Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sartin, J L; Daniel, J A; Whitlock, B K; Wilborn, R R

    2010-11-01

    Appetite control is a major issue in normal growth and in suboptimal growth performance settings. A number of hormones, in particular leptin, activate or inhibit orexigenic or anorexigenic neurotransmitters within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where feed intake regulation is integrated. Examples of appetite regulatory neurotransmitters are the stimulatory neurotransmitters neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone and the inhibitory neurotransmitter, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Examination of messenger RNA (using in situ hybridization and real-time PCR) and proteins (using immunohistochemistry) for these neurotransmitters in ruminants has indicated that physiological regulation occurs in response to fasting for several of these critical genes and proteins, especially AgRP and NPY. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of each of the four stimulatory neurotransmitters can increase feed intake in sheep and may also regulate either growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, cortisol or other hormones. In contrast, both leptin and MSH are inhibitory to feed intake in ruminants. Interestingly, the natural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonist, AgRP, as well as NPY can prevent the inhibition of feed intake after injection of endotoxin (to model disease suppression of appetite). Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms regulating feed intake in the hypothalamus may lead to mechanisms to increase feed intake in normal growing animals and prevent the wasting effects of severe disease in animals.

  8. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  9. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was

  10. Measuring residual feed intake in dairy heifers fed an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cube diet.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, G C; Macdonald, K A; Williams, Y; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J

    2012-03-01

    Selection for divergence between individuals for efficiency of feed utilization (residual feed intake, RFI) has widespread application in the beef industry and is usually undertaken when animals are fed diets based on silages with grain. The objective of this research was to develop a feeding system (using Gallagher, Hamilton, New Zealand, electronics) to measure RFI for growth in Holstein-Friesian heifers (aged 5-9 mo), and identify divergent individuals to be tested for RFI during lactation. A dry forage diet (alfalfa cubes) was fed because intakes could be measured accurately, and the New Zealand dairy industry (4.4 million milking cows in lactation) relies heavily on forage feeding. The evaluation was undertaken over 3 yr with 1,052 animals fed in a facility for 7 wk, and weighed 3 times weekly. The mean age at the start of measurements was 215 d, body weight (BW) 189 kg, and mean daily dry matter intakes averaged 6.7 kg. Body weight gain (all animals) averaged 0.88 kg/d. The RFI was determined as the residuals from the regression of mean intake on mean BW(0.75) and daily BW gain of individuals. Actual and fitted intakes were strongly related (R(2) = 0.82). In terms of gross efficiency (feed intake/BW gain), RFI+year explained 43% of the variation, BW gain+year explained 66%, and RFI+BW gain+year explained 79% of the variation (all P<0.001). Daily BW gains (kg) of the most and least efficient 10% averaged (± standard deviation) 0.88 ± 0.15 and 0.88 ± 0.12 (P = 0.568), respectively, and the divergence between mean intakes was 1.46 kg of dry matter/d. The most and least efficient animals will be tested for RFI during lactation and genetic markers will be identified for the trait.

  11. Factors associated with feed intake of Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of variance components were obtained from 475 records of average (AFI) and residual feed intake (RFI). Covariates in various (8) models included average daily gain (G), age (A) and weight (W) on test, and slaughter (S) and ultrasound (U) carcass measures (fat thickness, ribeye area and ma...

  12. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Roces, F

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the techniques of nectar feeding in 11 different ant species, and quantitatively compares fluid intake rates over a wide range of nectar concentrations in four species that largely differ in their feeding habits. Ants were observed to employ two different techniques for liquid food intake, in which the glossa works either as a passive duct-like structure (sucking), or as an up- and downwards moving shovel (licking). The technique employed for collecting fluids at ad libitum food sources was observed to be species-specific and to correlate with the presence or absence of a well-developed crop in the species under scrutiny. Workers of ponerine ants licked fluid food during foraging and transported it as a droplet between their mandibles, whereas workers of species belonging to phylogenetically more advanced subfamilies, with a crop capable of storing liquids, sucked the fluid food, such as formicine ants of the genus Camponotus. In order to evaluate the performance of fluid collection during foraging, intake rates for sucrose solutions of different concentrations were measured in four ant species that differ in their foraging ecology. Scaling functions between fluid intake rates and ant size were first established for the polymorphic species, so as to compare ants of different size across species. Results showed that fluid intake rate depended, as expected and previously reported in the literature, on sugar concentration and the associated fluid viscosity. It also depended on both the species-specific feeding technique and the extent of specialization on foraging on liquid food. For similarly-sized ants, workers of two nectar-feeding ant species, Camponotus rufipes (Formicinae) and Pachycondyla villosa (Ponerinae), collected fluids with the highest intake rates, while workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Myrmicinae) and a predatory ant from the Rhytidoponera impressa-complex (Ponerinae) did so with the lowest rate. Calculating the

  13. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  14. Efficiency of energy utilisation and voluntary feed intake in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Tolkamp, B J

    2010-07-01

    Energy requirements of animals are most readily expressed in terms of net energy (NE), while the energy yield of feed is, at least initially, expressed in terms of metabolisable energy (ME). Energy evaluation systems 'translate' NE requirements into ME requirements (ME systems) or assign NE values to feeds (NE systems). Efficiency of ME utilisation is higher for maintenance than for production and the NE yield of a feed varies, therefore, with ME intake. In addition, energetic efficiency for maintenance and production is thought to be different for lactating and non-lactating animals and to be affected by diet quality. As a result, there are currently many national energy evaluation systems that are complex, differ in their approach and are, as a result, difficult to compare. As ruminants in most production systems are fed ad libitum, this is also the most appropriate intake level at which to estimate energetic efficiency. Analyses of older as well as more recent data suggest that ad libitum feeding (i) abolishes the effects of diet quality on energetic efficiency (almost) completely, (ii) abolishes the differences between lactating and non-lactating animals (almost) entirely and (iii) results in overall energetic efficiencies that are always close to 0.6. The paper argues that there is now sufficient information to develop an international energy evaluation system for ad libitum fed ruminants. Such a system should (i) unify ME and NE systems, (ii) avoid the systematic bias and large errors that can be associated with current systems (iii) be simpler than current systems and (iv) have as a starting point a constant efficiency of ME utilisation, with a value of around 0.6. The remarkably constant efficiency of ME utilisation in ad libitum fed ruminants could be the result of energetic efficiency as well as feed intake regulation being affected by the same variables or of a direct role of energetic efficiency in feed intake regulation. Models to predict intake on the

  15. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFI<1 SD below the mean, n=15). The low RFI cows (more efficient) consumed 1.59 kg/day less dry matter than the high RFI group (P<0.01), while they produced nearly equal 4% fat-corrected milk. The milk : feed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.05). The levels of milk protein (P<0.01), total solids (P<0.05), and nonfat solids (P<0.05) were also higher for the low RFI group, whereas milk urea nitrogen was lower (P<0.01). The daily feeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization.

  16. Molecular basis for residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, S S; Mujibi, F D; Sherman, E L

    2009-04-01

    Feed provision is one of the greatest costs of beef production and, with the increasing costs of feed, will remain so for the foreseeable future. Improvement in efficiency has the potential to not only increase profits for cattle producers, but also to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. Both are important in addressing the challenges of increasing feed costs and land pressure. Residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice when evaluating feed efficiency in beef cattle, especially because it is independent of growth and BW. The main inhibitor to adoption of RFI remains the cost and technical difficulty in measuring the trait. This makes RFI a prime candidate for marker-assisted selection because the trait is moderately heritable and DNA or other predictive markers could be used in selection schemes. Although multiple markers have been described over several studies, no major gene affecting RFI has been found. However, a combination of genetic markers, when examined jointly, can explain a large proportion of the genetic variation. Two main barriers remain before full adoption of markers for genetic evaluation and marker-assisted selection can be implemented. First, the genetic interaction of genes affecting RFI on other traits is, as yet, not fully understood. Second the numbers of animals with high quality estimates of RFI remains small. However, current developments indicate that these challenges will soon be overcome.

  17. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    PubMed

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the effect of feed supplementation, from weaning, with 3 sensory feed additives (FA1, FA2, and FA3) on feed preferences, feed intake, and growth of piglets. The FA1 contained extract of Stevia rebaudiana (10 to 20%), extract of high-saponin plants (5 to 10%), and excipients (70 to 85%), the FA2 was mainly composed of a natural extract of Citrus sinensis (60 to 80%), and the FA3 was made of a blend of extracts of hot-flavored spices (5 to 15%) and excipients (85 to 95%). At weaning (d 1), a total of 32 female piglets housed in individual pens were allocated to 4 treatments (FA1, FA2, FA3, and control [CON]) of equivalent mean weight. The pigs were fed a standard pelleted prestarter diet from weaning (d 1) to d 15 and a starter diet from d 16 to 28. The diets were supplemented with the feed additives (FA) corresponding to their treatment, while the CON treatment was the standard diets with no additive. Feed refusals were weighed daily and piglets were weighed weekly on d 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the day of feed transition (d 16) as well as 7 (d 23) and 10 d (d 26) later, the animals were consecutively subjected to 1- and 22-h double-choice feeding tests to investigate their preferences during a short period and a longer period of time for the CON starter diet and the starter diet added with the FA corresponding to their treatment. No overall effect of the feed additives was observed on ADFI, ADG, G:F, and final BW. No overall preference was highlighted for the FA1 treatment, except for a preference for the FA1 starter diet during the 1-h test on d 23 (78% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA2 treatment, the pigs consumed the FA2 starter diet more than the CON starter diet during the 22-h tests on d 16 (67% of total feed intake; P < 0.05) and 26 (62% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA3 treatment, on d 26, the FA3 starter diet was and tended to be consumed more than the CON starter diet during 1- (69% of total intake; P

  18. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and individual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is

  19. Self-reported vs. actual energy intake in youth with and without loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Laura E; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M; Elliott, Camden A; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Osborn, Robyn L; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    Episodes of loss of control over eating (LOC) in children and adolescents--often characterized by the consumption of highly palatable dessert and snack-type foods--have been associated with a lack of awareness while eating that could lead to under- or over-estimation of how much food is consumed. However, little is known about the reporting accuracy of food intake in youth with and without LOC eating. One hundred fifty-six girls and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination to assess for the presence of LOC eating. Youth were queried regarding the amounts of foods consumed directly following a multi-item, laboratory buffet test meal. Children with LOC (n=42) did not differ significantly from youth without LOC (n=114) in reporting accuracy of total food intake (reported minus actual energy intake: 153.0 ± 59.6 vs. 96.9 ± 36.0 kcal; p=0.42). However, compared to those without LOC, children with LOC were less accurate at reporting percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate (p=0.01). Youth with LOC were also less accurate at reporting their intake of desserts (p=0.04). Findings point to the possibility that youth with LOC may have poorer recall of sweet food consumption. Future research is required to examine whether poorer recall reflects a lack of awareness while eating palatable, sweet foods.

  20. Residual feed intake: a nutritional tool for genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Paula, Ney Rômulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Rêgo, Wagner Martins Fontes

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this bibliographical study was to provide information about residual feed intake (RFI), a new criterion used in the selection of beef cattle for growth rate, food ingestion, and feed efficiency. RFI is calculated as the difference between real consumption and the quantity of food an animal is expected to eat based on its mean live weight and rate of weight gain. In studies of RFI, many speculations are made among researchers about the reliability of this criterion. However, there is a high genetic correlation with characteristics related to post-weaning consumption and maturity, indicating that the biological processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in young animals are similar to the processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in animals of greater age. In contrast to feed conversion, selection based on RFI seems to select for lower rates of consumption and lower animal maintenance requirements without changing adult weight or weight gain. Therefore, we conclude that the data indicate that there are extraordinary benefits to be gained from changing the goals of selection from increased weight gain to improved nutritional efficiency. Given the importance of animal production for economic development in Brazil choosing the best selection goals for livestock improvement is essential. To include an index of feed efficiency in future goals would be desirable, and RFI may play a part in this if economic methods of implementation can be developed.

  1. Weather influences feed intake and feed efficiency in a temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Hill, Davina L; Wall, Eileen

    2017-03-01

    A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress. Here, we tested how feed intake and the rate of converting dry matter to milk (feed efficiency, FE) vary in response to natural fluctuations in weather conditions in a housed experimental herd of lactating Holstein Friesians in the United Kingdom. Cows belonged to 2 lines: those selected for high genetic merit for milk traits (select) and those at the UK average (control). We predicted that (1) feed intake and FE would vary with an index of temperature and humidity (THI), wind speed, and the number of hours of sunshine, and that (2) the effects of (1) would depend on the cows' genetic merit. Animals received a mixed ration, available ad libitum, from automatic feed measurement gates. Using >73,000 daily feed intake and FE records from 328 cows over 8 yr, we found that select cows produced more fat- and protein-corrected milk, and had higher DMI and FE than controls. Cows of both lines decreased DMI and fat- and protein-corrected milk but, importantly, increased FE as THI increased. This suggests that improvements in the efficiency of converting feed to milk may partially offset the costs of reduced milk yield owing to a warmer climate, at least under conditions of mild heat stress. The rate of increase in FE with THI was steeper in select cows than in controls, which raises the possibility that select cows use more effective coping tactics. This is, to our knowledge, the first longitudinal study

  2. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  3. Effect of maternal feed efficiency as growing heifers and lactating cows on feed intake and performance of their suckling offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined whether suckling calf DMI and performance was associated with feed efficiency, feed intake, and performance of thier dam as a growing heifer or lactating cow. Feed efficiency was established in 74 growing heifers that subsequently gave birth to their second calf as 3-yr old cows. For t...

  4. Feeding behavior improves prediction of dairy cow voluntary feed intake but cannot serve as the sole indicator.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I; Ben Meir, Y; Miron, J; Maltz, E

    2016-09-01

    Low-cost feeding-behavior sensors will soon be available for commercial use in dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a feed intake model for the individual dairy cow that includes feeding behavior. In a research farm, the individual cows' voluntary feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored at every meal. A feed intake model was developed based on data that exist in commercial modern farms: 'BW,' 'milk yield' and 'days in milking' parameters were applied in this study. At the individual cow level, eating velocity seemed to be correlated with feed intake (R 2=0.93 to 0.94). The eating velocity coefficient varied among individuals, ranging from 150 to 230 g/min per cow. The contribution of feeding behavior (0.28) to the dry matter intake (DMI) model was higher than the contribution of BW (0.20), similar to the contribution of fat-corrected milk (FCM)/BW (0.29) and not as large as the contribution of FCM (0.49). Incorporating feeding behavior into the DMI model improved its accuracy by 1.3 (38%) kg/cow per day. The model is ready to be implemented in commercial farms as soon as companies introduce low-cost feeding-behavior sensors on commercial level.

  5. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    PubMed

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final

  6. Energy and nutrient intakes of disabled children: do feeding problems make a difference?

    PubMed

    Thommessen, M; Riis, G; Kase, B F; Larsen, S; Heiberg, A

    1991-12-01

    We examined the effect of feeding problems and alternative feeding practices on the energy and nutrient intakes of disabled children. Subjects were 221 disabled children aged 1 to 16 years from seven diagnostic groups: a 4-day food record was obtained for 166 children. The children's energy and nutrient intakes were examined in relation to the presence or absence of four feeding problems (gross motor/self-feeding impairment, oral-motor dysfunction, lack of appetite, food aversions) and two alternate feeding practices (prolonged assisted feeding and use of pureed foods). Cross-sectional analyses showed that children with feeding problems or alternative feeding practices had lower energy and nutrient intakes than did children without these factors. The presence of oral-motor dysfunction or prolonged assisted feeding significantly reduced relative energy intake. In general, differences in energy and nutrient intakes between children with and without other feeding problems or practices were small, and few statistically significant differences were found. The findings indicate that some feeding problems may reduce food intake in disabled children, although this effect is lessened by the conscientious efforts of parents. Parents and families of disabled children should receive dietary counseling to prevent deteriorative effects on the physical growth and health of children with long-standing feeding problems.

  7. Actual and simulated injury of Creontiades signatus (Heteroptera: Miridae) feeding on cotton bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The actual feeding injury of Creontiades signatus (Distant) was compared to a simulated technique for study years 2005, 2006 and 2008 by injecting varying dilutions of pectinase into cotton bolls at different boll sizes (ages) in an effort to determine if such a technique could be used to reduce the...

  8. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  9. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Muñoz, Julia; Komen, Hans; Schneider, Oliver; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: “Novel Environment” and “Light Avoidance”. Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV = 23%), growth (CV = 25%) and behavior (CV = 100%). Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r = −0.65 and r = −0.77) and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r = 0.66) and growth (r = 0.58). Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1) fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r = −0.55) and growth (r = −0.66); (2) fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1) and had higher growth (P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity. PMID:21738651

  10. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  11. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  12. The effect of residual feed intake classification on forage intake by grazing beef cows.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Kerley, M S; Kallenbach, R L

    2008-10-01

    Although feed intake and efficiency differences in growing cattle of low and high residual feed intake (RFI) classification have been established, little is known about the difference in grazed forage intake between beef cows of known RFI classification. Two experiments were conducted using Hereford cows for which RFI had been determined as heifers using the GrowSafe 4000E feed intake system, after which heifers had been divided into thirds as low RFI, mid RFI, and high RFI. During Exp. 1, 2 replicates of low and high RFI cows (n = 7/replicate) in mid- to late-gestation were blocked to 1 of 4 non-endophyte-infected tall fescue paddocks (1.8 to 2.4 ha), which they grazed continuously for 84 d during summer. Using grazing exclosures, weekly rising plate meter readings, and forage harvests every 21 d, average forage DMI was calculated. Low and high RFI groups did not differ (P > 0.05) in BW change or BCS change over the trial (19.5 vs. 22.1 kg of BW gain and 0.11 vs. 0.10 BCS gain), but low RFI cows had a 21% numerically lower DMI than high RFI cows (12.4 vs. 15.6 kg/d; P = 0.23). The average area needed per paddock over the trial was similar for low and high RFI cows (1.71 vs. 1.82 ha; P = 0.35), and the average DM on offer over the trial was less for low RFI than for high RFI cows (4,215 vs. 4,376 kg; P = 0.06). During Exp. 2, 3 replicates of low and high RFI cows with their calves (n = 4 pair/replicate) strip-grazed stockpiled and early spring growth tall fescue paddocks (0.7 to 0.9 ha) for 60 d in late winter and early spring. Because of limiting forage availability and quality at trial initiation, cow-calf pairs were also fed 3.31 kg/pair of pelleted soyhulls daily. Pre- and post-grazed forage samples were harvested for 4 grazing periods, and forage growth was estimated using a growing degree days calculation and on-site weather station data. Performance did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI cows throughout the experiment (18.4 vs. 26.6 kg of BW gain

  13. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  14. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.

  15. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  16. [Epidemiologic studies on nutrition role in develomeat of osteoarthrosis. Report 1. Analysis of actual intake of nutrients and energy in depend on financial position and in come patients osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Khodyrev, V N; Martinchik, A N

    2010-01-01

    The study gives the characteristic of the social situation of patients with osteoarthrosis (OA), among which is dominated by people with disabilities and senior citizens (60%), most of which belongs to the poor. The actual nutrition of patients with OA is characterized by low energy intake and macronutrients. Feeding low-income patients with OA was characterized by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid and calcium, whereas the intake of vitamin A, E and beta-carotene was higher in patients with OA compared with the control group.

  17. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Freua, M C; Do, D N; Ventura, R V; Kadarmideen, H N; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-10-17

    Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feedlots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle and 943,577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genome-wide association analysis was performed for dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake with a Bayesian Lasso procedure. Genes within 50-kb SNPs, most relevant for explaining the genomic variance, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target phenotypes and showed that almost all genomic variances were in the SNPs located in the intergenic and intronic regions. We further identified five main metabolic pathways related to ion transport, body composition, and feed intake control, which influenced the four phenotypes simultaneously. The systems genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

  18. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) with RFI. The low- and high-RFI groups had similar (P > 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P < 0.05) than high-RFI cows. Low-RFI cows had greater pH and lower ammonia concentrations in ruminal fluid compared to their high-RFI contemporaries. Low-RFI cows had fewer (P < 0.001) daily feeding events, but these were of longer (P < 0.001) duration (min·feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P < 0.001; min/d) for low- compared to high-RFI cows. High

  19. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( < 0.01) less feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( < 0.01), and PEM ( < 0.01) in Exp. 1, but no differences were detected between high- and low-RFI lambs for ADG ( = 0.79), DMD ( = 0.42), BC ( > 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( < 0.01) and G:F ( = 0.02) in low-RFI lambs, whereas G:F ( = 0.02) and PEM ( < 0.01) were improved in high-RFI lambs under the feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at

  20. Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.

    PubMed

    McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

    2014-11-01

    Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ≤ 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ≤ 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a

  1. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  2. Asssociations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited outcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...

  3. A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent development of technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. Goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a ge...

  4. The influence of loose-mix feeding on behavior, feed intake, and body weight of growing geese.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the influence of loose-mix feeding on behavior, feed intake, and BW of growing geese. In total, 252 one-day-old geese (Anser anser) were divided into 2 groups differing in the form of diet they received between 42 and 98 d of age (AMEn 11.55 MJ/kg, CP 16%): a complete pelleted diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (control group) or a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of sorghum whole seeds/kg (mixed group). Feed intake was measured daily from 42 to 48 d and every 3 d from 49 to 98 d. Individual BW was measured weekly from 42 to 98 d. Goose behavior was monitored by the scan sampling method throughout the experiment, which was divided into 5 periods according to the timing of access to feed: period 1 from 42 to 55 d (ad libitum feeding access), period 2 from 56 to 62 d (2 + 2 h feeding access), period 3 from 63 to 70 d (2 h feeding access), period 4 from 71 to 94 d (1 h feeding access), and period 5 from 95 to 97 d (3 h feeding access). Over the whole period, the feed intake (13,968 and 14,480 g) and the feed conversion ratio (8.53 and 8.15) were similar in both groups (P = 0.112 and P = 0.168; respectively). Body weight was similar in both groups from 42 to 91 d of age, but at 98 d of age, BW was 3.7% lower in the control than in the mixed group (P = 0.006). Goose behavior was influenced by period, because the percentage of birds feeding increased when the daily access time to the feed decreased (P < 0.001), but not by group (P > 0.05). The results suggest that a loose-mix feeding could be recommended in feeding of growing geese because it weakly influences their feed behavior but slightly increases their weight at the end of the growing period.

  5. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  6. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  7. Genetic associations of residual feed intake with serum insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin concentrations, meat quality, and carcass cross sectional fat area ratios in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Katoh, K; Suzuki, K

    2009-10-01

    Genetic relationships of measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake with serum IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and at 105 kg of BW, serum leptin concentration at 105 kg of BW, meat quality, and different fat accumulation traits on 834 Duroc pigs in 7 generations were estimated. Two measures of residual feed intake were estimated from the differences between actual and predicted feed intake: phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI(phe)) and nutritional residual feed intake (RFI(nut)). Meat quality traits included drip loss, cooking loss, pork color score, pork lightness (L*), and pH, whereas fat accumulation traits were subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and total fat percent at 5-6th thoracic vertebra; subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, abdominal fat, and total fat percent at one-half body length and at last thoracic vertebra, and seam fat score. The IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and 105 kg of BW had weak genetic correlations with measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake (absolute values ranging from 0.14 to 0.24). The genetic correlations between measures of residual feed intake and serum leptin concentration were strong and positive (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were 0.74 and 0.80, respectively). Residual feed intake was moderately but negatively correlated with cooking loss (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were -0.42 and -0.49, respectively), whereas daily feed intake was moderately and positively correlated with drip loss and pH (0.33 and 0.36, respectively). Daily feed intake was also moderately correlated with subcutaneous fat accumulations at the 5-6th thoracic vertebra (0.31) and one-half body length (0.31) regions and was strongly correlated with accumulations at the last thoracic vertebra region (0.57). The genetic correlations between daily feed intake and intermuscular fat accumulations at all of the carcass sites were strong (0.60, 0.76, and 0.56 for intermuscular fat at 5-6th thoracic vertebra, one-half body

  8. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  9. Effects of feed intake on composition of sheep rumen contents and their microbial population size.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Redondo, R; Cajarville, C

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of feed intake on the composition of the rumen contents of sheep and on their bacterial densities. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous inter-rumen infusion of 15NH3 from four rumen-cannulated wethers successively fed on a hay-concentrate diet (2:1, w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight0.75. Total weight and chemical composition of rumen contents, as well as the distribution by size and chemical composition of particles, were determined. The populations of bacteria associated with the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria, LAB) and solid (solid-associated bacteria, SAB) fractions of rumen digesta and the distribution of SAB according to feed particle size were also examined. The greater feed intake caused an increase in the mass of the rumen contents, while its chemical composition did not change, except for a higher content of organic matter (P=0.023). The distribution of feed particles by size was similar at both levels of intake. The concentrations of neutral- and acid-detergent fibre in feed particles decreased and those of total, dietary, and microbial N increased, both with a quadratic response (P=0.001), as particle size decreased. The proportion of LAB in the microbial biomass of rumen digesta reached only 8.0 %. This proportion and the density of LAB were unaffected by the level of feed intake, whereas an apparent reduction (10.4 %) occurred with the SAB biomass in whole rumen contents. A systematic, but not significant, reduction (mean value 11.9 %) in the level of microbial colonisation in the different particle fractions with the increase of feed intake was also observed.

  10. Cyclic variation in cattle feed intake data: characterization and implications for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Stroup, W W; Nielsen, M K; Gosey, J A

    1987-06-01

    Feed intake data were collected every 6 h in a 140-d feeding trial involving two pens of 15 bull calves, each using one Pinpointer single-animal feeding stall per pen. Spectral analysis of these data revealed strong cyclic patterns of feed intake. These patterns were unique to each animal and consisted of two or more cycle lengths, some up to 28 d, for each animal. Feed intake behavior is an important factor in many forms of animal experimentation. Animal researchers frequently use row-column designs, where columns represent animals and rows represent periods. Latin squares and crossover designs are common examples. Standard analysis of variance procedures are appropriate for these experiments only if certain assumptions are met; one is that if cyclic variation is present, it is identical for all animals, i.e., there is no row X column interaction. If this assumption is not satisfied, standard analysis of variance procedures will result in upward bias of the mean square error and may result in serious distortion of treatment effect estimates. This occurred using the data from the feeding trial reported in this paper. Time-series analysis of covariance greatly improved the accuracy and efficiency of estimates of treatment effects. Consideration of variations in cyclic behavior should be part of the design process in experiments using feed intake data. Guidelines for the design of experiments to take advantage of time-series methodology are given.

  11. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc.

  12. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; da Cruz, Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE) inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI) was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P < 0.01) and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P < 0.10). No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake. PMID:28116344

  13. Effects of feed intake and genetics on tissue nitrogen-15 enrichment and feed conversion efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Logan, C M; Dewhurst, R J; Hodge, S; Zhou, H; Edwards, G R

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sheep genetics and feed intake on nitrogen isotopic fractionation (ΔN) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE; live weight gain/DMI), using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 2 levels of genetic merit for growth (high vs. low) and 2 levels of feed intake (110 vs. 170% of ME for maintenance [MEm]). No effect of genetic merit was detected for live weight gain ( = 0.64), FCE ( = 0.46), plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.52), plasma glucose ( = 0.78), and ΔN of wool ( = 0.45), blood ( = 0.09), and plasma ( = 0.51). Sheep receiving 170% of MEm had 175% higher live weight gain ( < 0.001) and 77% higher FCE ( < 0.001) than sheep receiving 110% of MEm. There was no difference among treatments at the beginning of the study for either blood or plasma ∆N, but the treatment groups started to diverge in blood and plasma ∆N at 21 and 7 d, respectively. Blood, plasma, and wool samples were enriched in N compared with feed. There was a higher blood, plasma, and wool ∆N for the low feed intake group than the high feed intake group ( < 0.001 in all cases). Across the 4 treatment groups, higher FCE in sheep was associated with lower ∆N for plasma, blood, and wool. Overall, the results are consistent with the potential of ∆N as a rapid, low-cost biomarker of FCE in sheep, despite there being no effects of genetic treatment on FCE and ∆N.

  14. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  15. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  16. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-01-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  17. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-02-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  18. Parental feeding style, energy intake and weight status in young Scottish children.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Colette; Jackson, Diane M; Kelly, Louise A; Reilly, John J

    2006-12-01

    Parental feeding style, as measured by the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), may be an important influence on child feeding behaviour and weight status in early to mid childhood, but more evidence on parental feeding style is required from samples outside the USA. We aimed to use the CFQ in a sample of 117 Scottish children (boys n 53, girls n 64 mean age 4.6 (SD 0.5) years) to: characterise gender differences and changes over time (in forty of the 117 children studied over 2 years); test associations between parental feeding style, free-living energy intake (measured over 3 days using the multiple pass 24-h recall), and weight status (BMI SD score). No dimensions of parental feeding style changed significantly over 2 years in the longitudinal study (P>0.05 in all cases). No aspects of parental feeding style as measured by the CFQ differed significantly between the sexes (P>0.05 in all cases). Parental perceptions of child weight status were generally significantly positively correlated with child weight status as measured by the BMI SD score. In this sample and setting, measures of parental control over child feeding were generally not associated with child energy intake or weight status.

  19. Effects of pellet diameter during and after lactation on feed intake of piglets pre- and postweaning.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Wamsteeker, D; Oostindjer, M; van Enckevort, L C M; van der Poel, A F B; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E

    2014-09-01

    Effects of 2 pellet diameters for piglets pre- and postweaning on feed intake, BW, and feed-related behavior were studied in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, 19 litters were provided with pellets of 2 and 12 mm in diameter in a choice-feeding setup from d 4 of lactation onward. From d 4 to 18, piglets preferred the 12-mm diameter pellet over the 2-mm diameter pellet (519 vs. 168 g/pen; P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, 39 litters were provided with creep feed of either 2- or 10-mm diameter pellets. Feed intake from d 3 to 17 was higher in litters provided the 10-mm diameter pellet than the 2-mm diameter pellet (1,752 vs. 1,101 g/pen; P < 0.001). Piglet BW at weaning did not differ between treatments. Treatment × day of lactation interactions were found for time spent eating, interest in eating, and time spent suckling. Time spent eating and interest in eating increased with time. This increase was lower in the litters provided with the 10-mm diameter pellet. Time spent suckling remained the same in litters provided with 2-mm diameter pellets but decreased in time in litters provided the 10-mm diameter pellets. Experiment 3 was set up as a 2 × 2 factorial design with pellet diameter both pre- and postweaning as factors. During lactation, 18 litters were provided creep feed of either 2 or 12 mm in pellet diameter. At weaning, each litter was split into 2 comparable half litters and each half litter was provided with feed of 2 or 12 mm in diameter. Feed intake was higher in the 12-mm diameter pellet litters than in the 2-mm ones from d 4 to 11 of lactation (P < 0.01). Pellet diameter provided after weaning did not affect BW gain or feed intake. Piglets provided the 12-mm diameter pellet before weaning, however, had a higher BW gain (2,060 vs. 2,606 g/pig; P = 0.003) and feed intake (2,772 vs. 3,173 g/pig; P = 0.04) and a lower feed conversion ratio (P = 0.03) between d 0 and 10 after weaning than piglets provided the 2-mm diameter pellet before weaning. Postweaning pellet diameter

  20. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  1. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-08-16

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency.

  2. Profile of the spleen transcriptome in beef steers with variation in gain and feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also contributing to an animal...

  3. Feed Intake Regulation for the Female Broiler Breeder: In Theory and in Practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern commercial broiler is the product of intensive genetic selection for rapid and efficient growth. An unintended consequence of this selective breeding has been the loss of the ability for self-regulation of feed intake to closely match the requirements for maintenance, growth and reproduc...

  4. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  5. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  6. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  7. Myogenesis in sheep is altered by maternal feed intake during the peri-conception period.

    PubMed

    Quigley, S P; Kleemann, D O; Kakar, M A; Owens, J A; Nattrass, G S; Maddocks, S; Walker, S K

    2005-07-01

    The effect of varying short-term maternal feed intake during the peri-conception period on the development of ovine fetal muscle at mid-gestation was investigated. Superovulated donor Merino ewes (n = 24) were fed a roughage/grain pelleted diet (10.1 MJME/kg dry matter) at either 1.5x maintenance (H; high) or 0.5x maintenance (L; low) from 18 days before until 6 days after ovulation. Embryos were transferred to recipient ewes (n = 60) on day 6. Singleton fetuses were collected on day 75 of gestation and placental weights, fetal body dimensions and fetal organ and muscle weights recorded. The number, type and size of muscle fibres and the dry matter, RNA, DNA and protein content in the semitendinosus muscle were determined. Maternal feed intake did not influence body dimensions, organ development or muscle weights in the fetus. However, L feed intake decreased total muscle fibre number in the fetus by approximately 20% (P = 0.06) compared to H feed intake. This resulted from a reduced secondary to primary fibre ratio (P < 0.05) and indicated that secondary fibre formation occurred at a reduced rate in L fetuses. In addition, protein:DNA ratio tended to be lower in muscles of L fetuses (P < 0.1). It is concluded that restricting feed intake over the peri-conception period reduces or delays myogenesis in fetal sheep. The potential mechanisms by which nutritional availability during this period may influence subsequent myogenic development are discussed.

  8. Methane emissions from cattle differing in feed intake and feed efficiency fed a high concentrate diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane gas released by cattle is a product of fermentation of feed in the digestive tract and represents a loss of feed energy. In addition to being a dietary energy loss, methane is considered a greenhouse gas. Developing strategies to reduce methane emissions from cattle have the potential to i...

  9. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed.

  10. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements during breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gorzel, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of supplements intake during breast-feeding was aim of the work. Seventy three women were examined in age 19-42 years coming from the Lublin province. The information about applying supplements during breast-feeding was obtained using questionnaire method. Achieved results served for calculations of taking vitamins and minerals coming from supplements. During breast-feeding 48% women accepted supplements. Average intakes of vitamin B2 (113%), B6 (120%), folic acid (144%) and vitamin D (166%) from supplements were above 100% recommended values. The highest average consumption was noted for iron (229% of recommended value), however the lowest on level 10-35% recommendations for vitamin A (33%), calcium (11%), selenium (12%) and magnesium (20%). Nearly 100% of the norm realization was obtained in case of the vitamin C (93%), E (102%), PP (105%), B1 (107%) and zinc (99%).

  11. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  12. Sire and liveweight affect feed intake and methane emissions of sheep confined in respiration chambers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Donaldson, A J; Woodgate, R T; Oddy, V H; Hegarty, R S

    2014-12-01

    Daily methane production and feed intake were measured on 160 adult ewes, which were the progeny of 20 sires and 3 sire types (Merino, dual-purpose and terminal) from a genetically diverse flock. All animals were housed in individual pens and fed a 50/50 mix of chaffed lucerne and oaten hays at 20 g/kg liveweight (LW), with feed refusals measured for at least 10 days before the first of three 22-h measurements in respiration chambers (RC). Feed was withdrawn at 1600 h on the day before each RC test to encourage the ewes to eat the entire ration provided for them in the RC. After the first 1-day RC test, the sheep were returned to their pens for a day, then given a second 1-day RC test, followed by another day in their pens, then a third RC test. After all animals had been tested, they were ranked according to methane emissions adjusted for feed intake in the RC and on the previous day, enabling 10 low and 10 high methane animals to be chosen for repeat measurement. No variation between sires nor consistent effects of LW on feed eaten (%FE, expressed as per cent of feed offered) was evident in the 10 days before the first RC measurement. However, significant differences between sires (equivalent to an estimated heritability of 41%) were identified for %FE during the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days of RC testing (2 and 4 days after the initial RC test). The analysis of all data showed that methane emissions in the RC were related to feed intake on the day of testing and the two previous days (all P<0.0005). Before correcting for feed intake on previous days, there was some variation between sires in methane yield, equivalent to an estimated heritability of 9%. Correction for feed intake on the 2 previous days halved the residual variation, allowing other effects to be detected, including effects of LW, twins reared as singles, test batch, RC and test-day effects, but estimated sire variation fell to zero. In order to avoid potential biases, statistical models of methane

  13. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  14. The effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and growth in beagle puppies.

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, C B; Barrette, D; Mongeau, R; Larivière, N

    1985-01-01

    We studied the growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of groups of female Beagle puppies fed 16% or 22% crude protein rations to which 6% or 12% wheat bean was added at the expense of the total diet. The final neutral detergent fibre concentrations were 12%, 16%, 22% and 23% (dry matter basis). The addition of wheat bran to puppy rations, bringing the neutral detergent fibre up to 16% in a 21% crude protein diet had no deleterious effects on feed intake, feed and protein efficiency or growth in Beagle puppies. Over a sufficiently long period of time, the growth of this group did not differ from that of the controls (12% neutral detergent fibre, 23% crude protein) although it was higher at intermediate times. The effects of the high fibre (22 or 23% neutral detergent fibre) diets on growth, feed intake feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio are consistent with an energy deficit resulting from the animals' inability to adapt fully to the dilution of their rations leading to lower growth, less efficient use of feed and, in the case of group 3 (22% crude protein, 22% neutral detergent fibre), a lower protein efficiency ratio. The protein efficiency ratio of group 4 (16% crude protein, 23% neutral detergent fibre) was higher than that of group 3, most likely the result of a more limiting amount of dietary protein leading to a more efficient use for growth by the animal. We have concluded that intermediate levels of neutral detergent fibre (up to 16%) were not deleterious even in puppy rations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2994864

  15. Selection for feed efficiency traits and correlated genetic responses in feed intake and weight gain of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grion, A L; Mercadante, M E Z; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Magnani, E; Branco, R H

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for indicator traits of feed efficiency and to recommend traits that would result in better responses to selection for increased weaning weight (weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age [W210]), ADG, and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) and lower DMI. Records of W210 from 8,004 Nellore animals born between 1978 and 2011 and postweaning performance test records from 678 males and females born between 2004 and 2011 were used. The following feed efficiency traits were evaluated: G:F, partial efficiency of growth (PEG), relative growth rate (RGR), Kleiber's ratio (KR), residual feed intake (RFI), residual weight gain (RWG), and residual intake and gain (RIG). Covariance and variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using multitrait analysis under an animal model. Estimates of genetic gain and correlated responses were obtained considering single-stage and 2-stage selection. Heritability estimates were 0.22 ± 0.03 (W210), 0.60 ± 0.08 (DMI), 0.42 ± 0.08 (ADG), 0.56 ± 0.06 (BW(0.75)), 0.19 ± 0.07 (G:F), 0.25 ± 0.09 (PEG), 0.19 ± 0.07 (RGR), 0.22 ± 0.07 (KR), 0.33 ± 0.10 (RFI), 0.13 ± 0.07 (RWG), and 0.19 ± 0.08 (RIG). The genetic correlations of DMI with W210 (0.64 ± 0.10), ADG (0.87 ± 0.06), and BW(0.75) (0.84 ± 0.05) were high. The only efficiency traits showing favorable responses to selection for lower DMI were G:F, PEG, RFI, and RIG. However, the use of G:F, PEG, or RFI as a selection criterion results in unfavorable correlated responses in some growth traits. The linear combination of RFI and RWG through RIG is the best selection criterion to obtain favorable responses in postweaning growth and feed intake of Nellore cattle in single-stage selection. Genetic gains in feed efficiency are expected even after preselection for W210 and subsequent feed efficiency testing of the preselected animals.

  16. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  17. [Progress in predicting animal feed intake of plant secondary compounds by spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Su; Hong, Fu-Zeng; Wang, Kun

    2007-09-01

    Study on feed intake of phytophagic animals is a key issue in promoting animal productivity and conservation of wild life. However, how to accurately predict the feed intake of grazing animal and wild life is a long remaining problem. Under the mechanism of co-evolution, plant produces secondary compounds such as phenolics, terpenoids and nitrogen-containing compounds to avoid or reduce animal herbivorous damage as a defensive strategy, while animal attained detoxification capacity of biotransforming and mineralizing the compounds by microbial activities and reactions such as hydrolysis and reduction. The attributes of feedstuff and the amount of a particular feed consumed by the animal affect directly the urinary excretion of secondary metabolites. Plant secondary compounds and their metabolites can be efficiently extracted, separated and structure-identified by spectroscopic analytic method. Then the feed intake of the animal can be accurately measured or predicted by the inference model of concentration-ratio that is based on the regression of correlating the secondary metabolites to the precursors in plant. Aromatic compounds, an universal occurrence in vascular plants, play an important role in predicting feed intake of ruminants. Progresses have been made all-around about the new method. Intensive studies have found that different species and developing stage of plant have varying kinds and levels of secondary compounds, and the age, gender and type of animal have different capacity of metabolizing the compounds. Increasing concentrations of the compounds in the diet led to a dose-dependent decrease in food intake best described as an exponential decay. Animals that had not previously been exposed to the compounds ate significantly more when first offered food containing the compound than on subsequent days. Advanced spectroscopic analytic method has been developed and widely applied in extraction (e. g. microwave assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction

  18. Body composition and feed intake of reproducing and growing mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-05-01

    Changes in maintenance energy requirements and in feed efficiency have been achieved by divergent selection for heat loss in mice in 3 replicates, creating high heat loss, high maintenance (MH) and low heat loss, low maintenance (ML) lines and an unselected control (MC). However, feed intake has mainly been measured in mature animals and not during growth or reproduction. Additionally, there is evidence that reducing maintenance energy will increase fat content, an undesirable result. To evaluate if selection has altered body composition and lifecycle feed intake, mating pairs were continuously mated and maintained for up to 1 yr unless culled. Offspring pairs were sampled from each line at each parity and maintained from 21 to 49 d of age. Feed intake was recorded for mating pairs throughout the year and on offspring pairs. Body weight was recorded on all animals at culling as well as percent fat, total fat, and total lean, measured by dual X-ray densitometry. Average daily gain was also recorded for offspring. Energy partitioning was achieved using 2 approaches: Approach I regressed energy intake of the pair on sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain to obtain maintenance (bm) and growth (bg) coefficients for each line, replicate, feeding period, and sex (offspring pairs only); Approach II calculated bm for each pair assuming constant energy values for lean and fat gain. Energy coefficients and body composition traits were evaluated for effect of selection (MH vs. ML) and asymmetry of selection ([MH + ML]/2 vs. MC). Both MC mating and offspring pairs tended to have greater BW than the average of the selection lines (P < 0.08). Males of offspring pairs weighed more than females (P < 0.01), while females of mating pairs weighed more than males (P < 0.01). Line was insignificant (P > 0.15) for body composition traits. Using Approach I, MH mice had a greater bm than ML mice for mating pairs (P = 0.03) but not offspring pairs (P = 0.50). For Approach II, MH had a

  19. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  20. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  1. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  2. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  3. Residual feed intake, carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Fidelis, H A; Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Branco, R H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z

    2017-06-01

    A total of 127 Nellore bulls classified as low and high residual feed intake (RFI), from three selection lines, were evaluated in five experiments aiming to identify associations between RFI, carcass, and meat quality traits. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Longissimus muscle were evaluated. A mixed model including the fixed effects of RFI class, selection line, interaction between RFI class and selection line, and age at slaughter as a covariate, and the random effects of diet within experiment and experiment was used, with means compared by the t-test. Feed intake average difference was 0.962kg/day; low RFI animals consumed 0.479kg/day less feed and high RFI animals consumed 0.483kg/day more feed than expected. No differences between RFI classes were detected for most of studied variables, demonstrating the absence of unfavorable associations between RFI and carcass and meat quality traits. Low RFI Nellore animals use feed efficiently and produce good quality carcasses and meat.

  4. Prolonged oral cyanide effects on feed intake, growth rate and blood parameters in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Avais, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Ashraf, Kamran; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid

    2014-07-01

    Twelve adult rabbits bred locally were divided into two equal groups of 6; experimental and control groups. Rabbits in the experimental group were orally dosed with KCN at 3mg/kg body weight for 40 consecutive days. Members in control group were given placebo (distilled water) for the same period. Animals in both groups were offered feed at 90gm/kg/day while ample drinking water was available ad lib. Feed consumption and body weight of rabbits in both the groups were recorded. Blood samples were also drawn to determine various hematological parameters. Statistical analysis revealed a non-significant difference of total and daily feed intakes in rabbits of experimental and control groups. Whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the experimental group were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared to controls. Likewise a significant decrease in body weight gain of rabbits in experimental group (P<0.05) was observed. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets of rabbits in both the groups. Erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly decreased in treated rabbits. It was concluded that chronic cyanide intake had a deleterious effect on feed efficiency, growth rate and blood components of rabbits.

  5. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  6. Association of AMPK subunit gene polymorphisms with growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency in meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sihua; Moujahid, El Mostafa El; Duan, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning; Chen, Sirui

    2016-07-01

    Investigations on regulatory genes of feed intake will provide a rational scientific basis to improve future selection indices for more efficient chickens. In the present study, we investigated the association of 13 previously reported SNPs in the chicken adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) subunits PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PRKAG3 genes with body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in two distinct yellow meat-type strains. Six SNPs with a very low minor allele frequency were removed by genotype quality control and data filtering. The experimental population comprised 796 pedigreed males from two strains with different genetic backgrounds, 335 chickens from N202 and 461 chickens from N301. BW at 49 (BW49) and 70 days of age (BW70) and FI (from 49 to 70 days of age) were determined individually. BWG and FCR were computed based on BW and FI in the interval between 49 to 70 days. The results indicated that PRKAB1 SNPs rs14094358 and rs14094362 were significantly associated with BW70, BWG, and FI in the N202 strain, and rs14094361 and rs14094363 were significantly associated with FI and FCR in the N301 strain (P < 0.05). In addition, the PRKAG2 SNP rs14133282 showed significant association with FI in N202, and rs13535812 was significantly associated with BW70 in N202 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the PRKAG3 SNP rs13595570 was significantly associated with BW in N202 (P < 0.05), and significantly associated with FI and FCR in N301 (P < 0.05). Additionally, a two-SNP haplotype comprising rs14094361 and rs14094362 in PRKAB1 was significantly associated with BWG in N202 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, haplotypes based on two SNPs, rs14133282, and rs13535812, showed significant effects on FI in N202 (P < 0.05). Our findings therefore provide important evidence for association of AMPK subunits polymorphisms with body weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency that may be applied in meat-type chicken breeding programs.

  7. Breast milk sodium concentration, sodium intake and weight loss in breast-feeding newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, Rosa; Marseglia, Lucia; Mamì, Carmelo; Palmara, Antonella; Paolata, Antonina; Loddo, Saverio; Gargano, Romana; Mondello, Maurizio; Gemelli, Marina

    2007-02-01

    Elevated breast milk (BM) Na concentration is regarded as responsible for elevated Na intake. To verify the clinical significance of milk Na concentration, we studied the relationship between BM Na+ concentration and infants' daily Na+ intake, infants' daily BM intake (DBMI) and percentage weight loss (%WL) in healthy newborn infants. All mothers who gave birth to a single healthy infant, between February and March 2004 at the Obstetric Clinic of University of Messina (Italy), were invited to participate if they were willing to attempt to breastfeed exclusively. BM Na+ concentration, DBMI, Na+ intake and %WL were determined on the third day after delivery. Statistical analysis was performed by Spearman's correlation test, classification and regression trees and the generalised linear model. Of the 270 eligible mothers, 208 participated in the study. The results showed that on the third day postpartum BM Na+ concentration was 23.05 (SD 1.10) mmol/l, mean DBMI was 202 (SD 68.9) g/d, and mean Na+ intake was 4.36 (SD 0.22) mmol/d and 1.36 (SD 0.07) mmol/kg per d. BM Na+ concentration was inversely related to infant DBMI, and Na+ intake was directly related to infant DBMI and not to BM Na+ concentration. %WL was significantly correlated only to DBMI. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate, for the first time, that when lactogenesis is suboptimal, BM Na+ concentration is higher, but infants' Na+ intake is lower. Finally, the present data probably suggest that for the clinical assessment of breast-feeding, evaluation of milk intake remains the best method.

  8. Effect of restricted feed intake of dams and heat stress on mineral status of newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Kume, S; Toharmat, T; Kobayashi, N

    1998-06-01

    To clarify the effects of restricted feed intake, heat stress, and parity on the mineral status of cows and heifers around parturition and on the mineral status of their calves during 1 wk of age, data were collected from 66 Holstein cows and heifers and their calves. In Experiment 1, 36 heifers and mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet requirements for total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, and minerals. In Experiment 2, 15 mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet maintenance requirements for TDN plus requirements for TDN for the last 2 mo of gestation, and 15 heifers were fed to meet TDN requirements. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures of newborn calves. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of heifers around parturition were higher than those of mature cows, but blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves born from heifers were lower. The restricted feed intake of dams decreased blood hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as plasma Fe of calves in hot and cool weather. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, and alkaline phosphatase as well as colostral Ca, P, Mg, and Zn of heifers were higher than those of mature cows, but plasma Mg of heifers was lower. Plasma Mg of calves and their dams was lower in hot weather than in cool weather, and restricted feed intake accelerated the reduction in plasma Mg of calves and their dams during hot weather. Plasma Na of calves and their dams was higher in hot weather than in cool weather. Heat stress increased plasma K of heifers and their calves. Heat stress increased Ca concentration in meconium of calves born from cows, and the restricted feed intake increased P concentrations in meconium. These results suggest that the maintenance of optimum erythropoiesis and mineral status in heatstressed periparturient cows and heifers and their calves must be met by dietary energy and minerals that are fed at maintenance concentrations plus excess requirements necessary during the gestation

  9. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  10. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (P<0.05) digestible lysine intake by 26%, estimated nitrogen excretion by 30% and feeding costs by US$7.60/pig (-10%) relative to group feeding. Precision feeding is an effective approach to make pig production more sustainable without compromising growth performance.

  11. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  12. Profile of the Spleen Transcriptome in Beef Steers with Variation in Gain and Feed Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kern, Rebecca J.; Keel, Brittney N.; Snelling, Warren M.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n = 16) that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress, and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response, and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV) genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number. PMID:27504120

  13. Plant extracts as phytogenic additives considering intake, digestibility, and feeding behavior of sheep.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Camila Sousa; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti; Cavalcante, Edwilka Oliveira; de Lima, Ewerton Ivo Martins; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, José Ricardo Coelho; da Silva, Daniel Cézar

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt. As experimental design, we used a 5 × 5 Latin square design (five treatments and five periods). The data were analyzed through the mixed model through the procedure PROC MIXED of software Systems Statistical Analysis version 9.1, with comparation analysis between the treatment without additive (control) with phytogenic additives produced from vegetable extracts of mesquite pod, of coriander seed, the bulb of garlic, and the oregano leaves. There were no significant differences for the nutrient intake and ingestive behavior patterns. However, the additive intake derived from mesquite pods and coriander extracts provided an increase in digestibility. Extracts from garlic, coriander, and mesquite pods can be used as phytogenic additives in feeding sheep.

  14. Gene expression differences in Longissimus muscle of Nelore steers genetically divergent for residual feed intake

    PubMed Central

    Tizioto, Polyana C.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Oliveira, Priscila S. N.; Cesar, Aline S. M.; Diniz, Wellison J. S.; Lima, Andressa O.; Rocha, Marina I.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Mourão, Gerson B.; Tullio, Rymer R.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency (FE), is defined as the difference between the observed and the predictable feed intake considering size and growth of the animal. It is extremely important to beef production systems due to its impact on the allocation of land areas to alternative agricultural production, animal methane emissions, food demand and cost of production. Global differential gene expression analysis between high and low RFI groups (HRFI and LRFI: less and more efficient, respectively) revealed 73 differentially expressed (DE) annotated genes in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of Nelore steers. These genes are involved in the overrepresented pathways Metabolism of Xenobiotics by Cytochrome P450 and Butanoate and Tryptophan Metabolism. Among the DE transcripts were several proteins related to mitochondrial function and the metabolism of lipids. Our findings indicate that observed gene expression differences are primarily related to metabolic processes underlying oxidative stress. Genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and antioxidant mechanisms were primarily down-regulated, while genes responsible for lipid oxidation and ketogenesis were up-regulated in HRFI group. By using LT muscle, this study reinforces our previous findings using liver tissue and reveals new genes and likely tissue-specific regulators playing key-roles in these processes. PMID:28004777

  15. Triennial Growth Symposium: neural regulation of feed intake: modification by hormones, fasting, and disease.

    PubMed

    Sartin, J L; Whitlock, B K; Daniel, J A

    2011-07-01

    Appetite is a complex process that results from the integration of multiple signals at the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus receives neural signals; hormonal signals such as leptin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin; and nutrient signals such as glucose, FFA, AA, and VFA. This effect is processed by a specific sequence of neurotransmitters beginning with the arcuate nucleus and orexigenic cells containing neuropeptide Y or agouti-related protein and anorexigenic cells containing proopiomelanocortin (yielding the neurotransmitter α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) or cells expressing cocaine amphetamine-related transcript. These so-called first-order neurons act on second-order orexigenic neurons (containing either melanin-concentrating hormone or orexin) or act on anorexigenic neurons (e.g., expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone) to alter feed intake. In addition, satiety signals from the liver and gastrointestinal tract signal through the vagus nerve to the nucleus tractus solitarius to cause meal termination, and in combination with the hypothalamus, integrate the various signals to determine the feeding response. The activities of these neuronal pathways are also influenced by numerous factors such as nutrients, fasting, and disease to modify appetite and hence affect growth and reproduction. This review will begin with the central nervous system pathways and then discuss the ways in which hormones and metabolites may alter the process to affect feed intake with emphasis on farm animals.

  16. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  17. Feed intake, milk yield, and metabolic parameters prior to left displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Jorritsma, R; Müller, K E; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2003-04-01

    As left-displaced abomasum (LDA) often occurs in cows with high contents of fat in the liver (fatty liver), a postpartum fatty liver-inducing regimen was applied to 16 cows. The main interest of the study was whether there were productive or metabolic changes in cows prior to LDA. Therefore, feed intake and milk production were monitored and blood samples were collected from the cows. The LDA occurred in 4 out of 16 dairy cows that were included in the feeding regimen. Compared to cows not developing LDA, LDA-cows had a significantly lower feed intake, 6.5 kg/d less, and milk production, 8 kg/d less, prior to clinical diagnosis of LDA. In the 10-d period preceding clinical diagnosis of LDA, blood concentrations of calcium, glucose, and insulin were significantly lower, whereas blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate, as well as aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly elevated compared to cows not developing LDA. These preclinical changes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of LDA. It is not certain, however, whether there is a causal association between these parameters and LDA.

  18. Variability in residual feed intake and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Negesse, Tegene; Datt, Chander; Kundu, S S

    2016-12-01

    A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collection. Heifers were grouped into low (RFI-I) and high (RFI-II) feed efficiency groups by regressing DMI (g head(-1) day(-1)) on BWG (g head(-1) day(-1)) and mid-test MBW (kg). RFI-II heifers had slightly higher DMI (g head(-1) day(-1) and expressed per unit of BW, %BW, MBW, mid-test BW, and mid-test MBW) and all associated nutrient intakes, BWG, feed efficiency traits (FCR, CPCR), digestibility of nutrients, and retentions of crude protein and fat over RFI-I heifers. The corresponding intake values (kg head(-1) day(-1)) for RFI-I versus RFI-II were the following: DMI (6.73 ± 0.56 vs 6.51 ± 0.50), CPI (0.99 ± 0.008 vs 0.97 ± 0.07), DOMI (5.06 ± 0.47 vs 5.11 ± 0.42), and TDNI (4.95 ± 0.47 vs 5.00 ± 0.42). BWG (669 ± 52 vs 776 ± 47 g head(-1) day(-1)), feed efficiency traits (FCR: 10.32 ± 1.16 vs 8.77 ± 1.04 and CPCR: 1.52 ± 0.17 vs 1.30 ± 0.16), N balance (38 ± 9 vs 45 ± 8 g N head(-1) day(-1)), and protein and fat retentions (239 ± 57 vs 282 ± 51 g CP head(-1) day(-1) and 430 ± 6 vs 494 ± 59 g fat head(-1) day(-1)) of RFI-I were less than RFI-II heifers, respectively. Based on the predicted RFI values, RFI-II buffalo heifers could be selected for feed efficiency.

  19. Locomotor activity and body temperature in selected mouse lines differing greatly in feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sojka, P A; Griess, R S; Nielsen, M K

    2013-08-01

    Locomotor activity, body temperature, feed intake, and BW were measured on 382 mature male mice sampled from lines previously selected (25 generations) for either high (MH) or low (ML) heat loss and an unselected control (MC). Animals were from all 3 independent replicates of the 3 lines and across 4 generations (68 through 71). Locomotor activity and body temperatures were obtained using implanted transmitters with data collection over 4 d following a 3-d postsurgery recovery period. Data were collected every minute and then averaged into 30-min periods, thus providing 192 data points for each mouse. Least-squares means for feed intake adjusted for BW (Feed/BW, feed·BW(-1)·d(-1), g/g) were 0.1586, 0.1234, and 0.1125 (±0.0022) for MH, MC, and ML, respectively, with line being a highly significant source of variation (P < 0.0003). Line effects for locomotor activity counts, transformed to the 0.25 power for analysis, were significantly different, with MH mice being 2.1 times more active than ML mice (P < 0.003); MC mice were intermediate. Differences in body temperature were significant for both line (P < 0.03) and day effects (P < 0.001), with a 0.32°C difference between the MH and ML lines. Fourier series analysis used the combined significant periodicities of 24, 18, 12, 9, 6, and 3 h to describe circadian cycles for activity and body temperature. All 3 lines expressed daily peaks in body temperature and locomotor activity ∼3 h into darkness and ∼2 h after lights were turned on. There was a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and Feed/BW (P < 0.0001) than between body temperature and Feed/BW (P < 0.01); differences between lines in locomotor activity and body temperature explained 17% and 3%, respectively, of differences between lines in Feed/BW. Thus, line differences in locomotor activity contribute to line differences in maintenance, but approximately 80% of the differences between the MH and ML selection lines in Feed/BW remains

  20. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  1. Genetic variability in residual feed intake in rainbow trout clones and testing of indirect selection criteria (Open Access publication)

    PubMed Central

    Grima, Laure; Quillet, Edwige; Boujard, Thierry; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Chatain, Béatrice; Mambrini, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic basis of residual feed intake (RFI) variation in fish, since this trait is highly sensitive to environmental influences, and feed intake of individuals is difficult to measure accurately. The purpose of this work was (i) to assess the genetic variability of RFI estimated by an X-ray technique and (ii) to develop predictive criteria for RFI. Two predictive criteria were tested: loss of body weight during feed deprivation and compensatory growth during re-feeding. Ten heterozygous rainbow trout clones were used. Individual intake and body weight were measured three times at threeweek intervals. Then, individual body weight was recorded after two cycles of a three-week feed deprivation followed by a three-week re-feeding. The ratio of the genetic variance to the phenotypic variance was found high to moderate for growth, feed intake, and RFI (VG/VP = 0.63 ± 0.11, 0.29 ± 0.11, 0.29 ± 0.09, respectively). The index that integrates performances achieved during deprivation and re-feeding periods explained 59% of RFI variations. These results provide a basis for further studies on the origin of RFI differences and show that indirect criteria are good candidates for future selective breeding programs. PMID:18990354

  2. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  3. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment.

  4. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots ( P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  5. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Otles, Z; Mader, T; Hoffman, M P

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R (2) more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter (P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots (P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day's temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  6. Cluster and meta-analyses of genetic parameters for feed intake traits in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Diaz, I D P S; Crews, D H; Enns, R M

    2014-06-01

    A data set based on 50 studies including feed intake and utilization traits was used to perform a meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates using the variance between studies of genetic parameters for average daily gain (ADG); residual feed intake (RFI); metabolic body weight (MBW); feed conversion ratio (FCR); and daily dry matter intake (DMI) in beef cattle. The total data set included 128 heritability and 122 genetic correlation estimates published in the literature from 1961 to 2012. The meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model where the restricted maximum likelihood estimator was used to evaluate variances among clusters. Also, a meta-analysis using the method of cluster analysis was used to group the heritability estimates. Two clusters were obtained for each trait by different variables. It was observed, for all traits, that the heterogeneity of variance was significant between clusters and studies for genetic correlation estimates. The pooled estimates, adding the variance between clusters, for direct heritability estimates for ADG, DMI, RFI, MBW and FCR were 0.32 ± 0.04, 0.39 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.02, 0.31 ± 0.03 and 0.26 ± 0.03, respectively. Pooled genetic correlation estimates ranged from -0.15 to 0.67 among ADG, DMI, RFI, MBW and FCR. These pooled estimates of genetic parameters could be used to solve genetic prediction equations in populations where data is insufficient for variance component estimation. Cluster analysis is recommended as a statistical procedure to combine results from different studies to account for heterogeneity.

  7. Assessing pharmacokinetic variability directly induced by drug intake behaviour through development of a feeding behaviour-pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Petit-Jetté, C E; Gohore Bi, D; Fenneteau, F; Del Castillo, J R E; Nekka, F

    2008-04-07

    Variability in drug intake is increasingly recognized as a major source of variability in drug response. The non-uniform access to medicated feed, influenced by swine individual feeding behaviour, is a determinant of antibiotic exposure, recalling the intrinsic similarity with human compliance to drug regimens. In this paper, we developed a feeding behaviour-pharmacokinetic (FBPK) model of in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) and established, in a definite way, the effect of feeding behaviour and its induced pharmacokinetic (PK) variability. Based on reported animal behaviour, we mathematically formulated swine feeding behaviour by incorporating its main characteristics: intense feeding periods that repeat on a daily basis and random feeding periods of free access to feed, along with growth stage factors. This behaviour model was then integrated into a PK model of CTC. Moreover, we analysed the effect of each feeding behaviour component and assessed the corresponding PK variability. We have been able to delineate the impact of different feeding behaviour components and characterize the induced PK variability. We have compared different therapeutic assumptions to our model and shown that random features underlying the feeding behaviour have dramatic influence on the PK variability. A practical tool to adopt the dosing regimen in terms of dose and age has been proposed. The method developed here can be generalized to other therapeutic contexts and incorporated into medical practice, particularly to make long-term projections of drug-intake behaviour, to explain possible treatment failure and guide practitioners in adjusting the dosing regimen.

  8. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride is associated with decreased dry matter intake shortly after initiation of feeding dependent on season and previous intake.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Vahl, C I; Depenbusch, B E; Hutcheson, J P; Thomson, D U

    2014-10-01

    A database of daily feed deliveries for steers and heifers fed at 3 commercial feedyards in Kansas between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2012 (n = 1,515 pens), was used to investigate the prevalence and extent of changes in DMI after initiation of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZIL) at 8.3 mg/kg (DM) for 20 d. Season affected the percentage of pens experiencing a decrease in DMI post-ZIL (P < 0.01), but there were significant (P < 0.01) season × sex, season × feedyard, season × pre-ZIL DMI, season × days post-ZIL, and season × period post-ZIL interactions. Average DMI decreased within 1 d after initiation of ZIL feeding in all seasons; however, this initial decrease was greater (P < 0.01) in the summer (-0.30 kg) and winter (-0.27 kg) than in the spring (-0.05 kg) or fall (-0.06 kg). The decrease in DMI averaged across all days post-ZIL was greater in summer than during other seasons for both steers and heifers, and the change in intake was greater in steers than heifers in all seasons but fall. Size of intake change within each season varied by feedyard and by season. The percentage of pens that had a large DMI decrease (≥ 0.9 kg/d) was greatest during the summer (33%), and the percentage of pens with no decrease was the least (15%); during the fall, 34% of pens had no DMI decrease and only 8% of pens had a large decrease in DMI. Intake before ZIL initiation affected size and prevalence of DMI decrease; with increasing pre-ZIL DMI, the percentage of pens with a decrease increased from 62% for pens with pre-ZIL DMI of less than 7.7 kg/d to 82% for pens consuming greater than 10.5 kg/d pre-ZIL (P < 0.01). Of those pens with greater than 10.5 kg/d pre-ZIL DMI, 27% had DMI decrease of greater than 1.4 kg/d compared to only 3% for pens consuming <8.7 kg/d pre-ZIL. The average dosage of ZIL consumed per animal with an average DMI of 7.3, 8.2, 9.1, 10.0, and 10.9 kg/d was calculated to be 61, 68, 76, 83, and 91 mg/animal daily, which may be related to the

  9. Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ciampolini, Mario; Brenna, J Thomas; Giannellini, Valerio; Bini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously “on request”). Objective We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled (automatic) and demanded meals (administered after evaluation) in 24 mother–toddler (21 months old at entry) pairs with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea presenting at a clinic. We tested the same hypothesis in a subset of 14 toddlers by measuring the resting (sleeping) metabolic rate 4 hours after lunch, as well as the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in 10 toddlers. Methods We trained mothers to recognize meal demands (as in the previous investigation) and to provide food in response, but required no blood glucose measurements before meals. Energy intake was assessed by a 10-day food diary, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by respiratory analyses (indirect calorimetry) in 14 toddlers, and TEE by doubly labeled water in 10 toddlers. Their blood parameters, anthropometry, and number of days with diarrhea were assessed before training and 50 days after training. Results RMR decreased from 58.6 ± 7.8 to 49.0 ± 9.1 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001) and TEE decreased from 80.1 ± 6.9 to 67.8 ± 10.0 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001). Energy intake decreased from 85.7 ± 15.3 to 70.3 ± 15.8 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001). The height Z-score increased significantly, while weight growth was normal. Toddlers entering the study over the median RMR decreased their RMR significantly more than those below the median RMR (P < 0.01). Conclusion Scheduled meal suspension induces meal demand frequency to increase. Demanded meals are associated

  10. Feeding preferences and voluntary feed intake of dairy cows: Effect of conservation and harvest time of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D; Vasseur, E; Berthiaume, R; DeVries, T J; Bergeron, R

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive forages contain compounds, such as tannins, that are active against pathogens. They have been successfully used in ruminants to control parasite infections. Because cattle may find bioactive forages unpalatable, it is of interest to know if an afternoon harvest time, which has been shown to increase the percentage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), hence palatability, may mitigate this. The objectives of this study were to quantify voluntary intake and preference of dairy cows for 2 bioactive forages, harvested in the morning and evening, in addition to determining their time spent grazing on each forage species. The forage species evaluated were fresh chicory harvested at 0700 h (FCAM) and 1800 h (FCPM), fresh birdsfoot trefoil harvested at 0700 h (FBAM) and 1800 h (FBPM), birdsfoot trefoil baleage harvested the previous summer at 0700 h (BBAM) and at 1800 h (BBPM), and third-cut alfalfa baleage harvested the previous summer and used as control (CON). Single forages were offered ad libitum in 30-min tests to 14 dairy cows to determine intake in a 7 × 7 Latin square (experiment 1). Every possible pair of forages (21 pairs) was then presented for a 30-min test to 8 different dairy cows, and feed intake was measured (experiment 2). Finally, time spent grazing on chicory and birdsfoot trefoil was measured on 12 dairy cows (experiment 3). The tests consisted of 2 d of restriction on 1 of the 2 fields for 1h, and 2 d of free-choice sessions (1h) between the 2 fields adjacent to each other. Grazing time and location of the animals on the field was assessed through 2-min scan sampling. In experiment 1, the highest voluntary intakes were for CON, BBPM, and BBAM. In experiment 2, BBPM was preferentially consumed over all other forages followed by CON and BBAM. Multidimensional scaling showed that preference for BBPM, CON, and BBAM in dimension 1 was positively associated with dry matter and nitrogen content, and negatively associated with hemicellulose and

  11. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Butler, A R; Kern, R J; Hill, R; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E; Oliver, W T; Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-08-01

    Small intestine mass and cellularity were previously associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates, and it contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptome differences among the small intestine from cattle with divergent gain and feed intake. Animals most divergent from the bivariate mean in each of the four phenotypic Cartesian quadrants for gain × intake were selected, and the transcriptomes of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were evaluated. Gene expression analyses were performed comparing high gain vs. low gain animals, high intake vs. low intake animals and each of the phenotypic quadrants to all other groups. Genes differentially expressed within the high gain-low intake and low gain-high intake groups of animals included those involved in immune function and inflammation in all small intestine sections. The high gain-high intake group differed from the high gain-low intake group by immune response genes in all sections of the small intestine. In all sections of small intestine, animals with low gain-low intake displayed greater abundance of heat-shock genes compared to other groups. Several over-represented pathways were identified. These include the antigen-processing/presentation pathway in high gain animals and PPAR signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, retinol metabolism and melatonin degradation pathways in the high intake animals. Genes with functions in immune response, inflammation, stress response, influenza pathogenesis and melatonin degradation pathways may have a relationship with gain and intake in beef steers.

  12. Changes in satiety hormone concentrations and feed intake in rats in response to lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Forssten, Sofia D; Korczyńska, Marta Z; Zwijsen, Renate M L; Noordman, Wouter H; Madetoja, Mari; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2013-12-01

    A negative energy balance can be accomplished by reducing the caloric intake which results in an increased feeling of hunger. This physiological state is regulated by secretion of satiety hormones. The secretion of these hormones can be influenced by ingestion of e.g. fat. Fat, dairy beverage and synbiotic mixture have been found to have satiety-inducing effects in humans and rats. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the change of satiety hormone concentration in rats in response to feeding of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria. Two studies were conducted with Wistar rats randomly allocated into groups receiving Lactobacillus fermented (2 L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus) milk. A single isocaloric oral dose with the test item or control was given to the rats. Blood samples were taken after dosing with the test product and the satiety hormones were measured. For the test groups, significant changes could be detected in PYY concentrations after 60 min, although some groups had a significant lower feed intake. In conclusion, some probiotic Lactobacillus strains may modify satiety hormones production. However, more studies are needed to evaluate their potential of prolonging satiety.

  13. Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation.

    PubMed

    Day, J E; Kyriazakis, I; Rogers, P J

    1998-06-01

    The food choice and intake of animals (including humans) has typically been studied using frameworks of learning and feeding motivation. When used in isolation such frameworks could be criticized because learning paradigms give little consideration to how new food items are included or excluded from an individual's diet, and motivational paradigms do not explain how individuals decide which food to eat when given a choice. Consequently we are posed with the question of whether individuals actively interact with the food items present in their environment to learn about their nutritional properties? The thesis of this review is that individuals are motivated to actively sample food items in order to assess whether they are nutritionally beneficial or harmful. We offer a unifying framework, centred upon the concept of exploratory motivation, which is a synthesis of learning and paradigms of feeding motivation. In this framework information gathering occurs on two levels through exploratory behaviour: (i) the discrimination of food from nonfood items, and (ii) the continued monitoring and storage of information concerning the nutritional properties of these food items. We expect that this framework will advance our understanding of the behavioural control of nutrient intake by explaining how new food items are identified in the environment, and how individuals are able to monitor changes in the nutritional content of their food resource.

  14. Review: divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, H; Billon, Y; Brossard, L; Faure, J; Gatellier, P; Gondret, F; Labussière, E; Lebret, B; Lefaucheur, L; Le Floch, N; Louveau, I; Merlot, E; Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Montagne, L; Mormede, P; Renaudeau, D; Riquet, J; Rogel-Gaillard, C; van Milgen, J; Vincent, A; Noblet, J

    2017-01-25

    This review summarizes the results from the INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) divergent selection experiment on residual feed intake (RFI) in growing Large White pigs during nine generations of selection. It discusses the remaining challenges and perspectives for the improvement of feed efficiency in growing pigs. The impacts on growing pigs raised under standard conditions and in alternative situations such as heat stress, inflammatory challenges or lactation have been studied. After nine generations of selection, the divergent selection for RFI led to highly significant (P<0.001) line differences for RFI (-165 g/day in the low RFI (LRFI) line compared with high RFI line) and daily feed intake (-270 g/day). Low responses were observed on growth rate (-12.8 g/day, P<0.05) and body composition (+0.9 mm backfat thickness, P=0.57; -2.64% lean meat content, P<0.001) with a marked response on feed conversion ratio (-0.32 kg feed/kg gain, P<0.001). Reduced ultimate pH and increased lightness of the meat (P<0.001) were observed in LRFI pigs with minor impact on the sensory quality of the meat. These changes in meat quality were associated with changes of the muscular energy metabolism. Reduced maintenance energy requirements (-10% after five generations of selection) and activity (-21% of time standing after six generations of selection) of LRFI pigs greatly contributed to the gain in energy efficiency. However, the impact of selection for RFI on the protein metabolism of the pig remains unclear. Digestibility of energy and nutrients was not affected by selection, neither for pigs fed conventional diets nor for pigs fed high-fibre diets. A significant improvement of digestive efficiency could likely be achieved by selecting pigs on fibre diets. No convincing genetic or blood biomarker has been identified for explaining the differences in RFI, suggesting that pigs have various ways to achieve an efficient use of feed. No deleterious impact of the

  15. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  16. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  17. Infant feeding practices and maternal dietary intake among Latino immigrants in California.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2002-07-01

    Mothers of 8-16-month-old infants were surveyed to examine infant feeding practices and maternal dietary intake associated with increased years of residency by Mexican immigrant families (n = 1093 mother-infant pairs). Mothers were recruited from San Diego and Contra Costa counties in California during 1992-93. Twenty-nine percent of Mexican mothers living in the United States for <6 years breastfed their infants exclusively for at least 16 weeks; only 20% of mothers living in the United States between 6 and 15 years and 17% of mothers residing in the United States for over 15 years engaged in exclusive breastfeeding. Neither breastfeeding duration nor the introduction of solids differed by years of residency. In contrast, maternal dietary intake varied markedly. Second generation mothers and those living in the United States the longest had significantly higher intakes of vegetables, low fat milk, salty snacks, animal protein, and cereals. Beyond early caregiving practices, the influence of years of residency on the diets of toddlers is less than that of the mothers.

  18. Choice feeding of selenium-deficient laying hens affects diet selection, selenium intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Zuberbuehler, Christine A; Messikommer, Ruth E; Wenk, Caspar

    2002-11-01

    Inadequate selenium (Se) supply often in combination with low vitamin E status causes deficiency symptoms in many species. It is likely that a vague discomfort or sickness is perceived before clear deficiency signs become apparent. We investigated whether Se-deficient hens reduce their Se deficit by selecting a diet containing more selenium when offered two diets with different Se concentrations. A Low-Se diet (0.07 mg Se/kg) was supplemented with Se-enriched yeast (Sel-Plex 50) to produce Medium-Se (0.20 mg Se/kg) and High-Se (1.50 mg Se/kg) diets. Each of two consecutive study parts (I and II) with the same hens and treatments began with a 6-wk baseline period (Medium-Se diet), subsequently followed a 9-wk depletion period (Low-Se diet or Medium-Se diet), then a 6-wk choice feeding period in which two diets with different Se concentrations (Low-Se and Medium-Se, Medium-Se and High-Se, or Low-Se and High-Se) were offered. A control group received the Medium-Se diet throughout the study. Daily Se intake, calculated from daily feed intake, followed similar patterns in both parts of the study, but Se-deficient hens preferred (P < 0.05) the High-Se diet to the Low-Se diet during the first 3 wk of choice feeding only in part I. We conclude that young Se-deficient laying hens reduce their Se deficit if they have a choice between a Low-Se and a High-Se diet by preferentially selecting the High-Se diet, possibly based on learned place preference and/or learned taste aversion to the Low-Se diet, presumably in response to discomfort due to Se-deficiency.

  19. Digestion and metabolism of low and high residual feed intake Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Branco, Renata Helena; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely; Monteiro, Fábio Morato; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the reasons why animals of similar performances have different feed requirements is important to increase profits for cattle producers and to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. This study was carried out aiming to identify the associations between residual feed intake (RFI) and animal performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites related to energy balance of young Nellore bulls during the finishing period. Animals previously classified as low (n = 13) and high RFI (n = 12), with average initial body weight of 398 kg and age of 503 days were used. Cattle were fed a high energy diet and were slaughtered when rib fat thickness measured by ultrasound between the 12th and 13th ribs reached the minimum of 4 mm. A completely randomized design was adopted, being data analyzed with a mixed model that included the random effect of slaughter group, the fixed effect of RFI class, and linear effect of the covariate feedlot time. No differences were found (p > 0.10) between RFI classes for performance, dry matter, and nutrients intake. However, dry (p = 0.0911) and organic matter (p = 0.0876) digestibility tended to be lower, and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (p = 0.0017), and total digestible nutrients (p = 0.0657) were lower for high RFI animals, indicating lesser capacity of food utilization. Difference between low and high RFI animals was also found for blood cortisol at the end of the trial (p = 0.0044), having low RFI animals lower cortisol concentrations. Differences in the ability to digest food can affect the efficiency of transforming feed into meat by Nellore cattle.

  20. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  1. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  3. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  4. Food intake increased after injection of adrenaline into the median raphe nucleus of free-feeding rats.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rúbia Lima Dias; Mansur, Samira Schultz; Steffens, Sérgio Murilo; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2009-02-11

    The present study examined the effects of local injections of adrenaline (AD) or noradrenaline (NA) in equimolar doses (6, 20, and 60 nmol) into the median raphe nucleus (MRN) on ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors of free-feeding rats. The results showed that the treatment with AD at doses of 20 and 60 nmol increased food intake. While the hyperphagic response evoked by 60 nmol dose of AD was accompanied by a reduction of the latency to start feeding and an increase in the frequency of feeding, the 20 nmol dose of AD was unable to change these behavioral aspects of feeding response. The meal size and non-ingestive behaviors were not affected by AD treatment in the MRN. While water intake remained unchanged after the treatment with 20 nmol of AD in the MRN, this dose decreased the latency to start drinking. Feeding and drinking behaviors were not affected by treatment with NA in the MRN. These data suggest that adrenergic receptors of MRN participate in mechanisms that control food intake initiation or appetite. In addition, our results also indicate that the availability of energetic substrate could affect the adrenergic influence on MRN neurons since previous data indicated that the injection of AD into the MRN of food restricted rats decreased food intake.

  5. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the

  6. Effect of prepartum anionic supplementation on periparturient feed intake, health, and milk production.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, M A; Block, E; French, P D

    2010-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The 4 diets used prepartum were (1) control [DCAD +20 mEq/100g of dry matter (DM)], (2) Bio-Chlor (DCAD -12 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ), (3) Fermenten (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), and (4) salts (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM). Urine pH was lower for cows that consumed an anionic diet prepartum compared with control. Prepartum diet had no effect on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) of multiparous or primiparous cows. Postpartum DMI and milk yield for multiparous cows fed anionic diets prepartum were greater compared with those fed the control diet. Postpartum DMI and milk yield of primiparous cows were similar for prepartum diets. Feeding prepartum anionic diets did not affect plasma Ca at or near calving. However, cows fed anionic diets began their decline in plasma Ca later than control cows. Postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were lower for primiparous cows fed prepartum anionic diets compared with those fed the control diet. Prepartum and postpartum plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by prepartum diet for all cows. Liver triglyceride differed for parity by day. Parities were similar at 21 d prepartum, but at 0 d and 21 d postpartum, levels were greater for multiparous cows. Results indicate that decreasing the DCAD of the diet during the prepartum period can increase postpartum DMI and milk production of multiparous cows without negatively affecting performance of primiparous cows.

  7. Both encouraging feeding style and high energy density may increase energy intakes from fermented millet gruels eaten by infants and toddlers in Ouagadougou.

    PubMed

    Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Traoré, Tahirou; Soma, Adama; Kaboré, Claire; Trèche, Serge

    2016-04-01

    Traditional fermented millet gruel is frequently eaten by children in Burkina Faso as a complementary food or for breakfast. The effects of gruel energy density and feeding style on intakes (amounts and energy) were assessed in children in Ouagadougou. Twenty-three young children (11 infants and 12 toddlers) were given two meals of gruel per day for two periods of 11 consecutive days, first, the traditional fermented gruel (TFG), and second, an improved high energy density fermented gruel (IFG). On the first 10 days of each period, the children were fed as usual, while on the 11th day, the mothers were asked to use encouraging feeding. Intakes of TFG and IFG were also measured once a day for nine days in 25 preschoolers (2-5 years-old). After adjustment for the subject effect, IFG intakes did not significantly differ from TFG intakes in the groups of infants and toddlers, meaning there was a significant increase in energy intakes, which almost doubled. Encouraging feeding increased TFG intakes in both age groups, but IFG intakes only increased in toddlers, whose energy intake tripled compared to that from TFG with the usual feeding style. In preschoolers, mean IFG intakes were lower than TFG intakes and there were no increase in mean energy intakes. Improving fermented gruel and training the mothers to encourage their young children during feeding are two possible strategies to improve food intakes, and hence to better satisfy the children's nutritional needs.

  8. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  9. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  10. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    PubMed

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  11. Bivariate Genome-Wide Association Analysis of the Growth and Intake Components of Feed Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Beever, Jonathan E.; Bollero, Germán A.; Southey, Bruce R.; Faulkner, Daniel B.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI), two major components of feed efficiency in cattle, were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Uni- and multi-SNP models were used to describe feed efficiency in a training data set and the results were confirmed in a validation data set. Results from the univariate and bivariate analyses of ADG and DMI, adjusted by the feedlot beef steer maintenance requirements, were compared. The bivariate uni-SNP analysis identified (P-value <0.0001) 11 SNPs, meanwhile the univariate analyses of ADG and DMI identified 8 and 9 SNPs, respectively. Among the six SNPs confirmed in the validation data set, five SNPs were mapped to KDELC2, PHOX2A, and TMEM40. Findings from the uni-SNP models were used to develop highly accurate predictive multi-SNP models in the training data set. Despite the substantially smaller size of the validation data set, the training multi-SNP models had slightly lower predictive ability when applied to the validation data set. Six Gene Ontology molecular functions related to ion transport activity were enriched (P-value <0.001) among the genes associated with the detected SNPs. The findings from this study demonstrate the complementary value of the uni- and multi-SNP models, and univariate and bivariate GWAS analyses. The identified SNPs can be used for genome-enabled improvement of feed efficiency in feedlot beef cattle, and can aid in the design of empirical studies to further confirm the associations. PMID:24205251

  12. Body chemical composition of Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, E F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Araujo, F L; Magnani, E; Mercadante, M E Z

    2013-07-01

    Empty body and carcass chemical compositions, expressed as content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy, were evaluated in Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes (RFI). Forty-nine not castrated males, with 343 kg of average initial BW and 398 kg of average slaughter BW, were studied. Animals were divided in two subgroups: reference group (RG) and ad libitum feeding group. At the end of the adaptation period, animals of subgroup RG were slaughtered and the other animals were finished in individual pens for approximately 100 d, until they reached a subcutaneous fat thickness over the LM of 4 mm, and were slaughtered at an average age of 540 d. Body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Tissue deposition rates and chemical composition of gain were also measured based on gains estimated by comparative slaughter technique. No significant differences in slaughter BW (P = 0.8639), empty BW (P = 0.7288), HCW (P = 0.6563), or empty body and carcass rates of gain were observed between RFI groups, demonstrating that the low (-0.331 kg DM/d) and high (+0.325 kg DM/d) RFI animals presented similar body sizes and growth rates. No significant differences in empty body or carcass content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy were observed between the low and high RFI animals. And also there were no significant differences in empty BW or carcass gain, demonstrating that low and high RFI animals had a similar growth potential. More efficient animals (low RFI) consumed less feed than less efficient animals (high RFI) but presented similar body sizes, growth rates, and empty body and carcass chemical composition.

  13. Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants. Results from the SAIDI study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gloria A; Scott, Jane A; Woodman, Richard J; Kim, Susan W; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-10-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1-3) for fruit and 3 (2-5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p < 0.05). This highlights the need for addressing antecedents of maternal feeding self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.

  14. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle, and opportunities for selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth, feed intake, and temperament indicator data, collected over 5 yr on a total of 1,141 to 1,183 mixed-breed steers, were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters. All steers had a portion of either Hereford or Angus or both plus varying percentages also of Simmental, Charolais, Limo...

  15. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  16. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  17. The Use of Inappropriate Feeding Practices by Rural Parents and Their Effect on Preschoolers' Fruit and Vegetable Preferences and Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bante, Holly; Elliott, Michael; Harrod, Amanda; Haire-Joshu, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of inappropriate feeding practices used by parents of preschoolers and the impact on a child's preference for and intake of fruits and vegetables (FV). Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a telephone interview. Setting: A community-based program in rural southeastern Missouri. Participants:…

  18. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  19. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  20. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness.

  1. Composition of bacteria harvested from the liquid and solid fractions of the rumen of sheep as influenced by feed intake.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Repetto, J L; Centeno, C; Lamrani, F

    2000-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the feed intake on the chemical composition of bacteria associated with the solid (solid-associated bacteria; SAB) and liquid (liquid-associated bacteria; LAB) fractions of rumen digesta, the digestive passage kinetics and their relationships. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous infusion of 15NH3 from four ruminally-cannulated wethers provided successively with a hay-concentrate diet (2 : 1 w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight 0.75. SAB had a higher content of organic matter and total lipids (P < 0.001) and a similar N content as compared with LAB. The concentration of purines and 15N was lower (P = 0.011 and P < 0.001 respectively) in SAB than LAB, whereas the opposite was observed for the concentration of amino acids (mg/g DM; P = 0.031). An increase in feed intake produced an increase in the N (P = 0.034) and purine (P = 0.066) concentrations in bacteria and a decrease (P = 0.033) in their amino acid concentrations. Significant increases of rumen outflow rates of liquid and particles were also observed with increased feed intake. Rates of rumen outflow showed positive and negative linear relationships (P < 0.001) with the purine : N ratio and the proportion of amino acid on total N of bacteria respectively. SAB contained significantly higher proportions of leucine, isoleucine, lysine and phenylalanine and lower proportions of alanine, methionine and valine than LAB. The increase in feed intake also induced significant changes in the amino acid profile of bacteria, increasing arginine and methionine and decreasing alanine and glycine proportions. Results show that the outflow rate of rumen contents is a major factor in determining the proportion of nucleic acids and protein in rumen bacteria and explains some of the differences observed between LAB and SAB.

  2. Mothers’ Child-Feeding Practices Are Associated with Children’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake1234

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. Objective: We examined the associations between mothers’ child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. Methods: We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child’s SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child’s favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to “clean the plate.” We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. Results: The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers’ tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to “clean the plate” was not associated with child’s SSB intake. Conclusions: SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child’s weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child’s favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding

  3. How well do specialist feeders regulate nutrient intake? Evidence from a gregarious tree-feeding caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Despland, Emma; Noseworthy, Meghan

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest

  4. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  5. Rumen acid production from dairy feeds. 1. Effects on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows offered grass or corn silages.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R J; Wadhwa, D; Borgida, L P; Fisher, W J

    2001-12-01

    Earlier studies developed a new approach to feed evaluation, measuring the net acid load that develops during rumen fermentation. Two concentrates were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, with extremes of rumen acid load. A third treatment comprised a 50:50 mixture of these concentrates. These concentrates were evaluated along with ryegrass silage and corn silage. The feeds were evaluated in a continuous culture system adapted to deliver and record the quantities of acid or alkali needed to maintain a constant pH (6.2 to 6.3). This study confirmed the anticipated ranking of concentrates for rumen acid load, as well as the highly acidogenic nature of corn silage. The concentrates were formulated to balance corn silage and were offered to early-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows at 50% of dry matter intake, with either ryegrass silage or corn silage. Feed intake was lower for animals offered corn silage-based diets (17.4 vs. 22.2 kg of dry matter/d). Increasing concentrate acid load led to a large decline in dry matter intake for corn silage, although not for grass silage. Feed intake effects were reflected in significant effects on yield of milk (31.0, 29.9, and 26.9 kg/d for low-, medium-, and high-acid load concentrates, respectively) and milk solids. Milk protein concentration was unaffected by concentrate type with corn silage diets but tended to be higher when high acid load concentrates were fed with grass silage. This may reflect the effect of the high starch concentrate rectifying a shortage of glucogenic precursors or microbial protein with the grass silage-based diet.

  6. Bee pollen product supplementation to horses in training seems to improve feed intake: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Turner, K K; Nielsen, B D; O'Connor, C I; Burton, J L

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of supplementation of Dynamic Trio 50/50, a bee pollen-based product, to improve physical fitness, blood leukocyte profiles, and nutritional variables in exercised horses. Ten Arabian horses underwent a standardised exercise test (SET), then were pair-matched by sex and fitness and randomly assigned to BP (receiving 118 g of Dynamic Trio 50/50 daily) or CO (receiving 73 g of a placebo) for a period of 42 days. A total collection was conducted from days 18 to 21 on six geldings to determine nutrient retention and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility. Horses were exercise conditioned and completed another SET on day 42. V160 and V200 were calculated from SET heart rates (HR). Lactate, glucose, haematocrit (HT) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were determined from SET blood samples. Total leukocyte count, and circulating numbers of various leukocytes and IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were determined in rest and recovery blood samples from both SETs. Geldings on BP (n = 3) ate more feed than CO. BP had less phosphorus excretion, and tended to retain more nitrogen. BP tended to digest more NDF and ADF while having lower NDF digestibility and tending to have lower ADF digestibility. No treatment differences existed for V160 and V200, HR, lactate, HT and HB. There was a trend for lymphocyte counts to be lower in BP than CO on day 42. Dynamic Trio 50/50 supplementation may have a positive effect on performance by helping horses in training meet their potentially increased nutrient demands by increasing feed intake and thus nutrient retention.

  7. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  8. Effect of feeding sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles on intake and urinary excretion of minerals in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yuko; Kamiya, Misturu; Hattori, Ikuo; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Four Japanese Black steers (16 months of age) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of graded levels of sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles (SCDS) in their diets on intake and urinary excretion of minerals. The four diets consisted of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% (dry matter (DM) basis) SCDS, with SCDS replacing commercial concentrate (CC). Intake of K, Cl, S, P and Mg increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. Urinary pH increased linearly with increasing dietary SCDS content. SCDS feeding increased urinary K concentrations (linear and quadratic effects). Urinary concentrations of Cl increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. In contrast, urinary concentrations of Mg decreased with increasing SCDS content. Feeding of SCDS did not apparently affect urinary NH3 ,P, Na or Ca concentrations. These results suggest that high SCDS feeding is not a risk for crystallization of minerals leading to the formation of magnesium-phosphate type calculi: although SCDS contains large amounts of P and Mg, high SCDS feeding decreased the Mg concentration and did not affect the P concentration in urine. Additionally, high SCDS feeding had no apparent effects on plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl, Ca or inorganic P.

  9. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  10. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  11. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    Opioid peptides may participate in the control of feed intake through mechanisms involving pleasure reward linked to consumption of palatable feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether blocking opioid receptors might void oro-sensorial preferences of calves, and affect circulating glucose, insulin, and anorexigenic hormones in fasted and fed calves. Two experiments involved 32 Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=86.5±1.73 kg, age=72±0.6 d]. In experiment 1, all calves received an ad libitum choice of the same feed either unflavored or flavored with a sweetener (Luctarom SFS-R, Lucta, Montornès del Vallès, Spain). Feed consumption was recorded every 2 h from 0800 to 1400 h for 3 consecutive days to verify the establishment of an oro-sensorial preference for sweet feed (SF). The SF was preferred over the control feed (CF) at all recorded times. In experiment 2, calves were subjected to a 2 × 2 factorial design to study the interaction between opioid activity and metabolic state. Half of the calves were fasted for 14 h (FAS), whereas the other half remained well fed (FED). Within each of these groups, at feeding time (0800 h), half of the calves received an i.v. injection of naloxone (NAL, an opioid receptor antagonist; 1 mg/kg of BW) and the other half was injected with saline solution (SAL; 0.9% NaCl). Therefore, treatments were FED-NAL, FED-SAL, FAS-NAL, and FAS-SAL. Blood samples were taken at -10, 20, 180, and 240 min relative to NAL or SAL injections. As expected, cumulative consumption of starter feed was greater in FAS than in FED calves. Total feed consumption 2 h after feeding was lower in NAL than in SAL calves. Calves in the FAS group did not discern between CF and SF during the first 4 h after feed offer. Preference for SF was greater in SAL than in NAL calves. Calves in the FED-SAL treatment preferred SF at 2 and 6 h after feed offer and tended to prefer SF at 4 h after feeding. However, FED-NAL calves did not discern between SF and CF

  12. Accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in Angus and Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Schenkel, F; Vinsky, M; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-10-01

    In beef cattle, phenotypic data that are difficult and/or costly to measure, such as feed efficiency, and DNA marker genotypes are usually available on a small number of animals of different breeds or populations. To achieve a maximal accuracy of genomic prediction using the phenotype and genotype data, strategies for forming a training population to predict genomic breeding values (GEBV) of the selection candidates need to be evaluated. In this study, we examined the accuracy of predicting GEBV for residual feed intake (RFI) based on 522 Angus and 395 Charolais steers genotyped on SNP with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 Beadchip for 3 training population forming strategies: within breed, across breed, and by pooling data from the 2 breeds (i.e., combined). Two other scenarios with the training and validation data split by birth year and by sire family within a breed were also investigated to assess the impact of genetic relationships on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Three statistical methods including the best linear unbiased prediction with the relationship matrix defined based on the pedigree (PBLUP), based on the SNP genotypes (GBLUP), and a Bayesian method (BayesB) were used to predict the GEBV. The results showed that the accuracy of the GEBV prediction was the highest when the prediction was within breed and when the validation population had greater genetic relationships with the training population, with a maximum of 0.58 for Angus and 0.64 for Charolais. The within-breed prediction accuracies dropped to 0.29 and 0.38, respectively, when the validation populations had a minimal pedigree link with the training population. When the training population of a different breed was used to predict the GEBV of the validation population, that is, across-breed genomic prediction, the accuracies were further reduced to 0.10 to 0.22, depending on the prediction method used. Pooling data from the 2 breeds to form the training population resulted in accuracies increased

  13. Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): Construction and Validation of an Open-source Device for Measuring Food Intake in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Katrina P; Ali, Mohamed A; O'Neal, Timothy J; Szczot, Ilona; Licholai, Julia A; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-21

    Food intake measurements are essential for many research studies. Here, we provide a detailed description of a novel solution for measuring food intake in mice: the Feeding Experimentation Device (FED). FED is an open-source system that was designed to facilitate flexibility in food intake studies. Due to its compact and battery powered design, FED can be placed within standard home cages or other experimental equipment. Food intake measurements can also be synchronized with other equipment in real-time via FED's transistor-transistor logic (TTL) digital output, or in post-acquisition processing as FED timestamps every event with a real-time clock. When in use, a food pellet sits within FED's food well where it is monitored via an infrared beam. When the pellet is removed by the mouse, FED logs the timestamp onto its internal secure digital (SD) card and dispenses another pellet. FED can run for up to 5 days before it is necessary to charge the battery and refill the pellet hopper, minimizing human interference in data collection. Assembly of FED requires minimal engineering background, and off-the-shelf materials and electronics were prioritized in its construction. We also provide scripts for analysis of food intake and meal patterns. Finally, FED is open-source and all design and construction files are online, to facilitate modifications and improvements by other researchers.

  14. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented.

  15. Relationships between body weight at first mating and subsequent body development, feed intake, and reproductive performance of rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Rommers, J M; Meijerhoft, R; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kemp, B

    2002-08-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the relationships between BW at first insemination and subsequent body development, feed intake, reproductive performance, and culling rate of rabbit does. Young rabbit does are vulnerable to body energy deficit in first lactation, resulting in decreased reproductive performance and high replacement rate. Heavy does at first insemination might be able to benefit from the extra amount of BW to cope with the energy deficit during first lactation. Data of three experiments were used in which does were given ad libitum access to feed during rearing and inseminated at 14.5 wk of age. The first two parities of each doe were recorded. Does were categorized in three groups based on their BW at 14.5 wk of age (first insemination): heavy (BW > or = 4,000 g), medium (BW 3,500 to 4,000 g), and small (BW < 3,500 g). Among does that kindled, differences in BW at first insemination were related to differences in voluntary feed intake and body growth rate during rearing. Heavy does consumed more feed per day (+ 45 g/d, P < 0.001) and had a higher BW gain (+ 12 g/d, P < 0.001) than small does from weaning (4.5 wk) to 14.5 wk of age. Body weight at first insemination did not affect BW, feed intake, and culling rate during the first two parities. Heavy does were heavier at first insemination and remained so throughout the reproductive period, but they followed a similar BW curve as medium and small does. A higher BW at first insemination (14.5 wk of age) improved litter size in the first parity (8.9, 7.7, and 6.4 for heavy, medium, and small does, respectively, P < 0.05). Extra BW at start of reproduction improves litter size in the first parity but does not contribute to an improved feed intake or increased BW development during reproduction.

  16. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  17. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  18. Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period.

  19. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  20. Use of genotype x environment interaction model to accommodate genetic heterogeneity for residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency in dairy cattle has gained much attention recently. Due to the cost-prohibitive measurement of individual feed intakes, combining data from multiple countries is often necessary to ensure an adequate reference population. It may then be essential to model genetic heterogeneity when m...

  1. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net

  2. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, metabolism, and indices of athletic performance of exercised horses.

    PubMed

    Raymond, S L; Smith, T K; Swamy, H V L N

    2005-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins to mature, exercised horses, and to test the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer) in preventing Fusarium mycotoxicoses. Six mature, mixed-breed mares with an average BW of 530 kg were assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 d in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. Feed consumed each day was a combination of up to 3.5 kg of concentrates and 5.0 kg of mixed timothy/alfalfa hay (as-fed basis). The concentrates fed included 1) manage; 2) blend of contaminated grains; and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GM polymer (MTB-100, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY). Concentrates containing contaminated grains averaged 11.0 ppm deoxynivalenol, 0.7 ppm 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 0.8 ppm zearalenone (as-fed basis). Feed intake and BW were monitored over a 21-d period. Horses were maintained on a fixed exercise schedule throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, each horse completed a time-to-fatigue treadmill step test. Variables measured during pretest, each step of the test, and 5 and 10 min posttest were as follows: 1) time-to-fatigue, 2) heart rate, 3) hematological variables, and 4) serum lactate concentration. Each step consisted of 2 min of fast trot with a 2% increase in incline after each 2 min. Feed intake by horses fed contaminated grains was decreased compared with controls throughout the experiment (P < 0.05). Supplementation of 0.2% GM polymer to the contaminated diet did not alter feed intake by horses compared with those fed the unsupplemented contaminated diet. All hay was consumed regardless of concentrate fed. Weight loss from 0 to 21 d was observed in horses fed contaminated grains compared with controls (P < 0.05). No effect of diet was seen on variables used to measure athletic ability, although the results showed an expected response to exercise for a fit horse. We conclude

  3. Amino acid and energy interrelationships in growing beef steers: I. The effect of level of feed intake on ruminal characteristics and intestinal amino acid flows.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Kerley, M S

    1997-09-01

    Five cannulated Holstein steers (538 +/- 35 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with extra observations to examine the influence of level of feed intake on postruminal flow and intestinal disappearance of N and amino acids (AA). Treatments consisted of a single diet fed at four levels of energy intake (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 times NEm requirement). The diet was formulated on a DM basis to contain 13.25% CP using cracked corn (56.1%), soybean hulls (18%), cottonseed hulls (15%), soybean oil (4.25%), and corn gluten meal (5.6%). Increasing feed intake linearly increased (P < .0001) the quantity of OM truly digested in the stomach but tended to decrease (P = .11) OM digestion as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake had no effect (P > .10) on ruminal pH, NH3 N, or peptide concentration or on particulate and fluid passage rates. However, total VFA concentration increased linearly (P < .0001) and the acetate: propionate ratio decreased linearly (P < .0001) as feed intake increased. Flows of microbial and nonmicrobial N at the duodenum linearly increased (P < .002) with increasing intake but did not differ (P > .10) as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake did not affect (P > .10) microbial efficiency, N disappearance from the small intestine, or total tract N digestibility. With the exception of tryptophan, flows of all individual AA increased linearly (P < .01) with increasing intake. As a percentage of duodenal flow, AA digestion in the small intestine did not differ (P > .10), leading to a linear increase (P < .10) in the net quantity of individual (with the exception of tryptophan) and total AA disappearing from the small intestine as feed intake increased. Likewise, the profile of AA (except tryptophan) disappearing from the small intestine was unaffected (P > .10) by level of feed intake. When compared with predicted requirements for a 227-kg growing beef steer, Arg, Met, His, and Lys were suggested to be the most limiting AA for

  4. Relationships between residual feed intake and hepatic mitochondrial function in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Michal, J J; Brennan, K M; Johnson, K A; Davis, M E

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hepatic mitochondrial function and residual feed intake (RFI) in growing beef cattle. In Trial 1, RFI was measured in 29 Angus heifers (initial BW = 258.0 ± 24.9 kg) from divergent IGF-I selection lines created at the Eastern Agricultural Research Station (The Ohio State University) fed a grain-based diet (calculated ME = 2.85 Mcal/kg DM). In Trial 2, RFI was measured in 119 Santa Gertrudis steers (initial BW = 308.4 ± 28.1 kg) fed a roughage-based diet (calculated ME = 2.21 Mcal/kg DM). At the end of the RFI measurement period, cattle in Trial 1 (n = 7 low RFI and n = 7 high RFI) and in Trial 2 (n = 6 low RFI and n = 8 high RFI) with measures of RFI exceeding 0.5 (Trial 1) or 1.0 (Trial 2) SD from the mean RFI were selected to measure mitochondrial function. Overall ADG, DMI, and RFI were 1.19 ± 0.15, 9.31 ± 1.12, and 0.00 ± 0.63 kg/d and 0.83 ± 0.16, 9.48 ± 1.00, and 0.00 ± 0.86 kg/d in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. Cattle with low RFI consumed 13 and 24% less (P < 0.05) DM and had 14 and 56% greater (P < 0.05) G:F than cattle with high RFI in Trial 1 and 2, respectively, even though ADG and BW were similar (P > 0.10). In Trial 1, cattle with low RFI tended (P = 0.06) to have greater state 3 respiration rates than cattle with high RFI, but state 3 respiration rates were similar (P > 0.10) between cattle with low and high RFI in Trial 2. In both trials, cattle with low RFI had greater (P < 0.05) acceptor control ratios than their high RFI counterparts. The respiratory control ratio tended (P = 0.09) to be greater for cattle with low RFI compared with high RFI cattle in Trial 1, but no difference (P > 0.10) was observed in Trial 2. Proton-leak kinetics were similar (P > 0.05) between cattle with low and high RFI in both trials. These data suggest that ADP has greater control of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondrial of cattle with low RFI compared to their high RFI counterparts.

  5. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI<5th, >5th to <25th, >25th to <75th percentile) and randomised. The intervention group received 120 ml oral sip-feed supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still <50 % for the sample of patients in the intervention group. The present study suggests this method is acceptable to patients and staff and improves total energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  6. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p < 0.05) plasma level of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3) and lower concentration of thyroxin hormone were detected. No significant differences in levels of insulin, hydroxyproline, plasma and urine creatinine, total protein and albumin between high and low RFI groups were found. Blood metabolites showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at initial and final stages of study in both groups. At final stage of study, RFI showed negative correlations with growth hormone, IGF-1, T3, urine creatinine and albumin. Low RFI buffalo calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  7. Relationships between ambient conditions, thermal status, and feed intake of cattle during summer heat stress with access to shade.

    PubMed

    Curtis, A K; Scharf, B; Eichen, P A; Spiers, D E

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle is known to reduce their performance. The challenge comes in determining reliable predictors of current and near-future changes in thermal status and performance. A 42-d study, using crossbred (Bos taurus) steers was conducted during summer months (July through August) to identify best environmental determinants of rumen temperature (Trumen) and feed intake (FI) in feedlot cattle with access to shade. A further goal was to define the relationship between Trumen and FI. Shade coverage was approximately 50%, and all animals were provided standard feedlot diets and water ad libitum. Intraruminal telemetric boluses recorded Trumen several times each hour. Ear tags, telemetrically connected to a feed monitoring system, provided FI data using RFID technology. Data loggers recorded ambient conditions in sun and shade, along with black globe temperature. Regression analyses identified daylight black globe and air temperatures in shade, with one hour delays, as the best predictors of Trumen. Prediction of FI was much less reliable. Unexpectedly, Trumen was not superior to ambient variables in predicting FI. Maximum daily temperature humidity index, calculated using BG in sun with a 5-d lag, was the best significant predictor of FI. These results indicate for feedlot cattle that although air temperature alone in the shade may be the best predictor of Trumen in the heat, black globe temperature in the sun may be a better determinant of feed intake over time. Additional studies are needed to verify the delayed FI response which seems unusually long.

  8. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  9. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (P<0.05) initial BW, BW gain, and initial hip height and tended (P=0.07) to have lower DMI compared to second-parity females. Females with low RFI as heifers consumed 17% less (P<0.01) forage compared to females with high RFI as heifers but maintained the same BW, BW gain, and body composition. Likewise, RFI classification did not affect calving date. An interaction (P=0.04) between heifer RFI classification and parity was found for calf birth weight. Calves from first-parity low-RFI females were lighter at birth (P<0.01) than calves from high-RFI females, but RFI classification did not affect BW of calves born to second-parity females. Residual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (P<0.01) at the bunk compared to high-RFI females. First-parity females had more (P<0.05) daily step counts and greater lying-bout frequencies compared to second-parity females, but physical activity was not affected by RFI classification. Heart

  10. QTLs associated with dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test weight, growth and feed efficiency have little overlap across 4 beef cattle studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies a...

  11. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  12. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  13. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  14. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control.

  15. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  16. Partitioning of feed intake into maintenance and gain in growing beef cattle: Evaluation of conventional and Bayesian analyses.

    PubMed

    Old, C A; Rossow, H A; Famula, T R

    2015-10-01

    The robustness of efficiency estimates depends on theoretical consistency of models from which those estimates are developed; functional forms of the variables must be globally consistent with theoretical properties regarding feed utilization for maintenance and gain in growing and finishing cattle. Model parameter estimates and their dimensions must be unique or estimates of feed utilization and gain will not reflect reality. A linear equation commonly used to estimate daily DMI by the th individual animal (ADFI), based on mean weight and gain during a feeding period, was evaluated to determine if that model was correctly specified and if the vector predicted ADFI differed from the vector observed ADFI. Three independently gathered data sets were evaluated using a multiple linear regression model; variability described by that model failed to capture observed variability in the data (lack of fit, < 0.10), and predicted ADFI differed from observed ( < 0.05); for 1 of the 3 data sets, residuals were not normally distributed ( < 0.001). Functional forms of the variables in the first model evaluated, characterizing ADFI required for maintenance ( × BW) and gain ( × ADG), were consistent with neither published empirical nor theoretical relationships among ADFI, BW, and ADG. Parameter estimates determined for that linear model were not BLUE. Better fits among final BW, initial BW, and ADFI were found for a first-order relationship, in which final BW was a function of initial BW and ADFI, as indicated by > 0.90. The linear model and, to a lesser degree, the first nonlinear model lacked theoretical and global consistency. A second nonlinear model, which described retained energy as a function of ME intake, best fit the data, and functional forms of variables describing ME intake at maintenance and the efficiency of ME utilization for gain were consistent with theoretical estimates found in the literature. Changes in feed intake and live BW in linear and nonlinear models

  17. A meta-analysis of the feed intake and growth performance of broiler chickens challenged by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed

  18. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  19. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork.

  20. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; P<0.001). In lactating sows, there were no differences between dietary treatments for any of the hormones measured. Pre-prandial acyl-ghrelin concentrations were positively correlated with cortisol concentrations during gestation (r=0.81; P=0.001) and lactation (r=0.61; P=0.015). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 6% crude glycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between

  1. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  2. N-alkanes v. ytterbium/faecal index as two methods for estimating herbage intake of dairy cows fed on diets differing in the herbage: maize silage ratio and feeding level.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the n-alkanes and the ytterbium (Yb)/faecal index techniques as two methods for estimating the herbage intake of dairy cows fed indoors on different herbage : supplement ratios and feeding levels. The supplement was a mixture of maize silage and soyabean meal (ratio of 87 : 13 on a dry matter (DM) basis). In all, four treatments were studied. The herbage : supplement ratio in the diet was 25 : 75, 50 : 50, 75 : 25 and 50 : 50 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Animals were offered for treatments 1, 2 and 3, 100% of ad libitum intake measured before the experiment and 70% of ad libitum intake for treatment 4. Cows were fed herbage in the morning and supplement in the evening. A total of six lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 14-day periods. Herbage and supplement intakes, faecal output (FO), in vivo organic matter (OM) digestibility and faecal recovery of markers were measured on the last 5 days of each period. Intake was estimated with the two methods and from two faecal sampling techniques, that is, total faecal collection v. grab sampling during milking. Mean herbage intake as fed, or estimated from n-alkanes or from the Yb/faecal index was 7.7, 8.1 and 10.2 kg DM, respectively. The mean prediction error, expressed as a fraction of actual herbage intake, was 0.10 and 0.50 for the n-alkanes and Yb/faecal index methods, respectively. The n-alkanes method clearly showed much better accuracy than the Yb/faecal index method for estimating intake, irrespective of the faecal sampling method, herbage : silage proportion or feeding level. For the n-alkanes method, herbage intake was slightly overestimated (7%) when herbage proportion in the diet was high, due to a ratio of faecal C33 : C32 recovery >1. The high bias for the Yb/faecal index was due to the cumulative effect of overestimation of FO (mean recovery of Yb = 0.92) and underestimation of the diet indigestible fraction (-8

  3. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina L.; Welly, Bryan T.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Young, Amy E.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14–16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air—weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  4. Influence of dry matter intake, dry matter digestibility, and feeding behavior on body weight gain of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relative contribution of feeding behavior, DMI, apparent DM digestibility (DMD), and passage rate on variation in BW gain. One hundred forty-three crossbred steers were used in this study to determine the factors that contribute to variation in BW gain. Steers were 304 ± 1 d of age and had an initial BW of 338 ± 3 kg. Steers had ad libitum access to feed, and fresh feed was offered twice daily at 0800 and 1500 h. Individual feed intake and BW gains were determined for 106 d. Titanium dioxide was used as an external marker to estimate apparent DMD and passage rate. A multiple-regression analysis was used to determine the relative contribution of initial BW, feed intake, feeding behaviors, digestibility, and passage rate to variance in BW gain, and a path analysis was conducted to determine direct and indirect relationships of the variables. In the regression analysis, initial BW and DMI accounted for 33% of the variation in BW gain. Substituting meal events and meal size for DMI did not increase the amount of variance in BW gain (27%) accounted for by the regression model. There was a slight increase in the variance in BW gain (35%) when apparent DMD was added to initial BW and DMI. When meal events and meal size were substituted for DMI, there was a decrease (30%) in variance accounted for in BW gain. The regression coefficient for the passage rate did not differ from zero (P = 0.63) when the passage rate was substituted for apparent DMD in the regression model that also included initial BW and DMI, nor did it differ from zero (P = 0.39) in the model that substitutes meal events and meal size for DMI. Three models were used in the path analysis. For all 3 models there was a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between DMI and BW gain but not between apparent DMD and BW gain. In all 3 models there was a significant correlation between meal size, meal events, and initial BW on DMI (P < 0.001). Results of both the regression and

  5. Residual feed intake of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows predicted from high-density genotypes and phenotyping of growing heifers.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Spelman, R J

    2014-03-01

    A genomic prediction for residual feed intake (RFI) developed in growing dairy heifers (RFIgro) was used to predict and test breeding values for RFI in lactating cows (RFIlac) from an independent, industry population. A selection of 3,359 cows, in their third or fourth lactation during the study, of above average genetic merit for milk production, and identified as at least 15/16ths Holstein-Friesian breed, were selected for genotyping from commercial dairy herds. Genotyping was carried out using the bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) on DNA extracted from ear-punch tissue. After quality control criteria were applied, genotypes were imputed to the 624,930 single nucleotide polymorphisms used in the growth study. Using these data, genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) for RFIgro were calculated in the selected cow population based on a genomic prediction for RFIgro estimated in an independent group of growing heifers. Cows were ranked by GEBV and the top and bottom 310 identified for possible purchase. Purchased cows (n=214) were relocated to research facilities and intake and body weight (BW) measurements were undertaken in 99 "high" and 98 "low" RFIgro animals in 4 consecutive groups [beginning at d 61 ± 1.0 standard error (SE), 91 ± 0.5 SE, 145 ± 1.3 SE, and 191 ± 1.5 SE d in milk, respectively] to measure RFI during lactation (RFIlac). Each group of ~50 cows (~25 high and ~25 low RFIgro) was in a feed intake facility for 35 d, fed pasture-alfalfa cubes ad libitum, milked twice daily, and weighed every 2 to 3 d. Milk composition was determined 3 times weekly. Body weight change and BW at trial mid-point were estimated by regression of pre- and posttrial BW measurements. Residual feed intake in lactating cows was estimated from a linear model including BW, BW change, and milk component yield (as MJ/d); RFIlac differed consistently between the high and low selection classes, with the overall means for RFIlac being +0.32 and -0.31 kg of

  6. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Do, Duy N; Strathe, Anders B; Ostersen, Tage; Pant, Sameer D; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biological pathways involved in regulating RFI using Genome-wide association (GWA) and pathway analyses. A total of 596 Yorkshire boars with phenotypes for two different measures of RFI (RFI1 and 2) and 60k genotypic data was used. GWA analysis was performed using a univariate mixed model and 12 and 7 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Several genes such as xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 (XIRP2),tetratricopeptide repeat domain 29 (TTC29),suppressor of glucose, autophagy associated 1 (SOGA1),MAS1,G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 5 (GRK5),prospero-homeobox protein 1 (PROX1),GPCR 155 (GPR155), and FYVE domain containing the 26 (ZFYVE26) were identified as putative candidates for RFI based on their genomic location in the vicinity of these SNPs. Genes located within 50 kbp of SNPs significantly associated with RFI and RFI2 (q-value ≤ 0.2) were subsequently used for pathway analyses. These analyses were performed by assigning genes to biological pathways and then testing the association of individual pathways with RFI using a Fisher's exact test. Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05). These results implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important

  7. Black gram (Vigna Mungo L.) foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi; Gangopadhyay, Prabir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus) cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg) at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d) were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum) to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p<0.05) with the supplementation of black gram foliage. Although the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract did not vary (p>0.05), the fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05), which ultimately improved (p<0.05) the total digestible nutrients content of composite diet. Although, the average milk yield (kg/animal/d) and composition did not differ (p>0.05) among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98) was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production. PMID:27282971

  8. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  9. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins.

  10. Short communication: Effects of dietary fat supplements and forage:concentrate ratio on feed intake, feeding, and chewing behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kargar, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Yang, W Z

    2010-09-01

    Feed intake and feeding behavior of dairy cows fed diets that varied in fat supplementation and forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio were investigated. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4x4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) no supplemental fat and 34:66 F:C ratio; 2) 2% hydrogenated palm oil and 34:66 F:C ratio; 3) 2% yellow grease and 34:66 F:C ratio; and 4) 2% yellow grease and 45:55 F:C ratio. Cows were fed ad libitum twice daily as total mixed ration with free access to water. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by fat supplementation regardless of fat source, whereas increased F:C ratio (from 34:66 to 45:55) lowered DMI by 7.5%. Meal interval, eating rate, and meal size were lower for cows fed yellow grease, and eating rate was less for cows fed the 45:55 F:C ratio diet. Chewing activity was not affected by fat supplementation, but was greater for cows fed the 45:55 F:C ratio diet. Results suggest that supplementation of 2% hydrogenated palm oil or 2% yellow grease had little effect on DMI and chewing behavior of Holstein dairy cows fed a 34:66 F:C ratio diet. The 2 fat sources can replace each other, depending on the availability or cost. Results also showed that DMI and chewing activity can be effectively manipulated by changing the F:C ratio of diet.

  11. Effects of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Foiklang, Suban; Wanapat, Metha; Toburan, Wetchasit

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB), cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay (MH)) were mixed in the HQFB. HQFBs were allowed to be licked at free choice, and urea-lime-treated rice straw (ULRS) were fed ad libitum. It was found that bacterial population and fungal zoospores in CH-fed group tended to be higher than those in other groups. Moreover, protozoal population in CH, P. calcaratus hay, and MH were lower than those in CRB supplemented group (P < 0.05). Cellulolytic bacterial population was highest in CH-fed group while proteolytic bacteria population was highest in P. calcaratus hay-fed group (P < 0.05). CH-fed group had higher ULRS intake than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility of CP, NDF, and ADF in CH-fed group was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Total VFA was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). N absorption was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that cassava hay, P. calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay are potential to be used as protein sources in the HQFBs especially cassava hay.

  12. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  13. L-Carnitine intake prevents irregular feeding-induced obesity and lipid metabolism disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Anqi; Shu, Qingyu; Qi, Yangjian; Kong, Ying; Sun, Zhiping; Sun, Shumin; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-10

    L-Carnitine supplementation has been used to reduce obesity caused by high-fat diet, which is beneficial for lowering blood and hepatic lipid levels, and for ameliorating fatty liver. However, whether l-carnitine may affect irregular feeding-induced obesity and lipid metabolism disorder is still largely unknown. In the present study, we developed a time-delayed pattern of eating, and investigated the effects of l-carnitine on the irregular eating induced adiposity in mice. After an experimental period of 8 weeks with l-carnitine supplementation, l-carnitine significantly inhibited body weight increase and epididymal fat weight gain induced by the time-delayed feeding. In addition, l-carnitine administration decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (GPT), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and triglyceride (TG), which were significantly elevated by the irregular feeding. Moreover, mice supplemented with l-carnitine did not display glucose intolerance-associated hallmarks, which were found in the irregular feeding-induced obesity. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that l-carnitine counteracted the negative alterations of lipid metabolic gene expression (fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase) in the liver and fat of mice caused by the irregular feeding. Therefore, our results suggest that the time-delayed pattern of eating can induce adiposity and lipid metabolic disorders, while l-carnitine supplementation might prevent these negative symptoms.

  14. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity.

  15. Effects of dietary glucogenic precursors and fat on feed intake and carbohydrate status of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, R S; Sorenson, C E; Hippen, A R

    2004-07-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of dietary fat and glucose precursors on energy status and lactation. The treatment group (T) received 409 g/d (DM basis) of a combination of calcium salts of fatty acids, calcium propionate, and propylene glycol. The control group (C) received 409 g/d of a mixture of calcium salts of fatty acids and ground barley from 14 +/- 0.9 g/d before until 21 d after calving. Dry matter intake was greater (16.1 vs. 13.6 +/- 1.3 kg/d) for T than C during the last week prepartum and did not decrease for T from the previous week, whereas, in C, DM intakes decreased by 3.2 kg/d. Production of milk and milk fat did not differ. There was a tendency for lower protein and increased lactose concentrations in milk from T cows. Milk fat percentage was lower in T at d 7 (5.5 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.5%) and 28 (4.4 vs. 5.5 +/- 0.5%) of lactation. Liver lipid content was numerically lower (7.9 vs. 9.2 +/- 0.9%) and glycogen content was significantly higher (2.4 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1%) in T vs. C cows on d 7 of lactation. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids were lower in blood of T cows on d 2 and 7 of lactation. Over all time points, blood glucose concentrations were higher in T cows pre- (70.75 vs. 62.1 +/- 1.3 mg/dL) and postpartum (60.1 vs. 56.2 +/- 1.1 mg/dL). Insulin concentrations in blood were greater for T (397 vs. 314 +/- 48 pg/mL) both pre- and postpartum. Feeding glucose precursors in combination with rumen inert lipids, compared with feeding barley in combination with the lipids for 2 wk before parturition and 3 wk postpartum helped avoid prepartum feed intake depression and increased blood glucose and insulin and decreased blood NEFA.

  16. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.

  17. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals.

  18. Effect of phenotypic residual feed intake and dietary forage content on the rumen microbial community of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-07-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P < 0.0001) in inefficient animals. A higher (P < 0.0001) abundance of Entodinium and Prevotella spp. and a lower (P < 0.0001) abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes were observed when animals were offered the low-forage diet. Thus, differences in the ruminal microflora may contribute to host feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered.

  19. A Polymorphism in the 5′-Untranslated Region of the Porcine Cholecystokinin Type A Receptor Gene Affects Feed Intake and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Houston, R. D.; Haley, C. S.; Archibald, A. L.; Cameron, N. D.; Plastow, G. S.; Rance, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    The location and utilization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes with significant effects on economically important traits are becoming increasingly important in livestock breeding programs. The porcine cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) is a candidate gene for performance traits, due to its known role in the physiological control of feed intake, satiety, and obesity. We investigated the association of CCKAR polymorphisms with feeding, growth, and efficiency traits in an F2 population derived from a cross between Meishan and Large White founder animals and in lines of Large White pigs that had been divergently selected on the basis of lean growth efficiency traits. In the F2 population, CCKAR genotype was significantly associated with daily feed intake and average daily gain. The effects of the polymorphisms were then assessed in a larger-scale analysis of segregating commercial lines. A newly discovered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) had highly significant effects on feed intake, average daily gain, and days to 110 kg, which were not seen for a previously reported SNP within the CCKAR gene. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the novel SNP disrupts the binding of the YY1 transcription factor, which raises the possibility that it is the causal variant. The 5′-UTR SNP could be utilized as a molecular genetic test for increased feed intake, faster lean growth, and reduced days to market weight in segregating commercial lines. PMID:16951077

  20. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  1. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  2. Feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of a Swedish population of insured-dogs.

    PubMed

    Sallander, Marie; Hedhammar, Ake; Rundgren, Margareta; Lindberg, Jan E

    2010-07-01

    We used a validated mail and telephone questionnaire to investigate baseline data on feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of 460 Swedish dogs. In 1999, purebred individuals 1-3 years old in the largest insurance database of Sweden completed the study. Most dogs were fed restricted amounts twice a day, and the feeding patterns seldom were changed after the age of 6 months. Typically, the main constituent of the meals was dry food [representing 69% of dry matter (DM)]. Four out of five dogs also got foods that (in descending order of the amount of energy provided) consisted of vegetable oil, meat, sour milk, bread, potatoes, pasta, lard/tallow, sausage, cheese, rice and fish. The heavier the dog (kg), the more dry dog food was consumed (g DM/d). The dry-food intakes (g DM/d) increased linearly with body weight (BW, in kg): intake=-15.3+8.33 BW (P=0.0001; r=0.998), a clear relationship that was not observed for other commercial foods. The non-commercial part of the diet had higher fat (13 and 8 g/megajoule, MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) and lower protein (12 and 16 g/MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) compared to the commercial part of the diet. Six out of ten dogs were given treats, and one-fourth was given vitamin/mineral supplements (most commonly daily). Most dogs consumed diets that were nutritionally balanced. No dogs in the study consumed diets that supplied lower amounts of protein than recommended by the NRC (2006). Only two individuals (<1%) were given total diets that were lower than the nutrient profiles in fat. Few dogs consumed total diets that were lower than recommended by the NRC (2006) in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, D and E (2, 1, 3, 5, and 3% of the individuals, respectively). A few individuals consumed higher levels of vitamins A and D (<1 and 4%, respectively) than recommended. Diets that deviated from recommended levels were those consisting of only table foods with no supplements (too-low in vitamins and minerals) or

  3. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Results Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P < 0.05) by diet type, with greater abundance observed while animals were offered the LF compared to the HF diet. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in abundance of specific rumen methanogen species may not contribute to variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species. PMID:25276350

  4. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.

    1983-03-01

    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  5. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  6. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  7. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (<24h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time

  8. The effect of litter size before weaning on subsequent body development, feed intake, and reproductive performance of young rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Rommers, J M; Kemp, B; Meijerhof, R; Noordhuizen, J P

    2001-08-01

    An experiment was performed to study the effect of litter size before weaning on subsequent body development and composition, feed intake, and reproductive performance of young rabbit does with the objective to improve reproductive performance. Litter size (LS) before weaning (treatment) was 6, 9, or 12 kits. After weaning (30 d), 58 female kits per treatment (in two successive replicates) were reared and fed for ad libitum intake to 14.5 wk of age (end of rearing). At 14.5 wk of age, receptive does were inseminated. Nonreceptive and nonpregnant does were inseminated at 17.5 wk of age. The experiment ended when the second litter was weaned. Part of the animals was slaughtered to determine body composition at the end of the experiment (replicate one) and at the end of rearing (replicate two). At weaning, BW differed among treatments (P < 0.05; 855, 773, and 664 +/- 15 g for LS6, 9, and 12, respectively). Compensatory growth was observed. At the end of rearing, LS12 does were smaller (P < 0.05) than LS9 and LS6 does (3,524, 3,778, and 3,850 +/- 48 g, respectively). After first lactation, no difference in BW among treatments was found. Compared with LS6, empty body weight (BW minus gut, bladder, and uterus content) of LS12 contained more (P < 0.05) nitrogen (32.5 vs 31.1 +/- 0.3 g/kg), more (P < 0.05) ash (30.7 vs 28.3 +/- 0.6 g/kg), and less (P < 0.05) fat (168.6 vs 200.2 +/- 8.6 g/kg). No differences in body composition among treatments were found at the end of the experiment. During rearing, LS12 had the lowest (P < 0.05) daily feed intake (152, 164, and 169 +/- 2 g/d for LS12, 9, and 6, respectively). During the reproductive period, no differences in feed intake among treatments were found. Kindling rate (the number of kindlings per number of inseminations) was not influenced by treatment. In the first parity, total litter size (number of alive and stillborn kits) was lower (P < 0.10) for LS12 than for LS9 (6.4 vs 8.6 +/- 0.5, respectively). When first mating was

  9. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese Holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p < 0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) was decreased by decreasing the FPL (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C (65:35) increased the DMI (p < 0.05). A positive interaction between FPL and F:C was found for (daily weight gain) DWG, weight gain (WG) and feed conversation ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05). In case of feeding behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p < 0.05). Chopping of hay had decreased the chewing time (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C increased chewing time per kilogram DMI. High F:C decreased the lying time (p < 0.05) in FL and SL treatments (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C reduced the overall abnormal behaviour (p < 0.05). These results suggested that animals performed better at higher F:C at SL diet. Intensity of sorting for short and fine particle and against long particle increased at higher F:C and SL diets. Eating time and eating time per kilogram DMI increased by increasing F:C level in both FL and SL treatments. Chewing time increased by increasing the FPL, while increasing the F:C enhanced the chewing time per kilogram DMI and reduced animal's abnormal behaviour.

  10. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  11. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows.

  12. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  13. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    of R. albus was also greater (P=0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P=0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen.

  14. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  15. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  16. Association between breed composition, phenotypic residual feed intake, temperament, ELISA scores for paratuberculosis, and ultrasound carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultrasound carcass measurements are an important tool for preliminary assessment of carcass worth in beef cattle. Breed composition, phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI), temperament, and subclinical paratuberculosis in dams may affect calf ultrasound traits. The objective was to evaluate the assoc...

  17. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best

  18. Effect of supplementing urea-treated barley straw with lucerne or vetch hays on feed intake, digestibility and growth of Arsi Bale sheep.

    PubMed

    Abate, Dawit; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The study was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia to assess the supplementation of graded levels of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa 'lana') and lucerne (Medicago sativa,' Hunter river') hay on feed intake, digestibility and body weight (BW) change of Arsi-Bale sheep fed urea treated barley straw (UTBS). A 7 day- digestibility and a 90 day- feed intake trials were conducted using 28 and 35 sheep, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with seven dietary treatments that consisted of feeding UTBS (T1) as the control treatment, UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g dry matter (DM) per day of vetch for T2, T3, T4, respectively and UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g DM per day of lucerne for T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Intake of UTBS was not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion of lucerne hay at 25-35% of daily DM intake. The supplements increased daily intake of total DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and metabolizable energy (ME) (P < 0.001) as well as apparent digestibility of DM, OM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), ADF, crude protein (CP) (P < 0.05) and daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Supplementation with lucerne than vetch hay promoted higher (P < 0.001) CP and ME intakes and daily BW gain. Feeding with the UTBS without supplementation was enough to meet the maintenance requirements of the sheep and allow small BW gain. The results of the study showed that urea treatment of barley straw in conjunction with supplementation of lucerne or vetch hay could serve as a useful strategy in improving smallholder sheep production in the tropics.

  19. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B

    2001-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P < 0.05) in steers supplemented with vitamin D3. Supplementing 6 MIU/6 d of vitamin D3 decreased (P < 0.05) WBS values of gluteus steaks (pooled over aging times). Longissimus steaks from steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 6 d had lower (P < 0.05) WBS force values than these steaks from control steers or steers fed vitamin D3 for 4 d at 7 d postmortem. Biceps femoris steaks from steers receiving vitamin D3 for 4 d had higher WBS values than steaks from control steers at 14 and 21 d postmortem. Feeding vitamin D3 at 6 MIU for 6 d decreased (P < 0.05) the percentage of steaks that had WBS values > or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) when vitamin D3 was fed and with increased vitamin D3 feeding time. Feeding vitamin D3 for 6 d (vs 4 d) delayed pH decline for all muscle types after 0, 3, and 12 h postmortem. Water-holding capacity was increased (P > 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d

  20. Characterization and Profiling of Liver microRNAs by RNA-sequencing in Cattle Divergently Selected for Residual Feed Intake

    PubMed Central

    Al-Husseini, Wijdan; Chen, Yizhou; Gondro, Cedric; Herd, Robert M.; Gibson, John P.; Arthur, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser. In total, 23,628,103 high quality short sequence reads were obtained and more than half of these reads were matched to the bovine genome (UMD 3.1). We identified 305 known bovine miRNAs. Bta-miR-143, bta-miR-30, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-378, and bta-let-7 were the top five most abundant miRNAs families expressed in liver, representing more than 63% of expressed miRNAs. We also identified 52 homologous miRNAs and 10 novel putative bovine-specific miRNAs, based on precursor sequence and the secondary structure and utilizing the miRBase (v. 21). We compared the miRNAs profile between high and low RFI animals and ranked the most differentially expressed bovine known miRNAs. Bovine miR-143 was the most abundant miRNA in the bovine liver and comprised 20% of total expressed mapped miRNAs. The most highly expressed miRNA in liver of mice and humans, miR-122, was the third most abundant in our cattle liver samples. We also identified 10 putative novel bovine-specific miRNA candidates. Differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI cattle were identified with 18 miRNAs being up-regulated and 7 other miRNAs down-regulated in low RFI cattle. Our study has identified comprehensive miRNAs expressed in bovine liver. Some of the expressed miRNAs are novel in cattle. The differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI give some

  1. On the effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat and the feed intake level on the metabolism and carry over of zearalenone in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Seeling, K; Dänicke, S; Ueberschär, K H; Lebzien, P; Flachowsky, G

    2005-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat to dairy cows on the metabolism and carry over of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolites at different feed intakes. Fourteen dairy cows equipped with rumen and duodenal fistulae were used. The experiment consisted of a control period in which the uncontaminated wheat was fed and a mycotoxin period in which the Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 91 microg ZON kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) was replaced by the control wheat (0.25 mg DON kg(-1) and 51 microg ZON kg(-1) DM). The wheat portion of the concentrate fed daily amounted to 55% on a DM basis. The ration was completed with maize and grass silage (50:50), whereby the maize silage contained 62 microg ZON kg(-1) DM. Feed intakes were adjusted to the current performance of the individual cows. The ZON metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) were recovered at the duodenum beside the parent toxin ZON. The recovery of ingested ZON as ZON plus alpha-ZOL plus beta-ZOL at the duodenum ranged between 19 and 247%. The portion of ZON (ranging from 29 to 99%) of the ZON plus alpha-ZOL plus beta-ZOL flow at the duodenum increased significantly with increasing ZON feed intake, whereas the portion of beta-ZOL (up to 57%) decreased significantly. In contrast, portions of ZON in faeces (32-100%), alpha-ZOL (up to 39%) and beta-ZOL (up to 43%) of ZON plus alpha-ZOL plus beta-ZOL were independent of ZON intake. It seems that a lower retention time of the feed and the toxins in the rumen as an effect of the increased feed intake may limit the ruminal metabolization of ZON. The relatively steady recovery of ingested ZON as ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL in faeces at the different levels of ZON intake would suggest a further reduction of ZON by intestinal microorganisms. Furthermore, ZON and its metabolites in the milk were lower than the detection limits at daily ZON and DM intakes between 75 and

  2. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  3. Development and evaluation of models to predict the feed intake of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Shah, M A; Murphy, M R

    2006-01-01

    Inaccurate prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) limits the ability of current models to anticipate the technical and economic consequences of adopting different strategies for production management on individual dairy farms. The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate, robust, and broadly applicable prediction model and to compare it with the current NRC model for dairy cows in early lactation. Among various functions, an exponential model was selected for its best fit to DMI data of dairy cows in early lactation. Daily DMI data (n = 8,547) for 3 groups of Holstein cows (at Illinois, New Hampshire, and Pennsylvania) were used in this study. Cows at Illinois and New Hampshire were fed totally mixed diets for the first 70 d of lactation. At Pennsylvania, data were for the first 63 d postpartum. Data from Illinois cows were used as the developmental dataset, and the other 2 datasets were used for model evaluation and validation. Data for BW, milk yield, and milk composition were only available for Illinois and New Hampshire cows; therefore, only these 2 datasets were used for model comparisons. The exponential model, fitted to the individual cow daily DMI data, explained an average of 74% of the total variation in daily DMI for Illinois data, 49% of the variation for New Hampshire data, 67% of the variation for Pennsylvania data, and 64% of the variation overall. Based on all model selection criteria used in this study, the exponential model for prediction of weekly DMI of individual cows was superior to the current NRC equation. The exponential model explained 85% of the variation in weekly mean DMI compared with 42% for the NRC equation. Compared with the relative prediction error of 6% for the exponential model, that associated with prediction using the NRC equation was 14%. The overall mean square prediction error value for individual cows was 5-fold higher for the NRC equation than for the exponential model (10.4 vs. 2.0 kg2/d2). The

  4. Dietary administration of Pontogammarus maeoticus extract affects immune responses, stress resistance, feed intake and growth performance of caspian roach (Rutilus caspicus) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Mirzajani, Alireza; Van Doan, Hien

    2017-04-01

    Dietary administration of immunostimulants showed promising results for elevation of immune responses and disease resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Pontogammarus (Pontogammarus maeoticus) extract on innate immune response, stress resistance, feed intake and growth performance of the Caspian roach fingerling. Two levels of P. maeoticus extract dilution with distilled water 1:25 [T1] and 1:50 [T2] were prepared. Experimental diets were prepared by top-spraying the basal diet with equal amount (2%) of diluted extracts. One hundred and eighty Caspian roach fingerlings (4.30 ± 0.10 g) were supplied, stocked in nine 100-L tanks (three treatment repeated in triplicates) and fed on experimental diets for 8 weeks. At the end of the trial, serum innate immune parameters (Total Ig, ACH50, and lysozyme activity), resistance against salinity stress, feed intake and growth parameters were measured. The results revealed remarkable increase of innate immune parameters and resistance against salinity stress in roach fed P. maeoticus extracts (P < 0.05). Also, growth performance and food intake were notably improved in P. maeoticus extracts fed fish (P < 0.05). These results revealed beneficial effects of P. maeoticus extract on innate immune response, resistance, feed intake as well as growth performance of the Caspian roach.

  5. Effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Chen, Liang; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Yan, Qiongxian

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats. There were no significant differences in the N intake, duodenal flow of total N, undegraded feed N, microbial N, endogenous N or ileal flow of endogenous N, but the duodenal and ileal flow of endogenous N numerically decreased by approximately 22% and 9%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The dietary ratio of RDP to RUP had significant effects (p<0.05) on the ileal flows of endogenous leucine, phenylalanine and cysteine. The present results implied that the duodenal flows of endogenous N and AA decreased when the dietary RDP to RUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of endogenous AA at the ileum also decreased when the DMI decreased but increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.

  6. Effects of timing and duration of test period and diet type on intake and feed efficiency of Charolais-sired cattle.

    PubMed

    Cassady, C J; Felix, T L; Beever, J E; Shike, D W

    2016-11-01

    Objectives of this experiment were to: 1) determine appropriate test length, timing, and repeatability of DMI, ADG, and efficiency over different biological time points; 2) determine the efficacy of using decoupled performance and intake data to generate accurate feed efficiency measures; and 3) determine the relationship between forage-and grain-feed efficiency measures. Over 2 yr, Charolais crossbred heifers ( = 308) and steers ( = 320) were fed for two 70 d periods and DMI, ADG, and 12th rib fat thickness were recorded. Steers were fed grain-based diets during the growing and finishing periods to determine the effects of test period and timing on DMI and feed efficiency. Heifers were fed forage during the growing period and grain during the finishing period to test the effect of diet type on measures of DMI and feed efficiency. For each 70 d test period, individual DMI was recorded using the GrowSafe (Airdrie, AB) system. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for each test period. Total feeding period ADG (FP_ADG) was calculated for steers by regressing all weights taken from feedlot arrival to final BW, which was calculated by dividing HCW by a standard dressing percentage (63%). Dry matter intake and RFI were correlated (r 0.56; < 0.01, and 0.63; < 0.01, respectively) for the growing and finishing periods of grain-fed steers. Average daily gain was not repeatable ( = 0.11; 0.06) across both test periods for steers. However, growing and finishing ADG were correlated ( = 0.58; < 0.01, and = 0.69; < 0.01, respectively) to FP_ADG. To assess the potential of shortening the intake test, DMI was analyzed in 7 d increments for grain-fed steers during the growing and finishing periods. Regardless of test length, from 7 to 70 d, DMI was strongly correlated ( ≥ 0.87; < 0.01) to total DMI during the growing period. Heifer forage DMI was correlated ( = 0.58; < 0.01) to grain DMI; subsequently, forage and grain RFI were moderately correlated ( = 0.40; < 0.01). This

  7. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth and development among rural Indian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L; Johnson, Susan L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Shroff, Monal R; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and development compared with home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into three groups of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The control group (CG) received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the complementary feeding group (CFG) received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the responsive complementary feeding and play group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices, and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the 12-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (P < 0.05) increased median intakes of energy, protein, Vitamin A, calcium (CFG), iron and zinc, reduced stunting [0.19, confidence interval (CI): 0.0-0.4] in the CFG (but not RCF&PG) and increased (P < 0.01) Bayley Mental Development scores (mean = 3.1, CI: 0.8-5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared with CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG) and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under 2 years in food-secure rural Indian families.

  8. Nectar feeding by the hovering hawk moth Macroglossum stellatarum: intake rate as a function of viscosity and concentration of sucrose solutions.

    PubMed

    Josens, R B; Farina, W M

    2001-10-01

    Although nectar feeding in insects has long been studied, the knowledge of the effect of nectar energy content on the ingestion dynamics separately from the viscosity of the fluid is very limited. To determine the effects of both factors on the feeding behavior of the hovering hawk moth Macroglossum stellatarum, we developed a method to independently manipulate sucrose concentrations and viscosity. The intake rate was analyzed as a function of sucrose concentration, the concentration at constant viscosity (kept constant by adding tylose, an inert polysaccharide), and of the different viscosities of a 30% weight/weight (w/w) sucrose solution (by adding different amounts of tylose). By increasing the concentration, and thus its viscosity, the solution intake rate (in microl s (-1)) decreased beyond a 20% w/w sucrose solution. For a 30% sucrose solution, the intake rate decreased with increasing viscosity. At constant viscosity, the solution intake rate decreased beyond a 30% w/w sucrose solution. However, if we considered the quantity of sucrose ingested per unit time (sucrose intake rate), the same fitted maximum was attained for both series in which the sucrose concentration changed (33.6% w/w). Results suggest that the gustatory input affects the dynamics of fluid ingestion separately from the viscosity.

  9. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  10. Improving residual feed intake of mule progeny of Muscovy ducks: genetic parameters and responses to selection with emphasis on carcass composition and fatty liver quality.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Basso, B; Bernadet, M-D; Cornuez, A; Bodin, L; David, I; Gilbert, H; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2014-10-01

    In France, about 95% of the fatty liver production comes from mule ducks, an infertile hybrid cross between female common ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata). As a hybrid, genetic improvement of the performance of mule ducks is achieved by selection of the parental populations. Feed represents two-thirds of the total costs of duck production; thus, the breeders' main concern is to improve the birds' feed efficiency without impairing their capacity to be overfed after the growing period. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed a divergent selection experiment for Muscovy sires on the basis of the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny. Residual feed intake represents the fraction of feed intake that cannot be explained by maintenance and production requirements. Data comprised records from generations 0 to 2 with 227 Muscovy sires of 2,016 mule ducks. Growth and fat deposition were measured individually for all mule ducks. Half-sib mule ducks were placed together in 1 small pen, and the feed consumption was recorded for each pen; all half-sibs therefore had the same feed intake estimates. Heritability of RFI was high (0.83 ± 0.42), and after 2 generations of selection, the differences between lines in terms of RFI (contrast of 9.13 g/d, representing 0.76 phenotypic standard deviation; P < 0.0001) and feed conversion ratio (contrast of 0.08, representing 0.28 phenotypic standard deviation; P = 0.0003) were marked. In regard to carcass traits, the low-RFI line (high-efficiency animals) had heavier legs (476 vs. 463 g; P < 0.0001) and magret muscles (268 vs. 262 g; P = 0.001) than the high-RFI line (low-efficiency animals). No differences were observed for either the liver weight or the melting rate between the 2 lines (P > 0.46). Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their capacity to produce fatty liver.

  11. Use of genotype × environment interaction model to accommodate genetic heterogeneity for residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; de Los Campos, G; VandeHaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Coffey, M; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Hanigan, M D; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency in dairy cattle has gained much attention recently. Due to the cost-prohibitive measurement of individual feed intakes, combining data from multiple countries is often necessary to ensure an adequate reference population. It may then be essential to model genetic heterogeneity when making inferences about feed efficiency or selecting efficient cattle using genomic information. In this study, we constructed a marker × environment interaction model that decomposed marker effects into main effects and interaction components that were specific to each environment. We compared environment-specific variance component estimates and prediction accuracies from the interaction model analyses, an across-environment analyses ignoring population stratification, and a within-environment analyses using an international feed efficiency data set. Phenotypes included residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight from 3,656 cows measured in 3 broadly defined environments: North America (NAM), the Netherlands (NLD), and Scotland (SAC). Genotypic data included 57,574 single nucleotide polymorphisms per animal. The interaction model gave the highest prediction accuracy for metabolic body weight, which had the largest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.37 to 0.55. The within-environment model performed the best when predicting residual feed intake, which had the lowest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.41. For traits (dry matter intake and net energy in milk) with intermediate estimated heritabilities (0.21 to 0.50 and 0.17 to 0.53, respectively), performance of the 3 models was comparable. Genomic correlations between environments also were computed using variance component estimates from the interaction model. Averaged across all traits, genomic correlations were highest between NAM and NLD, and lowest between NAM and SAC. In conclusion, the interaction model provided a novel way to evaluate traits measured in

  12. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses, and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Raymond, S L; Smith, T K; Swamy, H V L N

    2003-09-01

    The feeding of Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains adversely affects the performance of swine and poultry. Very little information is available, however, on adverse effects associated with feeding these mycotoxin-contaminated grains on the performance of horses. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses. A polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer) was also tested for efficacy in preventing Fusarium mycotoxicoses. Nine mature, nonexercising, light, mixed-breed mares were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments for 21 d. The horses were randomly reassigned and the experiment was subsequently replicated in time following a 14-d washout interval. Feed consumed each day was a combination of up to 2.8 kg of concentrates and 5 kg of mixed timothy/alfalfa hay. The concentrates fed included the following: 1) control, 2) blend of contaminated grains (36% contaminated wheat and 53% contaminated corn), and 3) blend of contaminated grains + 0.2% GM polymer. Diets containing contaminated grains averaged 15.0 ppm of deoxynivalenol, 0.8 ppm of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 9.7 ppm of fusaric acid, and 2.0 ppm of zearalenone. Feed intake by all horses fed contaminated grains was reduced (P < 0.001) compared with controls throughout the experiment. Supplementation of 0.2% GM polymer to the contaminated diet increased (P = 0.004) feed intake of horses compared with those fed the unsupplemented contaminated diet. Serum activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase were higher (P = 0.047 and 0.027) in horses fed the diet containing contaminated grain compared with those fed the control diet on d 7 and 14, but not on d 21 (P = 0.273). Supplementation of GM polymer to the contaminated diet decreased (P < 0.05) serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities of horses compared with those

  13. Comparison of feed intake, digestion and rumen function among domestic ruminant species grazing in upland vegetation communities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L M M; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Celaya, R; Rodrigues, M A M; García, U; Frutos, P; Osoro, K

    2016-04-14

    This study aimed to compare feed intake, digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community of 5 beef cows, 12 crossed ewes and 12 goats grazing together in spring-early summer on heather-gorse vegetation communities with an adjacent area of improved pasture. Organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) were estimated using alkane markers. Ruminal fluid samples were collected for measuring fermentation parameters, and studying the bacterial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Spot samples of urine were taken to determine purine derivative (PD) and creatinine concentrations to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Herbaceous species were the main dietary component in all animal species. Cattle had higher (p < 0.05) daily OMI (g/kg LW(0.75) ) and OMD, whereas sheep and goats showed similar values. The highest ammonia concentration was observed in sheep. Total VFA, acetate and butyrate concentrations were not influenced by animal species, while propionate concentrations in goats were 1.8 times lower (p < 0.05) than in sheep. Acetate:propionate ratio was greater (p < 0.05) in goats, whereas cattle excreted more allantoin (p < 0.05). Estimated supply of microbial N was higher in cows (p < 0.01), whereas the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was lower (p < 0.01) in this animal species. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated a clear effect of animal species on rumen bacterial structure. Differences among animal species were also observed in the relative frequency of several T-RFs. Certain T-RFs compatible with Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Clostridiales species were not found in goats, while these animals showed high relative frequencies of some fragments compatible with the Ruminococcaceae family that were not detected in sheep and cattle. Results suggest a close relationship between animals' grazing behaviour and rumen bacterial structure and its function. Goats seem

  14. Effect of predictor traits on accuracy of genomic breeding values for feed intake based on a limited cow reference population.

    PubMed

    Pszczola, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Wall, E; Strabel, T; Calus, M P L

    2013-11-01

    pedigree, and 0.63 for CV and 0.61 for PEV in genomic analyses). Recording predictor traits for only the reference population did not increase DMI breeding value accuracy. Recording predictor traits for both reference and evaluated animals significantly increased DMI breeding value accuracy and removed the bias observed when only reference animals had records. The benefit of using genomic instead of pedigree relationships was reduced when more predictor traits were used. Using predictor traits may be an inexpensive way to significantly increase the accuracy and remove the bias of (genomic) breeding values of scarcely recorded traits such as feed intake.

  15. Effect of intravenous infusion of recombinant ovine leptin on feed intake and serum concentrations of GH, LH, insulin, IGF-1, cortisol, and thyroxine in growing prepubertal ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Morrison, C D; Wood, R; McFadin, E L; Whitley, N C; Keisler, D H

    2002-04-01

    In sheep, serum concentrations of leptin change congruently with increases or decreases in nutritional status, while intracerebroventricular infusions of leptin dramatically suppress feed intake in well-fed lambs, and may also increase growth hormone (GH), and/or luteinizing hormone (LH) in undernourished lambs. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of peripherally delivered ovine leptin, via intravenous infusions, on feed intake and serum concentrations of GH, LH, insulin, IGF-1, cortisol, and thyroxine. Twelve ewe lambs weighing 29.4 +/- 0.7 kg were infused intravenously with a linearly increasing dose of leptin or saline (n = 6 per group) for 10 days, reaching a maximum dose delivered of 0.5mg/h on day 10. Feed intake was assessed twice daily, and blood samples were collected every 10 min for 6 h on days 0, 2, 5, 8, and 10. Serum concentrations of leptin increased in leptin-treated lambs by day 2 (P = 0.05), and continued to increase to concentrations 9-fold greater than saline-infused lambs by day 10 (P < 0.001). Despite the substantial increase in serum leptin, feed intake did not differ between leptin and saline-infused lambs except on day 3.5 (P = 0.01). Furthermore, intravenous infusions of leptin did not significantly influence serum concentrations of insulin, cortisol, IGF-1, thyroxine, LH, or GH. Collectively, these observations contrast with the potent hypophagic effects of leptin when delivered intracerebroventricularly into well-fed lambs. The reasons for the disparate response of lambs treated intravenously with leptin, versus that reported for lambs treated intracerebroventricularly with leptin are not known, but may provide insight into the mechanism(s) of leptin resistance.

  16. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats measured under different feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Ivor S; Patel, Sunit M

    2011-02-25

    The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were assessed in rats under different feeding conditions. In Experiment 1, it was observed that baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly (at least, P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake in non-deprived rats during the 120 min measurement period during the early light phase of the light-dark cycle. By contrast, during the early dark phase of the light-dark cycle in non-deprived rats, the 1mg/kg doses of baclofen significantly increased cumulative feeding at 30, 60 and 120 min (at least P<0.05), the 2mg/kg dose significantly increased feeding at 30 and 60 min (at least P<0.05) and the 4 mg/kg dose had no effects on feeding. In Experiment 2, baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) was found to produce no significant effects on food intake in rats that were food-deprived for 22 h. In Experiment 3, the effects of baclofen were investigated on food intake in 16 h food-deprived rats that had received an oral preload for 2h prior to drug administration. Baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly increased cumulative food consumption (at least, P<0.05) only during the first 30 min after administration in these animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of baclofen on food intake may be related to the state of hunger or satiety of the animals and the time during the light-dark cycle when the drug is administered.

  17. Effect of DL-malic acid supplementation on feed intake, methane emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Callan, J J; Boland, T M; O'Mara, F P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary concentration of dl-malic acid (MA) on DMI, CH(4) emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Two Latin square experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, six beef heifers (19 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned in a duplicated Latin square to 1 of 3 dietary concentrations of MA on a DMI basis (0%, MA-0; 3.75%, MA-3.75; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) over 3 periods. In Exp. 2, four rumen-fistulated steers (48 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary concentrations of MA (0%, MA-0; 2.5%, MA-2.5; 5.0%, MA-5.0; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) on a DMI basis, over 4 periods. Both experimental diets consisted of grass silage and pelleted concentrate (containing MA). Silage was fed ad libitum once daily (a.m.), whereas concentrate was fed twice daily (a.m. and p.m.) with the aim of achieving a total DMI of 40:60 silage:concentrate. In both Exp. 1 and 2, experimental periods consisted of 28 d, incorporating a 13-d acclimatization, a 5-d measurement period, and a 10-d washout period. In Exp. 1, enteric CH(4), feed apparent digestibility, and feed intake were measured over the 5-d measurement period. In Exp. 2, rumen fluid was collected on d 16 to 18, immediately before (a.m.) feeding and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter. Rumen pH was determined and samples were taken for protozoa count, VFA, and ammonia analysis. Enteric CH(4) emissions were estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique and feed apparent digestibility was estimated by using chromic oxide as an external marker for fecal output. In Exp. 1, increasing dietary MA led to a linear decrease in total DMI (P < 0.001) and total daily CH(4) emissions (P < 0.001). Compared with the control diet, the greatest concentration of MA decreased total daily CH(4) emissions by 16%, which corresponded to a 9% reduction per unit of DMI. Similarly, in Exp. 2, inclusion of MA reduced DMI in a linear (P = 0.002) and quadratic (P < 0.001) fashion. Increasing dietary MA led to a linear

  18. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  19. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate.

  20. Alterations in sucrose sham-feeding intake as a function of diet-exposure in rats maintained on calorically dense diets.

    PubMed

    Treesukosol, Yada; Liang, Nu-Chu; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that rats increase meal size upon initial presentation of a calorically dense diet. The increase may be attributed to increased orosensory stimulation and/or reduced sensitivity to post-ingestive inhibitory signals. During feeding both types of signals are simultaneously in play; thus here, we compare responses in rats presented a high-energy diet (HE) or 45% high-fat diet (HF) with those of chow-fed controls (CHOW) in a sham-feeding procedure in which post-ingestive feedback is minimized. Measures of sham-feeding to sucrose were taken before diet manipulation (baseline), ~5 days (dynamic phase) and ~6 weeks (static phase) following introduction of the palatable diet, as well as after animals were switched back to standard chow (recovery phase). Some but not all the hypotheses based on our previous findings were confirmed by the outcomes here. Consistent with our hypothesis that enhanced orosensory stimulation during the dynamic phase compared with the static phase would generalize to increased intake of other palatable stimuli, HE rats showed higher sucrose intake during the dynamic phase compared with the static phase. Contrary to what we hypothesized, HE and HF rats did not increase responses to sucrose compared to CHOW rats. In fact, HE rats showed decreased responses compared to CHOW controls. Thus changes in orosensory stimulation do not necessarily generalize to increased intake of other palatable stimuli.

  1. Supplementations of Hyparrhenia rufa -dominated hay with groundnut cake- wheat bran mix: effects on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of Somali goats.

    PubMed

    Betsha, Simret; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-08-01

    A digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance experiment was conducted using twenty yearling male Somali goats weighing 23.4 +/- 2.02 (mean+/-SD). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of supplementation with graded levels of mixture of groundnut cake and wheat bran at a ratio of 3:1 on DM basis on feed intake, apparent digestibility and N balance in Somali goats. The experimental design was a completely randomized design consisting of five animals in each treatment. The dietary treatments included ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control), and daily supplementation with 200 (T2, low) 300 (T3, medium) and 400 g DM (T4, high) of the concentrate mix. Increased level of supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) daily hay DM intake. Digestibility of crude protein (CP) was higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented goats. Urinary nitrogen, total nitrogen excretion and retention increased (P < 0.01) with the level of supplementation. It was concluded that supplementation with groundnut -wheat bran mixture promoted feed intake and digestibility of DM, CP, and N retention in Somali goats fed hay. However, supplementation at the medium level appeared to be more effective since it promoted similar N balance with the high level of supplementation.

  2. Growth, feed intake, carcass characteristics, and eating behavior of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets containing soybean hulls.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, E M; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Mendes, C Q; Gentil, R S; Araujo, R C; Amaral, R C; Loerch, S C

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of replacing ground corn with soybean hulls (SH) in high-concentrate diets on the growth (56-d period), carcass characteristics, and eating behavior of feedlot lambs. Sixty-four Santa Inês ram lambs (18.3 ± 2.8 kg of BW and 69 ± 5 d of age) were assigned to a randomized complete block design experiment with 8 blocks and 4 diets. The control diet contained 10% coastcross (Cynodon sp.) hay, 70% corn, and no SH (SH0) in the dietary DM. In the remaining diets, SH replaced corn at the rate of 15 (SH15), 30 (SH30), or 45% (SH45) of the original corn concentration, resulting in 0, 10.5, 21.0, or 31.4% SH in the dietary DM. Dry matter intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) when SH replaced ground corn (1.0, 1.0, 1.1, and 1.1 kg/d for SH0, SH15, SH30, and SH45, respectively). There was no effect on ADG of lambs, with values of 276, 278, 282, and 287 g for SH0, SH15, SH30, and SH45, respectively. Feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with SH inclusion. Carcass measures were not affected by SH as a replacement for ground corn. Eating time, expressed as minutes per day and minutes per gram of NDF, showed a quadratic effect (P < 0.05), whereas no effect was observed when expressed as minutes per gram of DM. Rumination, in minutes per day, was not influenced by dietary SH inclusion, but a linear decrease (P < 0.01) was observed when this variable was expressed as minutes per gram of NDF. Soybean hulls can replace up to 45% of the ground corn (31.4% of SH in the dietary DM) in high-concentrate diets fed to feedlot lambs without negative effects on ADG and carcass measures. The linear decrease in feed efficiency (11.6% reduction from SH0 to SH45) suggests that optimal dietary SH inclusion rates should be dictated by the relative costs of SH and corn.

  3. Feed intake, digestibility, and live weight gain by cattle consuming forage supplemented with rice bran and(or) corn.

    PubMed

    Forster, L A; Goetsch, A L; Galloway, D L; Johnson, Z B

    1993-11-01

    Effects of supplementing cattle consuming forage with rice bran and(or) corn on feed intake, digestibility, and live weight gain were determined. Holstein steer calves (176 +/- 4.3 kg average trial BW), in two simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares, had ad libitum access to bermudagrass or ryegrass-wheat hay without supplementation (Control) or with (DM basis) .5% of BW of ground corn (C), .64% of BW of rice bran (R), or .25% of BW of corn plus .32% of BW of rice bran (CR). Total OM intake with bermudagrass diets was less for R than for C, but values for R and C were not different with ryegrass-wheat (forage source x supplement type interaction; P < .05). An interaction (P < .06) between supplement type and forage source also occurred in digestible OM intake (3.33, 3.66, 2.93, 3.37, 3.77, 4.04, 3.73, and 3.94 kg/d for Control, C, R, and CR with bermudagrass and ryegrass-wheat, respectively). Mature beef cows (504 +/- 25.5 kg BW), in a 6 x 6 Latin square, were limit-fed ryegrass-wheat and alfalfa hay (3:1; air-dry basis) without supplementation (Control) or with (DM basis) .2 or .4% of BW of ground corn (L-C and H-C), .26 or .52% of BW of rice bran (L-R and H-R), or .2% of BW of corn plus .26% of BW of rice bran (H-CR). Duodenal flows of total (125, 122, 123, 137, 136, and 129 g/d) and microbial N (63.3, 64.7, 64.8, 70.3, 73.1, and 65.1 g/d for Control, L-C, H-C, H-R, and H-CR, respectively) were greater (P < .05 and .06, respectively) for rice bran than for corn supplements. Crossbred beef steers (96; 235 +/- 3.2 kg initial BW) of two frame sizes, with half treated with an estrogenic growth promotant, grazed fescue-clover and received Control, L-C, H-C, L-R, H-R, and H-CR supplements for 84 d. Supplement amounts were 50% greater relative to BW than in the preceding experiment. Overall ADG was increased (P < .05) by supplementation and was affected (P < .05) by a supplement type x level interaction (.71, .76, .97, .85, .76, and .94 kg/d for Control, L-C, H-C, L-R, H

  4. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  5. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows.

    PubMed

    Krogh, U; Bruun, T S; Poulsen, J; Theil, P K

    2016-12-01

    Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet was divided in three portions and combined with 3% soybean oil (SOYO), palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), or glycerol trioctanoate (C8TG) as the dietary fat source. Equal amounts of metabolizable energy were fed to 36 second parity sows from day 105 of gestation and throughout lactation to study the impact on feed intake, plasma metabolites, milk production and litter performance. Backfat thickness and BW of sows were recorded on days 3, 17 and 28 of lactation; blood was sampled on days 3 and 17; milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10, 17 and 24 of lactation; and piglets were weighed on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of lactation. Litter gain and milk yield during late lactation were greater in sows fed C8TG or SOYO than in sows fed PFAD (P=0.05), whereas loss of BW (P=0.60) and backfat (P=0.70) was unaffected by fat source. Milk protein on days 3 and 10 of lactation were lower in C8TG and SOYO sows, than in PFAD sows (P<0.05). The lowest concentration of plasma lactate on day 3 (P<0.05) and plasma acetate on day 17 (P<0.05) was observed in C8TG sows. Milk yield was unaffected by fiber treatment (P=0.43), whereas milk protein concentration was lowest in ALF sows (P<0.05). Feed intake tended to be lower (P=0.09), and litter gain during the 3rd week of lactation was decreased (P<0.05) in SBP sows. In conclusion, performance was enhanced in SOYO and C8TG compared with PFAD sows

  6. Assessment of exposure to PCB 153 from breast feeding and normal food intake in individual children using a system approach model

    PubMed Central

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Dedík, Ladislav; Jusko, Todd A.; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, Ľubica; Kočan, Anton; Šovčíková, Eva; Wimmerová, Soňa; Tihányi, Juraj; Patayová, Henrieta; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-01-01

    Investigators have typically relied on a single or few discrete time points as measures of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden, however health effects are more likely to be the result of integrative exposure in time, optionally expressed as an area under the time curve (AUC) of PCB serum concentration. Using data from a subgroup of 93 infants from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia—a region highly polluted by PCBs—we fit a system type model, customized to our longitudinal measures of serum PCB concentrations in cord, 6, 16, and, 45 month blood specimens. The most abundant congener, PCB 153, was chosen for modeling purposes. In addition to currently used methods of exposure assessment, our approach estimates a concentration time profile for each subject, taking into account mean residence time of PCB 153 molecules in the body, duration of breast feeding, hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without breast feeding and alternately without normal food intake. Hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without normal food intake correlates with AUC (r=0.84, p<0.001) as well as with duration of breast feeding (r=0.64, p<0.001). It makes possible to determine each subject’s exposure profile expressed as AUC of PCBs serum concentration with a minimum model parameters. PCB body burden in most infants was strongly associated with duration of breast feeding in most, but not all children, was apparent from model output. PMID:22051344

  7. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  8. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  9. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianwei; Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P < 0.05). Grazing animals suffered serious live-weight loss, while TMR, OS and OH significantly (P < 0.05) improved total live-weight gain and gain rate in both Tibetan sheep and yaks during the entire experiment. TMR worked better in animal performance and feed efficiency, obtained the highest breeding profit in both Tibetan sheep and yaks among four treatments (P < 0.05). When expressed on net economic benefit, TMR shared the highest net economic benefit in Tibetan sheep, OH shared the highest net economic benefit in yaks, but, no significant difference of net economic benefit in yaks fed TMR and OH diets was determined (P > 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season.

  10. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P < 0.05). Grazing animals suffered serious live-weight loss, while TMR, OS and OH significantly (P < 0.05) improved total live-weight gain and gain rate in both Tibetan sheep and yaks during the entire experiment. TMR worked better in animal performance and feed efficiency, obtained the highest breeding profit in both Tibetan sheep and yaks among four treatments (P < 0.05). When expressed on net economic benefit, TMR shared the highest net economic benefit in Tibetan sheep, OH shared the highest net economic benefit in yaks, but, no significant difference of net economic benefit in yaks fed TMR and OH diets was determined (P > 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season

  11. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  12. Pretreatment factors associated with functional oral intake and feeding tube use at 1 and 6 months post-radiotherapy (+/- chemotherapy) for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Molly K; Ward, Elizabeth C; Cartmill, Bena; Robinson, Rachelle A; Simms, Virginia A; Chandler, Sophie J; Wurth, Elea T; Smee, Robert I

    2017-01-01

    A proportion of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) experience significant swallowing difficulty during and post-radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy (RT/CRT). Identifying patients during the pretreatment period who are anticipated to have compromised oral intake would allow for early and accurate patient education, and prioritisation of their management. Ascertaining a clear set of pretreatment predictors from the literature is challenging due to heterogeneity in study designs and patient cohorts, with minimal prospective data available (especially at 1-month post-treatment). The objectives of this study were to investigate which pretreatment factors predicted compromised oral intake and feeding tube use at 1 and 6 months post-RT/CRT. Prospective data were collected on 80 consecutive HNC patients receiving RT/CRT from 2011 to 2014. The primary outcome was to identify predictors of a modified diet at 1 and 6 months post-RT/CRT. Secondary outcomes were to identify predictors of feeding tube use at these time intervals, and <6 vs. >6 week duration of feeding tube use. Multivariate analysis revealed bilateral neck radiotherapy treatment was a strong predictor of modified diets at 1 month (p < 0.001), and T-stages T3/T4 a predictor of modified diets at 6 months (p = 0.03). Patients treated with concurrent CRT (p = 0.02) and bilateral neck treatment (p = 0.02) predicted feeding tube use at 1 month, and concurrent CRT predicted feeding tube use for >6 weeks (p = 0.04). Therefore, patients receiving bilateral neck treatment and/or CRT are at greatest risk of requiring modified diets and feeding tube use early post-treatment, and should be prioritised for intervention and ongoing support.

  13. Effect of the mass of immunoglobulin (Ig)G intake and age at first colostrum feeding on serum IgG concentration in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Osaka, I; Matsui, Y; Terada, F

    2014-10-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves (19 male and 25 female) were used in this study of the relationships among age at first colostrum feeding, IgG intake, and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption. Time of birth was recorded for each calf and the calves were fed colostrum ad libitum after birth at either 0930 or 1630 h. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 24h after colostrum feeding. Data from calves were then categorized into 4 groups representing time from birth to colostrum feeding: A=fed within 1h (n=5); B=fed from 1 to 6h (n=10); C=fed from 6 to 12 h (n=21); and D=fed from 12 to 18 h (n=8) after birth. Average total intake of colostrum was 3.6 ± 0.1L. Over 80% of the calves consumed ≥3 L of colostrum. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption declined remarkably 12 h after birth. Mean apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG in group D (15.8 ± 3.0%) was lower than that in groups A (30.5 ± 3.9%) and B (27.4 ± 2.8%). Serum IgG concentration in calves was positively correlated with IgG intake in all groups. The relationship between mass of IgG consumed and calf serum IgG at 24 h was different for each time of colostrum feeding, with only limited differences observed between groups A and B. We concluded that failure of transfer of passive immunity in newborn calves may be avoided if calves consume ≥3 L of colostrum with IgG concentration >40 mg/mL within 6 h after birth. These findings help define the opportunity to minimize failure of transfer of passive immunity to newborn calves under management programs similar to those used on commercial dairy farms.

  14. Effects of feeding propylene glycol on dry matter intake, lactation performance, energy balance and blood metabolites in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Wang, C; Yang, W Z; Zhang, W W; Yang, X M; He, D C; Dong, K H; Huang, Y X

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effects of feeding propylene glycol (PG) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition, blood metabolites and energy balance in Holstein dairy cows from 1 to 63 days in milk. Thirty-two multiparous cows, blocked by lactation number, previous 305-day milk production and expected calving date, were arranged into four groups in a randomized block design. Treatments were: control, low PG, medium PG and high PG with 0, 150, 300 and 450 ml PG per cow per day, respectively. The supplement of food grade PG (0.998 g/g PG) was hand-mixed into the top one-third of the daily ration. Cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of forage and concentrate (50 : 50, dry matter basis). Feed intake, milk yield and milk components were not affected (P > 0.05) by PG supplementation. Overall, body weight (BW) loss tended (P < 0.08) to be linearly reduced, and energy status was linearly improved with increasing PG supplementation. Concentrations of glucose in plasma were higher for cows fed PG relative to control (55.6 v. 58.9 mg/dl) and linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing PG supplementation. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate were linearly increased, but urine acetoacetate concentration was quadratically changed with the highest for control diet and the lowest for 450 ml/day of PG. These results indicated that supplementation of PG in the early lactating cow diets had minimal effects on feed intake and milk production, but may potentially reduce contents of milk fat and milk protein. Supplementation of early lactating dairy cow diets with PG is beneficial in terms of improving energy status and reducing BW loss.

  15. Effect of several doses of zeolite A on feed intake, energy metabolism and on mineral metabolism in dairy cows around calving.

    PubMed

    Grabherr, H; Spolders, M; Fürll, M; Flachowsky, G

    2009-04-01

    The object of the present study was to determine the influence of different zeolite A doses on dry matter intake (DMI) and mineral metabolism, and to evaluate an optimum dosage for preventing hypocalcaemia. Eighty pregnant dry cows were assigned to four groups (I-IV). They were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. Groups II, III and IV received an average daily dose of 12, 23 and 43 g zeolite A/kg DM for the last 2 weeks prepartum. Individually DMI was recorded daily. Blood and urine samples were taken before, during and after zeolite A supplementation. Serum was analysed for Ca, Mg, P(i), K, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Urine was analysed for Ca, Mg, P(i), K and net acid-base excretion (NABE). After calving, milk yield (fat corrected milk) and milk composition were determined. During zeolite A supplementation, mean DMI of Group IV (7.3 +/- 1.3 kg/cow/day) was significantly lower compared to Groups I-III (10.1, 10.9, 9.5 kg/cow/day). The reduced feed intake of Group IV resulted in significantly increased BHB as well as decreased NABE after calving. Zeolite A supplementation in higher doses (III and IV) had a stabilizing effect on Ca metabolism around calving for older cows, whereas cows in Groups I and II showed a subclinical hypocalcaemia. The mean serum Mg concentration decreased significantly in older cows in Group IV at calving. The mean P(i) concentration in cows of Group IV decreased into ranges of hypophosphataemia already 1 week after beginning of zeolite A feeding. The mean DMI postpartum as well as the milk yield was not affected by zeolite A supplementation. Feeding of 23 g zeolite A/kg DM TMR prepartum proved to be an adequate dosage for reducing subclinical hypocalcaemia frequency without significant effects on feed intake and P(i) concentration in serum.

  16. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production.

  17. Plasma ghrelin is positively associated with body fat, liver fat and milk fat content but not with feed intake of dairy cows after parturition.

    PubMed

    Börner, Sabina; Derno, Michael; Hacke, Sandra; Kautzsch, Ulrike; Schäff, Christine; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto; Hammon, Harald M; Röntgen, Monika; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa; Tuchscherer, Armin; Kuhla, Björn

    2013-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone that is present in blood mostly in a non-posttranslationally modified form, with a minor proportion acylated at Ser(3). Both ghrelin forms were initially assigned a role in the control of food intake but there is accumulating evidence for their involvement in fat allocation and utilization. We investigated changes in the ghrelin system in dairy cows, exhibiting differences in body fat mobilization and fatty liver, from late pregnancy to early lactation. Sixteen dairy cows underwent liver biopsy and were retrospectively grouped based on high (H) or low (L) liver fat content post-partum. Both groups had a comparable feed intake in week -6 (before parturition) and week 2 (after parturition). Only before parturition was preprandial total ghrelin concentration higher in L than in H cows and only after parturition was the basal plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids higher in H than in L cows. Both before and after parturition, H cows had higher preprandial plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin, a higher acyl:total ghrelin ratio, lower plasma triacylglyceride concentrations and a lower respiratory quotient compared with L cows. These group differences could not be attributed to an allelic variant of the acyl ghrelin receptor. Rather, the ratio of acyl:total ghrelin correlated with several aspects of fat metabolism and with respiratory quotient but not with feed intake. These results show that endogenous ghrelin forms are associated with fat allocation, fatty liver, and utilization of fat during the periparturient period.

  18. Feeding and digestive responses to fatty acid intake in two South American passerines with different food habits.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Juan Manuel; Barceló, Gonzalo F; Narváez, Cristobal; Maldonado, Karin; Sabat, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    Specific fatty acids (FA) such as unsaturated (UFA) and saturated (SFA) fatty acids contained in foods are key factors in the nutritional ecology of birds. By means of a field and experimental approach, we evaluated the effect of diet on the activity of three esterases involved in FA hydrolysis; carboxylesterase (CE: 4-NPA-CE and a-NA-CE) and butyrylcholinesterase, in two South American passerines: the omnivorous rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) and the granivorous common diuca-finch (Diuca diuca). The activity of the three esterases was measured in the intestines of freshly caught individuals over two distinct seasons and also after a chronic intake of a UFA-rich or SFA-rich diet in the laboratory. In turn, we assessed the feeding responses of the birds choosing amongst diets contrasting in the kind of specific FA (UFA- vs. SFA-treated diets). During summer, field CE activities (4-NPA-CE and a-NA-CE) in the small intestine were higher in the rufous-collared sparrow (25.3 ± 3.3 and 81.4 ± 10.8 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively) than in the common diuca-finch (10.0 ± 3.0 and 33.9 ± 13.1 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively). Two hour feeding trial test indicated that both species exhibited a clear preference for UFA-treated diets. On average, the rufous-collared sparrow consumed 0.46 g 2 h(-1) of UFA-rich diets and 0.12 g 2 h(-1) of SFA-rich diets. In turn, the consumption pattern of the common diuca-finch averaged 0.73 and 0.16 g 2 h(-1) for UFA-rich and SFA-rich diets, respectively. After a month of dietary acclimation to UFA-rich and SFA-rich diets, both species maintained body mass irrespective of the dietary regime. Additionally, the intestinal 4-NPA-CE activity exhibited by birds fed on a UFA-rich or SFA-rich diet was higher in the rufous-collared sparrow (39.0 ± 5.3 and 44.2 ± 7.3 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively) than in the common diuca-finch (13.3 ± 1.9 and 11.2 ± 1.4 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively

  19. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction), and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th

  20. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  1. Evaluation of polymorphisms within the genes GSHR and SLC2A2 that are within a region on bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) previously associated with feed intake and weight gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cost of feed is the largest expense incurred by cattle producers. The ability to select for animals with beneficial production traits using genetic markers may reduce expenses for producers. A large region on bovine chromosome 1 was identified as significant for average daily feed intake (ADFI) and ...

  2. Effects of feeding ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum Jacq. Griseb on dry matter intake, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane production by Pelibuey sheep fed tropical grass.

    PubMed

    Albores-Moreno, S; Alayón-Gamboa, J A; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Solorio-Sánchez, F J; Aguilar-Pérez, C F; Olivera-Castillo, L; Ku-Vera, J C

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH4) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), and molar proportions of propionic acid increased linearly (P < 0.05) as pods of E. cyclocarpum in the ration were increased. Higher intakes of DM and OM were found when lambs were fed 0.45 kg DM per day of E. cyclocarpum, and the highest proportion of propionic acid (0.21 and 0.22, respectively) was obtained with 0.15 and 0.30 kg of DM per lamb of E. cyclocarpum, while apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and molar proportion of acetic acid were reduced (P < 0.05). Rumen CH4 production decreased (P < 0.05) when 0.30 and 0.45 kg of DM/lamb/day of E. cyclocarpum were fed (21.8 and 25.3 L CH4/lamb/day, respectively). These results suggest that to improve the feeding of sheep fed tropical grass, it is advisable to supplement the basal ration with up to 0.30 kg DM of E. cyclocarpum pods.

  3. Genetic variation of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in young crossbred ewes and its relationship with their maintenance feed intake at maturity and production traits.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, R A; Fogarty, N M

    2008-09-01

    The genetic variation of plasma IGF-I in crossbred ewe lambs postweaning was evaluated together with its potential use as a physiological marker for selection in meat sheep. Genetic variation for IGF-I was analyzed among 1,246 young crossbred ewes that were the progeny of 30 sires from various maternal breeds and Merino dams. The estimate of heritability of IGF-I was 0.28 +/- 0.10, with sire breed not being significant. Genetic correlations were estimated between IGF-I and performance traits of the ewes, including feed intake, growth, body composition, wool, and reproduction over 3 matings. Although the genetic correlations had high standard errors because of the limited size of the data set, the correlation between IGF-I and grazing feed intake of the mature ewes at maintenance was positive (0.32 +/- 0.31). The genetic correlations of IGF-I with other traits ranged from positive and low to moderate for growth (0.05 to 0.36), positive for ultrasound eye muscle depth (0.15), and negative for ultrasound fat depth (-0.12) in the mature ewes, and close to zero for the wool traits. The genetic correlation between IGF-I and the average number of lambs born per ewe mated was negative (-0.18), whereas that for the average number of lambs weaned per ewe mated was positive (0.10). The parameters indicated that genetic variation exists for IGF-I in sheep, and selection for low IGF-I in young ewes may result in some reduction in feed intake and improvement in maintenance efficiency of mature ewes under grazing, with little impact on other production traits. However, the genetic correlations had high standard errors, and more precise estimates of these parameters are required for genetic evaluation and to predict with confidence the outcome of breeding programs.

  4. The effect of fermentation quality on the voluntary intake of grass silage by growing cattle fed silage as the sole feed.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Randby, A T

    2007-04-01

    This study was designed to separate the effect of fermentation quality on voluntary intake of grass silage from other feed factors affecting intake. Variations in DMI were quantified, and the impact on intake was modeled. The relationships between individual silage components and intake were examined. A partially balanced changeover experiment with 30 Norwegian Red steers (137 +/- 16.4 kg of BW) was carried out to determine the intake of 24 silages and of hay harvested from the same parent crop within 60 h. Five forages were fed at a time in each of five 3-wk periods. Every 3-wk period was preceded by 2 wk of feeding a standard silage. Silage DMI ranged from 1.79 to 2.65, with a mean of 2.38 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Hay DMI averaged 2.43 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Ranges (mean) for the composition of silages were as follows: DM, 166 to 237 (213) g/kg; water-soluble carbohydrates, 16.3 to 70.9 (33.0) g/kg of DM; acetic acid, 11.5 to 64.7 (28.6) g/kg of DM; propionic acid, 0 to 5.2 (1.0) g/kg of DM; butyric acid, 0 to 25.1 (6.0) g/kg of DM; lactic acid, 2.2 to 102 (49.3) g/kg of DM; and NH3-N (not corrected for additive-derived N), 89.3 to 255 (153) g/kg of total N. Silage DMI was closely (P < 0.05) related to DM, ADL, VFA, lactic acid, total acids, the lactic acid:total acids ratio, ADIN, NH3-N (not corrected), histamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, and the total sum of amines (the explained variation in intake ranged from 14 to 53%). The 2 best models describing silage DMI included concentrations in the silage of propionic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and these models explained 75 and 84% of the variation in DMI. The strong correlation (r = 0.84, P < 0.05) between total NH3-N and butyric acid concentrations in silages indicates that these variables described the same variation pattern. The inclusion of NH3-N in the equations describing the effect of fermentation quality on DMI of low-DM grass silage was less useful than that of butyric acid. This was

  5. Foraging behaviour, nutrient intake from pasture and performance of free-range growing pigs in relation to feed CP level in two organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, M; Kongsted, A G; Hermansen, J E

    2015-12-01

    In organic pig production one of the major challenges is to be able to fulfil amino acid requirements based on organic and locally grown protein feed crops. The pig is an opportunistic omnivore with a unique capacity for foraging above and below the soil surface. It is hypothesized that direct foraging in the range area can pose an important contribution in terms of fulfilling nutrient requirements of growing pigs. Foraging activity, lucerne nutrient intake and pig performance were investigated in 36 growing pigs, foraging on lucerne or grass and fed either a standard organic pelleted feed mixture (HP: high protein) or a grain mixture containing 48% less CP (LP: low protein) compared with the high protein feed mixture, from an average live weight of 58 kg to 90 kg in a complete block design in three replicates. The pigs were fed 80% of energy recommendations and had access to 4 m2 of pasture/pig per day during the 40 days experimental period from September to October 2013. Behavioural observations were carried out 12 times over the entire experimental period. For both crops, LP pigs rooted significantly more compared with HP pigs but the effect of CP level was more pronounced in grass (44% v. 19% of all observations) compared with lucerne (28% v. 16% of all observations). Feed protein level turned out not to have any significant effect on grazing behaviour but pigs foraging on lucerne grazed significantly more than pigs foraging on grass (10% v. 4% of all observations). Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by feed protein and forage crop interactions. Compared to HP pigs, LP treated pigs had 33% lower daily weight gain (589 v. 878 g) and 31% poorer feed conversion ratio (3.75 v. 2.59 kg feed/kg weight gain) in grass paddocks, whereas in lucerne paddocks LP pigs only had 18% lower daily weight gain (741 v. 900 g) and a 14% poorer feed conversion ratio (2.95 v. 2.54 kg feed/kg weight gain) compared with HP pigs. LP pigs foraging on

  6. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  7. Effects of crude protein intake from grass silage-only diets on the equine colon ecosystem after an abrupt feed change.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, S; Connysson, M; Lindberg, J E; Julliand, V; Bertilsson, J; Jansson, A

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of CP intake from 2 grass silage-only diets, differing in CP concentration, fed at similar DMI on the equine colon ecosystem after an abrupt feed change between the diets. Four adult right ventral colon-fistulated geldings were fed one silage-only diet high in CP (HP, 873 g of CP/d) and one diet providing recommended intakes (RP, 615 g of CP/d). An adaptation period of 15 d on either the HP or the RP diet was followed by 2 experimental periods when the diets were fed for 22 d each in a crossover design. Colon samples were taken before and at 4, 12, and 24 h, and at 7, 14, and 22 d after the feed change. During the first 24 h after the abrupt feed change, the concentrations of total anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli were greater on the HP than the RP diet (7.1 vs. 6.7 log(10) cfu/mL, P = 0.021, 6.0 vs. 5.5 log(10) cfu/mL, P = 0.021, respectively). During the first 24 h post feed change, VFA concentrations did not differ between the diets. From 7 to 22 d, total VFA concentrations were greater on the HP diet than on the RP diet (51.8 vs. 45.1 mmol/L, P = 0.034), and colon pH was lower on the HP diet than on the RP diet (6.9 vs. 7.2, P = 0.035). After an adaptation period of 22 d, N, ammonia, and urea concentrations and osmolality of the colon fluid did not differ between diets. Fecal pH and colon and fecal DM were unchanged throughout the experiment. The results suggest that, in horses fed at the maintenance level of energy intake, a feed change between silages with different CP content may alter the colon bacterial counts within the first 24 h. Moreover, during the subsequent 3 wk, pH decreased slightly and VFA concentrations increased, but no other major alterations occurred in the composition and activities of the colon ecosystem or fecal DM.

  8. Effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat and feed intake level on the biotransformation and carry-over of deoxynivalenol in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Seeling, K; Dänicke, S; Valenta, H; Van Egmond, H P; Schothorst, R C; Jekel, A A; Lebzien, P; Schollenberger, M; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Flachowsky, G

    2006-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.09 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg dry matter) at different feed intake levels on the biotransformation and carry-over of DON in dairy cows. For this purpose, 14 ruminal and duodenal fistulated dairy cows were fed a diet containing 60% concentrate with a wheat portion of 55% (Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (mycotoxin period) or control wheat (control period)) and the ration was completed with maize- and grass silage (50 : 50) on a dry matter basis. Daily DON intakes ranged from 16.6 to 75.6 mg in the mycotoxin period at dry matter intakes of 5.6-20.5 kg. DON was almost completely biotransformed to de-epoxy DON (94-99%) independent of the DON/feed intake, and the flow of DON and de-epoxy DON at the duodenum related to DON intake ranged from 12 to 77% when the Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat was fed. In the serum samples, de-epoxy DON was detected in the range of 4-28 ng ml-1 in the mycotoxin period, while concentrations of DON were all below the detection limit. The daily excretion of DON and de-epoxy DON in the milk of cows fed the contaminated wheat varied between 1 and 10 microg and between 14 and 104 microg, respectively. The total carry-over rates as the ratio between the daily excretion of DON and de-epoxy DON into milk and DON intake were in the ranges of 0.0001-0.0002 and 0.0004-0.0024, respectively. Total carry-over rates of DON as DON and de-epoxy DON into the milk increased significantly with increasing milk yield. In the urine samples, de-epoxy DON was the predominant substance as compared with DON with a portion of the total DON plus de-epoxy DON concentration to 96% when the Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat was fed, whereas the total residues of DON plus de-epoxy DON in faeces ranged between 2 and 18% of DON intake in the mycotoxin period. The degree of glucuronidation of de-epoxy DON was found to be approximately 100

  9. On the role of the mouth and gut in the control of saccharin and sugar intake: a reexamination of the sham-feeding preparation.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-06-01

    Adult female rats, each fitted with a gastric fistula, were tested for their "normal-feeding" (fistula closed) and "sham-feeding" (fistula open) response to saccharin and sugar solutions under a variety of conditions. When hungry, rats consumed no more of a 0.2% saccharin solution with their fistula open than they did with their fistula closed. Increasing or decreasing the saccharin concentration did not increase the amount of solution sham fed, but adding a small amount of glucose (3%) to the saccharin solution did increase the amount sham fed. Thirsty rats, unlike hungry, significantly increased their 0.2% saccharin solution intake when tested with an open fistula. When tested with a 32% glucose solution, hungry rats consumed up to six times more solution with their fistula open than with their fistula closed. The hungry rats also sham fed significantly more of the 32% glucose solution than of the 0.2% saccharin solution or 0.2% saccharin + 3% glucose solution. Sham-feeding of a 32% sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels, but blocking this effect by adding acarbose, a drug that inhibits sucrose digestion, did not reduce the amount of solution sham fed. Several possible explanations for the differential sham-feeding response to saccharin and sugar solutions are discussed.

  10. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-08-18

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed.

  11. Effects of feeding grass or red clover silage cut at two maturity stages in dairy cows. 2. Dry matter intake and cell wall digestion kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M; Vanhatalo, A

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the effects of red clover or grass silages cut at 2 stages of growth on feed intake, cell wall digestion, and ruminal passage kinetics in lactating dairy cows. Five dairy cows equipped with rumen cannulas were used in a study designed as a 5 x 5 Latin square with 21-d periods. Diets consisted of early-cut and late-cut grass and red clover silages and a mixture of late-cut grass and early-cut red clover silages offered ad libitum. All diets were supplemented with 9 kg/d of concentrate. Ruminal digestion and passage kinetics were assessed by the rumen evacuation technique. Apparent total-tract digestibility was determined by total fecal collection. The silage dry matter intake was highest when the mixed forage diet was fed and lowest with the early-cut red clover diet. Delaying the harvest tended to decrease DMI of grass and increase that of red clover. The intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) was lower but the intake of indigestible NDF (iNDF) was higher for red clover diets than for grass diets. The rumen pool size of iNDF and the ratio of iNDF to pdNDF in the rumen contents were larger, and pool sizes of NDF and pdNDF were smaller for red clover than for grass silage diets. Outflow of iNDF and the ratio of iNDF to pdNDF in digesta entering the omasal canal were larger, and the outflow of pdNDF was smaller for red clover than for grass silage diets. The digestion rate (k(d)) of pdNDF was faster for red clover diets than for grass silage diets. Delaying the harvest decreased k(d) for grass but increased it for red clover silage diets. Observed differences in fiber characteristics of red clover and grass silages were reflected in ruminal digestion and passage kinetics of these forages. The low intake of early-cut red clover silage could not be explained by silage digestibility, fermentation quality, or rumen fill, but was most likely related to nutritionally suboptimal composition because inclusion of

  12. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.05), 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109) and lactation (days 1 and 3) than in early gestation (day 10). Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P < 0.05) and TBARS (P < 0.01) on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P < 0.001) while reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) and Enterococcus (P < 0.001). In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P < 0.01) of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  13. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    PubMed

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  14. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  15. Effect of feeding cows in early lactation with diets differing in roughage-neutral detergent fiber content on intake behavior, rumination, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Adin, G; Solomon, R; Nikbachat, M; Zenou, A; Yosef, E; Brosh, A; Shabtay, A; Mabjeesh, S J; Halachmi, I; Miron, J

    2009-07-01

    This study measured the effects of including soyhulls as partial roughage replacement in total mixed rations (TMR) fed to 25 pairs of cows during early lactation, on the dry matter (DM) intake, particle kinetics, rumination, in vivo DM and NDF digestibility, milk and FCM yields, and BW changes. The 2 diets used in this study differed in the content of roughage and roughage NDF [23.5 vs. 35.0%, and 12.8 vs. 18.7% in the experimental (EXP) and control (CON) TMR, respectively]. The EXP TMR contained 20.5% less physically effective NDF than the CON TMR (11.7 vs. 14.1% of DM, respectively). These differences were expressed in a greater intake per meal (by 13.3%), a higher rate of meal intake (by 23.2%), a similar number of meals per day, a shorter daily eating duration (by 13%), and a higher total daily DMI (by 7.2%) in the EXP cows as compared with the CON cows. The in vivo DM and NDF digestibility was higher by 4.9 and 22.7%, respectively, in the EXP cows than in the CON cows. The rumination time for the TMR in the EXP cows was 12.7% (54.3 min/d) shorter than in the CON cows, and this was probably related to the difference of 12.4% in physically effective NDF intake between the 2 groups. Patterns of daily rumination and feed consumption throughout an average day showed a delay of approximately 1 to 2 h between the eating and rumination peaks. Particle flow from the rumen of the EXP cows was characterized by a longer rumen mean retention time (by 17.8%) and longer rumination time per kilogram of roughage ingested (by 23.5%) as compared with the CON cows. Thus, favorable conditions for NDF digestion were created in the rumen of the EXP cows, as reflected in their rumen pH values (6.67). The advantage of the EXP cows in intake and digestibility was reflected in a concomitant increase of 7.4% in milk production and of 9.2% in FCM yield as compared with the CON cows. No difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to efficiency of feed utilization for milk

  16. Effect of dietary Quebracho tannin extract on feed intake, digestibility, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Henke, Anika; Dickhoefer, Uta; Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Knappstein, Karin; Molkentin, Joachim; Hasler, Mario; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Quebracho tannin extract (QTE) on feed intake, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PD) and milk composition and yield in dairy cows. Fifty Holstein cows were divided into two groups. To reach a similar performance of both groups, cows were divided according to their milk yield, body weight, days in milk and number of lactations at the start of the experiment averaging 33.2 ± 8.2 kg/d, 637 ± 58 kg, 114 ± 73 d and 2.3 ± 1.6 lactations, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet as total mixed ration containing on dry matter (DM) basis 34% grass silage, 32% maize silage and 34% concentrate feeds. Three dietary treatments were tested, the control (CON, basal diet without QTE), QTE15 (basal diet with QTE at 15 g/kg DM) and QTE30 (basal diet with QTE at 30 g/kg DM). Two treatments were arranged along six periods each 21 d (13 d adaptation phase and 8 d sampling phase). The ATTD of DM and organic matter were reduced only in Diet QTE30, whereas both QTE treatments reduced ATTD of fibre and nitrogen (N), indicating that QTE impaired rumen fermentation. Nevertheless, feed intake was unaffected by QTE. In Diet CON, urinary N excretion accounted for 29.8% of N intake and decreased in treatments QTE15 and QTE30 to 27.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Daily faecal N excretion increased in treatments CON, QTE15 and QTE30 from 211 to 237 and 273 g/d, respectively, which amounted to 39.0%, 42.4% and 51.7% of the N intake, respectively. Hence, QTE shifted N excretion from urine to faeces, whereas the proportion of ingested N appearing in milk was not affected by QTE (average 30.7% of N intake). Daily PD excretion as indicator for microbial crude protein (CP) flow at the duodenum decreased in treatment QTE30 compared with Diet CON from 413 to 280 mmol/d. The ratios of total PD to creatinine suggest that urinary PD excretion was already lower when feeding Diet

  17. A Systematic Evaluation of Food Textures to Decrease Packing and Increase Oral Intake in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Meeta R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Layer, Stacy A.; Coleman, Russell; Swartzwelder, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented than when higher textured foods were…

  18. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  19. Quantification of food and nutrient intakes in Zambian children with and without malaria under controlled feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Chileshe, Justin; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation improves status, which may protect against malarial infection. Provitamin A carotenoid biofortified staple crops may provide a more sustainable approach to alleviate vitamin A deficiency than supplementation, but the impact of febrile illness on food intake must be considered in malaria endemic regions. Morbidity data and food logs from a three-month efficacy trial on provitamin A biofortified (orange) maize in preschool Zambian children (n = 181, age 3-5 years) were systematically analyzed over time to determine the impact of malaria on food intake. Nutrients examined included macronutrients, iron, zinc, and vitamin A. Comparisons based on individual intakes in healthy and malarial states over three-day intervals were made including children from both the orange and white maize groups (n = 100). Malaria prevalence did not differ overall or between treatment groups over time (all P > 0.05). Lower nutrient intakes were observed for all variables during malaria outbreaks (food 289 ± 412 g; energy 248 ± 346 kcal; carbohydrate 42 ± 62 g; protein 8 ± 12 g; fat 5 ± 7 g; iron 1 ± 2 mg; zinc 1 ± 1 mg; vitamin A 58 ± 100 retinol activity equivalents; all P < 0.05). No differences were observed between nutrient decreases in orange and white maize groups (P > 0.05). Considering the impact of malaria on food and nutrient intakes and increased vitamin A utilization and excretion due to the acute phase response, biofortification targets for provitamin A carotenoids may need to be elevated in malaria endemic regions.

  20. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher level of CP especially with U source (P < 0.05). In contrast, CP level and source in concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P > 0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P < 0.05). Fecal and urinary N excretions decreased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P < 0.05). In summary, higher CP level in concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw.

  1. Effects of wet corn gluten feed and intake level on diet digestibility and ruminal passage rate in steers.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S P; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Sindt, J J; Farran, T B; Pike, J N; Coetzer, C M; Trater, A M; Higgins, J J

    2004-12-01

    Twelve ruminally cannulated Jersey steers (BW = 534 kg) were used in an incomplete Latin square design experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and total DMI level on diet digestibility and ruminal passage rate. Treatments consisted of diets formulated to contain (DM basis) steam-flaked corn, 20% coarsely ground alfalfa hay, and either 0 or 40% WCGF offered once daily for ad libitum consumption or limited to 1.6% of BW (DM basis). Two consecutive 24-d periods were used, each consisting of 18 d for adaptation, 4 d for collection, and a 2-d in situ period. Rumens of all steers were evacuated once daily at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h after feeding. Chromic oxide (10 g/[steer*d]) was fed as a digestibility marker, and steers were pulse-dosed with Yb-labeled alfalfa hay to measure ruminal particulate passage rate. Dacron bags containing 5 g of steam-flaked corn, WCGF, or ground (2-mm screen) alfalfa hay were placed into the rumens of all steers and removed after 3, 6, 12, or 48 h. Wet corn gluten feed increased percent apparent total-tract digestion of OM (P < 0.01), NDF (P < 0.01), and starch (P < 0.03), decreased (P < 0.01) ruminal total VFA concentration, increased (P < 0.01) ruminal NH3 concentration, and increased (P < 0.01) ruminal pH. Wet corn gluten feed also increased (P < 0.01) ruminal passage rate of Yb. Limit feeding decreased (P < 0.01) percent apparent total-tract digestion of both OM and NDF, ruminal total VFA concentration (P < 0.01), and ruminal fill (P < 0.01), but increased (P < 0.01) ruminal NH3 concentration. Apparent total-tract digestion of starch was not affected (P = 0.70) by level of DMI. A DMI level x hour interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for ruminal pH. Limit feeding increased ruminal pH before and 12 h after feeding, but decreased ruminal pH 4 h after feeding compared with diets offered ad libitum. A diet x DMI level interaction (P < 0.02) occurred for in situ degradation of

  2. Serotonin 1A, 1B, and 7 receptors of the rat medial nucleus accumbens differentially regulate feeding, water intake, and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Clissold, Kara A; Choi, Eugene; Pratt, Wayne E

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) signaling has been widely implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviors in both humans and animal models. Recently, we reported that co-stimulation of 5-HT1&7 receptors of the anterior medial nucleus accumbens with the drug 5-CT caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake, water intake, and locomotion in rats (Pratt et al., 2009). The current experiments sought to determine which of three serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7) might be responsible for these consummatory and locomotor effects. Food-deprived rats were given 2-h access to rat chow after stimulation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7 receptors, or blockade of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors. Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors with 8-OH-DPAT (at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) caused a dose-dependent decrease in food and water intake, and reduced rearing behavior but not ambulation. In contrast, rats that received the 5-HT1B agonist CP 93129 (at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in water intake only; stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors (AS 19; at 0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) decreased ambulatory activity but did not affect food or water consumption. Blockade of 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors had no lasting effects on measures of food consumption. These data suggest that the food intake, water intake, and locomotor effects seen after medial nucleus accumbens injections of 5-CT are due to actions on separate serotonin receptor subtypes, and contribute to growing evidence for selective roles of individual serotonin receptors within the nucleus accumbens on motivated behavior.

  3. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (<0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 27), Medium (within ± 0.5 SD; n = 23), and High (>0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P < 0.01) and was greater (10.76 ± 0.24 kg/d) for High, intermediate (9.88 ± 0.25 kg/d) for Medium, and less (8.52 ± 0.23 kg/d) for Low RFI heifers. When cow performance was analyzed based on RFI rank as heifers, BW, BCS, ADG, RFI, d 14 and d 70 ECM, BF, and REA were similar among RFI groups; however, cows that were most efficient as heifers (Low) had decreased (P < 0.05) daily DMI values (10.30 ± 0.41 kg/d) compared with cows that ranked Medium (11.60 ± 0.44 kg/d) or High (11.50 ± 0.43 kg/d) as heifers. The Pearson rank correlation between Phase 1 and 2 RFI was r = 0.13 (P = 0.30), and Pearson rank correlations showed no relationship (P > 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively

  4. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( < 0.01) but was unavoidably confounded with animal age/size and experimental period. Correlation coefficients between RFI and DMI were significant ( < 0.05) only when animals were fed the TMR. Daily CH correlated with DMI ( = 0.42, < 0.05) only when animals grazed pasture. Daily DMI was lower in low-RFI animals ( = 0.047) but only when expressed as grams per kilogram metabolic BW. Absolute CH emissions did not differ between RFI groups ( > 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a

  5. Differential gene expression pattern in hypothalamus of chickens during fasting-induced metabolic reprogramming: functions of glucose and lipid metabolism in the feed intake of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Ling; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Chen, Sheng-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Deng, Lin; Peng, Jian-Long; Yu, Jian-Jian; Wang, Li-Na; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Fasting-induced hypothalamic metabolic reprogramming is involved in regulating energy homeostasis and appetite in mammals, but this phenomenon remains unclear in poultry. In this study, the expression patterns of a panel of genes related to neuropeptides, glucose, and lipid metabolism enzymes in the hypothalamus of chickens during fasting and refeeding were characterized by microarray analysis and quantitative PCR. Results showed that 48 h of fasting upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expressions of orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein but downregulated (P < 0.05) that of anorexigenic neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin; growth hormone-releasing hormone; islet amyloid polypeptide; thyroid-stimulating hormone, β; and glycoprotein hormones, α polypeptide. After 48 h of fasting, the mRNA expression of fatty acid β-oxidation [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, and forkhead box O1], energy sensor protein [sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and forkhead box O1], and glycolysis inhibitor (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4) were enhanced, but that of fatty acid synthesis and transport associated genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein A-I, endothelial lipase, and fatty acid binding protein 7) were suppressed. Liver and muscle also demonstrated similar expression patterns of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism with hypothalamus, except for that of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4, and apolipoprotein A-I. The results of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection experiments confirmed that α-lipoic acid (ALA, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 inhibitor, 0.10 μmol) and NADH (SIRT1 inhibitor, 0.80 μmol) significantly suppressed the appetite of chickens, whereas 2-deoxy-d-glucose (glycolytic inhibitor, 0.12 to 1.20 μmol) and NAD(+) (SIRT1 activator, 0.08 to 0.80 μmol) increased feed intake in chickens. The orexigenic effect of NAD

  6. Forage intake and wastage by ewes in pea/hay barley swath grazing and bale feeding systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvested feed costs, particularly during the winter, are traditionally the highest input associated with a ruminant livestock operation. Although swath grazing has been practiced for over 100 years and literature exists for cattle use of swath grazing, no published results are available on use of s...

  7. Analysis of the gut bacterial communities in beef cattle and their association with feed intake, growth, and efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed over 9 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production ent...

  8. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  9. Effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Osborne, V R; Odongo, N E; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C; McBride, B W

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, calculated energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no nutrients supplemented in the drinking water (control); 2) 20 g/L of glycerin supplemented in the drinking water (glycerol); and 3) 10 g/L of soybean oil supplemented in the drinking water (SBO). The trial lasted from 7 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum. Cows were offered a close-up and milking cow TMR for ad libitum intake, pre- and postpartum, respectively. The dry matter intake of cows supplemented with glycerol and SBO was lower than for the control cows throughout the experimental period but not different from each other. Water intake for the control cows was greater than the average for the glycerol and SBO cows prepartum, and greater than for SBO cows but similar to that of glycerol cows postpartum. Glycerol cows consumed more water than SBO cows. There were no differences in energy intake and energy balance of the cows pre- and postpartum. Serum triacylglycerol concentration for glycerol cows was lower than for the control and SBO cows prepartum and was lower than for the SBO cows postpartum. There were no differences in the serum nonesterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment. There were no differences in the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at parturition, but serum BHBA concentration of the glycerol cows was greater than for control and SBO cows during the prepartum period. However, during the postpartum period, serum BHBA concentrations of the control cows were greater than for glycerol and SBO cows. There were no differences in calf birth weights or milk yield and composition. Although the glucogenic property of glycerol supplemented in the drinking water at 20 g/L may not have been sufficient to

  10. Evaluation of supplementary stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, bertoni) leaves and stevioside in broiler diets: effects on feed intake, nutrient metabolism, blood parameters and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Onagbesan, O M; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Geuns, J M C; Buyse, J

    2008-12-01

    A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p < 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p < 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and

  11. Intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide negatively affects feed intake, chewing, and clinical variables, but some effects are stronger in cows experiencing subacute rumen acidosis.

    PubMed

    Aditya, S; Humer, E; Pourazad, P; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Huber, J; Zebeli, Q

    2017-02-01

    somatic cell counts, protein, and fat contents in milk as well as decreased lactose contents and pH following the LPS infusion, whereby the changes in milk constituents were more pronounced in SARA-LPS than CON-LPS cows. Rectal temperature and pulse rate were highest 6 h after LPS infusion, but rumen contractions were not affected by the LPS infusion. The data suggest that a single intramammary LPS infusion induced fever and negatively affected feed intake, chewing activity, rectal temperature, and milk yield and composition, whereby these effects were more pronounced in SARA cows.

  12. Evidence for the Association of a Deleted Variant in the 5′-Flanking Region of the Chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT) Gene with a Temporary Increase in Feed Intake and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Joergen B.; Phi-van, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene of Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens. In this study, the impact of three genotypes (W/W, W/D, and D/D) at the 5-HTT gene on feed intake and body weight was investigated. After hatching, hens of the three genotypes were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their feed intake and body weight were recorded weekly. From 5 weeks of age, D/D and W/D hens were significantly heavier than wild-type W/W hens. Further, it is found that D/D hens had a temporarily higher feed intake and growth rate than W/W hens between 4 and 7 weeks. We suggest that the increased body weight is due to a transiently increased appetite of D/D hens. Abstract The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene of Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens. The deleted variant D was found to be associated with increased body weight. The objective of this study was to address whether the increased body weight may be due to an increased feed intake. After hatching, hens were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their body weight and feed intake were weekly determined. From 5 weeks of age, the body weight of hens with the D/D and W/D genotypes was significantly greater than that of W/W carrying hens. Interestingly, we found that the feed intake of D/D carrying hens, relative to body weight, was transiently increased only between 4 and 7 weeks of age (p < 0.05), leading to a higher growth rate (p < 0.05), compared with that of W/W carrying hens. These results suggest that the presence of variant D may be correlated with a transiently increased appetite of D/D carrying hens. PMID:27754399

  13. Adipose and Muscle Tissue Gene Expression of Two Genes (NCAPG and LCORL) Located in a Chromosomal Region Associated with Cattle Feed Intake and Gain

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Oliver, William T.; Sexten, Andrea K.; Miles, Jeremy R.; Rempel, Lea A.; Cushman, Robert A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2013-01-01

    A region on bovine chromosome 6 has been implicated in cattle birth weight, growth, and length. Non-SMC conodensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) and ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like protein (LCORL) are positional candidate genes within this region. Previously identified genetic markers in both genes were associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a crossbred population of beef steers. These markers were also associated with hot carcass weight, ribeye area and adjusted fat thickness suggesting that they may have a role in lean muscle growth and/or fat deposition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the transcript abundance of either of these genes in cattle adipose and muscle tissue was associated with variation in feed intake and average daily gain phenotypes. Transcript abundance for NCAPG and LCORL in adipose and muscle tissue was measured in heifers (adipose only), cows and steers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the adipose tissue from cows and heifers, a negative correlation between LCORL transcript abundance and ADFI were detected (P = 0.05). In the muscle tissue from cows, transcript abundance of NCAPG was associated with ADG (r = 0.26; P = 0.009). A positive correlation between LCORL transcript abundance from muscle tissue of steers and ADFI was detected (P = 0.04). LCORL protein levels in the muscle of steers were investigated and were associated with ADFI (P = 0.01). These data support our earlier genetic associations with ADFI and ADG within this region and represent the potential for biological activity of these genes in the muscle and adipose tissues of beef cattle; however, they also suggest that sex, age and/or nutrition-specific interactions may affect the expression of NCAPG and LCORL in these tissues. PMID:24278337

  14. Impact of EasiFlo cottonseed on feed intake, apparent digestibility, and rate of passage by goats fed a diet containing 45% hay.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, S G; Smoot, Y P; Owens, F N

    2002-03-01

    EasiFlo cottonseed (ECS), produced by coating whole cottonseed (WCS) with cornstarch to simplify handling and mixing with other ingredients, is marketed commercially. The objective of this trial was to determine its digestibility by small ruminants. Four mature Nubian wether goats, in a 4 x 4 Latin square arrangement of treatments, were fed diets that contained about 45% bermudagrass hay (BGH) plus 0, 15.7, 32.7, or 50.3% ECS, with the ECS replacing corn and soybean meal (2:1 ratio) in the concentrate portion of the diet. Feed intakes and digestibility of components were measured, and passage rate was estimated using ytterbium-marked BGH. Dry matter intake decreased at an increasing rate (P < 0.01) as ECS or fat concentration in the diet increased. Digestibility was linearly depressed (P= 0.003) as ECS replaced corn and soybean meal in the diet, primarily due to depressed (P < 0.05) digestibility of NDF, ADF, and nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC). In contrast, fat digestibility tended to increase (P = 0.11) linearly and N utilization was increased (P = 0.04) linearly as ECS concentration was increased. Passage kinetics were not altered. Based on regression estimates of TDN for BGH and literature values of TDN for other feed ingredients, the total digestible nutrient content of ECS for mature goats fed a 45% roughage diet was estimated to be 78.0 +/- 9.1%, a value quite similar to that (77.2%) proposed for whole cottonseed for large ruminants by NRC tables. Low digestibility of fiber (under 10% of NDF) and of nonfibrous carbohydrate limits the digestibility of DM and energy from ECS.

  15. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage.

    PubMed

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tamir, Berhan; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-12-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P<0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P>0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P<0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet.

  16. The occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat from western Romania and histopathological impact as effect of feed intake

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study has been to evaluate the extent of mycotoxins contamination and their co-occurrence in wheat grain intended for animal feed. A total of 52 wheat samples were collected from the harvest of two consecutive years (2010, 2011) from two counties (Timis and Arad) located in Western Romania and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisins (FUMO) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to evaluate the toxicological impact of mycotoxins, naturally contaminated wheat samples were administered in rats feed for one month. Results The mycotoxin with the highest incidence in wheat samples was DON due to agro-climatic conditions typical for the west part of Romania. DON was found in 73.08% of samples harvested in 2010 and the highest level of contamination was 3390 ppb. The incidence of DON in sample from 2011 was lower than those of 2010, with a frequency of occurrence of 19.23%. The occurrence of ZON was in the range 69.23–76.92%, with an average value of 187.74 ppb. The OTA content in wheat was below the maximum tolerable limit established by EU Commission regulation for feed legislation (250 ppb). For FUMO the lowest percentage of positive samples was registered (15.38% in wheat sample harvested in 2010 and 11.54% positive samples in 2011). With respect to the co-occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins, the results proved that ZON was found as a co-contaminant together with DON, especially when climatic conditions for development of fungus are favorable (high air humidity). The differences recorded between investigated localities and their classifications according to the mycotoxin kind and year of harvest were carried out by principal components analysis (PCA). The histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation performed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining technique as well as by assessing the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) revealed significant

  17. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--actual cases: tulip bulbs with leaves (Tulipa gesneriana)--an unusual and high risk plant for ruminant feeding].

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Blanke, H J; Wohlsein, P; Kamphues, J; Stöber, M

    2003-07-01

    14 cattle (mainly younger ones) of a total of 50 extensively kept Galloways died within 6 weeks in late winter 2001/02. According to the owner's report, grass growth had been rather poor; therefore, the herd was fed additionally hay as well as large amounts of tulip onions. In the microbiological examination a highly reduced hygienic quality of the roughage could be detected. In the rumen contents of two dissected young cattle parts of tulip onions were found. According to pertinent literature, tulip onions (in particular their external layers) contain variant-specific amounts of anti-nutritive substances; main active agents are tulipin (a glycoprotein), tuliposid A and B, and lectins. They may cause intensive mucosal irritation, accompanied by reduced feed digestion and body-weight gains, drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. This case report underlines risks caused by feeding of plants originally not destined as forage, if their active ingredients and effects are unknown or remain unconsidered.

  18. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Anantasook, N.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75%) lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW) of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control), supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05). However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS) in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05) while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows. PMID:25049855

  19. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production.

  20. Deletion of supplemental minerals and vitamins during the late finishing period does not affect pig weight gain and feed intake.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J

    2000-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of eliminating the supplemental vitamin and minerals during the last 30 d of finishing on pig performance. The first study was conducted in a controlled university environment and the second under field conditions. Deletion of vitamin and mineral supplements for the last 30 d of finishing had no effects on pig performance or general health of pigs in either the university or the field trial. Besides lowering feed costs, deletion of dietary supplements may reduce the environmental impact of late finishing diets.

  1. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  2. Feeding rumen-inert fats differing in their degree of saturation decreases intake and increases plasma concentrations of gut peptides in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2007-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding rumen-inert fats differing in their degree of saturation on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in lactating dairy cows. Four midlactation, primiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 2-wk periods. Cows were fed a control mixed ration ad libitum, and treatments were the dietary addition (3.5% of ration dry matter) of 3 rumen-inert fats as sources of mostly saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Daily DMI, milk yield, and composition were measured on the last 4 d of each period. Jugular vein blood was collected every 30 min over a 7-h period on d 12 and 14 of each period for analysis of plasma concentrations of hormones, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids. Feeding fat decreased DMI, and the decrease tended to be greater for MUFA and PUFA compared with SFA. Plasma concentration of GLP-1 increased when fat was fed and was greater for MUFA and PUFA. Feeding fat increased plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and CCK concentrations and decreased plasma insulin concentration. Plasma CCK concentration was greater for MUFA and PUFA than for SFA and was greater for MUFA than PUFA. Decreases in DMI in cows fed fat were associated with increased plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and CCK and a decreased insulin concentration. The role of these peptides in regulating DMI in cattle fed fat requires further investigation.

  3. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P < 0.05) 40.2, 79.1 and 110.1 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-13.3 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P < 0.05) for 450 g moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  4. Effects of timing of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing associated with the administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine (IBR-PI3-BRSV-BVD) on day 0 or on day 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and the febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was t...

  5. Methane emissions, feed intake, and performance of finishing beef cattle offered maize silages harvested at 4 different stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-04-01

    This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P < 0.001) than with any of the maize silage treatments. Starch digestibility did not differ across maize silage maturities; however, a linear (P = 0.009) decrease in NDF digestibility was observed. Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed

  6. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

  7. Ramjet Intakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...exhaust velocity to free stream velocity, with exhaust velocity calculated by assuming the captured air is expanded isentropicaly back to ambient ...2.1 [23] with the actual value probably determined by engine mass flow demand and therefore dependent on ambient temperature. The lowest

  8. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  9. Effects of different fresh-cut forages and their hays on feed intake, digestibility, heat production, and ruminal methane emission by Boer x Spanish goats.

    PubMed

    Puchala, R; Animut, G; Patra, A K; Detweiler, G D; Wells, J E; Varel, V H; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L

    2012-08-01

    Twenty-four yearling Boer × Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of different forages, either fresh (Exp. 1) or as hay (Exp. 2), on feed intake, digestibilities, heat production, and ruminal methane emission. Treatments were: 1) Sericea lespedeza (SER; Lespedeza cuneata), a legume high in condensed tannins (CT; 20% and 15% in fresh forage and hay, respectively), 2) SER supplemented with polyethylene glycol (SER-PEG; 25 g/d), 3) alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a legume low in CT (ALF), and 4) sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor), a grass low in CT (GRASS). Experiments were 22 d, which included 16 d for acclimatization followed by a 6-d period for fecal and urine collection, and gas exchange measurement (last 2 d). Intake of OM was 867, 823, 694, and 691 g/d (SEM = 20.1) with fresh forage, and 806, 887, 681, and 607 g/d with hay for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively (SEM = 46.6). Apparent total tract N digestion was greater for SER-PEG vs. SER (P < 0.001) with fresh forage (46.3%, 66.5%, 81.7%, and 73.2%; SEM = 1.71) and hay (49.7%, 71.4%, 65.4%, and 54.8% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 1.57). Intake of ME was similar among treatments with fresh forage (8.24, 8.06, 7.42, and 7.70 MJ/d; SEM = 0.434) and with hay was greater for SER-PEG than ALF (P < 0.03) and GRASS (P < 0.001) (8.63, 10.40, 8.15, and 6.74 MJ/d for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 0.655). The number of ciliate protozoa in ruminal fluid was least for SER with fresh forage (P < 0.01) (9.8, 20.1, 21.0, and 33.6 × 10(5)/ml; SEM = 2.76) and hay (P < 0.02) (6.3, 11.4, 13.6, and 12.5 × 10(5)/ml for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 1.43). Methane emission as a percentage of DE intake was lower (P < 0.01) for SER vs. ALF and GRASS with fresh forage (6.6, 8.3, 9.4, and 9.2%; SEM = 0.64) and hay (4.3, 4.9, 6.4, and 6.7% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 0.38). In summary, methane emission in this short-term experiment was

  10. Antagonism of Corticotrophin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptors Attenuates Caloric Intake of Free Feeding Subordinate Female Rhesus Monkeys in a Rich Dietary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C J; Johnson, Z P; Higgins, M; Toufexis, D; Wilson, M E

    2015-01-01

    Social subordination in macaque females is a known chronic stressor and previous studies have shown that socially subordinate female rhesus monkeys consume fewer kilocalories than dominant animals when a typical laboratory chow diet is available. However, in a rich dietary environment that provides access to chow in combination with a more palatable diet (i.e. high in fat and refined sugar), subordinate animals consume significantly more daily kilocalories than dominant conspecifics. Substantial literature is available supporting the role of stress hormone signals in shaping dietary preferences and promoting the consumption of palatable, energy-dense foods. The present study was conducted using stable groups of adult female rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that pharmacological treatment with a brain penetrable corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist would attenuate the stress-induced consumption of a palatable diet among subordinate animals in a rich dietary environment but would be without effect in dominant females. The results show that administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced daily caloric intake of both available diets among subordinate females compared to dominant females. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the attenuation in caloric intake in response to Antalarmin (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was significantly predicted by the frequency of submissive and aggressive behaviour emitted by females, independent of social status. Taken together, the findings support the involvement of activation of CRF1 receptors in the stress-induced consumption of excess calories in a rich dietary environment and also support the growing literature concerning the importance of CRF for sustaining emotional feeding. PMID:25674637

  11. Intermittent Suckling in Combination with an Older Weaning Age Improves Growth, Feed Intake and Aspects of Gastrointestinal Tract Carbohydrate Absorption in Pigs after Weaning †

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Diana L.; Langendijk, Pieter; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The weaning of piglets involves abrupt changes that often cause reduced production and predisposition to gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Increasing the weaning age or using gradual weaning are techniques that can improve post-weaning performance. In this study, it is shown that an older weaning age (day 35) in combination with intermittent suckling (daily separation of piglets from the sow for 8 h in the week before weaning) improved growth rate, feed intake and aspects of gastrointestinal tract carbohydrate absorption after weaning. However, intermittent suckling and weaning at 28 days did not seem to improve post-weaning performance in this study. Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent suckling (IS) with or without an older weaning age would improve post-weaning gastrointestinal tract (GIT) carbohydrate absorptive capacity in pigs while reducing post-weaning stress and aspects of the inflammatory response. Three weaning regimes using primiparous sows were compared: (1) conventional weaning (CW28) (n = 22), where piglets were weaned conventionally at day 28; (2) IS28 (n = 21), where IS started at day 21 until weaning at day 28; and (3) IS35 (n = 21), where IS started at day 28 until weaning at day 35. Sugar absorption tests (10% mannitol or 10% galactose) were used to measure GIT absorptive capacity. All measured parameters were compared in relation to weaning across treatments (i.e., different physiological ages were compared). The IS35 pigs grew fastest in the 12 days after weaning (p < 0.01) and had the highest solid feed intake before and after weaning (p < 0.05). Irrespective of treatment, pre-weaning mannitol levels were higher than post-weaning levels (p < 0.01), whereas post-weaning galactose levels were highest in IS35 pigs (p < 0.01). Cytokine data did not show any treatment effects. In conclusion, these data suggest that IS in combination with an older weaning age (day 35) improved post-weaning adaptation as

  12. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and liveweight in first-parity Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Zom, R; van Knegsel, A; Pryce, J E; De Haas, Y

    2014-09-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between traits across lactation difficult, let alone the possibility for selection of breeding animals. However, estimating national breeding values through cheaper and more easily measured correlated traits, such as milk yield and liveweight (LW), could be a first step to predict DMI. Combining DMI data across historical nutritional experiments might help to expand the data sets. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters for DMI, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield, and LW across the entire first lactation using a relatively large data set combining experimental data across the Netherlands. A total of 30,483 weekly records for DMI, 49,977 for FPCM yield, and 31,956 for LW were available from 2,283 Dutch Holstein-Friesian first-parity cows between 1990 and 2011. Heritabilities, covariance components, and genetic correlations were estimated using a multivariate random regression model. The model included an effect for year-season of calving, and polynomials for age of cow at calving and days in milk (DIM). The random effects were experimental treatment, year-month of measurement, and the additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual term. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using a third-order orthogonal polynomial. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.21 to 0.40 for DMI, from 0.20 to 0.43 for FPCM yield, and from 0.25 to 0.48 for LW across DIM. Genetic correlations between DMI at different DIM were relatively low during early and late lactation, compared with mid lactation. The genetic correlations between DMI and FPCM yield varied across DIM. This correlation was negative (up to -0.5) between FPCM yield in

  13. The effects of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis and flunixin meglumine administration on activity measures, feed intake, and milk parameters.

    PubMed

    Yeiser, E E; Leslie, K E; McGilliard, M L; Petersson-Wolfe, C S

    2012-09-01

    The use of flunixin meglumine (FM), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis was evaluated. Twenty-four primiparous and multiparous lactating dairy cows were challenged with 1×10(2) cfu of E. coli 727 in 1 uninfected quarter. Of the 24 E. coli-challenged animals, 12 were administered FM [ECF; 100mg (2 cc)/45.5 kg of body weight) at the onset of clinical mastitis signs. The remaining 12 challenged cows were untreated (EC). An additional 11 cows were infused with 1 mL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline and served as the nonchallenged control (CTL) group. Activity measures, dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk bacterial counts from challenged mammary glands, and somatic cell score (SCS) were collected on all animals. Activity measurements were collected using both a behavior-monitoring system and data loggers. Activity was summarized by day (behavior-monitoring system) and in 3-h time periods (data loggers). An examination of animal activity indicated that EC and ECF cows stood more and lay less as compared with the CTL animals in the first 6h after FM administration. When DMI was analyzed, CTL and ECF animals had greater DMI than the EC animals on d 1 postchallenge. However, by d 2 postchallenge, DMI for ECF and EC cows was significantly less than for the CTL cows. The ECF cows had greater milk yield than did EC animals by d 3 and 4 postchallenge, and no significant difference in yield was observed between the ECF and CTL animals. No differences in SCS were observed between the parity groups. Yet, bacterial counts in milk were greater in multiparous animals compared with the primiparous cows. Therefore, it can be concluded that E. coli mastitis does alter animal activity and may have a negative effect on animal well-being. However, the improvement in DMI and milk production for ECF animals provides evidence for using a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug as supportive therapy in alleviating the adverse

  14. Unrestricted feed intake during the dry period impairs the postpartum oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Murondoti, A; Jorritsma, R; Beynen, A C; Wensing, T; Geelen, M J H

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of key hepatic enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in cows that had excessive body fat at parturition. Dairy cows were allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. All cows were offered a total mixed ration with an energy content of 6.6 MJ of net energy for lactation per kilogram of dry matter and consisting of corn silage, beet pulp, rapeseed meal, and soybean meal. Control cows were restricted to 6.8 kg/dry matter of the mixed ration in the dry period. Experimental cows had unrestricted access to the mixed ration during the dry period to increase body fat and induce fatty liver postpartum. Blood and liver samples were collected 1 wk before and 1, 2, and 4 wk after parturition. Before parturition, neither the serum nonesterifled fatty acids nor the hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations differed between experimental and control cows. After parturition, the values for these variables were greater in experimental cows than in control cows. Plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate increased sharply after parturition in the experimental group. In liver, the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was already significantly lower in the experimental group before parturition. After parturition, the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase dropped in the experimental group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in liver was less in experimental cows following parturition. Hepatic citrate synthase activity increased only in the control group after parturition. Unrestricted feed intake before parturition reduces de novo fatty acid synthesis as well as fatty acid oxidation after parturition. The reduction in fatty acid oxidation following parturition may contribute to postpartum accumulation of triacylglycerol in the livers of cows with unrestricted access to feed during the dry period.

  15. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in

  16. Porcine MAP3K5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Pu, L; Zhang, L C; Zhang, J S; Song, X; Wang, L G; Liang, J; Zhang, Y B; Liu, X; Yan, H; Zhang, T; Yue, J W; Li, N; Wu, Q Q; Wang, L X

    2016-08-12

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively. The deduced MAP3K5 protein sequence contains two conserved domains: a DUF4071 domain and a protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that porcine MAP3K5 forms a separate branch to vicugna and camel MAP3K5. Tissue expression analysis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that MAP3K5 was expressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, pancrea, ileum, and stomach tissues. Copy number variation was detected for porcine MAP3K5 and validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, a significant increase in average copy number was detected in the low RFI group when compared to the high RFI group in a Duroc pig population. These results provide useful information regarding the influence of MAP3K5 on RFI in pigs.

  17. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  18. [Influence of zeolite A supplementation during the dry period of dairy cows on feed intake, on the macro and trace element metabolism around calving and milk yield in the following lactation].

    PubMed

    Grabherr, Hilde; Spolders, Markus; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Fürll, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    The object of the present study was to determine the influence of zeolite A, a calcium binder from the group of the aluminosilicate, on feed intake, macro and trace element metabolism as well as the milk yield in the following lactation in dairy cows. 46 cows were allotted to 2 groups (A--control group and B--experimental group). They were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum 2 weeks before calving. Additionally the cows in group B received 90 g zeolite A/kg dry matter (DM). The individually feed intake was registered daily. The serum was analysed for Ca, Mg, and Pi (inorganic phosphate), Fe, FFA (free fatty acid) and beta-HB (hydroxybutyrate) and the plasma for the trace elements Cu, Zn, and Mn. After calving the milk yield (FCM) and the milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) were analysed. Feed intake of group B, amounting to 6.2 +/- 1.3 kg DM/d was around 48% lower as compared to 12.0 +/- 1.4 kg DM/d for group A. The zeolite addition into the TMR showed a stabilizing effect on the average Ca concentration in the serum around calving. This effect led to a significantly lower Mg concentration on the day of calving and 1 day post partum. The Pi concentration was significantly lower already after the 1st week of zeolite supplementation and on the day of calving as compared to group A. There was no essential effect of zeolite A on the trace element concentration. The depression of feed intake for group B led to a significant increase of FFA one week after beginning zeolite supplementation and of beta-HB around calving. The feed intake post partum as well as the milk yield were not affected by zeolite supplementation. Because decreased feed intake of group B after zeolite supplementation and the occurred hypophosphatemia, it is not acceptable to use zeolite A in the proved dose for preventing milk fever.

  19. The effect of a non-starch polysaccharide-hydrolysing enzyme (Rovabio® Excel) on feed intake and body condition of sows during lactation and on progeny growth performance.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M C; Geraert, P A; Maillard, R; Kluess, J; Lawlor, P G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 200 (Large White × Landrace) sows were used in a 39-day study to evaluate the effects of feeding a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-hydrolysing enzyme multicomplex (Rovabio(®) Excel) in conjunction with a high- or reduced nutrient-density diet during lactation on sow body condition, feed intake and progeny performance. Eight sows were selected each week for 25 weeks, blocked by parity and BW into groups of four, and within the block randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (n = 50/treatment). Treatments were: (1) LND: low energy (13.14 MJ of DE/kg), low CP (15%) diet; (2) LND + RE: LND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme; (3) HND: high energy (14.5 MJ of DE/kg), high CP (16.5%) diet; and (4) HND + RE: HND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme. Sows were fed treatment diets from day 109 of gestation until the day of subsequent service. Between weaning and re-service, Rovabio(®) Excel addition to LND diets resulted in an increase in energy intake; however, a reduction was observed when supplemented to the HND diet (P < 0.05). The inclusion of Rovabio(®) Excel increased feed and energy intake during week 3 (days 15 to 21) of lactation (P < 0.05). Sows fed diets supplemented with Rovabio(®) Excel had greater back-fat depth at weaning and service (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in back-fat depth during lactation and from farrowing to service was not different between treatments. Feeding the HND diet increased energy intake before farrowing, throughout lactation and during the weaning to service interval (P < 0.01); however, overall, average daily feed intake tended to be reduced (P < 0.10). At service, sows fed the HND diet were heavier than sows fed the LND diet (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in BW between treatments was not different. Feeding the HND diet to sows resulted in a tendency for heavier piglets at birth (P = 0.10) that tended to grow at a faster rate and be heavier at weaning than piglets from sows fed the

  20. Effects of rumen-protected choline and dry propylene glycol on feed intake and blood parameters for Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Brown, N E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Varga, G A

    2009-06-01

    A 6 x 6 Latin square design was used to test 3 sets of comparisons simultaneously to study response in dry matter intake, milk yield, and blood parameters to propylene glycol (PG) supplementation delivered by 2 methods [incorporating PG into the total mixed ration (TMR) vs. top dressing; comparison I]; individual or combined dietary choline and PG supplementation as a 2 x 2 factorial (comparison II); or increasing amounts of dietary choline (comparison III). Six multiparous (lactation number = 1.5 +/- 0.8 SD) Holstein dairy cows were at 41 d in milk (+/- 9 SD) at the start of the experiment. Propylene glycol used was a dry product containing 65% PG, and choline was a rumen-protected choline product (RPC; estimated to be 50% rumen-protected) containing 50% choline chloride. In comparison I, treatments compared were 1) control: no PG; 2) PG-TMR: 250 g/d of dry PG (corresponding to 162.5 g/d of PG) incorporated into the TMR; and 3) PG-top dress: 250 g/d of dry PG top-dressed onto the TMR. In comparison II, treatments compared were 1) control: no PG and no RPC; 2) PG: 250 g/d of dry PG incorporated into the TMR; 3) RPC: 50 g/d of RPC top-dressed onto the TMR; and 4) PG+RPC: combination of treatments 2 and 3. In comparison III, treatments compared were 0, 25, and 50 g/d of RPC top-dressed onto the TMR. Each experimental period lasted 10 d with 9 d of adaptation followed by 1 d of serial blood sampling. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. During the serial blood sampling, jugular blood was sampled every 20 min for the first 4 h and at 8 and 12 h after treatment administration. Results obtained from comparison I showed that feeding 250 g/d of PG as a dry product decreased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration (mean +/- SEM) from 701 +/- 81 (control) to 564 +/- 76 micromol/L without affecting serum insulin, plasma glucose, or plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Top-dressing PG decreased plasma BHBA concentrations more than by

  1. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the extent to which feeding low-energy, high-fiber (LEHF) and high-energy, low-fiber (HELF) diets impacts meat quality and carcass composition of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Two experiments were conducted in the divergently selected Iowa State University RFI lines: Exp. 1 evaluated carcasses of generation (G) 8 pigs fed on commercial feeders; Exp. 2 evaluated composition, pork quality, sensory, and postmortem proteolysis of pigs fed on electronic single-space feeders in G 8 and 9. Pigs (N = 177) in Exp. 1 were randomly assigned a pen (mixed sex and line; N = 8). Groups (n = 3) of pigs were slaughtered at a mean BW of 121.5 kg. Pigs in Exp. 2 (G8: n = 158; G9: n = 157) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens of each diet per G. Pigs from G8 were slaughtered at a mean BW of 122.5 kg and G9 at a mean of 128.4 kg. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects were line, diet, sex, and all appropriate interactions. Random effects were group, pen, litter, and sire and covariate of off-test BW. For Exp. 2, G was added as a fixed effect and sensory day was added as a random effect when applicable. In Exp. 1, carcasses from low RFI (LRFI) pigs were leaner and had less fat depth (P < 0.01). Carcasses from pigs fed the LEHF diet had a lighter HCW and greater estimated percent lean than pigs fed HELF diet (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, LRFI pigs on the HELF diet had the greatest loin depth (P < 0.01). Chops from HRFI pigs had greater drip loss, color scores, lean tissue a*, and percent lipid and lesser percent moisture than LRFI ( P< 0.05). Chops from pigs on the LEHF diet had lesser muscle L* values and greater percent moisture than chops from pigs fed the HELF diet (P < 0.05). Chops from LRFI pigs were juicer than those from HRFI pigs (P < 0.05). Protein extracted at d 2 postmortem from LRFI pigs on the LEHF diet had a greater 38 kDa desmin degradation product than protein from LRFI pigs fed the HELF

  2. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer (PU) is common in immobile elderly patients, and there are some research works to investigate a preventive and curative method, but not to find sufficient effectiveness. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical effectiveness on wound healing in patients with PU by hydrogen-dissolved water (HW) intake via tube-feeding (TF). Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts OUMS-36 and normal human epidermis-derived cell line HaCaT keratinocytes were examined in vitro to explore the mechanisms relating to whether hydrogen plays a role in wound-healing at the cellular level. Methods Twenty-two severely hospitalized elderly Japanese patients with PU were recruited in the present study, and their ages ranged from 71.0 to 101.0 (86.7 ± 8.2) years old, 12 male and 10 female patients, all suffering from eating disorder and bedridden syndrome as the secondary results of various underlying diseases. All patients received routine care treatments for PU in combination with HW intake via TF for 600 mL per day, in place of partial moisture replenishment. On the other hand, HW was prepared with a hydrogen-bubbling apparatus which produces HW with 0.8-1.3 ppm of dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) and −602 mV to −583 mV of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), in contrast to reversed osmotic ultra-pure water (RW), as the reference, with DH of < 0.018 ppm and ORP of +184 mV for use in the in vitro experimental research. In in vitro experiments, OUMS-36 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were respectively cultured in medium prepared with HW and/or RW. Immunostain was used for detecting type-I collagen reconstruction in OUMS-36 cells. And intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified by NBT assay, and cell viability of HaCaT cells was examined by WST-1 assay, respectively. Results Twenty-two patients were retrospectively divided into an effective group (EG, n = 12) and a less effective group (LG, n = 10) according to

  3. Effects of level of brackish water on feed intake, digestion, heat energy, and blood constituents of growing Boer and Spanish goat wethers.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Y; Puchala, R; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L

    2016-09-01

    Twenty Boer (6.1 mo old and 21.3 kg) and 20 Spanish (6.6 mo old and 19.7 kg) goat wethers were used to determine effects of brackish water on feed intake, digestion, heat energy, and blood constituents. Brackish water had 6,900 mg/L total dissolved salts, 1,885 mg/L Na, 75 mg/L Mg, 1,854 mg/L chloride, 2,478 mg/L sulfate, and 9 mg/L boron. Water treatments were 100% tap water (control), 100% of a brackish water source (100-BR), 33% control and 67% brackish water (67-BR), and 67% control and 33% brackish water (33-BR). Water and a moderate-quality grass hay (8.5% CP and 68% NDF) were offered free choice. The experiment consisted of 14 d of adaptation, 5 d for metabolizability measures, and 2 d for determining gas exchange and heat energy. There were no interactions ( > 0.05) between breed and water treatment. Water intake (931, 942, 949, and 886 g/d [SE 59.1] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively) and DM intake (525, 556, 571, and 527 g/d [SE 31.0] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively) were similar among treatments ( = 0.876 and = 0.667, respectively). Urinary water was greater for brackish water treatments than for the control ( = 0.003; 211, 317, 319, and 285 g/d [SE 25.6] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively) and fecal water content was similar among treatments ( = 0.530; 247, 251, 276, and 257 g/d [SE 19.0] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively), implying less water loss by other means such as evaporation when brackish water was consumed. Total tract OM digestibility was lower ( = 0.049) for treatments with brackish water than for treatments without brackish water (64.2, 61.5, 58.6, and 59.3% [SE 1.86] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively), although ME intake was similar among treatments ( = 0.940; 4.61, 4.57, 4.60, and 4.31 MJ/d [SE 0.394] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively). Daily heat energy in kilojoules per kilogram BW was less with brackish

  4. Effects of feed restriction to enhance the profitable farming of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii in sea cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sung-Yong; Kim, Min-Suk; Kwon, Joon Yeong; Maran, B. A. Venmathi

    2013-09-01

    The feed intake, growth and body composition of juvenile blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Sparidae) (5.6 g fish-1) were investigated for 16 weeks in sea cages under seven repetitive feeding cycles: every day feeding (control), 6-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F6.1), 5-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F5.1), 4-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F4.1), 3-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F3.1), 2-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F2.1), and 1-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F1.1). The survival of the fish during the experimental period was not different among the feeding cycles. The greatest weight gain of fish was observed in the control, but not significantly different from that of the F6.1 and F5.1 groups (p > 0.05). Total feed intake and daily feed intake decreased with the increase of fasting frequency, however, actual feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio increased with the increase of the fasting frequency. Proximate composition of the whole body of fish was not affected by different feeding cycles. These results suggest that juvenile blackhead seabreams subjected to repetitive feeding cycles of 6- or 5-days feeding and 1 day fasting for 16 weeks could achieve compensatory growth, and that such mild feeding deprivation could save significant amounts of feed without causing any profit reduction that might result from a decrease in fish size or quality.

  5. Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.

    PubMed

    Aregheore, E M; Perera, D

    2004-02-01

    Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the diets of untreated stover supplemented with forage legumes. The DMI was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the GS diet than in the EV or LL diets. Significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the urea-treated stover and the diets of stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), organic matter (OM) and energy. In experiment 2, four mature goats, pre-experimental body weight 27.0 +/- 0.3 kg, 24-28 months old, were used to measure their response when the urea-treated maize stover and the maize stover and forage legume diets were sprayed with molasses. The intake of the urea-treated stover diet sprayed with molasses was significantly lower (p < 0.05) that that of the maize stover/forage legume diets sprayed with molasses. The DMI of the diets improved with the addition of molasses. The DMI among the goats offered the maize stover/forage legume diets + molasses did not differ significantly. (p > 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as

  6. Effect of tanniferous leaf meal based multi-nutrient blocks on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes in Haemonchus contortus infected goats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Pathak, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB) supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87) were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat) group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT) supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source). All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) levels were found to be highest (p<0.001, p<0.05) in T1 group followed by T3 group and lowest values were observed in T2 group. However, The PCV values between T1 and T3 groups were found to be statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The humoral and CMI response were significantly (p<0.036) higher in T3 group as compared to T2 group. MNB-CT supplementation significantly (p<0.001) reduced fecal egg counts in T3 group as compared to MNB supplemented T2 group. Conclusion: Supplementation of MNB-CT could be used as an alternative sustainable method to control H. contortus and maintained health status and performance of goats in face of parasitic challenge. PMID:27047137

  7. Daily enteral feeding practice on the ICU: attainment of goals and interfering factors

    PubMed Central

    Binnekade, JM; Tepaske, R; Bruynzeel, P; Mathus-Vliegen, EMH; de Hann, RJ

    2005-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily feeding practice of enterally fed patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) and to study the impact of preset factors in reaching predefined optimal nutritional goals. Methods The feeding practice of all ICU patients receiving enteral nutrition for at least 48 hours was recorded during a 1-year period. Actual intake was expressed as the percentage of the prescribed volume of formula (a success is defined as 90% or more). Prescribed volume (optimal intake) was guided by protocol but adjusted to individual patient conditions by the intensivist. The potential barriers to the success of feeding were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results Four-hundred-and-three eligible patients had a total of 3,526 records of feeding days. The desired intake was successful in 52% (1,842 of 3,526) of feeding days. The percentage of successful feeding days increased from 39% (124 of 316) on day 1 to 51% (112 of 218) on day 5. Average ideal protein intake was 54% (95% confidence interval (CI) 52 to 55), energy intake was 66% (95% CI 65 to 68) and volume 75% (95% CI 74 to 76). Factors impeding successful nutrition were the use of the feeding tube to deliver contrast, the need for prokinetic drugs, a high Therapeutic Intervention Score System category and elective admissions. Conclusion The records revealed an unsatisfactory feeding process. A better use of relative successful volume intake, namely increasing the energy and protein density, could enhance the nutritional yield. Factors such as an improper use of tubes and feeding intolerance were related to failure. Meticulous recording of intake and interfering factors helps to uncover inadequacies in ICU feeding practice. PMID:15987393

  8. Effects of rumen acid load from feed and forage particle size on ruminal pH and dry matter intake in the lactating dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rustomo, B; AlZahal, O; Odongo, N E; Duffield, T F; McBride, B W

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of level of concentrate acidogenic value (AV) and forage particle size on ruminal pH and feed intake in lactating dairy cows. Two isoenergetic (net energy for lactation = 1.5 +/- 0.01 Mcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein = 17.4 +/- 0.1% dry matter) concentrates with either a low AV or high AV were formulated and fed in a total mixed ration with either coarsely or finely chopped corn silage and alfalfa haylage ad libitum. Four rumen-fistulated cows (114 +/- 14 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Each period consisted of 3-wk (14-d treatment adaptation and 7-d data collection). Increasing the concentrate AV decreased the mean pH (from 6.07 to 5.97) and minimum pH (from 5.49 to 5.34). Cows fed high-AV diets spent a longer time below pH 5.6 (135.1 vs. 236.7 min/d; low-AV diet vs. high-AV diet, respectively) and pH 5.8 (290.0 vs. 480.6 min/d; low-AV diet vs. high-AV diet, respectively) than cows fed low-AV diets. Increasing forage particle size had no effect on the mean and minimum ruminal pH. There was an interaction between concentrate AV and forage particle size on maximum ruminal pH. Increasing forage particle size increased the maximum pH for cows fed the high-AV concentrate (6.69 vs. 6.72; low-AV diet vs. high-AV diet, respectively) and had no effect on the maximum pH for cows fed the low-AV concentrate (6.98 vs. 6.76; low-AV diet vs. high-AV diet, respectively). Increasing the concentrate AV did not affect dry matter intake but reduced neutral detergent fiber intake from 9.7 to 8.8 kg/d. Milk fat content was negatively correlated with time and area below pH 5.6 (time below, r = -0.51; area below, r = -0.56) and pH 5.8 (time below, r = -0.42; area below, r = -0.54). These results suggest that coarse forage particle size can attenuate drops in ruminal pH. However, the ameliorating effects of forage particle size

  9. Urinary mutagenesis and fried red meat intake: influence of cooking temperature, phenotype, and genotype of metabolizing enzymes in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ulrike; Sinha, Rashmi; Bell, Douglas A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Grant, Delores J; Watson, Mary A; Kulldorff, Martin; Brooks, Lance R; Warren, Sarah H; DeMarini, David M

    2004-01-01

    Meat cooked at high temperatures contains potential carcinogenic compounds, such as heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples from a 2-week controlled feeding study were used to examine the relationship between the intake of mutagenicity from meat fried at different temperatures and the levels of mutagenicity subsequently detected in urine, as well as the influence of the genotype of drug metabolizing enzymes on urinary mutagenicity. Sixty subjects consumed ground beef patties fried at low temperature (100 degrees C) for 1 week, followed by ground beef patties fried at high temperature (250 degrees C) the second week. Mutagenicity in the meat was assayed in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (+S9), and urinary mutagenicity was determined using Salmonella YG1024 (+S9). Genotypes for NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and UGT1A1 were analyzed using blood samples from the subjects. Meat fried at 100 degrees C was not mutagenic, whereas meat fried at 250 degrees C was mutagenic (1023 rev/g). Unhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed urine samples were 22x and 131x more mutagenic, respectively, when subjects consumed red meat fried at 250 degrees C compared with red meat fried at 100 degrees C. We found that hydrolyzed urine was approximately 8x more mutagenic than unhydrolyzed urine, likely due to the deconjugation of mutagens from glucuronide. The intake of meat cooked at high temperature correlated with the mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (r = 0.32, P = 0.01) and hydrolyzed urine (r = 0.34, P = 0.008). Mutagenicity in unhydrolyzed urine was not influenced by NAT1, NAT2, or GSTM1 genotypes. However, a UGT1A1*28 polymorphism that reduced UGT1A1 expression and conjugation modified the effect of intake of meat cooked at high temperature on mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (P for interaction = 0.04). These mutagenicity data were also compared with previously determined levels of HCAs (measured as MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and PhIP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  10. Effect of immune system stimulation and divergent selection for residual feed intake on digestive capacity of the small intestine in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, A; Dekkers, J C M; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; English, J; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Little is known of the consequences of divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on intestinal digestion capacity, particularly during immune system stimulation (ISS). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of ISS and divergent selection for RFI on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent fecal digestibility (AFD) of nutrients and intestinal nutrient active transport and barrier function. Twenty-eight gilts (63 ± 4 kg BW) from low RFI (LRFI; n = 14) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 14) Yorkshire lines were randomly selected from the Iowa State University RFI herd. Following adaptation, 8 pigs in each line were injected intramuscularly and every 48 h for 7 d with increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+). Remaining pigs were injected with saline (ISS-). Pigs were then euthanized and ileal digesta was collected for measuring AID of nutrients. Fecal samples were collected on a daily basis and pooled for measuring AFD of nutrients. A segment of ileum was used to measure nutrient transport and transepithelial resistance (TER) and/or barrier integrity by Ussing chambers. No effects of line or its interaction with ISS on AID of CP (N × 6.25) and OM, TER, and active nutrients transport were observed. However, ISS decreased (P < 0.05) and tended to (P < 0.1) decrease AID of CP and OM, respectively. Decrease in AFD of CP as result of ISS was greater in the LRFI line compared to the HRFI line (P < 0.05). Relative to ISS-, active glucose and P transport was greater in ISS+ pigs (P < 0.05). Genetic selection for LRFI increases the AFD but has no effect on AID of nutrients. It also reduces the total tract digestive capacity of growing pigs during ISS. Immune system stimulation affects both AID and AFD of dietary CP.

  11. Feed intake, milk production and composition of crossbred cows fed with insect-protected Bollgard II® cottonseed containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins.

    PubMed

    Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F

    2011-09-01

    Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition.

  12. Interrelationships in lactating Holsteins of rectal and skin temperatures, milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, body weight, and feed efficiency in summer in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Umphrey, J E; Moss, B R; Wilcox, C J; Van Horn, H H

    2001-12-01

    Thirty-two lactating, multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in a 91-d experiment in Auburn, Alabama, during summer to determine whether rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rates are repeatable and interrelated and whether whole cottonseed or calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ) affected milk production or its constituents. Treatments were (I) control, (II) I plus 10.4% whole cottonseed, (III) I plus 2.6% Megalac, and (IV) I plus 5.2% whole cottonseed plus 1.3% Megalac. Data included 358 to 2644 measurements analyzed as a split-plot design of experiment. Only milk protein percentage and protein-to-fat ratio were significantly affected by dietary treatment. Milk protein percentage was depressed by dietary fat additions, especially by the combination of whole cottonseed and Megalac. Within lactation repeatabilities for milk, fat, protein, and SCM yields ranged from 0.44 to 0.66; two percentages and protein to fat ratio, 0.21 to 0.32; feed efficiency, 0.18; dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight, 0.98 and 0.84; rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rate, 0.001 to 0.055. Partial and simple correlations were similar in sign and magnitude. Noteworthy were partial correlations between milk yield and DMI, 0.367; milk yield and rectal temperature, -0.135; milkyield and respiration rate, 0.102. Skin temperature was unrelated to other variables. Respiration rate was correlated with DMI, 0.270. Results should help researchers designing future experiments involving these responses to predict the number of measures needed to detect differences.

  13. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  14. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  15. Rumen papillae morphology of beef steers relative to gain and feed intake and the association of volatile fatty acids with kallikrein gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs are the most expensive input in beef production. Improvement in the feed efficiency of beef cattle would lower feed inputs and reduce the cost of production. The rumen epithelium is responsible for absorption and metabolism of nutrients and microbial by-products, and may play a significan...

  16. Effects of different amounts of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Tan, C Q; Wei, H K; Zou, Y; Long, G; Ao, J T; Xue, H X; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different amounts of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in the gestation diet on the physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance during two successive reproductive cycles. Multiparous Landrace sows (n=140) were assigned randomly to one of four experimental diets, and four gestation diets were formulated to contain varying amounts of KF at 0%, 0.6%, 1.2% or 2.2%, respectively. The water binding capacity (WBC) (P<0.01), swelling capacity (P<0.01) of gestation diets, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids (P<0.05) after in vitro fermentation of gestation diets increased linearly with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. During the second reproductive cycle, increasing dietary KF linearly increased plasma concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) 4h postprandial (P<0.05) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 2h postprandial (P<0.05), but decreased the plasma concentration of cortisol (linearly, P<0.05) 1h postprandial. In addition, there was a linear decrease of the non-feeding oral behavior of gestating sows (P<0.01) when dietary KF increased. There were linear increases in lactation feed intake of sows during entire lactation period (P<0.01) with increasing amounts of KF in the gestation diet. In addition, the number of piglets weaned (linearly, P<0.01; quadratic, P=0.01), average piglet weights and litter weights on day 21 of lactation (linearly, P<0.01) increased with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. In conclusion, inclusion of dietary fiber with great WBC, swelling capacity and fermentation capacity in the gestation diet was beneficial for enhancing postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, increasing lactation feed intake and improved number of piglets weaned per litter through greater pre-weaning survival.

  17. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  18. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  19. Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs.

    PubMed

    Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P < 0.05) as level of concentrate increased in complete rations. No significant difference was found in digestibilities of proximate nutrients. However, CP digestibility was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 2.12, 5.50, and 9.36 %, respectively, in lambs fed with CR-II (P > 0.05), CR-III (P > 0.05), and CR-IV (P < 0.05) rations in comparison to lambs fed with CR-I ration. Furthermore, CP digestibility was higher by 7.09 and 3.66 % in lambs fed with CR-IV ration than those fed with CR-II (P < 0.05) and CR-III (P > 0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.01) different and progressively increased by 31.46, 48.69, and 82.86 % in ram lambs fed with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. The N balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P > 0.05), 133.46 (P < 0.01), and 198.87 % (P < 0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs.

  20. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  1. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  2. Growth, feed intake and immune responses of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to low infectious doses of ectoparasite (Cryptocaryon irritans).

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Dan, Xue-Ming; Sun, Peng; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Gao, Quan-Xin; Peng, Shi-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of low-dose Cryptocaryon irritans infection on growth, feeding and antiparasitic immunity of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 5500 theronts/fish (Group I, 1/10 of 96 h LC50) or 11,000 theronts/fish (Group II) to infect E. coioides weighing 38 g on average at week 0, 2 and 4, respectively. Food consumption was recorded daily; the fish were weighed weekly; serum immobilizing titer (SIT), and acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM) activity were recorded every 2 weeks; the fish were treated with lethal dose (70,000 theronts/fish) of C. irritans in the 8th week and death number were recorded. The result shows that in the 1st week after the first infection, the fish's weight gain (WG), length gain (LG), and specific growth rate (SGR) dropped as parasite dose increased, and WG, SGR values were negative; while, after the 2nd and the 3rd infection, no significant differences were detected among the three groups. These results indicated that the 1st infection affected the fish most, while the following infections were protected by some immunity. In the 3rd, 7th, and 8th week, condition factor (CF) increased with the increased infectious dose, indicating that the parasite affected body length more than body weight. As the experiment went on, accumulated food consumption (AFC) of all three groups steadily grew (control > Group I > Group II). But on the 2nd day after the first infection, daily food consumption (DFC) of Group I and II significantly dropped, the decline of Group II was greater than that of Group I, DFC recovered in the following week, with Group I earlier than Group II. After the 2nd infection, DFC of Group I and II dropped again, Group II still dropped more than Group I, and both groups recovered on the 3rd day after infection. The 3rd infection caused no significant difference in week food consumption (WFC). These

  3. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of forage particle size, level, source, and preservation method on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon

  4. Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

    2012-01-01

    Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

  5. Contrasting time-based and weight-based estimates of protein and energy intake of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Aristizabal, John F; Rothman, Jessica M; García-Fería, Luis M; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Two methods are commonly used to describe the feeding behavior of wild primates, one based on the proportion of time animals spent feeding on specific plant parts ("time-based" estimates) and one based on estimates of the actual amounts of different plant materials ingested ('"weight-based" estimates). However, studies based on feeding time may not be accurate for making quantitative assessments of animals' nutrient and energy intake. We analyzed the diet of two groups of Alouatta pigra living in forest fragments using two different methods (time- and dry weight-based estimates), to explore how these alternative approaches impact estimates of (a) the contribution of each food type to the diet and (b) the macronutrient composition of the diet, including available protein (AP), non-protein energy (NPE), and total energy (TE) intake. We conducted behavioral observations (N = 658 hr and N = 46 full day focal follows), from August 2012 to March 2013. For each feeding bout, we estimated both time spent feeding and actual fresh- and dry-weight consumption by counting the number of food items ingested during the bout. Using time-based estimates, A. pigra showed a predominantly leaf-based diet. In contrast, weight-based estimates described combined a fruit and leaf-based diet. There were no differences between methods when estimating AP intake; however, we found significant differences while estimating NPE and TE intake. Time-based estimates provide us with important information such as the foraging effort spent on food items, trees, or patches, while weight-based estimates may provide more accurate information concerning nutrient and energy intake. We suggest that quantitative estimates of nutrient intake in a primate's diet be based on observations of wet and/or dry weight actually ingested rather than extrapolated from time spent feeding.

  6. Delayed Satiety-Like Actions and Altered Feeding Microstructure by a Selective Type 2 Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Agonist in Rats: Intra-Hypothalamic Urocortin 3 Administration Reduces Food Intake by Prolonging the Post-Meal Interval

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Éva M; Inoue, Koki; Zhao, Yu; Rivier, Jean E; Vale, Wylie W; Szücs, Attila; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2009-01-01

    Brain corticotropin-releasing factor/urocortin (CRF/Ucn) systems are hypothesized to control feeding, with central administration of ‘type 2’ urocortins producing delayed anorexia. The present study sought to identify the receptor subtype, brain site, and behavioral mode of action through which Ucn 3 reduces nocturnal food intake in rats. Non-food-deprived male Wistar rats (n = 176) were administered Ucn 3 into the lateral (LV) or fourth ventricle, or into the ventromedial or paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (VMN, PVN) or the medial amygdala (MeA), regions in which Ucn 3 is expressed in proximity to CRF2 receptors. LV Ucn 3 suppressed ingestion during the third–fourth post-injection hours. LV Ucn 3 anorexia was reversed by cotreatment with astressin2-B, a selective CRF2 antagonist and not observed following equimole subcutaneous or fourth ventricle administration. Bilateral intra-VMN and intra-PVN infusion, more potently than LV infusion, reduced the quantity (57–73%) and duration of ingestion (32–68%) during the third–fourth post-infusion hours. LV, intra-PVN and intra-VMN infusion of Ucn 3 slowed the eating rate and reduced intake by prolonging the post-meal interval. Intra-VMN Ucn 3 reduced feeding bout size, and intra-PVN Ucn 3 reduced the regularity of eating from pellet to pellet. Ucn 3 effects were behaviorally specific, because minimal effective anorectic Ucn 3 doses did not alter drinking rate or promote a conditioned taste aversion, and site-specific, because intra-MeA Ucn 3 produced a nibbling pattern of more, but smaller meals without altering total intake. The results implicate the VMN and PVN of the hypothalamus as sites for Ucn 3-CRF2 control of food intake. PMID:17019404

  7. Estimating the Dietary Intake of Breastfeeding Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Sarah; Miller, Jacqueline; Tonkin, Emma; Marshall, Peter; Collins, Carmel T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine how accurately the daily prescribed feed volume (mL/day) estimates the actual intake of breastfeeding preterm infants and to characterise the volume taken during a breastfeed at differing gestational and postmenstrual ages. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on preterm infants born <37 weeks gestation from two Australian neonatal units. To determine the volume taken in a 24-h period infants were weighed before and after each breastfeed. This volume was added to the charted intake to determine the total intake and then compared to the prescribed feed volume. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess the level of agreement between the two methods. Results: Fifty six infants were studied on 206 breastfeeding occasions. There was a small bias (27 mLs/day) but large 95% limits of agreement (–76 to 130 mL/day). The volume taken during a single breastfeed ranged from 0 to 101 mL (median 23 mL, IQR 9 to 31 mL) and was greater in more mature infants. Conclusions: Using the prescribed feed volume to estimate total intake has limited clinical utility for the individual infant, however the relatively small bias means that it may be useful within a population or for comparison between groups in which population means are compared. There was a large variation in volume taken during a breastfeed across all gestational and postmenstrual ages. PMID:26006120

  8. Surface enlargement factor of rumen papillae and expression of genes involved in dermatological diseases and their relationships with feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs make up the largest portion of the total cost to produce beef. One way to reduce this cost, thereby increasing profitability of beef production, is to improve feed efficiency. The rumen is responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients and microbial by-products and may play a sig...

  9. Feed supplemented with 3 different antibiotics improved food intake and decreased the activation of the humoral immune response in healthy weaned pigs but had differing effects on intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bosi, P; Merialdi, G; Scandurra, S; Messori, S; Bardasi, L; Nisi, I; Russo, D; Casini, L; Trevisi, P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 3 antibiotics used for pulmonary pathologies added in the feed of weaned pigs on growth performance, commensal microbiota, and immune response. At weaning, a total of 72 pigs were randomly assigned by BW and litter to 1 of the following diets: control (typical weaning diet), control + 400 mg of tilmicosin/kg, control + 600 mg of amoxicillin/kg, and control + 300 mg of doxycycline/kg. Individually penned pigs were slaughtered after 3 wk (12 pigs/treatment) or 4 wk (6 pigs/treatment). During the fourth week, all pigs received the control diet to test the residual effect of the antimicrobial supplementation. The antibiotic supplementation increased growth and feed intake during the first week (P < 0.01) and over the first 3 wk combined (P < 0.05). Gain-to-feed ratio tended to improve during the first week (P = 0.076) by the antibiotics compared with the control. Among the antibiotic treatments, no difference was observed in ADG and feed intake, which were also unchanged by the diet in the fourth week. The fecal enterobacteria counts were increased by amoxicillin on d 14 and 21 (P < 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) and were decreased by tilmicosin (P < 0.001) compared with the control. Amoxicillin decreased lactic acid bacteria (P < 0.01) counts compared with the control. The antibiotic supplementation tended to decrease total bacteria variability in the jejunum (Shannon index, P = 0.091) compared with the control. The antibiotic treatment decreased the mean total serum IgM concentration (P = 0.016) after 3 wk and did not change the mucosal histomorphometry of the small intestine. For tilmicosin, the observed positive action on piglet performance and feed intake can originate by the decreased costs of immune activation determined by the action on intestinal microbiota. For amoxicillin and doxycycline, the observation on intestinal and fecal microbiota seems to be not sufficient to explain their growth-promoting effect.

  10. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines.

  11. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    PubMed

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P < 0.001) increase in carcass gain [CG; 577 (WCW I), 650 (WCW II), 765 (WCW III), and 757 g/d (WCW IV)]. The G:F also increased linearly (P < 0.001) in response to increasing the grain content of WCW silage. A quadratic (P < 0.01) response in daily methane output [295 (WCW I), 315 (WCW II), 322 (WCW III), and 273 g/d (WCW IV)], measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, was observed in response to increasing the grain content of WCW; however, linear decreases were observed when expressed relative to DMI (P = 0.01) and CG (P < 0.001). Cattle offered GS exhibited carcass gains similar to those offered WCW silage diets and had greater methane emissions than cattle in any other treatment when expressed relative to DMI. Cattle offered ALC exhibited greater (P < 0.01) carcass gains and decreased (P < 0.001) methane emissions, irrespective of the unit of expression, compared with cattle in any of the silage-based treatments. In Exp. 2, rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal

  12. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  13. [Principles of a canteen feeding organization of railway transport workers in repair-restorative work in regions polluted with radiation].

    PubMed

    Istomin, A V; Zhiliaev, N S

    1997-01-01

    Dietary intake and actual food consumption of the railway transport workers are employed in repair in radioactive polluted regions. Disbalance of dining rations and deficiency in vegetable fat, some mineral elements and vitamins was established. For the correction of revealed defects the methodological recommendations for organization of a canteen feeding of the workers of railway transport was developed.

  14. Computational Analysis of the Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tabe-Bordbar, Shayan; Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Food-intake control is mediated by a heterogeneous network of different neural subtypes, distributed over various hypothalamic nuclei and other brain structures, in which each subtype can release more than one neurotransmitter or neurohormone. The complexity of the interactions of these subtypes poses a challenge to understanding their specific contributions to food-intake control, and apparent consistencies in the dataset can be contradicted by new findings. For example, the growing consensus that arcuate nucleus neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP neurons) promote feeding, while those expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons) suppress feeding, is contradicted by findings that low AgRP neuron activity and high POMC neuron activity can be associated with high levels of food intake. Similarly, the growing consensus that GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus suppress feeding is contradicted by findings suggesting the opposite. Yet the complexity of the food-intake control network admits many different network behaviors. It is possible that anomalous associations between the responses of certain neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with known interactions, but their effect on feeding depends on the responses of the other neural subtypes in the network. We explored this possibility through computational analysis. We made a computer model of the interactions between the hypothalamic and other neural subtypes known to be involved in food-intake control, and optimized its parameters so that model behavior matched observed behavior over an extensive test battery. We then used specialized computational techniques to search the entire model state space, where each state represents a different configuration of the responses of the units (model neural subtypes) in the network. We found that the anomalous associations between the responses of certain hypothalamic neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with the known structure

  15. Validation of visual estimation of portion size consumed as a method for estimating food intake by young Indian children.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Pratibha; Sazawa, Sunil; Menon, Venugopal P; Dhingra, Usha; Black, Robert E

    2007-03-01

    In this observational study, estimation of food intake was evaluated using recording of portion size consumed, instead of post-weighing, as a method. In total, 930 feeding episodes were observed among 128 children aged 12-24 months in which actual intake was available by pre- and post-weighing. For each offering and feeding episode, portion size consumed was recorded by an independent nutritionist-as none, less than half, half or more, and all. Using the pre-weighed offering, available intake was estimated by multiplying portion sizes by the estimated weight. The estimated mean intake was 510.4 kilojoules compared to actual intake of 510.7 kilojoules by weighing. Similar results were found with nestum (52.0 vs 56.2 g), bread (3.8 vs 3.7 g), puffed rice (1.7 vs 1.9 g), banana (31.3 vs 24.4 g), and milk (41.6 vs 44.2 mL). Recording portion size consumed and estimating food intake from that provides a good alternative to the time-consuming and often culturally-unacceptable method of post-weighing food each time after a feeding episode.

  16. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Influencing Feeding Practices, Morbidity Status, and Dietary Intakes of Children Aged 7-24 Months in Rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Isingoma, Barugahara Evyline; Samuel, Mbugua; Edward, Karuri; Maina, Gakenia Wamuyu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the nutritional and morbidity patterns of children aged 7-24 months in relationship to household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Structured questionnaires and repeated 24-hour recalls were used to collect data. Maternal education and age influenced timing of complementary foods, dietary diversity score, meal frequency, and diarrhea incidences (p < .05). This resulted in 53%, 59%, 48%, 43%, and 22% of the study children having inadequate intake of energy, protein, vitamin A, iron, and zinc, respectively. Households need to be empowered to utilize available resources for improving nutrient intake and health among their children.

  17. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. Ninety-nine parent–child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. C...

  18. Idiorrhythmic dose-rate variability in dietary zinc intake generates a different response pattern of zinc metabolism than conventional dose-response feeding.

    PubMed

    Momcilović, B; Reeves, P G; Blake, M J

    1997-07-01

    We compared the effects of idiorrhythmic dose-rate feeding and conventional dose-response on the induction of intestinal metallothionein (iMT), expression of aortal heat-shock protein mRNA (HSP70mRNA) induced by restraint stress, and accumulation of Zn in the femur and incisor of young growing male rats. An idiorrhythmic approach requires that the average dietary Zn concentration (modulo, M) over the whole experiment (epoch, E) is kept constant across different groups. This is done by adjusting the Zn concentration of the supplemented diet supplied to compensate for the reduction in the number of days on which Zn-supplemented diet is fed, the latter being spread evenly over the experiment. Idiorrhythms involve offering the diet with n times the overall Zn concentration (M) only every nth day with Zn-deficient diet offered on other days. Idiorrythmic Zn dose-rate feeding changed Zn accumulation in the femur and incisor in a complex bi-modal fashion, indicating that metabolic efficiency of dietary Zn is not constant but depends on Zn dose-rate. In contrast to feeding Zn in the conventional dose-response scheme, iMT and HSP70mRNA were not affected by idiorrhythmic dose-rate feeding. Idiorrhythmic cycling in dietary Zn load posed no risk of a biochemical overload nor caused the animals to be stressed. Idiorrhythmic dose-rate feeding brings the dimension of time to the conventional dose-response model.

  19. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  20. Changes in the feed intake, pH and osmolality of rumen fluid, and the position of the abomasum of eight dairy cows during a diet-induced left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Brattinga, C R; Müller, K E; Schonewille, J Th; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Beynen, A C

    2004-04-17

    During the last six weeks of the dry period, eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a restricted amount of grass silage; after calving, a mixture of maize silage and concentrates was offered in a feeding regimen designed to induce a displacement of the abomasum. In the first month after calving, the cows were monitored for the following variables: feed intake and composition, milk production, the position of the abomasum, and the pH and osmolality of the rumen contents. In five of the eight cows, a left displacement of the abomasum occurred between four and 21 days after calving in the absence of other diseases. The displacement was temporary, lasting between five and 36 consecutive hours and one or two days in two of the cows (floaters), and for three or more days in the other three. Before these three cows developed the displacement, their abomasum was 4.3 to 7.9 cm higher, its contents had a higher mean osmolality (+19.2 mosmol/kg), and the ratio of roughage to concentrates in their feed was lower (-0.87) than in the three cows that did not develop clinical signs of a displaced abomasum. There were no significant differences in these variables between the floaters and the healthy cows.

  1. Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

  2. DNA polymorphisms and transcript abundance of PRKAG2 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase in the rumen are associated with gain and feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef steers with variation in feed efficiency phenotypes were evaluated previously on a high density SNP panel. Ten markers from rs110125325-rs41652818 on bovine chromosome 4 were associated with average daily gain (ADG). To identify the gene(s) in this 1.2Mb region responsible for variation in AD...

  3. Effects of different fresh-cut forages and their hays on feed intake, digestibility, heat production, and ruminal methane emission by Boer x Spanish goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer (87.5%) × Spanish wethers (32.5 ± 0.36 kg body weight) were used in a 32-day experiment to assess effects of frequency of feeding condensed tannin (CT)-containing Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) on ruminal methane emission. Fresh SL (15.3% CT) was fed at 1.3 time...

  4. Growth and body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits of developing gilts fed different dietary lysine and metabolizable energy levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to manipulate the lean:fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and ME content to replacement gilts housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (approximately 260 d of age) to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments. Crossbred ...

  5. Exploration of the perceived and actual benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and the impact of FADS1 and FADS2 genetic information on dietary intake and blood levels of EPA and DHA.

    PubMed

    Roke, Kaitlin

    2017-03-01

    From a global health perspective, increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for human health. However, the consumption of EPA- and DHA-rich foods such as fatty fish is low in the Western diet. Therefore, finding new ways to motivate people to increase their consumption of omega-3 FAs is essential. To find effective ways to motivate individuals, understanding people's awareness of omega-3 FAs and how they obtain their knowledge about nutrition and health is critical. Consequently, we developed an online survey to assess awareness and self-reported intake of omega-3 FAs and supplements in young adults. EPA and DHA are also produced endogenously to a limited extent through a pathway regulated by fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) genes. Of relevance, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FADS genes influence levels of omega-3 FAs, where minor allele carriers have lower levels compared with major allele carriers. Accordingly, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate FA levels in response to dietary EPA and DHA supplementation in young adults stratified by SNPs in FADS1 and FADS2. The level of reported awareness of omega-3 terminology varied depending on an individual's field of study and thus providing all participants with the same set of nutrition information could be an effective tool to increase knowledge and motivate behaviour change. Additionally, the variation in FA levels in accordance to SNPs in FADS1 and FADS2 could be used to create tailored nutritional recommendations which may improve lifestyle habits. The results discovered in the first 2 studies regarding awareness of omega-3 FAs and genetic variation were subsequently used to design a nutrigenetics intervention in young adults. Individuals who received their FADS1 genetic information were more aware of different omega-3 FAs and reported fewer barriers to their consumption by the end of

  6. Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo M. F.; Baccari, Flávio; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the heat tolerance of animals of two Portuguese (Alentejana and Mertolenga) and two exotic (Frisian and Limousine) cattle breeds, through the monitoring of physiological acclimatization reactions in different thermal situations characterized by alternate periods of thermoneutrality and heat stress simulated in climatic chambers. In the experiment, six heifers of the Alentejana, Frisian and Mertolenga breeds and four heifers of the Limousine breed were used. The increase in chamber temperatures had different consequences on the animals of each breed. When submitted to heat stress, the Frisian animals developed high thermal polypnea (more than 105 breath movements per minute), which did not prevent an increase in the rectal temperature (from 38.7°C to 40.0°C). However, only a slight depression in food intake and in blood thyroid hormone concentrations was observed under thermal stressful conditions. Under the thermal stressful conditions, Limousine animals decreased food intake by 11.4% and blood triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentration decreased to 76% of the level observed in thermoneutral conditions. Alentejana animals had similar reactions. The Mertolenga cattle exhibited the highest capacity for maintaining homeothermy: under heat stressful conditions, the mean thermal polypnea increased twofold, but mean rectal temperature did not increase. Mean food intake decreased by only 2% and mean T3 blood concentration was lowered to 85,6% of the concentration observed under thermoneutral conditions. These results lead to the conclusion that the Frisian animals had more difficulty in tolerating high temperatures, the Limousine and Alentejana ones had an intermediate difficulty, and the Mertolenga animals were by far the most heat tolerant.

  7. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 1. Effects on feed intake, chewing behavior, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on intake, milk production, and chewing behavior were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) d in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a dry matter basis. Diet concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0 and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Increasing beet pulp in the diet caused a linear decrease in dry matter intake (DMI). Time spent eating per day and per kilogram of DMI increased, and sorting against NDF tended to increase, with added beet pulp. Substituting beet pulp for corn caused a quadratic response in milk fat yield, with the highest yield for the 6% beet pulp treatment. A tendency was detected for a similar quadratic response in 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield. Lower plasma insulin concentration may have resulted in lower body condition gain for cows fed diets with higher beet pulp concentration. Partial substitution of pelleted beet pulp for high-moisture corn decreased intake but also may have permitted greater fat-corrected milk yield.

  8. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  9. Individual efficiency for the use of feed resources in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Piles, M; García-Tomás, M; Rafel, O; Ramon, J; Ibañez-Escriche, N; Varona, L

    2007-11-01

    A Bayesian procedure, which allows consideration of the individual variation in the feed resource allocation pattern, is described and implemented in 2 sire lines of rabbit (Caldes and R). The procedure is based on a hierarchical Bayesian scheme, where the first stage of the model consists of a multiple regression model of feed intake on metabolic BW and BW gain. In a second stage, an animal model was assumed including batch, parity order, litter size, and common environmental litter effects. Animals were reared during the fattening period (from weaning at 32 d of age to 60 d of age) in individual cages on an experimental farm, and were fed ad libitum with a commercial diet. Body weight (g) and cumulative feed intake (g) were recorded weekly. Individual BW gain (g) and average BW (ABW, g) were calculated from these data for each 7-d period. Metabolic BW (g(0.75)) was estimated as ABW(0.75). The number of animals actually measured was 444 and 445 in the Caldes and R lines, respectively. Marginal posterior distributions of the genetic parameters were obtained by Gibbs sampling. Posterior means (posterior SD) for heritabilities for partial coefficients of regression of feed intake on metabolic BW and feed intake on BW gain were estimated to be 0.35 (0.17) and 0.40 (0.17), respectively, in the Caldes line and 0.26 (0.19) and 0.27 (0.14), respectively, in line R. The estimated posterior means (posterior SD) for the proportion of the phenotypic variance due to common litter environmental effects of the same coefficients of regression were respectively, 0.39 (0.14) and 0.28 (0.13) in the Caldes line and 0.44 (0.22) and 0.49 (0.14) in line R. These results suggest that efficiency of use of feed resources could be improved by including these coefficients in an index of selection.

  10. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  11. Physically effectiveness of beet pulp-based diets in dairy cows as assessed by responses of feed intake, digestibility, chewing activity and milk production.

    PubMed

    Teimouri Yansari, A

    2014-02-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 ± 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 × 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients' digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness.

  12. Effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change, and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep fed a basal diet of native grass hay.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Mekasha, Yoseph

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep. The experiment employed 25 male sheep with mean (±standard error) initial body live weight (BLW) of 19.1 ± 0.09 kg. The experiment consisted of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by carcass evaluation. The experiment employed a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five blocks. Treatments comprised of grass hay alone fed ad libitum (GHA; control), GHA + 100 % concentrate mix (CM) consisting of wheat bran and noug seed cake at a ratio of 2:1 (0 S. sesban), GHA + 67 % CM + 33 % S. sesban (33 S. sesban), GHA + 33 % CM + 67 % S. sesban (67 S. sesban), and GHA + 100 % S. sesban (100 S. sesban). Total dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p < 0.001) for sheep in 0 S. sesban-100 S. sesban (800-821 g/day) compared to sheep in control (611 g/day). However, the effect of S. sesban inclusion (0 S. sesban-100 S. sesban) on total DMI was quadratic, and DMI declined after 67 S. sesban. Digestibility of DM, organic matter (p < 0.01), and crude protein were higher (p < 0.001) in supplemented group compared to the control. ADG, feed conversion efficiency (ADG/DMI), slaughter BLW, hot carcass weight, and total edible offals were higher (p < 0.05-0.001) for sheep in 0 S. sesban-100 S. sesban than those in control. Increased level of S. sesban inclusion, in general, reduced growth and carcass parameters in this study. However, there was no difference between 0 S. sesban and 33 S. sesban in most parameters studied. Thus, it can be concluded that S. sesban could substitute a concentrate when it accounted for up to 33 % of the mix.

  13. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  14. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  15. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  16. Feeding rate as valuable information in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naofumi

    2009-04-01

    In this review I outline studies on wild non-human primates using information on feeding rate, which is defined as the food intake per minute on a dry-weight basis; further, I summarize the significance of feeding rate in primate feeding ecology. The optimal foraging theory has addressed three aspects of animal feeding: (1) optimal food patch choice, (2) optimal time allocation to different patches, and (3) optimal food choice. In order to gain a better understanding of these three aspects, the feeding rate itself or its relevance indices (e.g., rates of calorie and protein intake) could be appropriate measures to assess the quality of food and food patches. Moreover, the feeding rate plays an essential role in estimation of total food intake, because it varies greatly for different food items and the feeding time is not a precise measure. The feeding rate could also vary across individuals who simultaneously feed on the same food items in the same food patch. Body size-dependent and rank-dependent differences in the feeding rate sometimes cause individuals to take strategic behavioral options. In the closing remarks, I discuss the usefulness of even limited data on feeding rate obtained under adverse observational conditions in understanding primate feeding ecology.

  17. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions.

  18. Thoroughbred blood serum inorganic phosphate concentrations in relation to feeding regime and racing performance.

    PubMed

    Denny, J E

    1987-06-01

    Horses receiving a pelleted or cubed dietary supplementation with roughage, have serum inorganic phosphate (SIP) concentrations consistently below an accepted mean of 1,032 mmol l-1 or 3, 1 mg dl-1. Further, it has been reported that the best eight, two-year-old Irish Thoroughbred track performers of 51 horses tested over a 10 month period, had significantly lower SIP concentrations than the worst eight track performers. In an endeavour to assess any nutritive effect on SIP concentrations and also to assess any effect of SIP concentrations on track performance, metabolic blood profiles from 303 horses in training at the Summerveld Training centre in Natal, were evaluated for various blood parameters over a two year period. Of these 303 profiles, 264 were analysed for SIP concentrations. These horses were on three known feeding regimes viz. Feed 1--cube feeding plus hay; Feed 2--oats, wheaten bran and greens plus hay; Feed 3--Mixed feeding regime of feeds 1 and 2; Feed 4--unknown regime. Dry matter intake varied between 2 and 2.5% of estimated bodymass and in the Feed 1 regime, the proportion of cubed supplement in the diet was increased from 30 to 70% as the training programme progressed. Statistical analysis of SIP concentrations showed that horses on the Feed 1 regime had significantly lower SIP concentrations than horses on the other feed regimes. Of the 303 profiles, 224 could be identified with actual races.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Calsamiglia, S; Hernandez, B; Hartnell, G F; Phipps, R

    2007-10-01

    The objectives were to compare the chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages containing 2 transgenes (2GM: herbicide tolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows in a single reversal design study. Cows were fed a TMR ration ad libitum and milked twice daily. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 45% corn silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 45% concentrate (1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM, 15.8% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fat). Each period was 28-d long. During the last 4 d of each period, feed intake and milk production data were recorded and milk samples taken for compositional analysis, including the presence of transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein. There was no significant difference in the chemical composition between C and 2GM silages, and both were within the expected range (37.6% DM, 1.51 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 8.6% crude protein, 40% neutral detergent fiber, 19.6% acid detergent fiber, pH 3.76, and 62% in vitro DM digestibility). Cows fed the 2GM silage produced milk with slightly higher protein (3.09 vs. 3.00%), lactose (4.83 vs. 4.72%) and solids-not-fat (8.60 vs. 8.40%) compared with C. However, the yield (kg/d) of milk (36.5), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (34.4), fat (1.151), protein (1.106), lactose (1.738), and solids-not-fat (3.094), somatic cell count (log10: 2.11), change in body weight (+7.8 kg), and condition score (+0.09) were not affected by type of silage, indicating no overall production difference. All milk samples were negative for the presence of transgenic DNA from either trait or the Cry1Ab protein. Results indicate that the 2GM silage modified with 2 transgenes did not affect nutrient composition of the silages and

  20. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  1. Jersey calf performance in response to high-protein, high-fat liquid feeds with varied fatty acid profiles: intake and performance.

    PubMed

    Bowen Yoho, W S; Swank, V A; Eastridge, M L; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk replacer (MR) with coconut oil, which contains a high concentration of medium-chain FA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n=18) and female (n=32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: (1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk [pSWM; 27.9% crude protein (CP) and 33.5% fat]; (2) 29.3% CP and 29.1% fat MR, containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); (3) 28.2% CP and 28.0% fat MR, containing 80% of fat as lard and 20% as coconut oil (80:20); and (4) 28.2% CP and 28.3% fat MR, containing 60% of the fat as lard and 40% as coconut oil (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water, and calves were monitored 1 wk postweaning. Average daily gain and body weight did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended to have greater hip height (HH) than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. No difference was observed in withers height between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on withers height, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had higher milk dry matter intake (DMI) than calves fed 80:20 (0.580 vs. 0.518 kg/d). No effect of coconut oil was observed on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score >2 compared with calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed

  2. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Duquette, L.S.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 22sodium (22Na) turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) (2 F, 4 M) over a 31-day feeding period. Wolves were fed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was 44.8 .+-. 0.7 mEq/kg; there was no differeence between males and females. Total exchangeable Na was related (r2 = 0.85, P < 0.009) to body mass. Overall, 22Na turnover overestimated Na intake by 9.8 .+-. 2.4% after 32 days. Actual Na intake was similar in males and females; however, Na turnover (P < 0.05) and the discrepancy (P < 0.01) between turnover and actual Na intake were greater in females than males. From Day 8 to the end of the study, the absolute difference (mEq) between Na intake and Na turnover remained stable. Sodium turnover (mEq/kg/day) was a reliable (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) estimator of food consumption (g/kg/day) in wolves over a 32-day period. Sampling blood and weighing wolves every 1-4 days permitted identification of several potential sources of error, including changes in size of exchangeable Na pools, exchange of 22Na with gastrointestinal and bone Na, and rapid loss of the isotope by urinary excretion.

  3. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5cm) offered ad libitum at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. All calves received the MIX diet in wk 9 to 11 and, subsequently, a novel total mixed ration (TMR; containing 40.5% corn silage, 22.0% haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values <100% indicate sorting against. Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103

  4. Effects of breed and harvest age on feed intake, growth, carcass traits, blood metabolites, and lipogenic gene expression in Boer and Kiko goats.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, S; Min, B R; Gurung, N; Behrends, J; McElhenney, W

    2012-07-01

    *, a*, b*) but HA affected (P = 0.001) all color values. Boer had similar 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase mRNA abundance, but was greater (P < 0.03) in acetyl CoA carboxylase compared with Kiko. There was no difference (P = 0.52) in total serum fatty acids (FA, mg/mL) between the 2 BR. As animals aged, their total serum FA increased (P < 0.05) and changed to an undesirable profile. Kiko had a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of muscle and less (P = 0.001) fat in the carcass. We concluded that different BR might need different harvest endpoints and feed input according to consumer acceptability.

  5. Age-related increase in food spilling by laboratory mice may lead to significant overestimation of actual food consumption: implications for studies on dietary restriction, metabolism, and dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals.

  6. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  7. Dietary interaction of cane molasses with source of roughage: intake and lactation effects.

    PubMed

    Morales, J L; Van Horn, H H; Moore, J E

    1989-09-01

    Effects of cane molasses at 0, 4, and 8% of DM in complete mixed diets were evaluated when molasses was fed to lactating dairy cows with cottonseed hulls, alfalfa haylage, or both combined. Thirty-six mature Holstein cows from mid to late lactation were used in a partially balanced incomplete block design with three 28-d periods. Variables measured were DM intake, milk yield, and composition. With cottonseed hull diets (30% of DM), molasses improved milk yield, milk fat percentage, solids-corrected milk, and feed efficiency. Dry matter intake was not affected by molasses. With alfalfa haylage diets (35% of DM), 8% molasses depressed actual milk yield and solids-corrected milk, DM intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, and feed efficiency. Milk fat percentage was increased with 4% molasses. With 65% alfalfa haylage diets, most variables measured were unaffected by molasses; however, with 8% molasses, DM intake increased and milk protein percentage decreased. In diets with both roughages combined, molasses did not affect any variable measured; however, these diets gave highest solids-corrected milk yields. Results show clearly that molasses effects depend on percentage molasses and type and amount of roughage in the diet.

  8. Parental perceptions of childhood feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lucy; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Watkins, Beth; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Previous research suggests that parental report of children's feeding corresponds with their child's nutritional intake (Cooke et al., 2006; Ekstein et al., 2010). The current study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between parental report of children's feeding problems and their child's nutritional intake in a non-clinical population and, in addition, to establish whether parental anxiety (Cooke et al., 2003) can predict whether parental report of feeding problems correspond with the child's intake. Sixty-one parents of children aged two to seven years completed the parent report measure; the Behavioural Paediatric Feeding Assessment Scale as well as a food diary detailing their child's intake, which was analysed using CompEAT nutritional software. They also completed the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Previous findings of an association between parent report of feeding problems and child's intake (Cooke et al., 2006) were not replicated. However, an association was found between parents' anxiety and their reports of feeding problems. Parental anxiety was also found to independently predict whether parent report of feeding problems matched the child's intake. Findings highlight the importance of a multifactorial approach to understanding childhood feeding difficulties. This requires replication with a clinical sample.

  9. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  10. An examination of the association of serum IGF-I concentration, potential candidate genes, and fiber type composition with variation in residual feed intake in progeny of Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Thornton, K J; Murdoch, G K; Chapalamadugu, K C; Schneider, C S; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Price, W J; Hill, R A

    2013-12-01

    Investigating the genetic and physiological drivers of postweaning residual feed intake (RFI) and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE) may identify underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the variation in these complex FE traits. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the relationship of serum IGF-I concentration and muscle gene expression with postweaning RFI and sire maintenance energy (MEM) EPD and 2) to determine fiber type composition as it relates to postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE. Results indicate that RFI and serum IGF-I concentration were not associated (P > 0.05); however, negative correlations (P < 0.05) between sire MEM EPD and serum IGF-I concentration were observed. Gene expression differences between high- and low-RFI animals were observed in cohort 1, where IGFBP5 expression was greater (P < 0.05) in high-RFI animals. When animals were grouped according to sire MEM EPD, the low MEM EPD group of cohort 1 showed greater muscle mRNA expression (P < 0.01) of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and marginally (P < 0.10) greater expression of IGFBP5 and C/EBP alpha (C/EBPα) whereas the high MEM EPD group of cohort 2 had greater muscle mRNA expression of IGFBP2 (P < 0.05) and C/EBPα (P ≤ 0.01) and marginally (P < 0.10) greater expression of IGFBP3. Biopsy tissue samples collected at harvest revealed that the percentage of type IIa fibers was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in high-RFI steers, with a similar trend (P < 0.10) being observed in high finishing phase FE steers. The percentage of type IIb fibers was higher (P < 0.05) in high-RFI (and finishing phase FE) steers than in low-RFI (and finishing phase FE) steers. There was a marginal, negative correlation between RFI and type I (r = -0.36, P = 0.08) and IIa (r = -0.37, P = 0.07) fiber percentages and a positive correlation (r = 0.48, P = 0.01) between RFI and type IIb fiber percentage whereas finishing phase FE was negatively correlated (r = -0.43, P = 0.03) with type I fiber percentage and positively

  11. Short communication: Feed sorting of dairy heifers is influenced by method of dietary transition.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Vogel, J P; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of exposing heifers to individual feed components on the extent and pattern of feed sorting upon transition to a novel ration. Holstein heifers (394 ± 62 d old, weighing 409.8 ± 37.3 kg; mean ± SD), consuming a familiar mixed silage-based ration [55% corn silage and 45% haylage, dry matter (DM) basis], were transitioned to a novel total mixed ration [TMR; 41.6% haylage, 36.5% corn silage, 14.6% high-moisture corn, and 7.3% protein supplement, DM basis] by 1 of 2 treatments: direct transition to novel TMR (DIR; n = 5) or exposure to novel TMR components individually before receiving novel TMR (COM; n = 6). During the baseline period (d 1 to 4), all heifers were offered the familiar silage-based ration. During transition (d 5 to 12), DIR heifers received the novel TMR, whereas COM heifers received the novel TMR components offered separately, in amounts according to TMR composition (target 15% orts). After transition (d 13 to 20), all heifers received the novel TMR. Feed intake and feeding time were determined daily and fresh feed and individual orts were sampled every 2d for particle size analysis and neutral detergent fiber content. The particle size separator consisted of 3 screens (18, 9, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting activity for each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. We detected no effect of treatment on dry matter intake or feeding time. After transition to the novel TMR, COM heifers sorted to a greater extent than did DIR heifers, sorting against long particles (95.4 vs. 98.9%) and for short particles (101.7 vs. 100.6%). Differences in sorting patterns resulted in COM heifers tending to have lower neutral detergent fiber intake as a percentage of predicted intake (98.9 vs. 100.5%). The results of this study suggest that the degree of feed sorting may be influenced by method of transition to a novel

  12. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN.

  13. Effects of anti-phospholipase A(2) antibody supplementation on dry matter intake feed efficiency, acute phase response, and blood differentials of steers fed forage- and grain-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether supplementation of anti-phospholipase A antibody (aPLA) would alter voluntary DMI, feed efficiency (FE), acute-phase protein concentration, and blood differentials (BD) due to a change in diet from a forage-based to a grain-based diet, individual daily DMI was measured on 80 cross-bred steers during a 141-d period. On d 0, steers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to receive a growing forage diet containing 1) no additive (CON; = 20), 2) inclusion of 30 mg of monensin and 8.8 mg of tylosin per kg of diet DM (MT; = 20), 3) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.4% of the diet DM (0.4% aPLA; = 20), and 4) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.2% of the diet DM (0.2% aPLA; = 20). On d 60, steers were transitioned into a grain-based diet (90% concentrate) over a 21-d "step-up" period while continuing to receive their supplement treatments and were maintained on the high-grain diet until the end of the trial on d 141. On d 0, 60, 81, and 141, individual shrunk BW was recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 60, 63, 65, 67, 70, 72, 74, 77, 79, 81, and 84 for determination of concentration of plasma ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and BD. During the growing forage-diet period, steers from the 0.2% aPLA and 0.4% aPLA treatments had lower ( < 0.05) residual feed intake (RFI; -0.12 ± 0.13 and -0.22 ± 0.13 kg/d, respectively) than steers from the CON treatment (0.31 ± 0.13 kg/d). During the grain-based diet period, the 0.2% aPLA (-0.12 ± 0.10 kg/d), 0.4% aPLA (0.36 ± 0.10 kg/d), and MT (0.10 ± 0.10 kg/d) steers had greater ( = 0.04) RFI than CON steers (-0.37 ± 0.10 kg/d). During the transition phase, white blood cell counts were greater ( = 0.04) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (13.61 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (12.16 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 and 12.37 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL, respectively) and concentrations of lymphocytes also were greater ( = 0.01) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (7.66 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10

  14. Identifying differences in feed efficiency among group-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L O; Fox, D G; Baker, M J; Kirschten, D P

    2006-03-01

    Identification of efficient animals in the postweaning growth phase for use in selection for improved feed efficiency is important to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of the beef cattle industry. Progeny testing using group-fed animals in commercial feedlots is the most common and practical method used to evaluate postweaning growth on large numbers of animals. We developed the Cornell Value Discovery System (CVDS) to dynamically predict growth rate, accumulated weight, days required to reach target body composition, carcass weight, and composition of individual beef cattle fed in group pens. Observed BW, ADG, BW at 28% empty body fat (EBF), breed type, environmental conditions, and dietary ME concentration are used by the CVDS to predict, for each animal in a pen, the feed DM required for maintenance (FFM), the feed DM required for gain, and the total DM required for maintenance and gain (DMR). The CVDS then computes DMR-to-ADG ratio (DMR:ADG), which is a feed conversion measure, and ADG-to-DMR ratio (ADG:DMR), which is a feed efficiency measure, for each animal. This study used the observed F:G ratio of 362 individually fed steers to evaluate CVDS-predicted indicators of feed efficiency and the Kleiber ratio. A subset of 37 data points was used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI) as an indicator of feed efficiency. The database included 4 published studies, each with detailed individual animal description, environment, diet, and body composition information. The CVDS-predicted DMR:ADG accounted for 84% of the variation in the actual F:G ratio with a mean bias of 1.94% (P = 0.20). The predicted FFM to actual DMI ratio had a high correlation with actual ADG (R2 = 0.76), and indicated a decay-type nonlinear dilution of FFM as ADG increased. The CVDS-predicted ADG:DMR and the Kleiber ratio had a significant (R2 = 0.88) logarithmic relationship. In an analysis of a contemporary group within the database, RFI was highly correlated with the F

  15. Feeding infants and young children. From guidelines to practice-conclusions and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vereijken, C M J L; Weenen, H; Hetherington, M M

    2011-12-01

    Infant feeding is a challenging and intricate process. Food intake is shaped by prior experience of flavours derived from the maternal diet in utero and via human milk, by ongoing experience of foods eaten during the first years of life including the variety, types and frequency of foods offered. The ways in which parents interact with their children including the way foods are presented, the emotional context they cultivate and the feeding practices they use can influence their children's eating habits, either positively or negatively. There is a mismatch between what government guidelines advise parents in relation to the "when, what and how" to feed children including during the weaning period and what parents actually do. Acquisition of food preferences and the establishment of eating habits in the early years form part of an ongoing, complex developmental process, however there is a gap between experimental evidence on best practice in infant feeding and what parents receive as advice about feeding. It is timely, therefore, to translate these findings into solutions for parents. Practical support for infant feeding should be evidence based, parent-focused and contingent on the needs of the developing child since infant feeding sets the foundation of healthy eating habits for life.

  16. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5 cm) offered at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration

  17. Dietary forage concentration affects the feed sorting behavior of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Beauchemin, K A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the amount of forage in a total mixed ration influences feed sorting by cows and whether the extent of this sorting changes as they adapt to a new diet. Six lactating Holstein cows, individually fed once per day, were provided each of 2 diets in a crossover design (dry matter basis): 1) a higher forage diet (HF; 62.3% forage), and 2) a lower forage diet (LF; 50.7% forage). Dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and sorting activity were monitored for each cow on each diet for 7 d. Fresh feed and orts were sampled daily for each cow and subjected to neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and particle size analysis. The particle size separator contained 2 screens (18 and 9 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 3 fractions (long, medium, and short). Sorting activity [for each fraction, NDF and physically effective NDF (peNDF)] was calculated as the actual intake expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake. Overall, sorting activity was greatest on the LF diet, with cows sorting for short particles but against long particles, medium particles, NDF, and peNDF. On the HF diet, cows sorted against long particles, NDF, and peNDF and sorted for short particles. Treatment x day interactions occurred for sorting for short particles and against peNDF, indicating that it took cows 1 d to adjust their sorting behavior to the LF diet. Cows on the LF diet consumed more dry matter but spent less time feeding, which resulted in a greater intake rate compared with cows on the HF diet. These results indicate that cows rapidly adjust their sorting behavior when subjected to a dietary change, and they exhibit more sorting for short particles and against long particles, NDF, and peNDF when fed an LF diet.

  18. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  19. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal rumen function is pivotal to health, production, and profit in dairy systems. Achieving that function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. A key influence on optimal rumen function includes dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on ...

  20. Observing the Mother-Infant Feeding Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Laws, Rachel; Moretto, Nicole; Daniels, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Early parenting is critical to effective attachment and a range of positive developmental outcomes for children. Feeding is a key task of early parenting and increasing evidence indicates that early feeding practices are important for the development of self-regulation of intake and food preferences which in turn are predictors of later obesity…

  1. Beer, Breast Feeding, and Folklore

    PubMed Central

    MENNELLA, JULIE A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.

    2009-01-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined. PMID:8293892

  2. Beer, breast feeding, and folklore.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1993-12-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined.

  3. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  4. Ruminal expression of the NQO1, RGS5, and ACAT1 genes may be indicators of feed efficiency in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal genes differentially expressed in crossbred beef steers with variation in gain and feed intake were identified in a previous study. Genes identified with expression patterns differing between animals with high gain-low feed intake and low gain-high feed intake were evaluated in a separate po...

  5. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  6. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  7. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  8. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake

    PubMed Central

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; Dileone, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake. PMID:24441680

  9. Validation of a computer based system for assessing dietary intake.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, J A; Madden, A M; Morgan, M Y

    1987-01-01

    Dietary intake was assessed in 50 patients in hospital by using a dietary history method and computer based system for data collection and standard food tables to calculate the composition of nutrients. The results were compared with those from a weighed assessment that was calculated by using both food tables and manufacturers' food analyses. The use of the food tables overestimated mean (SEM) individual nutrient intakes by between 2.5% (1.5%) and 15.5% (3.0%). The mean errors associated with the dietary history assessment varied from -23% (7.8%) for fat intake to +21.4% (8.5%) for carbohydrate intake. Overall, 30% of the assessments of total nutrient intakes that were calculated using this method were within -20% to +20% of actual values; 18% were within -10% to +10%. The mean errors associated with the computer based assessment varied from -1.0% (4.3%) for carbohydrate intake to +8.5% (3.4%) for protein intake. Overall, 56% of the assessments of total nutrient intakes were within -20% to +20% of actual intakes; 31% were within -10% to +10%. The computer based system provides an accurate, reproducible, convenient, and inexpensive method for assessing dietary intake. PMID:3115455

  10. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  11. Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that metabolic hormones such as ghrelin and leptin can act on ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons to influence feeding. The VTA is the origin of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence behavior. While blockade of dopamine via systemic antagonists or targeted gene delete can impair food intake, local NAc dopamine manipulations have little effect on food intake. Notably, non-dopaminergic manipulations in the VTA and NAc produce more consistent effects on feeding and food choice. More recent genetic evidence supports a role for the substantia nigra-striatal dopamine pathways in food intake, while the VTA-NAc circuit is more likely involved in higher-order aspects of food acquisition, such as motivation and cue associations. This rich and complex literature should be considered in models of how peripheral hormones influence feeding behavior via action on the midbrain circuits. PMID:19836414