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Sample records for actual feed intake

  1. Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Kotsonis, F N

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the postmarketing surveillance of consumption levels for a food additive, using the widely used food additive aspartame (APM, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) as an example. The safety implications of the ADI and consumption levels are also discussed. Aspartame has been assigned an ADI of 40 mg/kg/day by the World Health Organization and regulatory authorities in Europe and Canada, and of 50 mg/kg/day by the US Food and Drug Administration. A number of different methods have been used to measure consumption levels of food additives. Consumption estimations for aspartame from one such method, the food intake survey, have been done in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Finland. APM consumption in all age groups and selected subpopulations, even at the 90th percentile, is approximately 2-10 mg/kg/day and is thus well below the ADI.

  2. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  3. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  4. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472

  5. Relationship between feeding behavior and residual feed intake in growing Brangus heifers.

    PubMed

    Bingham, G M; Friend, T H; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E

    2009-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between RFI, feeding behavior, and other performance traits in growing heifers. Individual DMI was measured in Brangus heifers (n = 115) fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 2.0 Mcal/kg) for 70 d using Calan-gate feeders. Residual feed intake was computed as the residuals from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. Heifers with the greatest (least efficient, n = 18) and least (most efficient, n = 18) RFI were identified for quantification of feeding behavior traits. Continuous video recordings were obtained for all heifers during d 28 through d 56 of the 70-d feeding trial. Video data of 2 replications of four 24-h periods, 2 wk apart, were analyzed for the focal heifers. A head-down feeding event was defined as a heifer positioned in the feeder with her head lowered. A meal included all head-down feeding events that were separated by less than 300 s. The mean RFI for the high- and low-RFI heifers were 1.00 and -1.03 +/- 0.03 kg/d, respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 21.9% more (P < 0.0001) DM but had similar BW and ADG compared with low-RFI heifers. The high-RFI heifers spent less time in head-down feeding events per day (P < 0.0001; 124 vs. 152 +/- 4.3 min/d), consumed DM at a faster rate (99.6 vs. 62.8 +/- 3.3 g/min), and ate more often per day (119.1 vs. 90.5 +/- 3.9 head-down feeding events/d) compared with the low-RFI heifers; however, meal duration and frequency were not related to RFI. We conclude that feeding behavior related to head-down feeding events may be more useful as an indicator of RFI than the number of meal events. PMID:19395511

  6. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  7. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  8. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake.

  9. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Roces, F

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the techniques of nectar feeding in 11 different ant species, and quantitatively compares fluid intake rates over a wide range of nectar concentrations in four species that largely differ in their feeding habits. Ants were observed to employ two different techniques for liquid food intake, in which the glossa works either as a passive duct-like structure (sucking), or as an up- and downwards moving shovel (licking). The technique employed for collecting fluids at ad libitum food sources was observed to be species-specific and to correlate with the presence or absence of a well-developed crop in the species under scrutiny. Workers of ponerine ants licked fluid food during foraging and transported it as a droplet between their mandibles, whereas workers of species belonging to phylogenetically more advanced subfamilies, with a crop capable of storing liquids, sucked the fluid food, such as formicine ants of the genus Camponotus. In order to evaluate the performance of fluid collection during foraging, intake rates for sucrose solutions of different concentrations were measured in four ant species that differ in their foraging ecology. Scaling functions between fluid intake rates and ant size were first established for the polymorphic species, so as to compare ants of different size across species. Results showed that fluid intake rate depended, as expected and previously reported in the literature, on sugar concentration and the associated fluid viscosity. It also depended on both the species-specific feeding technique and the extent of specialization on foraging on liquid food. For similarly-sized ants, workers of two nectar-feeding ant species, Camponotus rufipes (Formicinae) and Pachycondyla villosa (Ponerinae), collected fluids with the highest intake rates, while workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Myrmicinae) and a predatory ant from the Rhytidoponera impressa-complex (Ponerinae) did so with the lowest rate. Calculating the

  10. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  11. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFI<1 SD below the mean, n=15). The low RFI cows (more efficient) consumed 1.59 kg/day less dry matter than the high RFI group (P<0.01), while they produced nearly equal 4% fat-corrected milk. The milk : feed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.05). The levels of milk protein (P<0.01), total solids (P<0.05), and nonfat solids (P<0.05) were also higher for the low RFI group, whereas milk urea nitrogen was lower (P<0.01). The daily feeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization.

  12. Self-reported versus Actual Energy Intake in Youth with and without Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Wolkoff, Laura E.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M.; Elliott, Camden A.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Osborn, Robyn L.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Episodes of loss of control over eating (LOC) in children and adolescents —often characterized by the consumption of highly palatable dessert and snack-type foods—have been associated with a lack of awareness while eating that could lead to under- or over-estimation of how much food is consumed. However, little is known about the reporting accuracy of food intake in youth with and without LOC eating. One-hundred-fifty-six girls and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination to assess for the presence of LOC eating. Youth were queried regarding the amounts of foods consumed directly following a multi-item, laboratory buffet test meal. Children with LOC (n=42) did not differ significantly from youth without LOC (n=114) in reporting accuracy of total food intake (reported minus actual energy intake: 153.0 ± 59.6 v. 96.9 ± 36.0 kcal; p=0.42). However, compared to those without LOC, children with LOC were less accurate at reporting percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate (p=0.01). Youth with LOC were also less accurate at reporting their intake of desserts (p=0.04). Findings point to the possibility that youth with LOC may have poorer recall of sweet food consumption. Future research is required to examine whether poorer recall reflects a lack of awareness while eating palatable, sweet foods. PMID:21184968

  13. Self-reported vs. actual energy intake in youth with and without loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Laura E; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M; Elliott, Camden A; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Osborn, Robyn L; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    Episodes of loss of control over eating (LOC) in children and adolescents--often characterized by the consumption of highly palatable dessert and snack-type foods--have been associated with a lack of awareness while eating that could lead to under- or over-estimation of how much food is consumed. However, little is known about the reporting accuracy of food intake in youth with and without LOC eating. One hundred fifty-six girls and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination to assess for the presence of LOC eating. Youth were queried regarding the amounts of foods consumed directly following a multi-item, laboratory buffet test meal. Children with LOC (n=42) did not differ significantly from youth without LOC (n=114) in reporting accuracy of total food intake (reported minus actual energy intake: 153.0 ± 59.6 vs. 96.9 ± 36.0 kcal; p=0.42). However, compared to those without LOC, children with LOC were less accurate at reporting percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate (p=0.01). Youth with LOC were also less accurate at reporting their intake of desserts (p=0.04). Findings point to the possibility that youth with LOC may have poorer recall of sweet food consumption. Future research is required to examine whether poorer recall reflects a lack of awareness while eating palatable, sweet foods.

  14. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and individual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is

  15. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and individual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is

  16. Residual feed intake: a nutritional tool for genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Paula, Ney Rômulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Rêgo, Wagner Martins Fontes

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this bibliographical study was to provide information about residual feed intake (RFI), a new criterion used in the selection of beef cattle for growth rate, food ingestion, and feed efficiency. RFI is calculated as the difference between real consumption and the quantity of food an animal is expected to eat based on its mean live weight and rate of weight gain. In studies of RFI, many speculations are made among researchers about the reliability of this criterion. However, there is a high genetic correlation with characteristics related to post-weaning consumption and maturity, indicating that the biological processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in young animals are similar to the processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in animals of greater age. In contrast to feed conversion, selection based on RFI seems to select for lower rates of consumption and lower animal maintenance requirements without changing adult weight or weight gain. Therefore, we conclude that the data indicate that there are extraordinary benefits to be gained from changing the goals of selection from increased weight gain to improved nutritional efficiency. Given the importance of animal production for economic development in Brazil choosing the best selection goals for livestock improvement is essential. To include an index of feed efficiency in future goals would be desirable, and RFI may play a part in this if economic methods of implementation can be developed.

  17. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  18. Fine mapping quantitative trait loci for feed intake and feed efficiency in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sherman, E L; Nkrumah, J D; Li, C; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Moore, S S

    2009-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency are economically important traits in beef cattle because feed is the greatest variable cost in production. Feed efficiency can be measured as feed conversion ratio (FCR, intake per unit gain) or residual feed intake (RFI, measured as DMI corrected for BW and growth rate, and sometimes a measure of body composition, usually carcass fatness, RFI(bf)). The goal of this study was to fine map QTL for these traits in beef cattle using 2,194 markers on 24 autosomes. The animals used were from 20 half-sib families originating from Angus, Charolais, and University of Alberta Hybrid bulls. A mixed model with random sire and fixed QTL effect nested within sire was used to test each location (cM) along the chromosomes. Threshold levels were determined at the chromosome and genome levels using 20,000 permutations. In total, 4 QTL exceeded the genome-wise threshold of P < 0.001, 3 exceeded at P < 0.01, 17 at P < 0.05, and 30 achieved significance at the chromosome-wise threshold level (at least P < 0.05). No QTL were detected on BTA 8, 16, and 27 above the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold for any of the traits. Nineteen chromosomes contained RFI QTL significant at the chromosome-wise level. The RFI(bf) QTL results were generally similar to those of RFI, the positions being similar, but occasionally differing in the level of significance. Compared with RFI, fewer QTL were detected for both FCR and DMI, 12 and 4 QTL, respectively, at the genome-wise thresholds. Some chromosomes contained FCR QTL, but not RFI QTL, but all DMI QTL were on chromosomes where RFI QTL were detected. The most significant QTL for RFI was located on BTA 3 at 82 cM (P = 7.60 x 10(-5)), for FCR on BTA 24 at 59 cM (P = 0.0002), and for DMI on BTA 7 at 54 cM (P = 1.38 x 10(-5)). The RFI QTL that showed the most consistent results with previous RFI QTL mapping studies were on BTA 1, 7, 18, and 19. The identification of these QTL provides a starting point to identify

  19. Improved nutrient digestibility and retention partially explains feed efficiency gains in pigs selected for low residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Harris, A J; Patience, J F; Lonergan, S M; J M Dekkers, C; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a unique measure of feed efficiency (FE) and an alternative to traditional measures. The RFI is defined as the difference between the actual feed intake of a pig and its expected feed intake based on a given amount of growth and backfat. Therefore, selecting pigs with a low RFI (LRFI) results in a more feed-efficient animal for a given rate of growth. Our objective was to determine the extent to which apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy use and retention may explain FE differences between pigs divergently selected for LRFI or high RFI (HRFI). After 7 generations of selection, 12 HRFI and 12 LRFI pigs (62 ± 3 kg BW) were randomly assigned to metabolism crates. Pigs had free access to a standard diet based on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal containing 0.4% TiO(2), an exogenous digestibility marker. After a 7-d acclimation, total urine and feces were collected for 72 h. Nutrient and energy digestibility, P digestibility, and N balance were then measured and calculated to determine differences between the RFI lines. As expected, ADFI was lower (2.0 vs. 2.6 kg; P < 0.01), ADG did not differ, and FE was higher in the LRFI (P < 0.001) compared to the HRFI pigs. The digestibility values for DM (87.3 vs. 85.9%), N (88.3 vs. 86.1%), and GE (86.9 vs. 85.4%) were higher (P ≤ 0.003) in the LRFI vs. HRFI pigs, respectively. The DE (16.59 vs. 16.32 MJ/kg DM) and ME (15.98 vs. 15.72 MJ/kg DM) values were also greater (P < 0.001) in LRFI pigs. When correcting for ADFI, P digestibility did not differ between the lines. However, the LRFI pigs tended to have improved N retention (P = 0.08) compared to HRFI pigs (36.9 vs. 32.1 g/d). In conclusion, the higher energy and nutrient digestibility, use, and retention may partially explain the superior FE seen in pigs selected for LRFI. PMID:23365317

  20. Actual and simulated injury of Creontiades signatus (Heteroptera: Miridae) feeding on cotton bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The actual feeding injury of Creontiades signatus (Distant) was compared to a simulated technique for study years 2005, 2006 and 2008 by injecting varying dilutions of pectinase into cotton bolls at different boll sizes (ages) in an effort to determine if such a technique could be used to reduce the...

  1. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  2. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Muñoz, Julia; Komen, Hans; Schneider, Oliver; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: “Novel Environment” and “Light Avoidance”. Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV = 23%), growth (CV = 25%) and behavior (CV = 100%). Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r = −0.65 and r = −0.77) and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r = 0.66) and growth (r = 0.58). Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1) fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r = −0.55) and growth (r = −0.66); (2) fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1) and had higher growth (P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity. PMID:21738651

  3. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  4. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  5. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  6. Characterization of feed intake patterns during lactation in commercial swine herds.

    PubMed

    Koketsu, Y; Dial, G D; Pettigrew, J E; Marsh, W E; King, V L

    1996-06-01

    This study created and used a data-base containing 25,719 farrowing and 19,393 subsequent litter records abstracted from the PigCHAMP records of 30 commercial farms and daily feed intake records of 25,040 of these lactating sows. Each lactation feed record was categorized into one of six patterns: RAPID, rapid increase in feed intake following farrowing; MAJOR, major drop in feed intake during lactation; MINOR, minor drop; LLL, low feed intake throughout lactation; LHH, low feed intake during the first week then increasing for the remainder of lactation; and GRADUAL, gradual increase in feed intake throughout lactation. At the herd level, patterns RAPID, MAJOR, MINOR, LLL, LHH, and GRADUAL were observed in 22.8%, 32.9%, 27.8%, 1.0%, 8%, and 14.7% of sows, respectively. On a sow basis, across all feed intake records of all farms, patterns RAPID, MAJOR, MINOR, LLL, LHH, and GRADUAL were observed at frequencies of 17.8%, 38.3%, 25.8%, 1.2%, 1.5%, and 15.4%, respectively. Using logistic regression, the risk factors affecting the occurrence of MAJOR and MINOR patterns were lower parity, thicker backfat, higher room temperature, and greater feed intake during early lactation. Average daily feed intake and the day of peak intake were 5.2 (1.4 SD) kg/sow and 12.6 (4.6 SD) d after farrowing. Regression coefficients of factors affecting ADFI derived from multiple regression analyses were 247 g for parity, 9 g for weaning litter weight (kg), -13 g for room temperature (degree C), 62 g for lactation length (d), and -.4 g for energy density (kcal/kg). This study demonstrated substantial individual sow and farm variation in overall feed intake and pattern of feed intake during lactation. It also identified key risk factors (i.e., parity, lactation length, room temperature, weaning litter weights, energy density) for ADFI and pattern of feed intake on commercial farms.

  7. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.

  8. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P < 0.001). Daily weight gain of R males was close to zero and significantly lower than in the other groups (-1.42 g/day; P < 0.001). Variability of DFI was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for R males (7%) than for males of dietary treatments CS (13%), with SF males showing intermediate values (11%). Semen from R males presented lower sperm abnormalities (-5.9%; P < 0.05) and higher percentages of normal and motile spermatozoa (-3.4% than SF males; P < 0.05). Dietary treatments formulated to reduce DFI variability (SF and R) led to an improvement of kindling to pregnant and kindling to insemination ratio (+0.039 and + 0.060 ± 0.015, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with CS treatment. In conclusion, a moderate restriction of rabbit

  9. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    PubMed Central

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime. PMID:19678947

  10. [Epidemiologic studies on nutrition role in develomeat of osteoarthrosis. Report 1. Analysis of actual intake of nutrients and energy in depend on financial position and in come patients osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Khodyrev, V N; Martinchik, A N

    2010-01-01

    The study gives the characteristic of the social situation of patients with osteoarthrosis (OA), among which is dominated by people with disabilities and senior citizens (60%), most of which belongs to the poor. The actual nutrition of patients with OA is characterized by low energy intake and macronutrients. Feeding low-income patients with OA was characterized by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid and calcium, whereas the intake of vitamin A, E and beta-carotene was higher in patients with OA compared with the control group.

  11. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  12. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  13. Exploring breeding opportunities for reduced thermal sensitivity of feed intake in the lactating sow.

    PubMed

    Bergsma, R; Hermesch, S

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the effects of climatic variables on daily feed intake of lactating sows and, second, to establish whether the response of sows to variation in temperature on feed intake during lactation was heritable. A total of 82,614 records for daily feed intake during lactation were available for 848 sows with 3,369 litters farrowing from January 2000 to December 2007. Climatic parameters available from the nearest weather station were maximum 24 h outside temperature, day length changes, and humidity. Although ambient room temperature was modified at the animal level in the farrowing shed, these climatic variables still had a significant effect on feed intake during lactation. Regression coefficients temperature and humidity were 0.01385 ± 0.00300 (temperature) - 0.00031 ± 0.00009 (temperature(2)) and 0.01443 ± 0.00620 (humidity) - 0.00009 ± 0.00004 (humidity(2)). There was an interaction between temperature and humidity, partly due to the climate control in the farrowing shed. At low temperature, feed intake increased considerably with greater humidity, in contrast to a small reduction in feed intake with greater humidity at high temperature. Day length change was modeled with a cosine function. At the start of autumn (September 21), sows ate 0.36 ± 0.056 kg/d less feed than at the start of spring (March 21). Daily feed intake during lactation was described as a function of days in lactation and as a function of both days in lactation and temperature using random regression models. The average heritability and repeatability summarized over the day in lactation at the mean temperature were 0.21 and 0.69, respectively. Genetic variance of temperature response on feed intake was less than 20% of the day effect. The permanent environmental variance was 2-fold (day) and 4-fold (temperature) greater than the corresponding additive genetic variance. Heritabilities of daily feed intake were greater during the first week of

  14. [An investigation into the actual condition of the sports drink intake on children].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Amano, H; Miura, K; Nagasaka, N

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual condition of the sport drink intake on children. We conducted an investigation by means of questionnaires at 3 nursery schools and a day nursery in and around Hiroshima City, and using 505 answers with the comparison between 4 areas. The following results were obtained: 1) Less than 10% of the children often took sport drinks and about 70% of the children sometimes. 2) In response to the question of when taken, 40-50% of answers revealed that the drinks were taken when the children ill and 20-40% of answers were take from home. 3) In response to the question as to why children begin to take the drinks, many parents answered that they were advised by a doctor and a nurse to give their child sport drinks to prevent for dehydration, when their children were ill. This answer accounted for about 60% of the answers to this question. 4) Parents imagined that fruit drinks, carbonated beverages and beverages with lactic acid promoted tooth decay. Also the image of cariogenicity was less than 100% fruit juices, home-made juices, sport drinks, cow milks and water or tea in that order. The results suggest that parents regard sport drinks as beverages which do not promote tooth decay and give their child sport drinks frequency.

  15. Prediction of residual feed intake for first-lactation dairy cows using orthogonal polynomial random regression.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; McFadden, T; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E; Basarab, J; Li, P; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is a measure of energy efficiency. Developing an appropriate model to predict expected energy intake while accounting for multifunctional energy requirements of metabolic body weight (MBW), empty body weight (EBW), milk production energy requirements (MPER), and their nonlinear lactation profiles, is the key to successful prediction of RFI in dairy cattle. Individual daily actual energy intake and monthly body weight of 281 first-lactation dairy cows from 1 to 305 d in milk were recorded at the Dairy Research and Technology Centre of the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada); individual monthly milk yield and compositions were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program. Combinations of different orders (1-5) of fixed (F) and random (R) factors were fitted using Legendre polynomial regression to model the nonlinear lactation profiles of MBW, EBW, and MPER over 301 d. The F5R3, F5R3, and F5R2 (subscripts indicate the order fitted) models were selected, based on the combination of the log-likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian information criterion, as the best prediction equations for MBW, EBW, and MPER, respectively. The selected models were used to predict daily individual values for these traits. To consider the body reserve changes, the differences of predicted EBW between 2 consecutive days were considered as the EBW change between these days. The smoothed total 301-d actual energy intake was then linearly regressed on the total 301-d predicted traits of MBW, EBW change, and MPER to obtain the first-lactation RFI (coefficient of determination=0.68). The mean of predicted daily average lactation RFI was 0 and ranged from -6.58 to 8.64 Mcal of NE(L)/d. Fifty-one percent of the animals had an RFI value below the mean (efficient) and 49% of them had an RFI value above the mean (inefficient). These results indicate that the first-lactation RFI can be predicted from its component traits with a reasonable coefficient of

  16. Expression of candidate genes for residual feed intake in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Al-Husseini, W; Gondro, C; Quinn, K; Herd, R M; Gibson, J P; Chen, Y

    2014-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been adopted in Australia for the purpose of genetic improvement in feed efficiency in beef cattle. RFI is the difference between the observed feed intake of an animal and the predicted feed intake based on its size and growth rate over a test period. Gene expression of eight candidate genes (AHSG, GHR, GSTM1, INHBA, PCDH19, S100A10, SERPINI2 and SOD3), previously identified as differentially expressed between divergent lines of high- and low-RFI animals, was measured in an unselected population of 60 steers from the Angus Society Elite Progeny Test Program using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the levels of gene expression were significantly correlated with RFI. The genes explain around 33.2% of the phenotypic variance in RFI, and prediction equations using the expression data are reasonably accurate estimators of RFI. The association of these genes with economically important traits, such as other feed efficiency-related traits and fat, growth and carcass traits, was investigated as well. The expression of these candidate genes was significantly correlated with feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake, which are highly associated with RFI, suggesting a functional role for these genes in modulating feed utilisation. The expression of these genes did not show any association with average daily gain, eye muscle area and carcass composition.

  17. Asssociations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited outcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...

  18. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  19. A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent development of technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. Goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a ge...

  20. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance.

    PubMed

    Syafwan, S; Wermink, G J D; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

    2012-03-01

    Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choice-fed birds could choose between the control diet, a high-protein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity.

  1. Effects of supplemental feeding on intake by kid, yearling, and adult Angora goats on rangeland.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E

    1994-03-01

    Sixty female Angoras, including 20 each of kids (9 mo), pregnant yearlings (21 mo), and pregnant adults (2.5 to 4 yr), were used to determine the effects of supplemental feed and level of supplemental digestible DM (DDM) on voluntary intake on rangeland. Treatments included negative control (NC: no supplemental feed) and supplements to provide equal CP (3 g/kg of BW.75) and either 4.8, 9.8, or 19.8 g/kg of BW.75 of DDM per day. Forage intake (FI), gastrointestinal tract fill (FILL), mean particulate turnover, mean particulate whole-tract residence time, fecal output, and forage DM digestibility (FDMD) were measured in all goats using a pulse-dose marker technique when the yearling and adult goats were in late pregnancy. Forage intake increased (quadratic regression, P = .01) at the low level of feeding, but both FI and FDMD decreased in a quadratic pattern in the pregnant goats as DDM feeding level increased. Total DDM intake reached a maximum at the medium supplementation level. Stimulative, additive, and substitutive effects on forage intake were observed as feeding level increased. Yearling goats had lower FILL and intake than kids and adults (metabolic BW basis), which may explain problems associated with reproduction in young goats.

  2. Feed intake and protein skeletal muscle in growing mice treated with growth hormone: time course effects.

    PubMed

    López-Oliva, M E; Agis-Torres, A; Unzaga, M T; Muñoz-Martínez, E

    2000-03-01

    The exogenous recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on gastrocnemius muscle growth performance and its contribution to body growth of male and female BALB/c mice fed a 12 % protein diet from 25 to 50 days of age, as well as the mechanism of utilization of feed intake to the lean muscle deposition were studied. Male and female weaning mice (21 days of age) were injected subcutaneously for 29 days with rhGH (74 ng x g(-1)) or saline vehicle (control). Feed intake and body weight (BW) were measured daily. At 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days of age twenty mice were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated, weighed and the protein content was measured. The rhGH administration caused a biphasic response of BW and muscle growth as a consequence of age-specific feed intake changes. The initial feed intake fall induced the allometric proportion decreases in both muscle growth versus body growth and protein muscle versus muscle growth. That effect was due to ineffient utilization of energy and protein intake on protein muscle store. Later on, the self-controlled increase of feed intake leads to the recovery of muscle weight to control values, through nutrient partitioning toward non protein tissue showing a compensatory muscle growth. This suggests that a higher dietary protein level should be necessary for promoting the protein anabolic effect of GH during weaning.

  3. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, heifer performance, and health of increasing the total solids (TS) content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the pre- and postweaning periods. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=15 per group), which consisted of different TS concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Heifers received 6 L of liquid feed per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. From 56 to 59d of age, the total amount of liquid feed was reduced by half, maintaining only morning feedings. Heifers were weaned at 60d and monitored until 90d of age. Water and starter were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. Corn silage was included in the diet during the postweaning period (70d of age). Feed intake and health scores were evaluated daily. Body weight and body frame development were recorded weekly. Starting at 14d, ruminal pH was measured every other week. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual TS contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% TS treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533mOsm/L. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 4wk of age. During the preweaning period, starter intake, fecal score, and days with diarrhea were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH at weaning averaged 6.2 and was similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of TS in the liquid feed were associated with linear increases in average daily gain, final body weight, and growth performance, but linear decreases in feed efficiency. During the postweaning period, intake of starter, corn silage, and water were similar among treatments, as well as average daily gain and feed efficiency. Final body weight and growth performance during the postweaning period

  4. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague–Dawley rats—normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  5. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  7. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  8. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  9. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  10. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  11. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    PubMed

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk production strategies focusing on longevity and limited use of concentrate are receiving increasing attention. To evaluate such strategies, knowledge of the development with age of animal characteristics, particularly digestion, is indispensable. We therefore investigated the development of feed intake, chewing activity, and digestion in 30 lactating Brown Swiss cows (876-3,648 d old) and 12 heifers (199-778 d old). We also studied whether age effects were exhibited differently in animals selected from herds subjected for 11 yr either to a forage-only or to a forage-concentrate feeding regimen. Forages consisted of grass hay (the only feed for heifers), corn silage, and grass pellets. Measurements lasted for 8 d, where amounts and composition of feeds, feces, and milk were recorded and analyzed. Ruminal pH data and eating and rumination activity were assessed by pH sensors put into the rumen and halter-mounted noseband sensors. The mean retention time of feed particles was assessed using Cr-mordanted fiber and data were used to calculate dry matter gut fill. Data were subjected to regression analyses with age and feeding regimen as explanatory variables, and body weight, milk yield, and proportion of hay in forage as covariates. This allowed separating age-related changes of body weight and milk yield from independent age effects and correcting for differences in preference for individual forages. In cows, organic matter intake increased with age (from slightly below to above 20kg/d), as did mean retention time and gut fill. Digestibility of organic matter did not show a clear age dependency, but fiber digestibility had a maximum in cows of around 4 to 6 yr of age. Ruminal pH and absolute eating and rumination times did not vary with cow age. Young and old cows chewed regurgitated boluses more intensively (60-70 times) than middle-aged cows (about 50 times). Effects of feeding regimen were small, except for fiber intake and rumination time per unit of intake

  12. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc. PMID:23031513

  13. The effect of level of feed intake on the pharmacokinetic disposition of oxfendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1995-01-01

    Oxfendazole (OFZ) containing a trace of [14C]-OFZ was administered intraruminally and intravenously to sheep fitted with rumen and abomasal cannulae and which were being fed 800 and 400 g of 50:50 lucerne:wheaten chaff daily. The [14C] was extensively associated with rumen particulate digesta, the shorter residence time of digesta in sheep on high compared to low feed intake reduced the duration of OFZ absorption. Abomasal fluid flow was greater in sheep on high than low intake and was attributed to increased gastric secretions. At high intake a greater proportion of the [14C] dose flowed from the abomasum in digesta fluid, but its residence time in the abomasum was of shorter duration compared with low intake. The more rapid passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract in the former sheep reduced the duration for drug desorption from particulate material and absorption into the bloodstream. In these high intake sheep and availability of [14C]-compounds in plasma was lower and more rapidly cleared than in sheep on low feed intake. Concomitant with the reduced absorption a greater proportion of the dose was excreted in faeces, and a lower proportion in the urine of sheep on high compared with low feed intake. The extensive association of OFZ and its metabolites with rumen digesta, is a principal determinant of OFZ kinetics.

  14. Altered nutrient intake by baculovirus-challenged insects: Self-medication or compensatory feeding?

    PubMed

    Shikano, Ikkei; Cory, Jenny S

    2016-09-01

    Infection by parasites can alter the feeding behaviour of hosts. Some animals seek out substances that can therapeutically clear infections (self-medication), some may seek out resources to recoup resources lost while fighting off infection (compensatory feeding) and others may be manipulated to ingest substances that benefit parasite fitness (parasite manipulation of host). Recent studies have indicated that pathogen-challenged insects can self-medicate by increasing their protein intake relative to carbohydrate, which is thought to act by boosting the insect's immune response. However, increased protein intake could also be due to compensatory feeding or pathogen manipulation of the host, and a rigorous examination of all four of the testable predictions, which is necessary for verifying self-medication behaviour, has not been conducted. The therapeutic behaviour must (1) only be employed by infected individuals and (2) alleviate the potential fitness loss of the infected individual. (3) If an uninfected individual engages in the behaviour, they suffer a decrease in fitness, and lastly, (4) the parasite cannot benefit from the behaviour. In response to baculovirus-challenge (AcMNPV) at 24°C, the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, increased proportional protein intake, by increasing protein intake rather than decreasing carbohydrate intake. Increased protein intake did not benefit virus fitness, but it also did not increase the probability of host survival. Increased proportional protein intake did not occur in response to TnSNPV-challenge at 24°C or in response to AcMNPV-challenge at a higher temperature (32°C), indicating that the virus-induced change in nutrient intake depends on virus identity and temperature. Since virus-challenged T. ni did not show the typical costs associated with infection, the altered nutrient intake is likely to be a compensatory response. Understanding the motivation behind pathogen-induced changes in feeding behaviour could have

  15. Effects of feed intake and genetics on tissue nitrogen-15 enrichment and feed conversion efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Logan, C M; Dewhurst, R J; Hodge, S; Zhou, H; Edwards, G R

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sheep genetics and feed intake on nitrogen isotopic fractionation (ΔN) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE; live weight gain/DMI), using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 2 levels of genetic merit for growth (high vs. low) and 2 levels of feed intake (110 vs. 170% of ME for maintenance [MEm]). No effect of genetic merit was detected for live weight gain ( = 0.64), FCE ( = 0.46), plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.52), plasma glucose ( = 0.78), and ΔN of wool ( = 0.45), blood ( = 0.09), and plasma ( = 0.51). Sheep receiving 170% of MEm had 175% higher live weight gain ( < 0.001) and 77% higher FCE ( < 0.001) than sheep receiving 110% of MEm. There was no difference among treatments at the beginning of the study for either blood or plasma ∆N, but the treatment groups started to diverge in blood and plasma ∆N at 21 and 7 d, respectively. Blood, plasma, and wool samples were enriched in N compared with feed. There was a higher blood, plasma, and wool ∆N for the low feed intake group than the high feed intake group ( < 0.001 in all cases). Across the 4 treatment groups, higher FCE in sheep was associated with lower ∆N for plasma, blood, and wool. Overall, the results are consistent with the potential of ∆N as a rapid, low-cost biomarker of FCE in sheep, despite there being no effects of genetic treatment on FCE and ∆N.

  16. Management factors affecting mortality, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P S; Fahey, A G; Manzanilla, E G; O'Doherty, J V; de Blas, C; Gasa, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of animal management and farm facilities on total feed intake (TFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality rate (MORT) of grower-finishing pigs. In total, 310 batches from 244 grower-finishing farms, consisting of 454 855 Pietrain sired pigs in six Spanish pig companies were used. Data collection consisted of a survey on management practices (season of placement, split-sex by pens, number of pig origins, water source in the farm, initial or final BW) and facilities (floor, feeder, ventilation or number of animals placed) during 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that batches of pigs placed between January and March had higher TFI (P=0.006), FCR (P=0.005) and MORT (P=0.03) than those placed between July and September. Moreover, batches of pigs placed between April and June had lower MORT (P=0.003) than those placed between January and March. Batches which had split-sex pens had lower TFI (P=0.001) and better FCR (P<0.001) than those with mixed-sex in pens; pigs fed with a single-space feeder with incorporated drinker also had the lowest TFI (P<0.001) and best FCR (P<0.001) in comparison to single and multi-space feeders without a drinker. Pigs placed in pens with <50% slatted floors presented an improvement in FCR (P<0.05) than pens with 50% or more slatted floors. Batches filled with pigs from multiple origins had higher MORT (P<0.001) than those from a single origin. Pigs housed in barns that performed manual ventilation control presented higher MORT (P<0.001) in comparison to automatic ventilation. The regression analysis also indicated that pigs which entered to grower-finisher facilities with higher initial BW had lower MORT (P<0.05) and finally pigs which were sent to slaughterhouse with a higher final BW presented higher TFI (P<0.001). The variables selected for each dependent variable explained 61.9%, 24.8% and 20.4% of the total variability for TFI, FCR and MORT, respectively. This study indicates that

  17. Mitochondrial complex I protein differs among residual feed intake phenotype in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M H; Kerley, M S

    2013-07-01

    Four experiments were performed to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) was related to mitochondrial complex I (CI) protein. For Exp. 1, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 270 ± 2.0 kg) were fed for a total of 170 d (n = 72). For Exp. 2, crossbred Braunvieh steers (initial BW 280 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 150 d (n = 50). For Exp. 3, crossbred Braunvieh heifers (initial BW 260 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). For Exp. 4, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 290 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). All cattle in all experiments were fed the same diet. The variable RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and actual DMI. Predicted DMI was calculated from regressing intake on ADG and metabolic body weight. Blood was collected, lymphocytes were isolated, and antibody used to capture CI. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI quantity was measured using an ELISA commercial kit (Mitosciences, OR). For Exp. 4, CI subunits were separated by gel electrophoresis and bands were analyzed for differences in concentration (absorbance) among RFI phenotypes. For all 4 experiments, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between RFI and DMI but no difference (P > 0.05) was reported for ADG and metabolic midweight. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI concentration in mitochondria was greater (P < 0.05) for low RFI compared with other treatments. For Exp. 4, animals with low RFI had a trend (P = 0.07) for greater concentration of Band I (protein S1) than high RFI. Correlation between RFI and Band I was -0.72 (P = 0.04). We concluded that mitochondrial function was at least in part responsible for differences among animals in metabolic efficiency.

  18. Effect of operative stress on food intake and feeding pattern in female rats.

    PubMed

    Varma, M; Chai, J K; Meguid, M M; Gleason, J R; Yang, Z J

    1999-05-01

    Effects of operative stress on food intake, meal size, and meal number were measured in 15 female rats before and after jugular vein catheterization. All rats had 5-d estrous cycles which correlated with cyclical feeding patterns that were most prominent during dark phase eating. In proestrous, meal number peaked (30.3+/-1.32), and meal size reached a nadir (0.33+/-0.02 g) with some corresponding change in food intake (9.8+/-0.38 g). Following operation on day 11, the cyclical variation of food intake, meal number, and meal size with estrous cycle was lost for the first 3 d, as was the diurnal rhythm in food intake. Eight rats recovered their dark phase feeding pattern by day 17 (recovered group), while 7 had not done so even by day 24 (non-recovered group). Food intake decreased to 40% of baseline in the recovered group and to 25% in the non-recovered group on day 11, increasing to 70% by day 14 in both groups and matching preoperative levels by day 17. Similar postoperative decreases were observed in meal number and meal size. Light phase feeding was increased, the ratio of day to night food intake being three times preoperative levels even at day 24. Preoperatively, non-recovered rats were similar to the recovered rats in all feeding indexes and continued to have estrous cycling in vaginal smears postoperatively. In the non-recovered rats, meal size more than doubled and meal number was depressed by 47% of preoperative levels and remained low until the end of the study. We conclude that operative stress disrupted cyclical and diurnal rhythms in food intake. In female rats, meal size is the first index to recover, increasing temporarily to maintain food intake.

  19. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Billon, Y; Lagant, H; Guillouet, P; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Hermesch, S

    2012-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for sow lifetime performance. The aims of our study were to derive equations for sow RFI during lactation (SRFI) and to evaluate the effect of selection for RFI during growth on sow traits during lactation. Data were obtained on 2 divergent lines selected for 7 generations for low and high RFI during growth in purebred Large Whites. The RFI was measured on candidates for selection (1,065 pigs), and sow performance data were available for 480 sows having from 1 to 3 parities (1,071 parities). Traits measured were sow daily feed intake (SDFI); sow BW and body composition before farrowing and at weaning (28.4 ± 1.7d); number of piglets born total, born alive, and surviving at weaning; and litter weight, average piglet BW, and within-litter SD of piglet BW at birth, 21 d of age (when creep feeding was available), and weaning. Sow RFI was defined as the difference between observed SDFI and SDFI predicted for sow maintenance and production. Daily production requirements were quantified by litter size and daily litter BW gain as well as daily changes in sow body reserves. The SRFI represented 24% of the phenotypic variability of SDFI. Heritability estimates for RFI and SRFI were both 0.14. The genetic correlation between RFI and SRFI was 0.29 ± 0.23. Genetic correlations of RFI with sow traits were low to moderate, consistent with responses to selection; selection for low RFI during growth reduced SDFI and increased number of piglets and litter growth, but also increased mobilization of

  20. Estimating salivary flow and ruminal water balance of intake, diet, feeding pattern, and slaframine.

    PubMed

    Jacques, K; Harmon, D L; Croom, W J; Hagler, W M

    1989-02-01

    Three experiments with ruminally fistulated cattle fed 12 times daily were conducted to study the role of saliva secretion in ruminal water balance when intake, diet, and feeding pattern were altered. Water balance data were determined from continuously infused Co-EDTA and pulse-dosed Cr-EDTA with saliva flow estimated by difference between water intake and ruminal outflow. Any net transruminal water flux would be included in the estimate of salivary flow. When the concentration of bluestem hay in the diet was increased from 50 to 90%, ruminal fluid volume, saliva secretion, water intake, dilution rate, and total ruminal outflow increased. At equal intake, the higher forage diet increased ruminal liquid volume, outflow, and saliva secretion but had no effect on dilution rate. Intake, but not forage concentration, affected ruminal pH when 50 and 90% hay diets were fed. Increasing feeding frequency of forage in a 65% bluestem hay diet from 4 to 12 times daily (the grain portion was fed 12 times daily) increased dilution and ruminal outflow; however, the latter was only significant with data from Cr-EDTA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids were not altered by feeding frequency of forage. Nycterohemeral patterns were seen in water intake, ruminal dilution rate, outflow, and salivary flow in both studies. Slaframine increased saliva flow by 29% and was accompanied by increased ruminal liquid volume, dilution rate, and outflow.

  1. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  2. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the

  3. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the

  4. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-02-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  5. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-01-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  6. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  7. Planned versus actual outcomes as a result of animal feeding operation decisions for managing phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Perry E; Nowak, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores how decisions made on animal feeding operations (AFOs) influence the management of manure and phosphorus. Variability among these decisions from operation to operation and from field to field can influence the validity of nutrient loss risk assessments. These assessments are based on assumptions that the decision outcomes regarding manure distribution will occur as they are planned. The discrepancy between planned versus actual outcomes in phosphorus management was explored on nine AFOs managing a contiguous set of 210 fields in south-central Wisconsin. A total of 2611 soil samples were collected and multiple interviews conducted to assign phosphorus index (PI) ratings to the fields. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r(S)) indicated that PI ratings were less sensitive to soil test phosphorus (STP) levels (r(S) = 0.378), universal soil loss equation (USLE) (r(S) = 0.261), ratings for chemical fertilizer application (r(S) = 0.185), and runoff class (r(S) = -0.089), and more sensitive to ratings for manure application (r(S) = 0.854). One-way ANOVA indicated that mean field STP levels were more homogenous than field PI ratings between AFOs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests displayed several nonsignificant comparisons for cumulative distribution functions, S(x), of mean STP levels on AFO fields. On the other hand, the K-S tests of S(x) for PI ratings indicated that the majority of these S(x) functions were significantly different between AFOs at or greater than the 0.05 significance level. Interviews suggested multiple reasons for divergence between planned and actual outcomes in managing phosphorus, and that this divergence arises at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of decision-making.

  8. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  9. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region. PMID:27113453

  10. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  11. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  12. Profile of the spleen transcriptome in beef steers with variation in gain and feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also contributing to an animal...

  13. Feed intake and weight gain in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for individual feed intake and ADG for 42 d following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior ...

  14. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  15. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  16. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  17. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point. PMID:23212835

  18. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  19. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed.

  20. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed. PMID:25624174

  1. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  2. Methane emissions from cattle differing in feed intake and feed efficiency fed a high concentrate diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane gas released by cattle is a product of fermentation of feed in the digestive tract and represents a loss of feed energy. In addition to being a dietary energy loss, methane is considered a greenhouse gas. Developing strategies to reduce methane emissions from cattle have the potential to i...

  3. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  4. Meta-analysis of feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge.

    PubMed

    Pastorelli, H; van Milgen, J; Lovatto, P; Montagne, L

    2012-06-01

    Sanitary challenges negatively affect feed intake and growth, leading to a negative impact on animal well-being and economic losses. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis to quantify the dynamic feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge. A database was constructed using 122 published experiments reporting the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs subjected to one of six sanitary challenges: digestive bacterial infections, poor housing conditions, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges, mycotoxicoses, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. The responses to experimental challenges were calculated relative to that of a control group. Statistical analyses were carried out for each challenge to quantify the mean and the dynamic responses in feed intake and growth and to identify the basis of the reduction in growth (i.e. reduction in feed intake or reduction in feed efficiency related to changes in maintenance requirements). All challenges resulted in a reduction in ADFI and ADG, with the strongest responses for mycotoxicoses, respiratory diseases and digestive bacterial infections (8% to 23% reduction in ADFI and 16% to 29% reduction in ADG). The reduction in ADG was linearly related to the reduction in ADFI for digestive bacterial infections, LPS challenge, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. For poor housing conditions and mycotoxicoses, the relationship was curvilinear. A 10% reduction in ADFI resulted in a reduction in ADG varying from 10% for mycotoxicoses to 43% for digestive bacterial infections. More than 70% of the reduction in ADG could be explained by the reduction in ADFI for mycotoxicoses, LPS challenge and respiratory diseases. For challenges associated with the gastrointestinal tract, a large part of the reduction in ADG was due to an increase in maintenance requirements, suggesting digestive and metabolic changes. A dynamic pattern in the reduction in

  5. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement. PMID:25451582

  6. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  7. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20633586

  8. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  9. Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.

    PubMed

    Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

    2014-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association

  10. Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.

    PubMed

    Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

    2014-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association

  11. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. PMID

  12. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  13. Prolonged oral cyanide effects on feed intake, growth rate and blood parameters in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Avais, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Ashraf, Kamran; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid

    2014-07-01

    Twelve adult rabbits bred locally were divided into two equal groups of 6; experimental and control groups. Rabbits in the experimental group were orally dosed with KCN at 3mg/kg body weight for 40 consecutive days. Members in control group were given placebo (distilled water) for the same period. Animals in both groups were offered feed at 90gm/kg/day while ample drinking water was available ad lib. Feed consumption and body weight of rabbits in both the groups were recorded. Blood samples were also drawn to determine various hematological parameters. Statistical analysis revealed a non-significant difference of total and daily feed intakes in rabbits of experimental and control groups. Whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the experimental group were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared to controls. Likewise a significant decrease in body weight gain of rabbits in experimental group (P<0.05) was observed. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets of rabbits in both the groups. Erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly decreased in treated rabbits. It was concluded that chronic cyanide intake had a deleterious effect on feed efficiency, growth rate and blood components of rabbits. PMID:25015439

  14. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  15. Ghrelin stimulates milk intake by affecting adult type feeding behaviour in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Piao, H; Hosoda, H; Kangawa, K; Murata, T; Narita, K; Higuchi, T

    2008-03-01

    The influence of ghrelin on feeding behaviour during infancy is unknown. To determine whether ghrelin influences milk intake in rat pups, newborn rats received a single i.p. injection of either rat ghrelin (100 microg/kg) or rabbit anti-ghrelin immunoglobulin G (100 microg/kg) every 5 days from postpartum day 5 to day 30 (P5-P30). Milk intake was then assessed by body weight gain following a 2-h suckling period. Ghrelin significantly increased weight gain relative to vehicle-injected controls in P20, P25 and P30 pups, but not in younger animals. Similarly, after 8 h of milk restriction, anti-ghrelin injections significantly decreased weight gain in P25 and P30, but not in younger pups. Interestingly, however, ghrelin did increase independent feeding in P10 and P15 pups using a paradigm in which pups consumed milk from a milk-soaked paper towel. We therefore conclude that ghrelin stimulates milk intake at an early postnatal stage, primarily by affecting adult-type feeding behaviour. PMID:18194428

  16. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake with performance and ultrasound carcass traits in Brangus heifers.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Crews, D H; Welsh, T H; Forbes, T D A; Forrest, D W; Tedeschi, L O; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) and to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations with performance and ultrasound carcass traits in growing heifers. Four postweaning feed efficiency trials were conducted using 468 Brangus heifers. The complete Brangus pedigree file from Camp Cooley Ranch (Franklin, TX), which included 31,215 animals, was used to generate genetic parameter estimates. The heifer progeny from 223 dams were sired by 36 bulls, whereas the complete pedigree file contained 1,710 sires and 8,191 dams. Heifers were individually fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 1.98 Mcal/kg of DM) using Calan gate feeders for 70 d. Heifer BW was recorded weekly and ultrasound measures of 12th- to 13th-rib fat thickness (BF) and LM area (LMA) obtained at d 0 and 70. Residual feed intake (RFIp) was computed as actual minus predicted DMI, with predicted DMI determined by linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) (MBW) and ADG with trial, trial x MBW, and trial x ADG as random effects. Overall means for ADG, DMI, and RFI were 1.01 (SD = 0.15), 9.51 (SD = 1.02), and 0.00 (SD = 0.71) kg/d, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that inclusion of gain in BF and final LMA into the base model increased the R(2) (0.578 vs. 0.534) and accounted for 9% of the variation in DMI not explained by MBW and ADG (RFIp). Residual feed intake and carcass-adjusted RFI (RFIc) were strongly correlated phenotypically and genetically with DMI and FCR, but not with ADG or MBW. Gain in BF was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with RFIp (0.22), but not with FCR or RFIc; however, final BF was genetically correlated (P < 0.05) with RFIp (0.36) and RFIc (0.39). Gain in LMA was weakly phenotypically correlated with FCR, but not with RFIp or RFIc; however, gain in LMA was strongly genetically correlated with RFIp (0.55) and RFIc (0.77). The Spearman rank correlation between RFIp and RFIc was high (0.96). These results suggest that adjusting RFI

  17. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  18. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (P<0.05) digestible lysine intake by 26%, estimated nitrogen excretion by 30% and feeding costs by US$7.60/pig (-10%) relative to group feeding. Precision feeding is an effective approach to make pig production more sustainable without compromising growth performance.

  19. Expression profile of hypothalamic neuropeptides in chicken lines selected for high or low residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sintubin, P; Greene, E; Collin, A; Bordas, A; Zerjal, T; Tesseraud, S; Buyse, J; Dridi, S

    2014-08-01

    The R(+) and R(-) chicken lines have been divergently selected for high (R(+)) or low (R(-)) residual feed intake. For the same body weight and egg production, the R(+) chickens consume 40% more food than their counterparts R(-) lines. In the present study we sought to determine the hypothalamic expression profile of feeding-related neuropeptides in these lines maintained under fed or food-deprived conditions. In the fed condition, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was 17-fold lower (P<0.05) and the ghrelin receptor was 7-fold higher (P<0.05) in R(+) compared to R(-) chicken lines. The hypothalamic expression of the other studied genes remained unchanged between the two lines. In the fasted state, orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide were more responsive, with higher significant levels in the R(+) compared to R(-) chickens, while no significant differences were seen for the anorexigenic neuropeptides pro-opiomelanocortin and corticotropin releasing hormone. Interestingly, C-reactive protein, adiponectin receptor 1 and ghrelin receptor gene expression were significantly higher (12-, 2- and 3-folds, respectively), however ghrelin and melanocortin 5 receptor mRNA levels were lower (4- and 2-folds, P=0.05 and P=0.03, respectively) in R(+) compared to R(-) animals. We identified several key feeding-related genes that are differently expressed in the hypothalamus of R(+) and R(-) chickens and that might explain the difference in feed intake observed between the two lines.

  20. Effects of dietary fiber concentrations supplied by corn bran on feed intake growth and feed efficiency of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the effects of dietary fiber and digestible energy on the feed intake, growth, and feed efficiency of juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Fish with an initial weight of 9.8 ± 0.1 g/fish (mean ± SD) were stocked in 110-L flow-through aquariums and fed for 9 weeks ...

  1. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  2. Inappropriate Feeding Behaviors and Dietary Intakes in Children with FASD or Probable PAE

    PubMed Central

    Werts, Rachel L.; Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Wargowski, David S.; Smith, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a leading cause of significant neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. Its potential consequences for eating behaviors, nutritional status and other nutritional issues in childhood have received little attention. Methods Nineteen children (11 male, 8 female) of mean age 9.6 years, referred for FASD screening and assessment, were analyzed with physical exams and caregiver questionnaires to identify possible abnormalities in food and eating behaviors. Fourteen children contributed 24-hour diet recalls and were assessed for nutritional status. Results Seventy-nine percent of participants were diagnosed with FASD and 63.2% had confirmed PAE. Fifty percent of females were overweight or obese, whereas 37% of males had reduced stature, weight, or BMI for their age. Recurring feeding problems included constant snacking (36.8%), lack of satiety (26.3%), and picky eating/poor appetite (31.6%). None had oral feeding problems. Constipation was common (26.3%). Macronutrient intakes were largely normal but sugar consumption was excessive (140%-190% of recommendations) in 57% of subjects. Vitamin A intake exceeded the Upper Limit for 64% of participants, whereas ≥50% had intakes <80% of RDAs for choline, vitamin E, potassium, β-carotene, and essential fatty acids; 100% had vitamin D intakes <80% of the RDA. Conclusions PAE may be associated with altered acquisition and distribution of body mass with increasing age. Disordered eating was common. The increased feeding behaviors surrounding lack of satiety suggest self-regulation may be altered. Constipation could reflect low dietary fiber or altered gastrointestinal function. These exploratory data suggest that children with PAE may be at risk for nutritional deficiencies, which are influenced by inappropriate food preferences, disordered eating patterns, medication use, and the stressful dynamics surrounding food preparation and mealtime. PMID:24164456

  3. Profile of the Spleen Transcriptome in Beef Steers with Variation in Gain and Feed Intake.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K; Kern, Rebecca J; Keel, Brittney N; Snelling, Warren M; Kuehn, Larry A; Freetly, Harvey C

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n = 16) that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress, and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response, and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV) genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number. PMID:27504120

  4. Profile of the Spleen Transcriptome in Beef Steers with Variation in Gain and Feed Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kern, Rebecca J.; Keel, Brittney N.; Snelling, Warren M.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n = 16) that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress, and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response, and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV) genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number. PMID:27504120

  5. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Methodology/Principal findings Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Conclusions/significance Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future

  6. Effects of temperature and feed intake on astaxanthin digestibility and metabolism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Ytrestøyl, T; Struksnaes, G; Koppe, W; Bjerkeng, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of feed intake, growth rate and temperature (8 and 12 degrees C) on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC), blood uptake of individual astaxanthin E/Z isomers and metabolism of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) were determined in Atlantic salmon. Accumulation of idoxanthin (3,4,3'-trihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4-one) in plasma was used to indicate metabolic transformation of astaxanthin. Quadruplicate groups of fish were subjected to three different treatments; one treatment was kept at 12 degrees C and fed to satiation. Another treatment kept at 12 degrees C was pair-fed with fish fed to satiation at 8 degrees C, resulting in a restricted feeding regime for the former treatment. After 2 months of feeding, the fish were fed a single meal containing ballotini glass beads to determine individual feed intake and Y(2)O(3) as an inert marker to determine ADCs. The faeces samples were pooled into 6 categories according to individual meal size (range 0.2-1.5% of body weight) and the ADCs for different meal sizes were determined. ADCs of astaxanthin ranged from 20% to 60% but were not significantly correlated with meal size. However, fish kept at 12 degrees C had approximately 10% higher ADC than fish kept at 8 degrees C (p=0.032). Growth rate and plasma astaxanthin concentration were higher at higher temperature and higher ration. Plasma concentration of idoxanthin was not affected by temperature or by meal size. The incidence of fin erosion and non-feeding individuals was significantly higher among fish fed a restricted ration indicating more aggressive interactions. Fish with visible fin damage had a tendency for having higher idoxanthin content in plasma than fish without noticeable fin damage. It is concluded that temperature but not individual meal size affect ADC of astaxanthin, whereas both influence plasma astaxanthin levels and may therefore affect the efficiency of astaxanthin utilization.

  7. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  8. Factors in the control of feed intake of horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L; Baile, C A

    1983-01-01

    Ponies are large nonruminant herbivores which are capable of utilizing the products of both enzymatic digestion in the small intestine and bacterial fermentation (volatile fatty acids, VFAs) in the cecum and large colon as sources of metabolizable energy. Recent studies have demonstrated that ponies utilize nutrient stimuli from both carbohydrate and fat digestion in the small intestine and VFAs in the cecum and large colon in the control of meal frequency. These animals, however, rely primarily upon oropharyngeal and external stimuli to control the size and duration of meals. This is perhaps an adaptation to a feeding pattern of small frequent meals and food sources which provide significant amounts of nutrients to the animal system only after microbial fermentation in the hind gut. Nutrient cues which are operant in controlling feed intake in omnivores, carnivores, and ruminants appear to be important primarily in the regulation of meal frequency and long-term energy balance in the equine animal. The emphasis on oropharyngeal stimuli in the immediate control of feed intake of ponies reflects the unusual digestive physiology of these animals relative to other species studied to date.

  9. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  10. Locomotor activity and body temperature in selected mouse lines differing greatly in feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sojka, P A; Griess, R S; Nielsen, M K

    2013-08-01

    Locomotor activity, body temperature, feed intake, and BW were measured on 382 mature male mice sampled from lines previously selected (25 generations) for either high (MH) or low (ML) heat loss and an unselected control (MC). Animals were from all 3 independent replicates of the 3 lines and across 4 generations (68 through 71). Locomotor activity and body temperatures were obtained using implanted transmitters with data collection over 4 d following a 3-d postsurgery recovery period. Data were collected every minute and then averaged into 30-min periods, thus providing 192 data points for each mouse. Least-squares means for feed intake adjusted for BW (Feed/BW, feed·BW(-1)·d(-1), g/g) were 0.1586, 0.1234, and 0.1125 (±0.0022) for MH, MC, and ML, respectively, with line being a highly significant source of variation (P < 0.0003). Line effects for locomotor activity counts, transformed to the 0.25 power for analysis, were significantly different, with MH mice being 2.1 times more active than ML mice (P < 0.003); MC mice were intermediate. Differences in body temperature were significant for both line (P < 0.03) and day effects (P < 0.001), with a 0.32°C difference between the MH and ML lines. Fourier series analysis used the combined significant periodicities of 24, 18, 12, 9, 6, and 3 h to describe circadian cycles for activity and body temperature. All 3 lines expressed daily peaks in body temperature and locomotor activity ∼3 h into darkness and ∼2 h after lights were turned on. There was a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and Feed/BW (P < 0.0001) than between body temperature and Feed/BW (P < 0.01); differences between lines in locomotor activity and body temperature explained 17% and 3%, respectively, of differences between lines in Feed/BW. Thus, line differences in locomotor activity contribute to line differences in maintenance, but approximately 80% of the differences between the MH and ML selection lines in Feed/BW remains

  11. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  12. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  13. Development and evaluation of equations for prediction of feed intake for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roseler, D K; Fox, D G; Chase, L E; Pell, A N; Stone, W C

    1997-05-01

    Improved prediction equations for dry matter intake (DMI) of Holstein cows that consume high energy diets were developed using regression techniques applied to a comprehensive database. The equations for predicting DMI, which were dependent on parity, accounted for the effects of milk yield, milk protein, body weight (BW), BW change, days pregnant, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and night cooling. A simplified prediction equation of DMI for farm application was developed and based on milk protein yield and BW at calving. An ambient temperature and a lag adjustment factor for early lactation were developed to improve accuracy of prediction of DMI of dairy cows in early lactation. The developed equations for DMI were evaluated against six independent data files. These equations accounted for 55 to 98% of the variation of the weekly group DMI of the independent validation data. The remainder of the variation in intake was attributed to diet, management, and undescribed animal factors. The equations developed in this study had a mean proportional bias of 5.6% and a mean square prediction error of 5.45 kg2/d. Predicted intake using the new equations was within 3 to 8% of actual intake. The new equations must be applied to situations in which Holstein dairy cows are fed highly digestible diets because dietary fill effects are not considered in these equations. The relationship of milk protein yield and DMI warrants further investigation.

  14. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots ( P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  15. Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2005-06-01

    The effects of exogenous proteolytic enzyme (EPE) on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance were determined using 8 lactating Holstein cows in a double 4 x4 Latin square experiment with a 2 x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets based on barley silage and alfalfa hay as the forage sources were formulated to maintain different forage to concentrate ratios [60:40 vs. 34:66, dry matter (DM) basis]. Four dietary treatments were tested: high forage (HF) without EPE (HF-EPE), HF with EPE (HF+EPE), low forage (LF) without EPE (LF-EPE), and LF with EPE (LF+EPE). The EPE, which contained proteolytic activity but negligible fibrolytic activity, was added to the concentrate portion of the diets after pelleting at a rate of 1.25 mL/kg of DM. Adding EPE to the diet increased total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, N, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber, with larger increases in digestibility observed for cows fed LF+EPE. Effects of added EPE on in vivo digestibility were consistent with improvements in gas production and degradability of the individual components of the TMR observed in vitro. Ruminal enzymic activities of xylanase and endoglucanase increased with addition of EPE to the diet, which may have accounted for improvements in fiber digestion. However, feeding EPE unexpectedly decreased feed intake of cows, which offset the benefits of improved feed digestibility. Consequently, milk yield of cows fed high or low forage diets decreased with adding EPE. Nevertheless, dairy efficiency, expressed as milk/DM intake, was highest for the LF+EPE diet. Addition of EPE to the diet increased milk fat and milk lactose percentages, but decreased milk protein percentage of cows fed a low forage diet. For cows fed high forage diets, EPE only increased milk lactose percentage. Efficiency of N use for milk production was decreased for both the high and low forage diets when EPE was added to the diet. Mean ruminal pH was

  16. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride is associated with decreased dry matter intake shortly after initiation of feeding dependent on season and previous intake.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Vahl, C I; Depenbusch, B E; Hutcheson, J P; Thomson, D U

    2014-10-01

    A database of daily feed deliveries for steers and heifers fed at 3 commercial feedyards in Kansas between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2012 (n = 1,515 pens), was used to investigate the prevalence and extent of changes in DMI after initiation of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZIL) at 8.3 mg/kg (DM) for 20 d. Season affected the percentage of pens experiencing a decrease in DMI post-ZIL (P < 0.01), but there were significant (P < 0.01) season × sex, season × feedyard, season × pre-ZIL DMI, season × days post-ZIL, and season × period post-ZIL interactions. Average DMI decreased within 1 d after initiation of ZIL feeding in all seasons; however, this initial decrease was greater (P < 0.01) in the summer (-0.30 kg) and winter (-0.27 kg) than in the spring (-0.05 kg) or fall (-0.06 kg). The decrease in DMI averaged across all days post-ZIL was greater in summer than during other seasons for both steers and heifers, and the change in intake was greater in steers than heifers in all seasons but fall. Size of intake change within each season varied by feedyard and by season. The percentage of pens that had a large DMI decrease (≥ 0.9 kg/d) was greatest during the summer (33%), and the percentage of pens with no decrease was the least (15%); during the fall, 34% of pens had no DMI decrease and only 8% of pens had a large decrease in DMI. Intake before ZIL initiation affected size and prevalence of DMI decrease; with increasing pre-ZIL DMI, the percentage of pens with a decrease increased from 62% for pens with pre-ZIL DMI of less than 7.7 kg/d to 82% for pens consuming greater than 10.5 kg/d pre-ZIL (P < 0.01). Of those pens with greater than 10.5 kg/d pre-ZIL DMI, 27% had DMI decrease of greater than 1.4 kg/d compared to only 3% for pens consuming <8.7 kg/d pre-ZIL. The average dosage of ZIL consumed per animal with an average DMI of 7.3, 8.2, 9.1, 10.0, and 10.9 kg/d was calculated to be 61, 68, 76, 83, and 91 mg/animal daily, which may be related to the

  17. Short-term number of pecks and feed intake levels: a link with the physical characteristics of feed in four-week-old turkeys.

    PubMed

    Chagneau, A M; Laviron, F; Lamy, S; Bouvarel, I; Picard, M; Lessire, M; Lescoat, P

    2006-05-01

    Short-term reactions of young turkeys to changes in the physical characteristics of their feed sometimes give rise to problems of adaptation in the field. Specific feeders were designed for this study to automatically count the number of pecks given at feed by 4-wk-old male turkeys during 95-min sessions. The lighting program was intermittent (0140L:0100D). In experiment 1, 4 series of 12 birds were tested 4 times/day from 28 to 31 d of age. Four control turkeys were consistently tested with 1 feed, and 8 experimental turkeys ate 1 of 32 commercial feeds (30 as pellets and 2 as crumbs) with a distinct feed for each test (16 replicates/experimental feed). Feed intake, total number of pecks, and pecking efficiency (mg/peck) were recorded for each test and normalized for each turkey. The effects of series, day, and test were not significant for controls. The number of pecks and pecking efficiency differed among feeds (P < 0.001) but not feed intake. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis for these variables distinguished 3 groups of feed: group 3 (6 crumb and small pellets) resulted in high pecking and low efficiency. However, group 1 (10 feeds) were pecked at less but more efficiently than group 2 (16 feeds) for similar feed intake, although the average sizes of the pellets were similar (6.23 and 6.16 mm, respectively), as were the average bulk density, hardness, resistance to abrasion, and color characteristics of the pellets for both groups. Two feeds of each of these 2 groups were compared in a second experiment for 12 turkeys receiving the 4 feeds successively each day over 4 d in varying order. The turkeys consistently pecked the feeds of group 1 less and less efficiently compared with group 2. The automated measurement of pecking, combined with a more detailed image analysis of feed particles, might enhance the evaluation of the effects of feed technology on the behavior of turkeys and thus become a useful tool for the feed industry.

  18. Feeding preferences and voluntary feed intake of dairy cows: Effect of conservation and harvest time of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D; Vasseur, E; Berthiaume, R; DeVries, T J; Bergeron, R

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive forages contain compounds, such as tannins, that are active against pathogens. They have been successfully used in ruminants to control parasite infections. Because cattle may find bioactive forages unpalatable, it is of interest to know if an afternoon harvest time, which has been shown to increase the percentage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), hence palatability, may mitigate this. The objectives of this study were to quantify voluntary intake and preference of dairy cows for 2 bioactive forages, harvested in the morning and evening, in addition to determining their time spent grazing on each forage species. The forage species evaluated were fresh chicory harvested at 0700 h (FCAM) and 1800 h (FCPM), fresh birdsfoot trefoil harvested at 0700 h (FBAM) and 1800 h (FBPM), birdsfoot trefoil baleage harvested the previous summer at 0700 h (BBAM) and at 1800 h (BBPM), and third-cut alfalfa baleage harvested the previous summer and used as control (CON). Single forages were offered ad libitum in 30-min tests to 14 dairy cows to determine intake in a 7 × 7 Latin square (experiment 1). Every possible pair of forages (21 pairs) was then presented for a 30-min test to 8 different dairy cows, and feed intake was measured (experiment 2). Finally, time spent grazing on chicory and birdsfoot trefoil was measured on 12 dairy cows (experiment 3). The tests consisted of 2 d of restriction on 1 of the 2 fields for 1h, and 2 d of free-choice sessions (1h) between the 2 fields adjacent to each other. Grazing time and location of the animals on the field was assessed through 2-min scan sampling. In experiment 1, the highest voluntary intakes were for CON, BBPM, and BBAM. In experiment 2, BBPM was preferentially consumed over all other forages followed by CON and BBAM. Multidimensional scaling showed that preference for BBPM, CON, and BBAM in dimension 1 was positively associated with dry matter and nitrogen content, and negatively associated with hemicellulose and

  19. Feeding preferences and voluntary feed intake of dairy cows: Effect of conservation and harvest time of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D; Vasseur, E; Berthiaume, R; DeVries, T J; Bergeron, R

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive forages contain compounds, such as tannins, that are active against pathogens. They have been successfully used in ruminants to control parasite infections. Because cattle may find bioactive forages unpalatable, it is of interest to know if an afternoon harvest time, which has been shown to increase the percentage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), hence palatability, may mitigate this. The objectives of this study were to quantify voluntary intake and preference of dairy cows for 2 bioactive forages, harvested in the morning and evening, in addition to determining their time spent grazing on each forage species. The forage species evaluated were fresh chicory harvested at 0700 h (FCAM) and 1800 h (FCPM), fresh birdsfoot trefoil harvested at 0700 h (FBAM) and 1800 h (FBPM), birdsfoot trefoil baleage harvested the previous summer at 0700 h (BBAM) and at 1800 h (BBPM), and third-cut alfalfa baleage harvested the previous summer and used as control (CON). Single forages were offered ad libitum in 30-min tests to 14 dairy cows to determine intake in a 7 × 7 Latin square (experiment 1). Every possible pair of forages (21 pairs) was then presented for a 30-min test to 8 different dairy cows, and feed intake was measured (experiment 2). Finally, time spent grazing on chicory and birdsfoot trefoil was measured on 12 dairy cows (experiment 3). The tests consisted of 2 d of restriction on 1 of the 2 fields for 1h, and 2 d of free-choice sessions (1h) between the 2 fields adjacent to each other. Grazing time and location of the animals on the field was assessed through 2-min scan sampling. In experiment 1, the highest voluntary intakes were for CON, BBPM, and BBAM. In experiment 2, BBPM was preferentially consumed over all other forages followed by CON and BBAM. Multidimensional scaling showed that preference for BBPM, CON, and BBAM in dimension 1 was positively associated with dry matter and nitrogen content, and negatively associated with hemicellulose and

  20. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Butler, A R; Kern, R J; Hill, R; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E; Oliver, W T; Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-08-01

    Small intestine mass and cellularity were previously associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates, and it contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptome differences among the small intestine from cattle with divergent gain and feed intake. Animals most divergent from the bivariate mean in each of the four phenotypic Cartesian quadrants for gain × intake were selected, and the transcriptomes of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were evaluated. Gene expression analyses were performed comparing high gain vs. low gain animals, high intake vs. low intake animals and each of the phenotypic quadrants to all other groups. Genes differentially expressed within the high gain-low intake and low gain-high intake groups of animals included those involved in immune function and inflammation in all small intestine sections. The high gain-high intake group differed from the high gain-low intake group by immune response genes in all sections of the small intestine. In all sections of small intestine, animals with low gain-low intake displayed greater abundance of heat-shock genes compared to other groups. Several over-represented pathways were identified. These include the antigen-processing/presentation pathway in high gain animals and PPAR signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, retinol metabolism and melatonin degradation pathways in the high intake animals. Genes with functions in immune response, inflammation, stress response, influenza pathogenesis and melatonin degradation pathways may have a relationship with gain and intake in beef steers. PMID:27226174

  1. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P < 0.05) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams. Body weight gain, ADG, FS, DMI, and RFI were not significant (P > 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P < 0.01) for BW gain, ADG, FS, and DMI. Among RFI classifications, beginning and end BW, BW gain, ADG, and FS were not different (P > 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared

  2. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  3. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  4. Effect of adaptation strategies when feeding fresh cassava foliage on intake and physiological responses of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Van, Do Thi Thanh; Spörndly, Eva; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study different adaptation strategies to avoid HCN intoxication when feeding fresh cassava foliage to sheep. Twenty-four Phan Rang lambs (initial weight = 19.6 kg at 5.5 months of age) were used in the study. The four experimental diets contained guinea grass (Panicum maximum) supplemented with concentrate at 1.5% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM) (control) or supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCF) that was introduced into the diet with an adaptation period of 0 (FCF-0), 7 (FCF-7) or 21 (FCF-21) days before reaching the target feeding level of 2% of BW. The average intake of FCF expressed as DM was not different amongst the supplemented treatments and ranged from 1.4 to 1.5% of BW but gradually increased during the first 7 days without any adaptation. The hydrogen cyanide consumed varied from 5.1 to 5.4 mg/kg BW and no difference between treatments with cassava foliage in the diet was found. The live weight gain was significantly higher in the treatments control and FCF-7 compared to FCF-21. No significant differences in heart rate, respiration rate and rumen movement were found between diets. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs increased concomitantly with the increase in fresh cassava foliage offered during the first part of the experiment. In conclusion, an adaptation period of approximately 7 days seems to be favourable in combined diets where cassava foliage is offered in quantities up to 2% of BW. This level of intake could enhance the intake and LWG of the lambs without any documented effects on heart rate, respiration rate or rumen movements.

  5. A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

    2012-01-01

    When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (p<0.05) in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. However, plasma osmolality in the FBR treatment was lower (p<0.05) than compared to the NFC control from 30 min after the start of feeding. Therefore, thirst level in the FBR treatment was 82.7% less (p<0.01) compared with that in the NFC control upon conclusion of the 30 min drinking period. The results of the study indicate that the increased

  6. Chronic sugar intake dampens feeding-related activity of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Anaya; Gosnell, Blake A.; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Grace, Martha K.; Klockars, Anica; Olszewski, Pawel K.; Levine, Allen S.

    2010-01-01

    Increased tone of orexigens mediating reward occurs upon repeated consumption of sweet foods. Interestingly, some of these reward orexigens, such as opioids, diminish activity of neurons synthesizing oxytocin, a nonapeptide that promotes satiety and feeding termination. It is not known, however, whether consumption-related activity of the central oxytocin system is modified under chronic sugar feeding reward itself. Therefore, we examined how chronic consumption of a rewarding high-sucrose (HS) vs. bland cornstarch (CS) diet affected the activity of oxytocin cells in the hypothalamus at the time of meal termination. Schedule-fed (2 hrs/day) rats received either a HS or CS powdered diet for 20 days. On the 21st day, they were given the same or the opposite diet, and food was removed after the main consummatory activity was completed. Animals were perfused 60 minutes after feeding termination and brains were immunostained for oxytocin and the marker of neuronal activity, c-Fos. The percentage of c-Fos-positive oxytocin cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was significantly lower in rats chronically exposed to the HS than to the CS diet, regardless of which diet they received on the final day. A similar pattern was observed in the supraoptic nucleus. We conclude that the chronic rather than acute sucrose intake reduces activity of the anorexigenic oxytocin system. These findings indicate that chronic consumption of sugar blunts activity of pathways that mediate satiety. We speculate that a reduction in central satiety signaling precipitated by regular intake of foods high in sugar may lead to generalized overeating. PMID:20399242

  7. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to escribe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550 000 rounds each, from which 50 000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult. PMID:11929625

  8. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to describe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550000 rounds each, from which 50000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult.

  9. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  10. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  11. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices.

  12. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. PMID:22709645

  13. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  14. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  15. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  17. Residual feed intake, body composition, and fertility in yearling beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, K S; Turk, P; Wagner, W R; Felton, E E D

    2011-04-01

    One hundred thirty-seven spring-born yearling beef heifers of British breed types were used to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI) and growth rate, body composition, mature size, and fertility. Heifers were housed in a dry lot facility during the experimental period, and data were collected over a 2-yr period (yr 1, n = 67; yr 2, n = 70). Individual feed intake, BW, BCS, hip height, and ultrasonic measurements [subcutaneous rib fat (UBF), rump fat (URF), LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF)] of body composition were recorded. Individual feed intakes (kg of TDN consumed/d) were used to calculate RFI combining both years of data. Heifers averaged 387.0 ± 19.4 d of age and 337.1 ± 29.9 kg of BW at initiation of the experiment. Mean ADG was 1.14 ± 0.21 kg/d during the trial. Based on RFI, with year of test and farm of origin included in the model as covariates, heifers were classified into groups: positive (POS; 0.74 kg of TDN/d) or negative (NEG; -0.73 kg TDN/d) for first analysis and high (HI), medium (MED), or low (LO; mean RFI = 1.06, -0.01, and -1.13 kg of TDN/d, respectively) subsequently. An initial phenotypic relationship (P < 0.05) between RFI and both UBF and URF (r = 0.19 and 0.17, respectively) was sustained (P < 0.01) with UBF (r = 0.27) and URF (r = 0.24) to trial conclusion. No other correlations with RFI were significant. Heifers classified as POS reached puberty earlier than those classified as NEG (414 ± 3.83 vs. 427 ± 4.67 d of age, P = 0.03), and possessed greater LMA per 100 kg of BW (LMACWT) at conclusion of the trial (P < 0.01). Medium heifers exhibited less URF (P < 0.05) compared with either HI or LO heifers at trial initiation. Low heifers possessed less LM area (cm(2)) per 100 kg of BW (P < 0.05) than HI but did not differ (P > 0.10) from MED heifers at either the beginning or the end of test. Additionally, a negative linear relationship was observed between RFI and age at puberty (P < 0.05). Each 1-unit

  18. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M. Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH/sub 3/ N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not /sup 15/N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed.

  19. Effects of feeding algal meal high in docosahexaenoic acid on feed intake, milk production, and methane emissions in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-05-01

    This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g

  20. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  1. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa.

  2. Genetic parameters for feed intake, litter weight, body condition and rebreeding success in primiparous Norwegian Landrace sows.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, H; Fikse, W F; Grandinson, K; Lundeheim, N; Canario, L; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for feed intake recorded as farmers' perception of young sows' appetite for the first 3 weeks of lactation (APP) and feed intake recorded for one day in the 3rd week of lactation (FEED), litter weight (LW) at 3 weeks, sow body condition at weaning (BC) and the following five reproduction traits: weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 7 days (WSI7), weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 50 days (WSI50), delayed service or not (DELAYED), pregnant on first service or not (PREGNANT) and litter size in 2nd parity (NBT2). The analyses included data on 4606 Norwegian Landrace 1st-parity sows and their litters. The Gibbs sampling method was used. The traits DELAYED and PREGNANT were analysed as threshold traits and APP, FEED, LW, BC, WSI7, WSI50 and NBT2 were analysed as linear traits. The heritability estimates for APP and FEED were low (<0.1), whereas the estimates for DELAYED and PREGNANT were rather high (0.4 and 0.3). The heritability estimate for BC was 0.2. The genetic correlations confirmed the complexity of breeding for sow performance; selection for heavy 1st litters may lead to lower body condition at weaning, which in turn leads to lower reproductive performance and smaller litters in 2nd parity. Selection for higher sow feed intake would improve body condition, but the simple way of measuring feed intake tested in this study (APP and FEED) cannot be recommended because of the low heritability obtained for these traits.

  3. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the

  4. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares. PMID:9078493

  5. Supplementation of cottonseed, linseed, and noug seed cakes on feed intake, digestibility, body weight, and carcass parameters of Sidama goats.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Tolera, Adugna

    2010-04-01

    A digestibility, feed intake, and carcass evaluation experiment using 20 yearling intact male Sidama goats weighing 16.4 +/- 0.63 kg (mean +/- SD) was conducted in Ethiopia with the objectives to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) gain, and carcass parameters. The treatments included feeding natural pasture hay (T1, control) and supplementation with cottonseed cake (284 g-T2), linseed cake (250 g-T3), and noug seed cake (296 g-T4) on dry matter (DM) basis to supply 85 g crude protein (CP) per head per day. Randomized complete block design for feed intake and BW parameters and complete randomized design for digestibility and carcass parameters were used. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.01) for T1 than for the other treatments. T3 promoted higher (P < 0.01) DM (29.3 g/kg W(0.75)/day) and CP (14.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day) intake than T4 (8.9 g/kg W(0.75)/day DM and 4.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day CP). T3 showed better (P < 0.05) organic matter and CP digestibility than T2. Goats in T3 had higher nitrogen intake (P < 0.01) and retention (P < 0.05) than those in T1. Goats in T2 and T3 showed higher (P < 0.05) daily BW gain and final BW than those in T4 and T1. Goats in T2 and T3 had higher (P < 0.05) slaughter weight, empty BW, hot carcass weight, rib-eye muscle area, and dressing percentage on slaughter weight basis than those in T1. The results showed that T2 and T3 had similar effect on CP intake, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters for growing Sidama goats fed natural pasture hay.

  6. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  7. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  8. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  9. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  10. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    PubMed

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  11. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    PubMed

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  12. Partial-genome evaluation of postweaning feed intake and efficiency of crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Snelling, W M; Allan, M F; Keele, J W; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Bennett, G L; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G; Freetly, H C; Nielsen, M K; Rolfe, K M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of individual SNP and the variation explained by sets of SNP associated with DMI, metabolic midtest BW, BW gain, and feed efficiency, expressed as phenotypic and genetic residual feed intake, were estimated from BW and the individual feed intake of 1,159 steers on dry lot offered a 3.0 Mcal/kg ration for at least 119 d before slaughter. Parents of these F(1) × F(1) (F(1)(2)) steers were AI-sired F(1) progeny of Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental bulls mated to US Meat Animal Research Center Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite females. Steers were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 BeadChip assay (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Effects of 44,163 SNP having minor allele frequencies >0.05 in the F(1)(2) generation were estimated with a mixed model that included genotype, breed composition, heterosis, age of dam, and slaughter date contemporary groups as fixed effects, and a random additive genetic effect with recorded pedigree relationships among animals. Variance in this population attributable to sets of SNP was estimated with models that partitioned the additive genetic effect into a polygenic component attributable to pedigree relationships and a genotypic component attributable to genotypic relationships. The sets of SNP evaluated were the full set of 44,163 SNP and subsets containing 6 to 40,000 SNP selected according to association with phenotype. Ninety SNP were strongly associated (P < 0.0001) with at least 1 efficiency or component trait; these 90 accounted for 28 to 46% of the total additive genetic variance of each trait. Trait-specific sets containing 96 SNP having the strongest associations with each trait explained 50 to 87% of additive variance for that trait. Expected accuracy of steer breeding values predicted with pedigree and genotypic relationships exceeded the accuracy of their sires predicted without genotypic information, although gains in accuracy were not sufficient to encourage that

  13. Bivariate Genome-Wide Association Analysis of the Growth and Intake Components of Feed Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Beever, Jonathan E.; Bollero, Germán A.; Southey, Bruce R.; Faulkner, Daniel B.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI), two major components of feed efficiency in cattle, were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Uni- and multi-SNP models were used to describe feed efficiency in a training data set and the results were confirmed in a validation data set. Results from the univariate and bivariate analyses of ADG and DMI, adjusted by the feedlot beef steer maintenance requirements, were compared. The bivariate uni-SNP analysis identified (P-value <0.0001) 11 SNPs, meanwhile the univariate analyses of ADG and DMI identified 8 and 9 SNPs, respectively. Among the six SNPs confirmed in the validation data set, five SNPs were mapped to KDELC2, PHOX2A, and TMEM40. Findings from the uni-SNP models were used to develop highly accurate predictive multi-SNP models in the training data set. Despite the substantially smaller size of the validation data set, the training multi-SNP models had slightly lower predictive ability when applied to the validation data set. Six Gene Ontology molecular functions related to ion transport activity were enriched (P-value <0.001) among the genes associated with the detected SNPs. The findings from this study demonstrate the complementary value of the uni- and multi-SNP models, and univariate and bivariate GWAS analyses. The identified SNPs can be used for genome-enabled improvement of feed efficiency in feedlot beef cattle, and can aid in the design of empirical studies to further confirm the associations. PMID:24205251

  14. Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants. Results from the SAIDI study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gloria A; Scott, Jane A; Woodman, Richard J; Kim, Susan W; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-10-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1-3) for fruit and 3 (2-5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p < 0.05). This highlights the need for addressing antecedents of maternal feeding self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.

  15. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  16. The Use of Inappropriate Feeding Practices by Rural Parents and Their Effect on Preschoolers' Fruit and Vegetable Preferences and Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bante, Holly; Elliott, Michael; Harrod, Amanda; Haire-Joshu, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of inappropriate feeding practices used by parents of preschoolers and the impact on a child's preference for and intake of fruits and vegetables (FV). Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a telephone interview. Setting: A community-based program in rural southeastern Missouri. Participants:…

  17. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  18. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  19. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  20. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  1. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  2. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  3. Constant light induces alterations in melatonin levels, food intake, feed efficiency, visceral adiposity, and circadian rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Cyrilla H; Murphy, Helen M

    2009-10-01

    Melatonin levels, metabolic parameters, circadian rhythm activity patterns, and behavior were observed in rats subjected to a 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle (LD) compared to animals exposed to continuous dark (DD) or continuous light (LL). LD and DD animals were similar in melatonin levels, food intake, relative food intake, feed efficiency, water intake, circadian activity levels, and behavior. LL animals had lower melatonin levels in the subjective dark compared to LD and DD animals. Food intake, relative food intake, and water intake values were lower and feed efficiency was more positive in LL animals compared to LD and DD animals. In addition, LL animals exhibited greater visceral adiposity than the other two groups. The circadian rhythmicity of activity became free-running in LL animals and there was a decrease in overall activity. Notable behavioral changes in LL animals were an increase in irritability and excitability. Results indicate that a decrease in melatonin levels and concomitant changes in metabolism, circadian rhythms, and behavior are consequences of exposure to constant light. PMID:19761654

  4. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness.

  5. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  6. Comparative effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Mei; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets. A total of 52 primiparous sows (Large White) were randomly divided into four treatments (n = 13) and received 6 g/kg sodium butyrate (SB), fruit-milk (FM) flavor and fruit-milk-anise (FMA) flavor with pair feeding to the mothers receiving the control diet. The feeding trial lasted for 29 days, including 21 days of nursing and 8 days of post-weaning period, respectively. The nursing and weaning piglets received creep diets with the same flavor or SB supplement as their mother. The results showed that FMA flavor increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) of lactating sows (P < 0.01), as well as improved litter weight gain (P = 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) of nursing pigs among treatments. Indeed, greater ADFI and average daily gain of weaning piglets for the initial 8 days after weaning was observed in the FMA group compared with those in the control group (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that adding FMA flavor was superior to SB for increasing feed intake of lactating sows and improving growth performance of piglets.

  7. Nutritional assessment in alcoholic patients. Its relationship with alcoholic intake, feeding habits, organic complications and social problems.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, F; Pérez-Manzano, J L; Milena, A; González-Reimers, E; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Martínez-Riera, A; Alemán-Valls, M R; de la Vega-Prieto, M J

    2000-06-01

    To establish their ability to predict malnutrition, irregular feeding, alcoholic intake, derangement of social and familial links and organic complications (liver cirrhosis) were assessed in 181 hospitalized male alcoholic. BMI was under 18.5 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, between 18.5-20 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, 20-25 kg/m(2) in 42%, 25-30 kg/m(2) in 32.2% and over 30 kg/m(2) in 8.2% of patients. Malnutrition was related to the intensity of ethanol intake, development of social or familial problems, irregularity of feeding habits and cirrhosis with ascites. Irregularity of feeding habits was also related to heavy drinking and to social or familial derangement. By logistic regression analysis, the only variables which independently predict malnutrition were irregular feeding habits and liver cirrhosis with ascites. In a second step, irregular feeding was dependent on social or familial troubles and daily intake of ethanol. So, malnutrition related to alcoholism seems multifactorial in its pathogenesis.

  8. Selection for residual feed intake in growing pigs: effects on sow performance in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J L; Fleury, J; Ferchaud, S; Billon, Y; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of a divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during growth in a temperate environment (TEMP) on sow performance in a tropical environment (TROP). Sows came from a selection experiment conducted at INRA in which 2 lines were selected for larger (RFI(+)) or smaller (RFI(─)) feed intake than predicted from performance. In the first analysis, a subsample of data obtained in TROP conditions (49 lactations) was compared to those obtained in TEMP on their sibs mated with the same boars (54 lactations). In the second analysis, data obtained in the TROP environment (82 lactations) were analyzed for testing the effect of season (warm vs. hot) and line on sow performance. Except for the lactation length, the interaction between line and climatic environment was not significant for the others traits (P > 0.05). The ADFI expressed per kilogram of litter BW gain tended to be higher in the RFI(+) line bred in the TROP environment (P = 0.080), together with piglet BW at weaning, which tended to be lower (P = 0.080). The ADFI was lower in TROP than in TEMP (4.56 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.003), with negative consequence on litter BW gain and maternal BW loss. The RFI(-) sows tended to eat less feed than RFI(+) sows during lactation (4.55 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.099). Litter BW at weaning was higher in the RFI(─) line. The RFI(─) sows ate significantly less feed to produce 1 kg of litter than the RFI(+) sows and tended to lose a larger amount of BW during lactation than the RFI(+) sows (2.40 vs. 3.02 kg/kg and -0.66 vs. -0.39 kg/d, respectively, P < 0.10). Whatever the line, ADFI was reduced by about 21% in the hot season (P < 0.05). Litter BW gain was depressed (P < 0.05) in the hot season (1.72 vs. 2.08 kg/d in the warm season; P = 0.023). Lactation maternal BW loss tended to increase in the hot season (1.10 vs. 0.71 kg/d in the warm season; P = 0.016), but back fat loss remained constant (P = 0.295). In the TROP

  9. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p < 1.52 × 10-6) with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Among them, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with both RFI1 and RFI2 implying the existence of common mechanisms controlling the two RFI measures. Significant QTL regions for component traits of RFI (DFI and BF) were detected on pig chromosome (SSC) 1 (for DFI) and 2 for (BF). The SNPs within MAP3K5 and PEX7 on SSC 1, ENSSSCG00000022338 on SSC 9, and DSCAM on SSC 13 might be interesting markers for both RFI measures. Functional annotation of genes in 0.5 Mb size flanking significant SNPs indicated regulation of protein and lipid metabolic process, gap junction, inositol phosphate metabolism and insulin signaling pathway are significant biological processes and pathways for RFI, respectively. Conclusions The study detected novel genetic variants and QTLs on SSC 1, 8, 9, 13 and 18 for RFI and indicated significant biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in RFI. The

  10. Mothers’ Child-Feeding Practices Are Associated with Children’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake1234

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. Objective: We examined the associations between mothers’ child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. Methods: We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child’s SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child’s favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to “clean the plate.” We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. Results: The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers’ tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to “clean the plate” was not associated with child’s SSB intake. Conclusions: SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child’s weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child’s favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding

  11. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  12. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts. PMID:26497939

  13. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows.

  14. How well do specialist feeders regulate nutrient intake? Evidence from a gregarious tree-feeding caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Despland, Emma; Noseworthy, Meghan

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest

  15. Identification of genetic markers associated with residual feed intake and meat quality traits in the pig.

    PubMed

    Fan, B; Lkhagvadorj, S; Cai, W; Young, J; Smith, R M; Dekkers, J C M; Huff-Lonergan, E; Lonergan, S M; Rothschild, M F

    2010-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has become increasingly important and is being considered as a more reasonable approach to evaluate feed efficiency in livestock. However, the cost and technical difficulties in measuring this trait restrict the extensive adoption of RFI selection, and this makes marker assisted selection (MAS) a feasible tool. In addition, the effects on meat quality caused by low RFI selection have yet to be clarified. In this study, 11 SNPs from eight candidate genes were evaluated in a Yorkshire pig experimental population (n=169) consisting of a low RFI selection line and a randomly selected control line. Associations of these SNPs with RFI, growth rate, carcass composition, and meat quality measures including water holding capacity, pH at 2d postmortem, meat color and sensory traits were analyzed. The SNPs FTO p.Ala198Ala and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G showed significant (P<0.05) and suggestively significant (P<0.1) associations with RFI, respectively. The MC4R SNP p.Asp298Asn was associated with backfat but it was not with ADG and meat quality attributes. Both SNPs within HNF1A were associated with intramuscular lipid content and sensory juiciness. The SNPs ACC1 c(*)384C>T and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were significantly (P<0.05) associated with ADG. The SNPs CTSZ p.Arg64Lys and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were associated with both visual scoring of meat color and the objective L-value measure of meat color. This study has identified potential genetic markers suitable for MAS in improving RFI, ADG, and meat color traits, but these associations need to be validated in other larger populations. PMID:20374837

  16. Breast-feeding in preterm twins: Development of feeding behavior and milk intake during hospital stay and related caregiving practices.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg

    2002-08-01

    In a prospective study of 13 preterm twins still in the hospital, 85% were breast-fed, of which 46% were breast-fed exclusively. Most mothers preferred simultaneous breast-feeding, using the football hold. Observations and maternal descriptions showed differences between the twins in their development of breast-feeding behavior, especially in sucking. The mothers' suggestions regarding special support for the breast-feeding mothers of preterm twins involved synchronizing feeding with the twins' behavioral states; twin cobedding; appropriate armchairs and breast-feeding pillows; experimenting with breast-feeding positions; information about breast milk production; nurses' spontaneous practical assistance, encouragement, and emotional support; the provision of privacy; the availability of parent rooms; and opportunities for fathers' presence in the hospital. PMID:12219324

  17. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  18. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  19. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  20. Restricted feed intake in lactating primiparous sows. I. Effects on sow metabolic state and subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J L; Smit, M N; Novak, S; Wellen, A P; Foxcroft, G R

    2011-01-01

    The effects of feed restriction (60% of anticipated feed intake; Restrict; n=60) during the last week of a 21-day lactation in primiparous sows compared with feeding at 90% of anticipated feed intake (Control; n=60) on sow metabolic state, litter growth and sow reproductive performance after weaning were compared. Metabolisable energy (ME) derived from feed was lower, ME derived from body tissues was higher and litter growth rate was reduced (all P<0.05) in Restrict sows during the last week of lactation. Treatment did not affect weaning-to-oestrus interval, pregnancy rate, ovulation rate, embryonic survival or the number of live embryos (P>0.05) at Day 30 of gestation: However, embryo weight was greater (P<0.05) in Control than in Restrict sows (1.55±0.04vs 1.44±0.04g, respectively). These data suggest the biology of the commercial sow has changed and reproductive performance of contemporary primiparous sows is increasingly resistant to the negative effects of lactational catabolism. Overall, catabolism negatively affected litter weaning weight and embryonic development of the next litter, but the extent to which individual sows used tissue mobilisation to support these litter outcomes was highly variable.

  1. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish stage. Data from 17,743 grow-finish pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were recorded between May 2001 and February 2010 at the experimental farm of the Institute for Pig Genetics (Beilen, the Netherlands). The grow-finish stage was divided into 2 phases (phase 1: 26 to 75 kg; phase 2: 75 to 115 kg). The sow history features were birth litter size, birth year and season, birth farm, weaning age, age of transfer to the experimental farm, and age at first insemination. The sow features were added to the basic model one at a time to study their effect on the grow-finish traits of the pigs. Subsequently, significant sow features (P < 0.1) were fitted simultaneously in an animal model. With every extra piglet in the birth litter of the sow, the GR of her offspring decreased by 1 g/d and the FI decreased by 4 g/d. Every extra day to the first insemination increased the GR of grow-finish pigs by 0.1 g/d. The heritability estimates for GR and FI (only in phase 2 of the grow-finish stage) decreased after adding the sow features to the model. No differences were found in estimates of the common litter effects between the basic model and the model with all significant sow features. The estimates of the permanent sow effect changed for FI from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.00 (model with sow features), and for FI in phase 1, the permanent sow effect decreased from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.01 (model with sow features). In conclusion, selected sow features do affect the grow

  2. Chewing activities and oesophageal motility during feed intake, rumination and eructation in camels.

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, W; Haarmeyer, P; Kaske, M; Lechner-Doll, M

    2006-02-01

    It was the aim of this study to characterize rumination behaviour, eructation and oesophageal motility in camels to identify similarities and differences between camels and domestic ruminants. Recordings were carried out in five camels fed on a hay-based diet. On an average, the duration of rumination, feeding and resting was 8.3, 5.6 and 10.1 h per 24 h, respectively. Rumination activity peaked in the morning between 9:00 and 11:00 and in the night between 02:00 and 04:00 a.m. During rumination periods, on an average 67 boluses were regurgitated per hour. Each bolus was chewed for an average of 45 s with 68 chews per min. The pause between two rumination cycles lasted on an average 9 s. Hay intake took 61 min/kg dry matter (DM), rumination lasted 71 min/kg DM of hay consumed. The regurgitation of a bolus started with a contraction of cranial compartment 1 (C 1) during a B-sequence, followed by a deep inspiration with closed glottis. Digesta enters the oesophagus, and an antiperistaltic wave transported the bolus orally. Eructation starts with a contraction of the caudal C1 during a B-sequence when the cranial C1 is relaxed. After entering the oesophagus, a rapid antiperistaltic wave transports the gas orally. Results revealed that the parameter values obtained in the camels were remarkably similar to those in domestic ruminants despite profound morphological differences and different patterns of forestomach motility.

  3. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows.

    PubMed

    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to 32 after the first insemination, sows were fed either 2.5 kg/d of a standard gestation diet (control, n = 49), 3.25 kg/d (+30%) of a standard gestation diet (plus feed, n = 47), or 2.5 kg/d of a gestation diet with 30% greater ileal digestible AA (plus protein, n = 49). Feed intake during the experimental period was 29% greater for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (93 vs. 72 kg, P < 0.05). Sows in the plus feed group gained 10 kg more BW during the experimental period compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (24.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.5 ± 1.2 and 16.9 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, P < 0.001). Backfat gain and loin muscle depth gain were not affected by treatment (P = 0.56 and P = 0.37, respectively). Farrowing rate was smaller, although not significantly, for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (76.6% vs. 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively, P = 0.16). Litter size, however, was larger for sows in the plus feed group (15.2 ± 0.5 total born) compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (13.2 ± 0.4 and 13.6 ± 0.4 total born, respectively, P = 0.006). Piglet birth weight was not different among treatments (P = 0.65). For both first- and second-parity sows, the plus feed treatment showed similar effects on BW gain, farrowing rate, and litter size. In conclusion, an increased feed intake (+30%) during the first month of gestation improved sow BW recovery and increased litter size, but did not significantly affect farrowing rate in the subsequent parity. Feeding a 30% greater level of ileal digestible AA during the same period did not improve sow recovery or reproductive performance in the subsequent parity.

  4. Who’s feeding baby? Non-maternal involvement in feeding and its association with dietary intakes among infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Heather M.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Adair, Linda S.; Hodges, Eric A.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined non-maternal involvement in feeding during the first two years of life and its association with breastfeeding duration, early introduction of complementary foods, and dietary intakes of selected foods and beverages. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads, followed from 3-18 months postpartum. Non-maternal caregivers (NMCs) were defined as persons involved in feeding an infant/toddler 50% or more of the total daily feedings. Use of any NMC and the type of NMC was tabulated for each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months). At each time point, more than half of all households reported a NMC. Fathers, grandmothers, and licensed childcare providers were the most common types of NMCs. In longitudinal models adjusted for confounding variables, NMC use was associated with a decreased likelihood of continued breastfeeding, and an increased likelihood of infants and toddlers consuming juice or whole fruit. Given the high prevalence of non-maternal involvement in feeding, interventions targeting multiple family members are warranted as they are likely to be more effective than those targeting the mother alone. PMID:23856432

  5. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2009-09-01

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie, interrupted by two commercial breaks. The commercial breaks contained real commercials using either less thin (n=32) or thin models (n=39), or neutral commercials (n=39). During watching television, participants could freely eat snack food. Further, their mood and body focused anxiety was assessed. ANOVAs revealed no effects on body focused anxiety, but women reported a more negative mood and ate less after exposure to commercials using less thin models than after exposure to commercials using thin models. These results imply that using less thin models in commercials explicitly referring to the thin ideal does not make women feel better. PMID:19699160

  6. Feed intake is related to changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and hepatic acetyl CoA content following feeding in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Ylioja, C M; Allen, M S

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between hepatic acetyl CoA (AcCoA) content and dry matter intake (DMI) was evaluated using 28 multiparous Holstein cows; 14 were early postpartum (PP; 12.6 ± 3.8 d in milk) and 14 were late-lactation cows (LL; 269 ± 30 d in milk). Cows were fed once daily, and DMI was determined for the first 4h after feeding. Liver and blood samples were collected before feeding and 4h after feeding. Feed intake over the 4-h period ranged from 3.7 to 9.6 kg of dry matter and was similar for the 2 stages of lactation. Before feeding, hepatic AcCoA content was greater for PP compared with LL cows (34.4 vs. 12.5 nmol/g), and decreased over the 4h after feeding for PP only (28.7 vs. 34.4 nmol/g). The range for change in AcCoA over the 4-h period was wide for both PP (-24.3 to 10.4 nmol/g) and LL (-5.7 to 16.1 nmol/g), and was related negatively to DMI at 4h for both PP (R(2) = 0.55) and LL (R(2) = 0.31). The reduction in plasma NEFA concentration over the 4-h period was greater for PP than LL cows (-681 vs. -47 µEq/L), and was related to DMI at 4h for both PP and LL (both R(2) = 0.38). Greater DMI among cows over the first 4h after feeding might have been from a sharper reduction in supply of AcCoA in the liver for oxidation during meals because of the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration. Consistent with this is that the change in AcCoA was positively related to the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration for PP cows (R(2) = 0.31). However, change in plasma NEFA concentration was not related to change in hepatic AcCoA in LL cows, indicating that the pool of AcCoA in LL cows is not as dependent on NEFA flux to the liver as that of PP cows. Further research is required to determine production and fate of AcCoA within the timeframe of meals and the effects of feeding on energy charge in hepatic tissue.

  7. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented.

  8. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  9. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  10. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  11. Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period.

  12. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net

  13. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI<5th, >5th to <25th, >25th to <75th percentile) and randomised. The intervention group received 120 ml oral sip-feed supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still <50 % for the sample of patients in the intervention group. The present study suggests this method is acceptable to patients and staff and improves total energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  14. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p < 0.05) plasma level of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3) and lower concentration of thyroxin hormone were detected. No significant differences in levels of insulin, hydroxyproline, plasma and urine creatinine, total protein and albumin between high and low RFI groups were found. Blood metabolites showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at initial and final stages of study in both groups. At final stage of study, RFI showed negative correlations with growth hormone, IGF-1, T3, urine creatinine and albumin. Low RFI buffalo calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism. PMID:27666680

  15. Factors associated with maternal dietary intake, feeding and weaning practices, and the development of food hypersensitivity in the infant.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina; Pereira, Brett; Voigt, Kerstin; Grundy, Jane; Clayton, C Bernie; Higgins, Bernie; Arshad, S Hasan; Dean, Taraneh

    2009-06-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as infant feeding and weaning practices, may play a role in the development of sensitization to food and food hypersensitivity (FHS) and need further investigation. Pregnant women were recruited at 12 wk pregnancy. Information regarding family history of allergy was obtained by means of a questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at 36 wk gestation. Information regarding feeding practices and reported symptoms of atopy was obtained during the infants' first 3 yr of life. Children were also skin-prick tested at 1, 2 and 3 yr to a pre-defined panel of food allergens. Food challenges were conducted where possible. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy, and breast-feeding duration did not influence the development of sensitization to food allergens or FHS, but weaning age (>or=16 wk) did for sensitization at 1 yr (p = 0.03), FHS by 1 yr (p = 0.02), sensitization at 3 yr (p = 0.01) and FHS by 3 yr (p = 0.02). In contrast, children who were not exposed to a certain food allergen before the age of 3-6 months were less likely to become sensitized or develop FHS. Women with a family history of allergic disease were more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 3 months (p = 0.008) and avoid peanuts from the infant's diet at 6 months (p = 0.03). Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy, and breast-feeding duration did not appear to influence the development of sensitization to food allergens or FHS. Weaning age may affect sensitization to foods and development of FHS. A history of allergic disease has very little impact on maternal dietary, feeding, and weaning practices.

  16. Alpha-tocopherol stereoisomer analysis as discriminant method for distinguishing Iberian pig feed intake during the fattening phase.

    PubMed

    Rey, A I; López-Bote, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of stereoisomers of α-tocopherol to correctly classify Iberian pig fat samples according to their feeding system was investigated. Samples were obtained over two different seasons in controlled farms from the four categories of pigs described in the Industry Quality Policy (FREE-RANGE: pigs fed exclusively under free-range conditions; FREE-FEED: pigs fed free-range and supplemented with feed; FEED-OUT: pigs fed outdoors with access to grass and a mixed diet; and FEED: pigs fed exclusively a mixed diet). A higher presence of RRR-stereoisomer indicated a greater consumption of the natural form of tocopherol provided by acorns or grass, whereas a higher proportion of S forms were related to a higher mixed diet intake. Validation results showed 90% success in fat sample classification. Analysis of the RRR-stereoisomer together with γ- and α-tocopherol determination can be considered as a potent tool for distinguishing fat from pigs fed under free-range conditions or exclusively with acorns and grass from those receiving a supplemented diet at any time of their fattening phase. PMID:24001851

  17. Effect of dental correction on voluntary hay intake, apparent digestibility of feed and faecal particle size in horse.

    PubMed

    Zwirglmaier, S; Remler, H-P; Senckenberg, E; Fritz, J; Stelzer, P; Kienzle, E

    2013-02-01

    In nine adult Warmblood horses with mild to moderate dental findings (no signs of discomfort during chewing), voluntary hay intake before and after dental correction was examined. In a second experiment, digestibility of feed and faecal particle size were determined (3 days of total faecal collection) before and after dental correction. During both digestion trials including a 3-day adaptation period, the amount of hay and concentrate (mixture of oats, barley and maize) was kept constant in each individual horse before and after dental correction. Voluntary hay intake in individual horses ranged from 11 to 22 g DM/kg BW/day and did not differ before and after dental treatment. Apparent digestibility of DM, energy, crude fibre and Nfe increased significantly after dental correction (energy digestibility before dental correction 46.8 ± 7.4%, after dental correction 51.5 ± 8.5%). Apparent digestibility of feed was higher in horses eating more concentrates than in those eating less concentrates. Improvement of digestibility was more marked in horses eating larger amounts of grain. There was no relationship between severity or type of dental alterations and improvement of apparent feed digestibility. Dental correction had no effect on faecal particle size.

  18. Analysis of dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs in food and feed samples from Lithuania and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Godliauskienė, R; Petraitis, J; Jarmalaitė, I; Naujalis, E

    2012-11-01

    The methods, validated for determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyls were applied for investigation of food and feed matrixes. Validation criteria on repeatability and reproducibility conditions comply with the requirements of European Commission. Validated methods were successfully applied for determination of PCDD/F and DL-PCB in fish, meat and feed using HRGC-HRMS. Statistical data was evaluated. One focal point of this work was to determine a fit for dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs of fatty fish for human consumption from the Baltic Sea ICES 26. Daily intake was found to be in the range of 2-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight and it is in the range of recommended TDI of 1-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight. The range of Baltic cod liver was 2-4 pg TEQ kgbw(-1)d(-1) WHO-TEQ((1998)) PCDD/F, PCB and its consumption was forbidden in Lithuania in 2011. Baltic fish represents 97.9% of human daily intake. Other matrixes like meat, eggs and feed did not exceed the maximum limit set by EU during the period of 2005-2011.

  19. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  20. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  1. QTLs associated with dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test weight, growth and feed efficiency have little overlap across 4 beef cattle studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies a...

  2. Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid on feed intake, growth performance and expression of related genes in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Wang, D M; Chacher, B; Liu, H Y; Wang, J K; Lin, J; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on feed intake, growth performance and expression of related genes in growing lambs. A total of 24 lambs weaned at age of 50 days were divided into four block of six based on their BW, six lambs within a block were allocated to three pairs, which were then assigned randomly to three treatments with addition of rumen-protected GABA at levels of 0, 70 or 140 mg/day for 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was recorded weekly in three consecutive days, and BW was recorded every two weeks. At the end of the trial, four lambs from each group were slaughtered, and duodenum and ileum mucosa were obtained for measurement of mRNA abundance of GABA receptor and cholecystokinin receptor. Dry matter intake was higher (P<0.01) in the lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA than that in the control or 70 mg GABA-fed lambs. Average daily gain and nutrients digestibility were not different (P>0.05) among treatments. Lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA had higher mRNA abundance of GABA-B receptor (P<0.01) and lower mRNA abundance of cholecystokinin-2 receptor (P<0.01) in duodenum mucosa. Serum CCK content was lower (P<0.01) in lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA than that in control. It is indicated that GABA may enhance feed intake by regulating GABA- and cholecystokinin-related genes.

  3. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  4. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers. PMID:16162531

  5. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  6. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  7. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels. PMID:26571345

  8. A meta-analysis of the feed intake and growth performance of broiler chickens challenged by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed

  9. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  10. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations--the Netherlands and United States.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Tempelman, R J; van Pelt, M L; Weigel, K A; VandeHaar, M; Lawlor, T J; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Staples, C R; Hanigan, M; De Haas, Y

    2016-01-01

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformation traits can vary depending on the population. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic correlations between 6 feed-intake-related traits and 7 conformation traits within dairy cattle from 2 countries, the Netherlands (NL) and the United States (US). The feed-intake-related traits were dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), milk energy output (MilkE), milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), and metabolic body weight (MBW). The conformation traits were stature (ST), chest width (CW), body depth (BD), angularity (ANG), rump angle (RA), rump width (RW), and body condition score (BCS). Feed intake data were available for 1,665 cows in NL and for 1,920 cows in US, from 83 nutritional experiments (48 in NL and 35 in US) conducted between 1991 and 2011 in NL and between 2007 and 2013 in US. Additional conformation records from relatives of the animals with DMI records were added to the database, giving a total of 37,241 cows in NL and 28,809 in US with conformation trait information. Genetic parameters were estimated using bivariate animal model analyses. The model included the following fixed effects for feed-intake-related traits: location by experiment-ration, age of cow at calving modeled with a second order polynomial by parity class, location by year-season, and days in milk, and these fixed effects for the conformation traits: herd by classification date, age of cow at classification, and lactation stage at classification. Both models included additive genetic and residual random effects. The highest estimated genetic correlations involving DMI were with CW in both countries (NL=0.45 and US=0.61), followed by ST (NL=0.33 and US=0.57), BD (NL=0.26 and US

  11. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork.

  12. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; P<0.001). In lactating sows, there were no differences between dietary treatments for any of the hormones measured. Pre-prandial acyl-ghrelin concentrations were positively correlated with cortisol concentrations during gestation (r=0.81; P=0.001) and lactation (r=0.61; P=0.015). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 6% crude glycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between

  13. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork. PMID:26894498

  14. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  15. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  16. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.

    PubMed

    Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P < 0.05) than with peanut hulls treated with urea (PHU). Digestibility of OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber, and non-fiber carbohydrate by native breed Ossimi sheep with PH were higher (P < 0.05) than with PH or urea treated PH. The intakes, losses, and balance of N increased (P < 0.01) with PHF versus PH feeding. Feeding PHF increased (P < 0.01) ruminal concentrations of NH3-N, acetic acid, butyric acid, and the acetic to propionic acid ratio. Bacterial and protozoal counts increased (P < 0.05) with feeding PHF or PHU versus PH. Overall, this fungal treatment of peanut hulls created a higher nutritive value feed for ruminants. PMID:24085418

  17. N-alkanes v. ytterbium/faecal index as two methods for estimating herbage intake of dairy cows fed on diets differing in the herbage: maize silage ratio and feeding level.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the n-alkanes and the ytterbium (Yb)/faecal index techniques as two methods for estimating the herbage intake of dairy cows fed indoors on different herbage : supplement ratios and feeding levels. The supplement was a mixture of maize silage and soyabean meal (ratio of 87 : 13 on a dry matter (DM) basis). In all, four treatments were studied. The herbage : supplement ratio in the diet was 25 : 75, 50 : 50, 75 : 25 and 50 : 50 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Animals were offered for treatments 1, 2 and 3, 100% of ad libitum intake measured before the experiment and 70% of ad libitum intake for treatment 4. Cows were fed herbage in the morning and supplement in the evening. A total of six lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 14-day periods. Herbage and supplement intakes, faecal output (FO), in vivo organic matter (OM) digestibility and faecal recovery of markers were measured on the last 5 days of each period. Intake was estimated with the two methods and from two faecal sampling techniques, that is, total faecal collection v. grab sampling during milking. Mean herbage intake as fed, or estimated from n-alkanes or from the Yb/faecal index was 7.7, 8.1 and 10.2 kg DM, respectively. The mean prediction error, expressed as a fraction of actual herbage intake, was 0.10 and 0.50 for the n-alkanes and Yb/faecal index methods, respectively. The n-alkanes method clearly showed much better accuracy than the Yb/faecal index method for estimating intake, irrespective of the faecal sampling method, herbage : silage proportion or feeding level. For the n-alkanes method, herbage intake was slightly overestimated (7%) when herbage proportion in the diet was high, due to a ratio of faecal C33 : C32 recovery >1. The high bias for the Yb/faecal index was due to the cumulative effect of overestimation of FO (mean recovery of Yb = 0.92) and underestimation of the diet indigestible fraction (-8

  18. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Frances, G; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Noblet, J

    2013-03-01

    Castrated males from 2 lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance, whereas the RFI- line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7 d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, fat, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used, and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.10). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI+ than in the RFI- line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation to an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P < 0.001). There was no line effect on nutrient and energy digestibility. Total HP tended to be greater in RFI+ than in RFI- lines (1,279 vs. 1,137 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.065), which tended to retain more energy (968 vs. 798 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.050). The sensible heat loss was greater in RFI+ compared with the RFI- line (644 vs. 560 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.020). The RFI+ pigs consumed more water (+981 vs. 657 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.085) and produced more urine (589 vs. 292 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P < 0.001) than RFI- pigs, whereas water evaporation was similar for both lines. On average, ME intake and HP declined by about 38% and 20%, respectively, from P0 to P1 (P < 0.001). In contrast to ME intake, HP gradually decreased (P < 0.05) from P1 to P3 in connection with

  19. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  20. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  1. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina L.; Welly, Bryan T.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Young, Amy E.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14–16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air—weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  2. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins. PMID:25914383

  3. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  4. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins.

  5. Liraglutide, leptin, and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signaling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kanoski, Scott E.; Ong, Zhi Yi; Fortin, Samantha M.; Schlessinger, Elizabeth S.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and leptin each exert anorexigenic effects. In combination, the intake inhibitory and weight loss effects are greater than either treatment alone, however the mechanisms unclear. Materials and methods Effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (SC) or to the 3rd ventricle respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns, and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signaling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] were examined in lean rats. Results A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25μg/kg) and leptin (0.75μg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75μg/kg) and leptin (4μg) examined separately each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake, and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot showed elevated pSTAT3 in hypothalamic tissue following liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect greater than leptin treatment alone. In addition, SC liraglutide reduced expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response following liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Conclusions Collectively, these results provide novel behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight following liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. PMID:25475828

  6. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P < 0.05) in perceived appetite, satiety, glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and PYY responses compared with reduced eating frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.

  7. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  8. The effect of reduced feed intake on the efficacy of oxfendazole against benzimidazole resistant Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1995-01-01

    Within 12 h of reducing the daily intake of a 50:50 lucerne and wheaten hay ration from 800 to 400 g, there was an increase in digesta marker concentration indicating a reduction in the flow rate of digesta fluid and particulates through the abomasum of sheep. The efficacy of the recommended dose of oxfendazole (OFZ) was then tested against benzimidazole resistant Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus in sheep whose feed intake was halved 36 h before and after drug treatment. In animals fed the reduced ration there was a 60% reduction of T. colubriformis and 94% reduction of H. contortus compared with a 19% and 60% reduction respectively on the higher feed intake. It is therefore suggested that greater anthelmintic efficacy can be achieved in sheep by temporary feed reduction.

  9. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P < 0.1) were fitted simultaneously in animal model to investigate whether they could explain common litter and permanent sow effects. Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P < 0.0001], and after lactation [0.1 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.003] had effect on GR. Sow parturition-lactation loss in backfat thickness and weight were not significant for GR and FI. Days with FR during 25 to 50 and 45 to 80 d of gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total

  10. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.

  11. Effect of phenotypic residual feed intake and dietary forage content on the rumen microbial community of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-07-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P < 0.0001) in inefficient animals. A higher (P < 0.0001) abundance of Entodinium and Prevotella spp. and a lower (P < 0.0001) abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes were observed when animals were offered the low-forage diet. Thus, differences in the ruminal microflora may contribute to host feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered.

  12. A Polymorphism in the 5′-Untranslated Region of the Porcine Cholecystokinin Type A Receptor Gene Affects Feed Intake and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Houston, R. D.; Haley, C. S.; Archibald, A. L.; Cameron, N. D.; Plastow, G. S.; Rance, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    The location and utilization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes with significant effects on economically important traits are becoming increasingly important in livestock breeding programs. The porcine cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) is a candidate gene for performance traits, due to its known role in the physiological control of feed intake, satiety, and obesity. We investigated the association of CCKAR polymorphisms with feeding, growth, and efficiency traits in an F2 population derived from a cross between Meishan and Large White founder animals and in lines of Large White pigs that had been divergently selected on the basis of lean growth efficiency traits. In the F2 population, CCKAR genotype was significantly associated with daily feed intake and average daily gain. The effects of the polymorphisms were then assessed in a larger-scale analysis of segregating commercial lines. A newly discovered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) had highly significant effects on feed intake, average daily gain, and days to 110 kg, which were not seen for a previously reported SNP within the CCKAR gene. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the novel SNP disrupts the binding of the YY1 transcription factor, which raises the possibility that it is the causal variant. The 5′-UTR SNP could be utilized as a molecular genetic test for increased feed intake, faster lean growth, and reduced days to market weight in segregating commercial lines. PMID:16951077

  13. Heterogeneity in genetic and nongenetic variation and energy sink relationships for residual feed intake across research stations and countries.

    PubMed

    Tempelman, R J; Spurlock, D M; Coffey, M; Veerkamp, R F; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K A; de Haas, Y; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Lu, Y; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-03-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop breeding strategies for improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, phenotypic data were pooled across multiple research stations to facilitate investigation of the genetic and nongenetic components of feed efficiency in Holstein cattle. Specifically, the heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) was estimated and heterogeneous relationships between RFI and traits relating to energy utilization were characterized across research stations. Milk, fat, protein, and lactose production converted to megacalories (milk energy; MilkE), dry matter intakes (DMI), and body weights (BW) were collected on 6,824 lactations from 4,893 Holstein cows from research stations in Scotland, the Netherlands, and the United States. Weekly DMI, recorded between 50 to 200 d in milk, was fitted as a linear function of MilkE, BW0.75, and change in BW (ΔBW), along with parity, a fifth-order polynomial on days in milk (DIM), and the interaction between this polynomial and parity in a first-stage model. The residuals from this analysis were considered to be a phenotypic measure of RFI. Estimated partial regression coefficients of DMI on MilkE and on BW0.75 ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 kg/Mcal for MilkE across research stations, whereas estimated partial regression coefficients on BW0.75 ranged from 0.06 to 0.16 kg/kg0.75. Estimated partial regression coefficients on ΔBW ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 across stations. Heritabilities for country-specific RFI were based on fitting second-stage random regression models and ranged from 0.06 to 0.24 depending on DIM. The overall heritability estimate across all research stations and all DIM was 0.15±0.02, whereas an alternative analysis based on combining the first- and second-stage model as 1 model led to an overall heritability estimate of 0.18±0.02. Hence future genomic selection programs on feed efficiency appear to be promising; nevertheless, care should be taken to allow for potentially

  14. Longitudinal analysis of residual feed intake and BW in mink using random regression with heterogeneous residual variance.

    PubMed

    Shirali, M; Nielsen, V H; Møller, S H; Jensen, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and BW gain in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. The individual BW was measured every 3 weeks from 63 to 210 days of age for 2139 male+female pairs of juvenile mink during the growing-furring period. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with 3-week intervals based on daily feed consumption between weighing's from 105 to 210 days of age. Genetic parameters for RFI and BW gain in males and females were obtained using univariate random regression with Legendre polynomials containing an animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of litter along with heterogeneous residual variances. Heritability estimates for RFI increased with age from 0.18 (0.03, posterior standard deviation (PSD)) at 105 days of age to 0.49 (0.03, PSD) and 0.46 (0.03, PSD) at 210 days of age in male and female mink, respectively. The heritability estimates for BW gain increased with age and had moderate to high range for males (0.33 (0.02, PSD) to 0.84 (0.02, PSD)) and females (0.35 (0.03, PSD) to 0.85 (0.02, PSD)). RFI estimates during the growing period (105 to 126 days of age) showed high positive genetic correlations with the pelting RFI (210 days of age) in male (0.86 to 0.97) and female (0.92 to 0.98). However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.47 to 0.76 in males and 0.61 to 0.75 in females. Furthermore, BW records in the growing period (63 to 126 days of age) had moderate (male: 0.39, female: 0.53) to high (male: 0.87, female: 0.94) genetic correlations with pelting BW (210 days of age). The result of current study showed that RFI and BW in mink are highly heritable, especially at the late furring period, suggesting potential for large genetic gains for these traits. The genetic correlations suggested that substantial genetic gain can be obtained by only considering the RFI estimate and BW at pelting

  15. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05) while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05). Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05) while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:26104399

  16. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  17. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  18. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  19. Feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of a Swedish population of insured-dogs.

    PubMed

    Sallander, Marie; Hedhammar, Ake; Rundgren, Margareta; Lindberg, Jan E

    2010-07-01

    We used a validated mail and telephone questionnaire to investigate baseline data on feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of 460 Swedish dogs. In 1999, purebred individuals 1-3 years old in the largest insurance database of Sweden completed the study. Most dogs were fed restricted amounts twice a day, and the feeding patterns seldom were changed after the age of 6 months. Typically, the main constituent of the meals was dry food [representing 69% of dry matter (DM)]. Four out of five dogs also got foods that (in descending order of the amount of energy provided) consisted of vegetable oil, meat, sour milk, bread, potatoes, pasta, lard/tallow, sausage, cheese, rice and fish. The heavier the dog (kg), the more dry dog food was consumed (g DM/d). The dry-food intakes (g DM/d) increased linearly with body weight (BW, in kg): intake=-15.3+8.33 BW (P=0.0001; r=0.998), a clear relationship that was not observed for other commercial foods. The non-commercial part of the diet had higher fat (13 and 8 g/megajoule, MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) and lower protein (12 and 16 g/MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) compared to the commercial part of the diet. Six out of ten dogs were given treats, and one-fourth was given vitamin/mineral supplements (most commonly daily). Most dogs consumed diets that were nutritionally balanced. No dogs in the study consumed diets that supplied lower amounts of protein than recommended by the NRC (2006). Only two individuals (<1%) were given total diets that were lower than the nutrient profiles in fat. Few dogs consumed total diets that were lower than recommended by the NRC (2006) in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, D and E (2, 1, 3, 5, and 3% of the individuals, respectively). A few individuals consumed higher levels of vitamins A and D (<1 and 4%, respectively) than recommended. Diets that deviated from recommended levels were those consisting of only table foods with no supplements (too-low in vitamins and minerals) or

  20. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Results Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P < 0.05) by diet type, with greater abundance observed while animals were offered the LF compared to the HF diet. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in abundance of specific rumen methanogen species may not contribute to variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species. PMID:25276350

  1. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  2. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells from F1 follicles of AL hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P < 0.05) production, suggestive of slower maturation in ovulatory process and inflamed necrosis. Interestingly, while highly infiltrated with immune cells, particularly heterophils, IL-1beta, MMP-22-like, and gelatinase A activities were reduced in AL hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P < 0.05); however, AL monocytes showed an increase in phagocytosis rate (P < 0.05). Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates was also suppressed in AL heterophils but increased in AL monocytes (P < 0.05). In contrast to leukocyte-free control, both AL and R heterophils and monocytes suppressed progesterone production and increased cell death in a dose-dependent manner when coincubated with granulosa cells at different ratios (P < 0.05). AL monocytes suppressed progesterone production more, but AL heterophils were less proapoptotic when compared to their R counterparts (P < 0.05). Alterations of cellular ceramide content (P < 0.05) corresponded to the discrepancy between heterophil and monocyte functionality. In conclusion, leukocyte dysfunction contributes to impaired ovarian activities of overfed broiler hens. PMID:24829031

  3. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese Holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p < 0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) was decreased by decreasing the FPL (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C (65:35) increased the DMI (p < 0.05). A positive interaction between FPL and F:C was found for (daily weight gain) DWG, weight gain (WG) and feed conversation ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05). In case of feeding behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p < 0.05). Chopping of hay had decreased the chewing time (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C increased chewing time per kilogram DMI. High F:C decreased the lying time (p < 0.05) in FL and SL treatments (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C reduced the overall abnormal behaviour (p < 0.05). These results suggested that animals performed better at higher F:C at SL diet. Intensity of sorting for short and fine particle and against long particle increased at higher F:C and SL diets. Eating time and eating time per kilogram DMI increased by increasing F:C level in both FL and SL treatments. Chewing time increased by increasing the FPL, while increasing the F:C enhanced the chewing time per kilogram DMI and reduced animal's abnormal behaviour.

  4. A meta-analysis of nutrient intake, feed efficiency and performance in cattle grazing on tropical grasslands.

    PubMed

    Boval, M; Edouard, N; Sauvant, D

    2015-06-01

    It is essential to quantify the potential of tropical grasslands to allow significant feed efficiency for grazing livestock in controlled conditions such as at pasture. We conducted a quantitative analysis of published studies reporting the experimental results of average daily gains (ADG) and diet characteristics obtained specifically under grazing conditions (17 publications and 41 experiments), which have been less studied compared with controlled conditions in stalls. The database was analyzed to determine the average and range of values obtained for ADG (g/kg BW), dry matter digestibility, intake (DMI) and digestible DMI (DDMI, g/kg BW) and feed conversion efficiencies (FCE), as well as to predict the response of these parameters to the main strategies investigated in the literature - that is, mainly the stocking rate (SR) and the concentrate intake (CI). The ADG reached 1.2 kg BW per day and was directly linked to DDMI (ADG=-1.63+0.42 DDMI -0.0084 DDMI2, n=90, r.m.s.e=0.584, R 2=0.93). The DDMI, which was representative of the nutrient input, was driven mainly by DMI rather than dry matter digestibility, whereas these two parameters did not correlate (r=0.068, P=0.56). The average global FCE (0.11 g ADG/g DDMI) showed a greater association with the metabolic FCE (0.17 g ADG/g DMI) than the digestive FCE (0.62). The CI (g DM/kg BW) increased ADG (ADG=2376+CI 56.1, n=16, r.m.s.e.=441, R 2=0.95). The SR expressed as kg BW/ha decreased the individual ADG by 1.19 g/kg BW per additional ton of BW/ha, whereas the global ADG calculated per ha increased by 0.57 per additional ton BW/ha. When the SR was expressed as kg BW/ton DM and per ha rather than as kg BW/ha, the impact on the individual ADG decreased by 0.18 or 0.86 g per additional ton BW/ha, depending on the initial BW of the cattle. These results provide a better view of the potential performance and feeding of cattle in tropical grasslands. The results provide an improved quantification of the relationships

  5. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  6. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    of R. albus was also greater (P=0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P=0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen.

  7. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    of R. albus was also greater (P=0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P=0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen. PMID:25414108

  8. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  9. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  10. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best

  11. Effect of supplementing urea-treated barley straw with lucerne or vetch hays on feed intake, digestibility and growth of Arsi Bale sheep.

    PubMed

    Abate, Dawit; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The study was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia to assess the supplementation of graded levels of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa 'lana') and lucerne (Medicago sativa,' Hunter river') hay on feed intake, digestibility and body weight (BW) change of Arsi-Bale sheep fed urea treated barley straw (UTBS). A 7 day- digestibility and a 90 day- feed intake trials were conducted using 28 and 35 sheep, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with seven dietary treatments that consisted of feeding UTBS (T1) as the control treatment, UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g dry matter (DM) per day of vetch for T2, T3, T4, respectively and UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g DM per day of lucerne for T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Intake of UTBS was not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion of lucerne hay at 25-35% of daily DM intake. The supplements increased daily intake of total DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and metabolizable energy (ME) (P < 0.001) as well as apparent digestibility of DM, OM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), ADF, crude protein (CP) (P < 0.05) and daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Supplementation with lucerne than vetch hay promoted higher (P < 0.001) CP and ME intakes and daily BW gain. Feeding with the UTBS without supplementation was enough to meet the maintenance requirements of the sheep and allow small BW gain. The results of the study showed that urea treatment of barley straw in conjunction with supplementation of lucerne or vetch hay could serve as a useful strategy in improving smallholder sheep production in the tropics.

  12. Assessment of the effects of iodine value on fatty acid digestibility, feed intake, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1994-08-01

    Data were pooled from 11 studies evaluating supplemental fat sources differing primarily in degree of saturation (tallow, animal-vegetable fat, vegetable oil, and hydrogenated fats). Data were standardized as proportions of the respective controls to reduce variation among individual studies and were subjected to stepwise multiple regression against the iodine value of fats, the percentage increases of total fatty acids in diets above the respective controls, or the ratio of total C16 to C18 fatty acids in fats (only for hydrogenated fats). Increased iodine value (increasing unsaturation) of fats increased apparent fatty acid digestibility, especially as iodine value increased from 11 to 27. For partially hydrogenated fat sources, as the ratio of C16 to C18 fatty acids increased, digestibility also increased, especially with increasing iodine value (positive interaction). Beneficial effects of higher C16:C18 ratio were reduced as amount of added fat increased (negative interaction). Dry matter intake and FCM production decreased as iodine value increased, perhaps because of inhibition of fiber digestion or metabolic regulation of DMI. Milk protein percentage depression averaged .2 percentage units for most fats. However, as partially hydrogenated fat sources became more saturated, milk protein depression appeared to be less evident; increased ratio of C16:C18 of fatty acids appeared to increase milk protein percentage. Despite the lower apparent digestibility of fatty acids of hydrogenated fats, increased milk production and percentages of fat and protein appeared to make them more economical than more unsaturated fats.

  13. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and /sup 15/N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of /sup 15/N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of /sup 15/N in bacteria, NH/sub 3/N, and non-HN/sub 3/N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen.

  14. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits.

    PubMed

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Vallet, J L; Prince, T J; Phillips, C E; DeDecker, A E; Stalder, K J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if body composition of developing gilts could be altered at the onset of estrus by ad libitum feeding diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine and ME using levels that are within those used in practice by pig producers in the United States. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts ( = 1,221), housed in groups, were randomly allotted to 6 corn-soybean diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement formulated to provide 2 SID lysine and 3 ME levels. Gilts received grower diets formulated to provide 0.86 (low) or 1.02% (high) SID lysine and 2.94 (low), 3.25 (medium), or 3.57 (high) Mcal of ME/kg from 100 d of age until approximately 90 kg BW. Then, gilts were fed finisher diets containing 0.73 (low) or 0.85% (high) SID lysine and 2.94 (low), 3.26 (medium) or 3.59 (high) Mcal of ME/kg until 260 d of age. The medium SID lysine and medium-ME diets were based on an informal survey from the U.S. commercial swine industry to obtain average levels that are currently being formulated for developing gilts. Gilts were weighed and backfat thickness and loin area were recorded at the beginning of the trial and then every 28 d. Feed intake (FI) was recorded as feed disappearance within the pen at 2-wk intervals. Lysine (g) and ME (Mcal) consumed were calculated based on diet formulations. At approximately 260 d of age, gilts were slaughtered and warm carcass weight and fat thickness were recorded. There were no differences between lysine or ME levels for growth and body composition, except for backfat, which was slightly greater for gilts fed a high-ME diet. Gilts fed high-ME diets had a lower FI but a greater ME intake compared with gilts fed low ME ( < 0.05). Additionally, gilts fed the high-ME diet had lower FI and lysine intake per kilogram of BW gain when compared with gilts fed low- or medium-ME diets ( < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the megacalories consumed per kilogram of BW gain among treatments ( > 0

  15. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the lactation diet on the feed intake and fertility of sows.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    A diet contaminated with 2.8 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg was fed at 6 kg per day to 32 mycotoxin-exposed pluriparous sows (M) during lactation. The 31 control sows (C) received 6 kg of an uncontaminated diet. Although more contaminated diet was refused (P = 0.05), DON exposure had no effect (P > 0.1) on body weight loss of the sows during lactation (M: 27.9 ± 12.3 kg; C: 29.7 ± 10.2 kg), the number of weaned piglets (M: 9.8 ± 1.4; C: 9.7 ± 1.6) and their daily weight gain (M: 266 ± 70 g; C: 272 ± 64 g). Several sows were culled after weaning for reasons unrelated to the experiment. Compared with the remaining 21 C sows, the remaining 26 M sows had an identical interval between weaning and the next farrowing (M: 120 ± 1 days; C: 120 ± 1 days) and a similar litter size (M: 14.5 ± 2.7; C: 14.9 ± 3.0; P > 0.10). The daily intake of 17 mg DON during lactation thus did not affect the reproductive performance of the sows.

  16. Muscle characteristics and meat quality traits are affected by divergent selection on residual feed intake in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, L; Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Louveau, I; Damon, M; Prunier, A; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Gilbert, H

    2011-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that expected based on requirements for maintenance and production. A divergent selection was conducted during 4 generations in Large White male pigs to produce low and high RFI lines. The present study aims at determining the influence of this selection on biochemical and histological traits of skeletal muscle, and relating these changes to correlated effects on growth, carcass composition, and meat quality traits. At 8 d preslaughter, biopsies from the LM were taken in the fed state on 14 females from each RFI line fed ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 107.8 ± 8.0 kg of BW without any previous fasting. Samples of LM, semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BFM), and rhomboideus muscles were taken at both 30 min and 24 h postmortem. Myofiber typing was only assessed in LM. Low RFI pigs ("efficient") had leaner carcasses with greater muscle content (P < 0.001), less backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and less intramuscular fat content in all 4 muscles (P < 0.01 to P = 0.04). Their greater muscle content was associated with hypertrophy of all fast-twitch fibers. Glycogen content in all glycolytic muscles (i.e., LM, SM and BFM), was greater in low than high RFI pigs. The greater accumulation of glycogen in LM of low RFI pigs was specifically located in the fast-twitch glycolytic IIBW fibers, which correspond to fibers containing IIb, IIb + IIx, or IIx myosin heavy chains. The difference in muscle glycogen content between RFI line pigs was more significant in the living animals (P = 0.0003) than at 30 min postmortem (P = 0.08). This was associated with a decreased ultimate pH (P = 0.001), and greater lightness of color (P = 0.002) and drip loss (P = 0.04) in LM of low than high RFI line pigs, suggesting that selection for reduced RFI may impair some meat quality traits, such as water-holding capacity. Pigs from the low RFI line exhibited a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of

  17. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  18. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, L M; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y H

    2011-04-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age). 2. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between daily feed intake and genotype on egg production, egg weight, percentage yolk, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk cholesterol content. Fat line hens produced significantly more eggs and had a lower incidence of cracked eggs than the Lean line hens. The reduction in feed intake decreased egg weight and increased egg production, egg-shape index and cholesterol content of yolk significantly. PMID:21491238

  19. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth and development among rural Indian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L; Johnson, Susan L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Shroff, Monal R; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and development compared with home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into three groups of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The control group (CG) received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the complementary feeding group (CFG) received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the responsive complementary feeding and play group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices, and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the 12-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (P < 0.05) increased median intakes of energy, protein, Vitamin A, calcium (CFG), iron and zinc, reduced stunting [0.19, confidence interval (CI): 0.0-0.4] in the CFG (but not RCF&PG) and increased (P < 0.01) Bayley Mental Development scores (mean = 3.1, CI: 0.8-5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared with CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG) and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under 2 years in food-secure rural Indian families.

  20. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth, and development among rural Indian toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez; Shroff, Monal R.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding, and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children’s dietary intake, growth, and development compared to home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into 3 groups1 of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The Control Group (CG), received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the Complementary Feeding Group (CFG), received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the Responsive Complementary Feeding & Play Group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the twelve-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (p<0.05) increased median intakes of energy, protein, Vitamin-A, calcium (CFG), iron and zinc, reduced stunting (0.19, CI: 0.0–0.4) in the CFG (but not RCF&PG) and increased (p<0.01) Bayley Mental Development scores(Mean=3.1, CI: 0.8–5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared to CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG), and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under two years in food-secure rural Indian families. PMID:22625182

  1. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  2. Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2001-01-01

    Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992–1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test dm as follows in model 2: . Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11, FL2: 0.11) and week 1 (LW1: 0.09, LW2: 0.10), and the highest in week 11 (FL1: 0.25, FL2: 0.24) and week 8 (LW1: 0.19, LW2: 0.18), respectively. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by selection is difficult. PMID:11742633

  3. Effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on body temperature, feed intake, and metabolic rate of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Zwart, D; Brouwer, B O; van der Hel, W; van den Akker, H N; Verstegen, M W

    1991-09-01

    Thirty-two mature dwarf goats weighing between 16 and 30 kg (22.7 +/- 3.7, SD) were used to study the effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on rectal temperature (RT), feed intake (DMI), and metabolic rate. Sixteen of the goats were infected intravenously with 14 X 10(6) T. vivax each; the 16 others served as controls. Animals were fed at about 1.1 times maintenance. Heat production was measured from 1 wk preinfection to 6 wk postinfection. From data on successive 9-min periods, heat production was calculated per 24-h period and separately for 0700 to 2000 (day period) and for 2000 to 0700 (night period). Rectal temperature was measured twice weekly. Compared with controls, animals infected with T. vivax developed and maintained a 1 degree C higher RT and a higher metabolic rate. After the prepatent period of 5 to 7 d, during which RT remained normal, all infected goats had a period of about 7 d with constant high temperatures. After that initial episode, RT fluctuated. Heat production of infected animals was increased by 15.6 kcal.d-1.kg-.75, or about 16%. This increase in heat production was greater during the night (22 kcal.d-1.kg-.75) than during the day (14 kcal.d-1.kg-.75). After T. vivax infection, large differences in DMI among animals were apparent. In four animals, a clear relation between DMI and RT was noted, but in 12 animals no such relationship was apparent.

  4. Improving residual feed intake of mule progeny of Muscovy ducks: genetic parameters and responses to selection with emphasis on carcass composition and fatty liver quality.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Basso, B; Bernadet, M-D; Cornuez, A; Bodin, L; David, I; Gilbert, H; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2014-10-01

    In France, about 95% of the fatty liver production comes from mule ducks, an infertile hybrid cross between female common ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata). As a hybrid, genetic improvement of the performance of mule ducks is achieved by selection of the parental populations. Feed represents two-thirds of the total costs of duck production; thus, the breeders' main concern is to improve the birds' feed efficiency without impairing their capacity to be overfed after the growing period. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed a divergent selection experiment for Muscovy sires on the basis of the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny. Residual feed intake represents the fraction of feed intake that cannot be explained by maintenance and production requirements. Data comprised records from generations 0 to 2 with 227 Muscovy sires of 2,016 mule ducks. Growth and fat deposition were measured individually for all mule ducks. Half-sib mule ducks were placed together in 1 small pen, and the feed consumption was recorded for each pen; all half-sibs therefore had the same feed intake estimates. Heritability of RFI was high (0.83 ± 0.42), and after 2 generations of selection, the differences between lines in terms of RFI (contrast of 9.13 g/d, representing 0.76 phenotypic standard deviation; P < 0.0001) and feed conversion ratio (contrast of 0.08, representing 0.28 phenotypic standard deviation; P = 0.0003) were marked. In regard to carcass traits, the low-RFI line (high-efficiency animals) had heavier legs (476 vs. 463 g; P < 0.0001) and magret muscles (268 vs. 262 g; P = 0.001) than the high-RFI line (low-efficiency animals). No differences were observed for either the liver weight or the melting rate between the 2 lines (P > 0.46). Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their capacity to produce fatty liver.

  5. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. Results: The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = −0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = −0.318) (PV= 0.003). Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI. PMID:24554988

  6. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, S.; Teramura, M.; Sato, T.; Hanada, M.

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition. PMID:25557676

  7. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III.

    PubMed

    Wynn, S; Teramura, M; Sato, T; Hanada, M

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R(2) = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition.

  8. Effect of predictor traits on accuracy of genomic breeding values for feed intake based on a limited cow reference population.

    PubMed

    Pszczola, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Wall, E; Strabel, T; Calus, M P L

    2013-11-01

    pedigree, and 0.63 for CV and 0.61 for PEV in genomic analyses). Recording predictor traits for only the reference population did not increase DMI breeding value accuracy. Recording predictor traits for both reference and evaluated animals significantly increased DMI breeding value accuracy and removed the bias observed when only reference animals had records. The benefit of using genomic instead of pedigree relationships was reduced when more predictor traits were used. Using predictor traits may be an inexpensive way to significantly increase the accuracy and remove the bias of (genomic) breeding values of scarcely recorded traits such as feed intake.

  9. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  10. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  11. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate.

  12. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate. PMID:19135544

  13. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein × Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Machado, F S; Valadares Filho, S C; Trece, A S; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves aged 4 d with an average initial live weight of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were defined as a reference group and slaughtered at 4 d of age to estimate the initial body composition of the animals. The other calves were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of age, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces and urine and sampling of feeds. At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered and their body tissues were sampled for analyses. Total dry matter and nutrient intake increased linearly and starter intake decreased linearly in response to the supply of increasing amounts of milk. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not affected by the inclusion of starter feed and increased linearly as milk supply was elevated. Daily gain was greater at increased milk supply levels and also greater when starter was supplied, without any interaction between milk supply level and the presence or absence of starter. Fecal N excretion and N retention were higher in the animals fed starter feed. Fecal N excretion was not affected by milk levels, whereas N retention was affected. Body protein and ash contents decreased linearly according to increased milk allowance. In contrast, fat body content increased linearly according to milk supply. The presence of starter feed in the diet was responsible for the increased body fat content, but had no effect on protein or ash content. In conclusion, weight gain and N retention in calves up to 64 d of

  14. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. PMID:25022677

  15. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  16. The influence of stocking density on body weight, egg weight, and feed intake of adult broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Nephawe, K A; Nesamvuni, A E; Benyi, K

    2007-08-01

    The influence of stocking density on BW, egg weight (EW), and feed intake (FI) in Ross broiler breeder hens (n = 120) was investigated during the late medium egg production period (from 50 to 54 wk of age). Birds were randomly allocated to 6 pens in densities of 15, 20, and 25 birds/pen, giving rise to a floor space allowance of 5, 6.67, and 8.33 birds/m(2), respectively. Each density was replicated twice, and the order among the 6 pens was chosen at random. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures techniques of the Statistical Analysis System, considering the covariance structure of the observed data. There was a significant effect attributable to stocking density, time (in days), and their interaction for BW, EW, and FI. Birds in density of 6.67 per m(2) were lighter but had heavier eggs than birds in density of 5 per m(2); however, birds in density of 8.33 per m(2) had similar BW and EW with birds in the other 2 groups. The mean FI were statistically different among the 3 groups, with a reduction in FI as density increases. Total egg production within the 3 density groups and average egg production per bird were also analyzed using categorical data techniques. The results indicated that stocking density influenced egg production, with birds at higher density producing fewer eggs per bird. Although generous floor space allowances were allocated per bird in this experiment, stocking density influenced the performance of broiler breeder hens.

  17. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  18. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  19. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P<0.001). No differences between high and low RFI bulls were detected (P>0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (P<0.05) and a decrease in carcass conformation of 0.74 units (P<0

  20. Relationship between the Rumen Microbiome and Residual Feed Intake-Efficiency of Brahman Bulls Stocked on Bermudagrass Pastures

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Joshua C.; Wiley, Leanne M.; Forbes, T. David; Rouquette, Francis M.; Tedeschi, Luis O.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) testing has increased selection pressure on biological efficiency in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the rumen microbiome in inefficient, positive RFI (p-RFI) and efficient, negative RFI (n-RFI) Brahman bulls grazing ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.]under two levels of forage allowance (high and low stocking intensity). Sixteen Brahman bulls were previously fed in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI phenotype. Bulls were then allotted 60 d stocking on bermudagrass pastures to estimate RFI using the n-alkane technique. At the conclusion of the grazing period, rumen liquid samples were collected from each bull by stomach tube to evaluate the rumen microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454 pyrosequencing were performed on each sample. After denoising the sequences, chimera checking, and quality trimming, 4,573 ± 1,287 sequences were generated per sample. Sequences were then assigned taxonomy from the Greengenes database using the RDP classifier. Overall, 67.5 and 22.9% of sequences were classified as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, respectively. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotella was the most predominant genus and was observed in greater relative abundance in p-RFI bulls compared with n-RFI bulls (P = 0.01). In contrast, an unidentified Bacteroidales family was greater in relative abundance for n-RFI bulls than p-RFI (26.7 vs. 19.1%; P = 0.03). Ruminococcaceae was the third most abundant family in our samples, but it was not affected by RFI phenotype. No effect of stocking intensity was observed for bacterial taxa, but there was a tendency for alpha diversity and operational taxonomic unit richness to increase with lower stocking intensity. Results suggested the rumen microbiome of p-RFI Brahman bulls has greater levels of Prevotella, but the bacterial community composition was unaffected by stocking intensity

  1. Relationship between the rumen microbiome and residual feed intake-efficiency of Brahman bulls stocked on bermudagrass pastures.

    PubMed

    McCann, Joshua C; Wiley, Leanne M; Forbes, T David; Rouquette, Francis M; Tedeschi, Luis O

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) testing has increased selection pressure on biological efficiency in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the rumen microbiome in inefficient, positive RFI (p-RFI) and efficient, negative RFI (n-RFI) Brahman bulls grazing 'Coastal' bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.]under two levels of forage allowance (high and low stocking intensity). Sixteen Brahman bulls were previously fed in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI phenotype. Bulls were then allotted 60 d stocking on bermudagrass pastures to estimate RFI using the n-alkane technique. At the conclusion of the grazing period, rumen liquid samples were collected from each bull by stomach tube to evaluate the rumen microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454 pyrosequencing were performed on each sample. After denoising the sequences, chimera checking, and quality trimming, 4,573 ± 1,287 sequences were generated per sample. Sequences were then assigned taxonomy from the Greengenes database using the RDP classifier. Overall, 67.5 and 22.9% of sequences were classified as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, respectively. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotella was the most predominant genus and was observed in greater relative abundance in p-RFI bulls compared with n-RFI bulls (P = 0.01). In contrast, an unidentified Bacteroidales family was greater in relative abundance for n-RFI bulls than p-RFI (26.7 vs. 19.1%; P = 0.03). Ruminococcaceae was the third most abundant family in our samples, but it was not affected by RFI phenotype. No effect of stocking intensity was observed for bacterial taxa, but there was a tendency for alpha diversity and operational taxonomic unit richness to increase with lower stocking intensity. Results suggested the rumen microbiome of p-RFI Brahman bulls has greater levels of Prevotella, but the bacterial community composition was unaffected by stocking intensity

  2. Plasma ghrelin is positively associated with body fat, liver fat and milk fat content but not with feed intake of dairy cows after parturition.

    PubMed

    Börner, Sabina; Derno, Michael; Hacke, Sandra; Kautzsch, Ulrike; Schäff, Christine; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto; Hammon, Harald M; Röntgen, Monika; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa; Tuchscherer, Armin; Kuhla, Björn

    2013-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone that is present in blood mostly in a non-posttranslationally modified form, with a minor proportion acylated at Ser(3). Both ghrelin forms were initially assigned a role in the control of food intake but there is accumulating evidence for their involvement in fat allocation and utilization. We investigated changes in the ghrelin system in dairy cows, exhibiting differences in body fat mobilization and fatty liver, from late pregnancy to early lactation. Sixteen dairy cows underwent liver biopsy and were retrospectively grouped based on high (H) or low (L) liver fat content post-partum. Both groups had a comparable feed intake in week -6 (before parturition) and week 2 (after parturition). Only before parturition was preprandial total ghrelin concentration higher in L than in H cows and only after parturition was the basal plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids higher in H than in L cows. Both before and after parturition, H cows had higher preprandial plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin, a higher acyl:total ghrelin ratio, lower plasma triacylglyceride concentrations and a lower respiratory quotient compared with L cows. These group differences could not be attributed to an allelic variant of the acyl ghrelin receptor. Rather, the ratio of acyl:total ghrelin correlated with several aspects of fat metabolism and with respiratory quotient but not with feed intake. These results show that endogenous ghrelin forms are associated with fat allocation, fatty liver, and utilization of fat during the periparturient period.

  3. Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U; Hofer, A; Labroue, F; Künzi, N

    2001-01-01

    Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992-1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test d(m) as follows in model 2: sigma(epsilon(m))(2) = exp (gamma(0) + gamma(1) d(m) + gamma(2) d(m)(2)). Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11, FL2: 0.11) and week 1 (LW1: 0.09, LW2: 0.10), and the highest in week 11 (FL1: 0.25, FL2: 0.24) and week 8 (LW1: 0.19, LW2: 0.18), respectively. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by selection is difficult.

  4. Evaluation of polymorphisms within the genes GSHR and SLC2A2 that are within a region on bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) previously associated with feed intake and weight gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cost of feed is the largest expense incurred by cattle producers. The ability to select for animals with beneficial production traits using genetic markers may reduce expenses for producers. A large region on bovine chromosome 1 was identified as significant for average daily feed intake (ADFI) and ...

  5. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  6. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds.

  7. Effect of Millettia ferruginea (Birbra) foliage supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characterstics of Washera sheep fed natural pasture grass hay basal diet.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Berhanu; Animut, Getachew; Tolera, Adugna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four yearling male local Washera lambs with an average initial body weight of 18.14 ± 1.07 kg were used to assess the nutritional value of Millettia ferruginea. Experimental animals were grouped into six blocks of four animals, and each animal was randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatment feeds. The treatments used were; Sole natural pasture grass hay (T1), and 150, 300, 450 g DM Millettia ferruginea leaf hay with ad libitum natural pasture grass hay assigned for (T2), (T3) and (T4), respectively. The feeding trial was carried out for 80 days followed by a 10 days of digestibility trial. Carcasses of each experimental animal were evaluated at the end of the digestibility experiment. Millettia ferruginea leaf hay had 224.6, 556.6, 360.7and 127.4 g/kg crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), respectively. The average intakes of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay were 0, 133, 263 and 253 g/day for T1, T2, T3 and T4, in that order. The proportions of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay intake from the total dry matter (DM) were 0, 23.5, 44.1, and 43.3% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The total DM intake was not significant but showed a trend of T1 > T3 > T4 > T2. CP intake was higher for T3 and T4 with the least intake for T1. Final body weight measurement was higher for T3 and T1 but lower and negative for T2 and T4. Generally, body weight measurements were not consistent in the supplemented groups throughout the trial period. The weight of heart, spleen, and liver were higher for the supplemented groups compared to the sole grass hay. From the results of the current study, it can be concluded that, Millettia ferruginea had some limiting factors, which prevented the animal from efficiently utilize it. Therefore, this study revealed the indispensable role of animal feeding experiments with target animals to examine such impacts. PMID:24567874

  8. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: A meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at reducing the impact of fescue toxicosis on cattle weight gain and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, M S; Hawley, J; Beck, P A; Jennings, J A; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at recovering cattle production losses attributed to toxic endophyte-infected [ (Morgan-Jones & Gams.) Glenn, Bacon, & Hanlin comb. Nov.] tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.]. The strategies presented include those 1) applied with forage systems, 2) based on pharmacological compounds and functional foods, and 3) based on supplemental dietary nutrients. Cattle BW gain and DM intake was the dependent response evaluated. Among the forage systems reviewed, studies with nontoxic, endophyte-infected tall fescue as a total replacement forage system demonstrated the greatest improvement in per-hectare (152 ± 27.5 kg/ha) and per-animal (0.29 ± 0.03 kg/d) BW gain. Studies with interseeded legumes have exhibited a small and highly variable BW gain effect size per hectare (52 ± 24.1 kg/ha) and per animal (0.11 ± 0.03 kg/d). The legume response was seasonal, with summer exhibiting the greatest benefit. Studies with chemicals that suppress plant growth demonstrated BW gain responses (0.17 ± 0.06 kg/d) equal to or greater than the response observed with legume studies. Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue responded well to anthelmentics, antimicrobial feed additives, and steroid implants, and the use of these technologies may additively help recover production losses. As a group, functional foods have not improved BW gain ( = 0.85). Studies with cattle supplemented with highly digestible fiber supplements observed a 0.15 kg greater BW gain compared with studies using starch- and sugar-based supplements ( < 0.05). Weight gain was positively impacted by the level of supplementation (0.06 kg/DM intake as percent BW). Supplement feed conversion was estimated at 6:1 for the highly digestible fiber supplements compared with 11:1 for starch-based supplements. Tall fescue forage DM intake was predicted to maximize at a supplemental feeding rate of 0.24% BW with a breakpoint at 0.5% BW

  9. The effect of fermentation quality on the voluntary intake of grass silage by growing cattle fed silage as the sole feed.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Randby, A T

    2007-04-01

    This study was designed to separate the effect of fermentation quality on voluntary intake of grass silage from other feed factors affecting intake. Variations in DMI were quantified, and the impact on intake was modeled. The relationships between individual silage components and intake were examined. A partially balanced changeover experiment with 30 Norwegian Red steers (137 +/- 16.4 kg of BW) was carried out to determine the intake of 24 silages and of hay harvested from the same parent crop within 60 h. Five forages were fed at a time in each of five 3-wk periods. Every 3-wk period was preceded by 2 wk of feeding a standard silage. Silage DMI ranged from 1.79 to 2.65, with a mean of 2.38 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Hay DMI averaged 2.43 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Ranges (mean) for the composition of silages were as follows: DM, 166 to 237 (213) g/kg; water-soluble carbohydrates, 16.3 to 70.9 (33.0) g/kg of DM; acetic acid, 11.5 to 64.7 (28.6) g/kg of DM; propionic acid, 0 to 5.2 (1.0) g/kg of DM; butyric acid, 0 to 25.1 (6.0) g/kg of DM; lactic acid, 2.2 to 102 (49.3) g/kg of DM; and NH3-N (not corrected for additive-derived N), 89.3 to 255 (153) g/kg of total N. Silage DMI was closely (P < 0.05) related to DM, ADL, VFA, lactic acid, total acids, the lactic acid:total acids ratio, ADIN, NH3-N (not corrected), histamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, and the total sum of amines (the explained variation in intake ranged from 14 to 53%). The 2 best models describing silage DMI included concentrations in the silage of propionic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and these models explained 75 and 84% of the variation in DMI. The strong correlation (r = 0.84, P < 0.05) between total NH3-N and butyric acid concentrations in silages indicates that these variables described the same variation pattern. The inclusion of NH3-N in the equations describing the effect of fermentation quality on DMI of low-DM grass silage was less useful than that of butyric acid. This was

  10. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

    2011-10-01

    Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum

  11. Foraging behaviour, nutrient intake from pasture and performance of free-range growing pigs in relation to feed CP level in two organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, M; Kongsted, A G; Hermansen, J E

    2015-12-01

    In organic pig production one of the major challenges is to be able to fulfil amino acid requirements based on organic and locally grown protein feed crops. The pig is an opportunistic omnivore with a unique capacity for foraging above and below the soil surface. It is hypothesized that direct foraging in the range area can pose an important contribution in terms of fulfilling nutrient requirements of growing pigs. Foraging activity, lucerne nutrient intake and pig performance were investigated in 36 growing pigs, foraging on lucerne or grass and fed either a standard organic pelleted feed mixture (HP: high protein) or a grain mixture containing 48% less CP (LP: low protein) compared with the high protein feed mixture, from an average live weight of 58 kg to 90 kg in a complete block design in three replicates. The pigs were fed 80% of energy recommendations and had access to 4 m2 of pasture/pig per day during the 40 days experimental period from September to October 2013. Behavioural observations were carried out 12 times over the entire experimental period. For both crops, LP pigs rooted significantly more compared with HP pigs but the effect of CP level was more pronounced in grass (44% v. 19% of all observations) compared with lucerne (28% v. 16% of all observations). Feed protein level turned out not to have any significant effect on grazing behaviour but pigs foraging on lucerne grazed significantly more than pigs foraging on grass (10% v. 4% of all observations). Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by feed protein and forage crop interactions. Compared to HP pigs, LP treated pigs had 33% lower daily weight gain (589 v. 878 g) and 31% poorer feed conversion ratio (3.75 v. 2.59 kg feed/kg weight gain) in grass paddocks, whereas in lucerne paddocks LP pigs only had 18% lower daily weight gain (741 v. 900 g) and a 14% poorer feed conversion ratio (2.95 v. 2.54 kg feed/kg weight gain) compared with HP pigs. LP pigs foraging on

  12. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  13. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed.

  14. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed. PMID:27553395

  15. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  16. On the role of the mouth and gut in the control of saccharin and sugar intake: a reexamination of the sham-feeding preparation.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-06-01

    Adult female rats, each fitted with a gastric fistula, were tested for their "normal-feeding" (fistula closed) and "sham-feeding" (fistula open) response to saccharin and sugar solutions under a variety of conditions. When hungry, rats consumed no more of a 0.2% saccharin solution with their fistula open than they did with their fistula closed. Increasing or decreasing the saccharin concentration did not increase the amount of solution sham fed, but adding a small amount of glucose (3%) to the saccharin solution did increase the amount sham fed. Thirsty rats, unlike hungry, significantly increased their 0.2% saccharin solution intake when tested with an open fistula. When tested with a 32% glucose solution, hungry rats consumed up to six times more solution with their fistula open than with their fistula closed. The hungry rats also sham fed significantly more of the 32% glucose solution than of the 0.2% saccharin solution or 0.2% saccharin + 3% glucose solution. Sham-feeding of a 32% sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels, but blocking this effect by adding acarbose, a drug that inhibits sucrose digestion, did not reduce the amount of solution sham fed. Several possible explanations for the differential sham-feeding response to saccharin and sugar solutions are discussed.

  17. Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A

    2015-03-01

    As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.05), 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109) and lactation (days 1 and 3) than in early gestation (day 10). Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P < 0.05) and TBARS (P < 0.01) on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P < 0.001) while reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) and Enterococcus (P < 0.001). In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P < 0.01) of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  19. The effect of feed intake on the rate of flow of digesta and the disposition and activity of oxfendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1993-07-01

    Within 3 h of intra-ruminal (IR) administration oxfendazole (OFZ) was extensively associated with digesta particulate material. This association appeared to be a passive adsorption/desorption since sheep given dose equivalent OFZ which was contained solely in rumen particulate digesta (obtained from OFZ treated donor sheep) exhibited similar OFZ disposition to the IR treated animals. The association of OFZ with rumen particulate digesta is a major determinant of the pharmacokinetic behaviour of OFZ. The kinetic disposition of OFZ was compared in sheep fed 400 g and 800 g day-1 of 50:50 lucerne/wheaten chaff. The flow rate of rumen and abomasal fluid and particulate digesta increased with feed intake whilst the availability of OFZ and its metabolites in the digestive tract and bloodstream decreased. Compared to untreated sheep fed 800 g day-1, OFZ did not affect benzimidazole (BZ) resistant Trichostrongylus colubriformis, but reduced the numbers of BZ-resistant Haemonchus contortus by 61%. When sheep were fed 400 g day-1 36 h before and after OFZ administration, 60% of T. colubriformis and 94% of H. contortus were removed. Elevated anthelmintic efficacy in sheep can therefore be obtained when gastric flow has been slowed by temporarily reducing feed intake.

  20. Morning versus afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) affects feed intake, milk yield and composition in Girgentana goats.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Valenti, Bernardo; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella; Pennisi, Pietro

    2011-11-01

    Twenty lactating Girgentana goats were used to evaluate the effect of morning v. afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, receiving 10 kg of fresh Berseem clover cut at 9.00 (AM group) or 16.00 (PM group), respectively; 500 g of concentrate was given individually to goats before offering forage. Feed intake increased (P<0·01) in the PM group (30·5 v. 25·3 g dry matter/kg body weight), associated with the different nutrient content of diets: lower crude protein but higher dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total fatty acids in the PM-harvested forage. Milk production, protein and casein content were higher (P<0·05) in the PM group (1415 g/d, 3·25% and 2·42% v. 1277 g/d, 3·15% and 2·33%, respectively), whereas no differences between groups were detected for milk fat, lactose or urea content. Body weight slowly decreased from the start to the end of the experiment, without differences between groups. This study showed an important milk yield responses in Girgentana goats offered afternoon-cut compared with morning-cut Berseem clover, due to a marked increase in WSC in the afternoon-cut forage.

  1. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.05), 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109) and lactation (days 1 and 3) than in early gestation (day 10). Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P < 0.05) and TBARS (P < 0.01) on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P < 0.001) while reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) and Enterococcus (P < 0.001). In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P < 0.01) of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  2. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.05), 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109) and lactation (days 1 and 3) than in early gestation (day 10). Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P < 0.05) and TBARS (P < 0.01) on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P < 0.001) while reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) and Enterococcus (P < 0.001). In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P < 0.01) of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  3. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  4. A Systematic Evaluation of Food Textures to Decrease Packing and Increase Oral Intake in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Meeta R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Layer, Stacy A.; Coleman, Russell; Swartzwelder, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented than when higher textured foods were…

  5. Quantitative contribution of factors regulating rat colonic crypt epithelium: role of parenteral and enteral feeding, caloric intake, dietary cellulose level and the colon carcinogen DMH.

    PubMed

    Cameron, I L; Ord, V A; Hunter, K E; Van Nguyen, M; Padilla, G M; Heitman, D W

    1990-05-01

    To elucidate the role and quantitative contribution of several exogenous factors which may regulate colon crypt mitotic activity, proliferative zone height (PZH) and crypt height, groups of rats were subjected to various feeding regimens both with and without treatment with the colon carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The rats were divided into two major groups and one group was given eight weekly injections of DMH base at 9.5 mg kg-1 body weight. Throughout this period and for two additional weeks the rats were isocalorically fed either a defined nutritionally complete diet with different levels of dietary cellulose or they were parenterally (i.v.) fed a nutritionally complete liquid formula with different caloric levels. The rats were then injected with colchicine 3 h prior to sacrifice to arrest and to collect dividing cells at metaphase. The results of multiple regression analysis of all data were interpreted to indicate that parenteral feeding caused dramatic suppression of the colon crypt height (CH) and of the number of metaphase figures per crypt (MC). Increased cellulose intake stimulated CH but suppressed MC. The CH was also stimulated by DMH. CH was positively correlated to PZH and MC. The MC was suppressed by cellulose intake and negatively correlated to PZH but was positively correlated to CH. The PZH was positively correlated to CH. These findings were related to the role of luminal food, functional workload, kcal intake and treatment with DMH on the measured colon crypt parameters. A quantitative assessment of factors that regulate the measured colonic crypt parameters was accomplished.

  6. Effect of residual feed intake on hypothalamic gene expression and meat quality in Angus-sired cattle grown during the hot season.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Marvin, M N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between heat stress, meat quality, and residual feed intake (RFI) is unknown in growing steers. To address this issue, high RFI (HRFI) and low RFI (LRFI) individuals were compared by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70-d feeding trial conducted during July through September to identify steers with calculated RFI at least 2 SD apart. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded every 14 d. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI and HRFI) as the independent variable. The least square means for RFI were -1.2 and 0.99 kg DMI/d, respectively, for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < 0.0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < 0.0001) while on-test gain was not different (P < 0.95). Marbling score was greater in LRFI than HRFI steers (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in REA (P < 0.53), BF (P < 0.65), yield grade (P < 0.24), or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating there was no consistent relationship between RFI and indices of meat quality. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related protein (AGRP), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 3 receptor, and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) mRNA were expressed 280, 185, 202, 183, and 163% greater, respectively (P < 0.01), while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was expressed 42% lower in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.05). Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was 67% lower while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) mRNA was 209% higher in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.01). Pituitary expression of FSHβ and LHβ correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels (P < 0

  7. Effect of residual feed intake on hypothalamic gene expression and meat quality in Angus-sired cattle grown during the hot season.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Marvin, M N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between heat stress, meat quality, and residual feed intake (RFI) is unknown in growing steers. To address this issue, high RFI (HRFI) and low RFI (LRFI) individuals were compared by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70-d feeding trial conducted during July through September to identify steers with calculated RFI at least 2 SD apart. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded every 14 d. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI and HRFI) as the independent variable. The least square means for RFI were -1.2 and 0.99 kg DMI/d, respectively, for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < 0.0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < 0.0001) while on-test gain was not different (P < 0.95). Marbling score was greater in LRFI than HRFI steers (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in REA (P < 0.53), BF (P < 0.65), yield grade (P < 0.24), or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating there was no consistent relationship between RFI and indices of meat quality. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related protein (AGRP), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 3 receptor, and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) mRNA were expressed 280, 185, 202, 183, and 163% greater, respectively (P < 0.01), while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was expressed 42% lower in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.05). Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was 67% lower while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) mRNA was 209% higher in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.01). Pituitary expression of FSHβ and LHβ correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels (P < 0

  8. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  9. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher level of CP especially with U source (P < 0.05). In contrast, CP level and source in concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P > 0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P < 0.05). Fecal and urinary N excretions decreased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P < 0.05). In summary, higher CP level in concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. PMID:25686554

  10. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2012-10-28

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P < 0·05), being 11% lower with 'high' than with 'low' DP:DE ratio diets, which was in line with the 11·9% higher oxygen demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P < 0·001). As hypothesised ('oxystatic' theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.

  11. Serotonin 1A, 1B, and 7 receptors of the rat medial nucleus accumbens differentially regulate feeding, water intake, and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Clissold, Kara A; Choi, Eugene; Pratt, Wayne E

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) signaling has been widely implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviors in both humans and animal models. Recently, we reported that co-stimulation of 5-HT1&7 receptors of the anterior medial nucleus accumbens with the drug 5-CT caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake, water intake, and locomotion in rats (Pratt et al., 2009). The current experiments sought to determine which of three serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7) might be responsible for these consummatory and locomotor effects. Food-deprived rats were given 2-h access to rat chow after stimulation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7 receptors, or blockade of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors. Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors with 8-OH-DPAT (at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) caused a dose-dependent decrease in food and water intake, and reduced rearing behavior but not ambulation. In contrast, rats that received the 5-HT1B agonist CP 93129 (at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in water intake only; stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors (AS 19; at 0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) decreased ambulatory activity but did not affect food or water consumption. Blockade of 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors had no lasting effects on measures of food consumption. These data suggest that the food intake, water intake, and locomotor effects seen after medial nucleus accumbens injections of 5-CT are due to actions on separate serotonin receptor subtypes, and contribute to growing evidence for selective roles of individual serotonin receptors within the nucleus accumbens on motivated behavior.

  12. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (<0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 27), Medium (within ± 0.5 SD; n = 23), and High (>0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P < 0.01) and was greater (10.76 ± 0.24 kg/d) for High, intermediate (9.88 ± 0.25 kg/d) for Medium, and less (8.52 ± 0.23 kg/d) for Low RFI heifers. When cow performance was analyzed based on RFI rank as heifers, BW, BCS, ADG, RFI, d 14 and d 70 ECM, BF, and REA were similar among RFI groups; however, cows that were most efficient as heifers (Low) had decreased (P < 0.05) daily DMI values (10.30 ± 0.41 kg/d) compared with cows that ranked Medium (11.60 ± 0.44 kg/d) or High (11.50 ± 0.43 kg/d) as heifers. The Pearson rank correlation between Phase 1 and 2 RFI was r = 0.13 (P = 0.30), and Pearson rank correlations showed no relationship (P > 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively

  13. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (<0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 27), Medium (within ± 0.5 SD; n = 23), and High (>0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P < 0.01) and was greater (10.76 ± 0.24 kg/d) for High, intermediate (9.88 ± 0.25 kg/d) for Medium, and less (8.52 ± 0.23 kg/d) for Low RFI heifers. When cow performance was analyzed based on RFI rank as heifers, BW, BCS, ADG, RFI, d 14 and d 70 ECM, BF, and REA were similar among RFI groups; however, cows that were most efficient as heifers (Low) had decreased (P < 0.05) daily DMI values (10.30 ± 0.41 kg/d) compared with cows that ranked Medium (11.60 ± 0.44 kg/d) or High (11.50 ± 0.43 kg/d) as heifers. The Pearson rank correlation between Phase 1 and 2 RFI was r = 0.13 (P = 0.30), and Pearson rank correlations showed no relationship (P > 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively

  14. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  15. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  16. Effect of continuous v. daytime grazing on feed intake and growth of sheep grazing in a semi-arid grassland steppe.

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Lin, L; Wang, C; Glindemann, T; Schiborra, A; Schönbach, P; Wan, H; Dickhoefer, U; Susenbeth, A

    2012-03-01

    In the Inner Mongolian steppe, China, sheep generally graze during daytime and are kept in yards overnight. Hence, nutrients are not returned to the grassland, which might reduce its long-term productivity. Furthermore, the restricted grazing time may limit forage intake and thus the performance of sheep. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of continuous 24-h grazing (CG) v. the common daytime grazing (DG) on herbage mass (HM), feed quality, feed organic matter intake (OMI) and live weight gain (LWG) of sheep in the Inner Mongolian steppe. Experiments were carried out from July to September, between 2005 and 2007 on two 2-ha plots per grazing treatment. Each month, the external faecal marker titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) was orally administered to six sheep per plot on 10 consecutive days. Faecal grab samples were obtained from day 6 to 10 and analysed for CP concentrations to estimate digestibility of organic matter (dOM). Faecal TiO(2) concentrations were used to determine the total faecal output and hence OMI of sheep. Concomitant to faeces collection, HM and quality, as well as LWG of the animals were measured. HM and herbage quality did not differ between treatments. However, as the season progressed, concentrations of NDF, ADF and ADL increased, whereas HM and CP concentrations declined. HM and herbage quality parameters differed between years according to the annual precipitation. dOM was similar in CG (0.577) and DG (0.572) sheep, but it decreased from July (0.583) to September (0.558) and differed between years. Accordingly, the OMI of sheep was similar for both treatments across the entire grazing season and all study years. Although mean LWG differed between months and years, it was identical in CG (101.5 g/day) and DG sheep (101.8 g/day). Additional time on pasture during night does not increase feed intake or animal performance. Positive effects of a nutrient reflux on grassland productivity and herbage quality when animals remained

  17. Differential gene expression pattern in hypothalamus of chickens during fasting-induced metabolic reprogramming: functions of glucose and lipid metabolism in the feed intake of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Ling; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Chen, Sheng-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Deng, Lin; Peng, Jian-Long; Yu, Jian-Jian; Wang, Li-Na; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Fasting-induced hypothalamic metabolic reprogramming is involved in regulating energy homeostasis and appetite in mammals, but this phenomenon remains unclear in poultry. In this study, the expression patterns of a panel of genes related to neuropeptides, glucose, and lipid metabolism enzymes in the hypothalamus of chickens during fasting and refeeding were characterized by microarray analysis and quantitative PCR. Results showed that 48 h of fasting upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expressions of orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein but downregulated (P < 0.05) that of anorexigenic neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin; growth hormone-releasing hormone; islet amyloid polypeptide; thyroid-stimulating hormone, β; and glycoprotein hormones, α polypeptide. After 48 h of fasting, the mRNA expression of fatty acid β-oxidation [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, and forkhead box O1], energy sensor protein [sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and forkhead box O1], and glycolysis inhibitor (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4) were enhanced, but that of fatty acid synthesis and transport associated genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein A-I, endothelial lipase, and fatty acid binding protein 7) were suppressed. Liver and muscle also demonstrated similar expression patterns of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism with hypothalamus, except for that of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4, and apolipoprotein A-I. The results of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection experiments confirmed that α-lipoic acid (ALA, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 inhibitor, 0.10 μmol) and NADH (SIRT1 inhibitor, 0.80 μmol) significantly suppressed the appetite of chickens, whereas 2-deoxy-d-glucose (glycolytic inhibitor, 0.12 to 1.20 μmol) and NAD(+) (SIRT1 activator, 0.08 to 0.80 μmol) increased feed intake in chickens. The orexigenic effect of NAD

  18. Differential gene expression pattern in hypothalamus of chickens during fasting-induced metabolic reprogramming: functions of glucose and lipid metabolism in the feed intake of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Ling; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Chen, Sheng-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Deng, Lin; Peng, Jian-Long; Yu, Jian-Jian; Wang, Li-Na; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Fasting-induced hypothalamic metabolic reprogramming is involved in regulating energy homeostasis and appetite in mammals, but this phenomenon remains unclear in poultry. In this study, the expression patterns of a panel of genes related to neuropeptides, glucose, and lipid metabolism enzymes in the hypothalamus of chickens during fasting and refeeding were characterized by microarray analysis and quantitative PCR. Results showed that 48 h of fasting upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expressions of orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein but downregulated (P < 0.05) that of anorexigenic neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin; growth hormone-releasing hormone; islet amyloid polypeptide; thyroid-stimulating hormone, β; and glycoprotein hormones, α polypeptide. After 48 h of fasting, the mRNA expression of fatty acid β-oxidation [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, and forkhead box O1], energy sensor protein [sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and forkhead box O1], and glycolysis inhibitor (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4) were enhanced, but that of fatty acid synthesis and transport associated genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein A-I, endothelial lipase, and fatty acid binding protein 7) were suppressed. Liver and muscle also demonstrated similar expression patterns of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism with hypothalamus, except for that of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4, and apolipoprotein A-I. The results of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection experiments confirmed that α-lipoic acid (ALA, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 inhibitor, 0.10 μmol) and NADH (SIRT1 inhibitor, 0.80 μmol) significantly suppressed the appetite of chickens, whereas 2-deoxy-d-glucose (glycolytic inhibitor, 0.12 to 1.20 μmol) and NAD(+) (SIRT1 activator, 0.08 to 0.80 μmol) increased feed intake in chickens. The orexigenic effect of NAD

  19. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    PubMed

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  20. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( < 0.01) but was unavoidably confounded with animal age/size and experimental period. Correlation coefficients between RFI and DMI were significant ( < 0.05) only when animals were fed the TMR. Daily CH correlated with DMI ( = 0.42, < 0.05) only when animals grazed pasture. Daily DMI was lower in low-RFI animals ( = 0.047) but only when expressed as grams per kilogram metabolic BW. Absolute CH emissions did not differ between RFI groups ( > 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a

  1. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  2. Divergent selection for residual feed intake in group-housed growing pigs: characteristics of physical and behavioural activity according to line and sex.

    PubMed

    Meunier-Salaün, M C; Guérin, C; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on the behavioural activity of lines divergently selected for RFI during seven generations. In all, six successive batches from the seventh generation of selection were raised in collective pens equipped with a single-place electronic feeder (SEF) from 10 weeks of age to 100 kg BW. Each batch included four groups of 12 pigs: high RFI (RFI+) castrated males, RFI+ females, low RFI (RFI-) castrated males, RFI- females. At 17 weeks of age, health criteria were evaluated using a gradient scale for increased severity of lameness, body lesions, bursae and tail biting. Individual behavioural activities were recorded by 24-h video tape on the day after health evaluation. The investigative motivation towards unfamiliar objects was quantified at 18 weeks of age. The daily individual feeding patterns were computed from SEF records during the 4 weeks surrounding 12, 17 and 22 weeks of age. All pigs spent significantly most of their time lying in diurnal (80% of total scan) and nocturnal (>89%) periods. The RFI- pigs showed a lower proportion of health problems (P<0.01) than RFI+ pigs. The RFI- pigs used the SEF less than the RFI+ pigs, in diurnal (5.3% v. 6.4% of video scans, P<0.05) and nocturnal periods (3.6% v. 4.5% of video scans, P<0.05). This was confirmed by a significantly lower daily number and duration of visits to the SEF computed from the SEF data. The feeding activity measured from the video recording was significantly correlated (R>0.34; P<0.05) with feeding patterns computed from the SEF. The RFI- pigs spent less time standing over the 24-h period (9.7% v. 12.2% of scans, i.e. 35 min/day, P<0.05). In terms of energy costs, this amounted to 14% of the line difference in terms of daily metabolizable energy intake. The castrated males used the SEF more than females, especially at night (4.7% v. 3.4% of total scans, P<0.05), whereas females displayed greater investigation of

  3. Evaluation of supplementary stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, bertoni) leaves and stevioside in broiler diets: effects on feed intake, nutrient metabolism, blood parameters and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Onagbesan, O M; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Geuns, J M C; Buyse, J

    2008-12-01

    A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p < 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p < 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and

  4. Adipose and Muscle Tissue Gene Expression of Two Genes (NCAPG and LCORL) Located in a Chromosomal Region Associated with Cattle Feed Intake and Gain

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Oliver, William T.; Sexten, Andrea K.; Miles, Jeremy R.; Rempel, Lea A.; Cushman, Robert A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2013-01-01

    A region on bovine chromosome 6 has been implicated in cattle birth weight, growth, and length. Non-SMC conodensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) and ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like protein (LCORL) are positional candidate genes within this region. Previously identified genetic markers in both genes were associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a crossbred population of beef steers. These markers were also associated with hot carcass weight, ribeye area and adjusted fat thickness suggesting that they may have a role in lean muscle growth and/or fat deposition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the transcript abundance of either of these genes in cattle adipose and muscle tissue was associated with variation in feed intake and average daily gain phenotypes. Transcript abundance for NCAPG and LCORL in adipose and muscle tissue was measured in heifers (adipose only), cows and steers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the adipose tissue from cows and heifers, a negative correlation between LCORL transcript abundance and ADFI were detected (P = 0.05). In the muscle tissue from cows, transcript abundance of NCAPG was associated with ADG (r = 0.26; P = 0.009). A positive correlation between LCORL transcript abundance from muscle tissue of steers and ADFI was detected (P = 0.04). LCORL protein levels in the muscle of steers were investigated and were associated with ADFI (P = 0.01). These data support our earlier genetic associations with ADFI and ADG within this region and represent the potential for biological activity of these genes in the muscle and adipose tissues of beef cattle; however, they also suggest that sex, age and/or nutrition-specific interactions may affect the expression of NCAPG and LCORL in these tissues. PMID:24278337

  5. Adipose and muscle tissue gene expression of two genes (NCAPG and LCORL) located in a chromosomal region associated with cattle feed intake and gain.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K; Kuehn, Larry A; Oliver, William T; Sexten, Andrea K; Miles, Jeremy R; Rempel, Lea A; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C

    2013-01-01

    A region on bovine chromosome 6 has been implicated in cattle birth weight, growth, and length. Non-SMC conodensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) and ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like protein (LCORL) are positional candidate genes within this region. Previously identified genetic markers in both genes were associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a crossbred population of beef steers. These markers were also associated with hot carcass weight, ribeye area and adjusted fat thickness suggesting that they may have a role in lean muscle growth and/or fat deposition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the transcript abundance of either of these genes in cattle adipose and muscle tissue was associated with variation in feed intake and average daily gain phenotypes. Transcript abundance for NCAPG and LCORL in adipose and muscle tissue was measured in heifers (adipose only), cows and steers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the adipose tissue from cows and heifers, a negative correlation between LCORL transcript abundance and ADFI were detected (P = 0.05). In the muscle tissue from cows, transcript abundance of NCAPG was associated with ADG (r = 0.26; P = 0.009). A positive correlation between LCORL transcript abundance from muscle tissue of steers and ADFI was detected (P = 0.04). LCORL protein levels in the muscle of steers were investigated and were associated with ADFI (P = 0.01). These data support our earlier genetic associations with ADFI and ADG within this region and represent the potential for biological activity of these genes in the muscle and adipose tissues of beef cattle; however, they also suggest that sex, age and/or nutrition-specific interactions may affect the expression of NCAPG and LCORL in these tissues.

  6. Evidence for the Association of a Deleted Variant in the 5′-Flanking Region of the Chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT) Gene with a Temporary Increase in Feed Intake and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Joergen B.; Phi-van, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene of Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens. In this study, the impact of three genotypes (W/W, W/D, and D/D) at the 5-HTT gene on feed intake and body weight was investigated. After hatching, hens of the three genotypes were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their feed intake and body weight were recorded weekly. From 5 weeks of age, D/D and W/D hens were significantly heavier than wild-type W/W hens. Further, it is found that D/D hens had a temporarily higher feed intake and growth rate than W/W hens between 4 and 7 weeks. We suggest that the increased body weight is due to a transiently increased appetite of D/D hens. Abstract The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene of Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens. The deleted variant D was found to be associated with increased body weight. The objective of this study was to address whether the increased body weight may be due to an increased feed intake. After hatching, hens were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their body weight and feed intake were weekly determined. From 5 weeks of age, the body weight of hens with the D/D and W/D genotypes was significantly greater than that of W/W carrying hens. Interestingly, we found that the feed intake of D/D carrying hens, relative to body weight, was transiently increased only between 4 and 7 weeks of age (p < 0.05), leading to a higher growth rate (p < 0.05), compared with that of W/W carrying hens. These results suggest that the presence of variant D may be correlated with a transiently increased appetite of D/D carrying hens. PMID:27754399

  7. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--actual cases: tulip bulbs with leaves (Tulipa gesneriana)--an unusual and high risk plant for ruminant feeding].

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Blanke, H J; Wohlsein, P; Kamphues, J; Stöber, M

    2003-07-01

    14 cattle (mainly younger ones) of a total of 50 extensively kept Galloways died within 6 weeks in late winter 2001/02. According to the owner's report, grass growth had been rather poor; therefore, the herd was fed additionally hay as well as large amounts of tulip onions. In the microbiological examination a highly reduced hygienic quality of the roughage could be detected. In the rumen contents of two dissected young cattle parts of tulip onions were found. According to pertinent literature, tulip onions (in particular their external layers) contain variant-specific amounts of anti-nutritive substances; main active agents are tulipin (a glycoprotein), tuliposid A and B, and lectins. They may cause intensive mucosal irritation, accompanied by reduced feed digestion and body-weight gains, drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. This case report underlines risks caused by feeding of plants originally not destined as forage, if their active ingredients and effects are unknown or remain unconsidered.

  8. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P < 0.05) among the three groups. The anti-Haemonchus IgG and CMI response was higher in T group as compared to C group. The mean faecal egg counts was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in C group as compared to T group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep.

  9. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P < 0.05) among the three groups. The anti-Haemonchus IgG and CMI response was higher in T group as compared to C group. The mean faecal egg counts was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in C group as compared to T group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep. PMID:27065606

  10. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P < 0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet. PMID:20577806

  11. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-10-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating dry matter intake (DMI). The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and average daily BW gain (ADG) measurement period and to determine the association of those ghrelin measurements with DMI, ADG, ADG:DMI ratio (G:F), and residual feed intake in finishing beef steers and heifers. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 83 before feeding and between 0730 h and 1130 h. Samples were analyzed for acyl and total ghrelin using commercially available RIA. DMI in steers was greater during the last 35-d period of the experiment compared with the first 35 d (P < 0.01) and was greater than heifers regardless of period (P < 0.01). Steers had greater acyl ghrelin concentrations on day 0 than heifers, but concentrations decreased by day 83 to equal concentrations in heifers (P < 0.01). Total ghrelin concentrations were lower on day 0 in heifers but increased by day 83 and did not differ from steers on day 83 (P < 0.01). A mixed model analysis was used to determine the association of ghrelin concentrations and ratio with production traits, independent of breed and sire effects. There was an interaction of day 0 acyl ghrelin concentrations with time of sample collection for 84-d DMI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P = 0.09), indicating a general positive association of acyl ghrelin with production traits, but the association weakened as time of sample collection increased. The mean ghrelin ratio tended (P = 0.08) to be positively associated with DMI in the last 35-d period. The ghrelin ratio on day 0 interacted with time of sample collection for ADG and G:F (P < 0.05), indicating an overall positive association of the ghrelin ratio with ADG and G:F. Results indicate that ghrelin is associated with DMI, ADG, and feed efficiency of finishing beef

  12. Effect of time of second GnRH vaccination on feed intake, carcass quality and fatty acid composition of male fatteners compared to entire boars and barrows.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tatjana; Sauer, Franziska; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of time point of second vaccination with the GnRH analogon Improvac on growth performance, carcass quality and fatty acid composition of male fatteners compared to surgically castrated pigs and entire boars. The pigs (Piétrain-crossbreds) were divided into two vaccination groups with first GnRH vaccination at eleven weeks of age and second vaccination at 21 (group IA, n = 84) or 18 weeks (IB, n = 83) of age, one group with surgically castrated males (C, n = 90) and one with entire males (EM, n = 91). Body weight, feed conversion rate, carcass quality and fatty acid composition in back fat were estimated. Feed conversion rate until second vaccination was better (P < 0.05) in the vaccination groups (1:2.39) and in group EM (1:2.34) than in group C (1:2.55). Carcass weight did not differ between the groups. Vaccination groups had significantly (P < 0.01) leaner meat (IA: 58.9%, IB: 58.3%) and less back fat (IA: 14.6 mm, IB: 15.5 mm) than group C (56.5%, 17.1 mm). Fatty acid composition was shifted to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in back fat in vaccination groups and EM compared to C. The time lag between second vaccination and slaughter had no influence on growth performance, feed intake and carcass quality. C18:3 and C20:2 were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in group IB than in IA, but PUFA did not differ between vaccination groups. GnRH vaccinated fatteners were economically superior to surgically castrated in this study. PMID:25080821

  13. Transcriptome analysis of mRNA and miRNA in skeletal muscle indicates an important network for differential Residual Feed Intake in pigs.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lu; Hou, Ye; Wu, Hui; Miao, Yuanxin; Li, Xinyun; Cao, Jianhua; Brameld, John Michael; Parr, Tim; Zhao, Shuhong

    2015-07-07

    Feed efficiency (FE) can be measured by feed conversion ratio (FCR) or residual feed intake (RFI). In this study, we measured the FE related phenotypes of 236 castrated purebred Yorkshire boars, and selected 10 extreme individuals with high and low RFI for transcriptome analysis. We used RNA-seq analyses to determine the differential expression of genes and miRNAs in skeletal muscle. There were 99 differentially expressed genes identified (q ≤ 0.05). The down-regulated genes were mainly involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, including FABP3, RCAN, PPARGC1 (PGC-1A), HK2 and PRKAG2. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and proliferation, including IGF2, PDE7A, CEBPD, PIK3R1 and MYH6. Moreover, 15 differentially expressed miRNAs (|log2FC| ≥ 1, total reads count ≥ 20, p ≤ 0.05) were identified. Among them, miR-136, miR-30e-5p, miR-1, miR-208b, miR-199a, miR-101 and miR-29c were up-regulated, while miR-215, miR-365-5p, miR-486, miR-1271, miR-145, miR-99b, miR-191 and miR-10b were down-regulated in low RFI pigs. We conclude that decreasing mitochondrial energy metabolism, possibly through AMPK - PGC-1A pathways, and increasing muscle growth, through IGF-1/2 and TGF-β signaling pathways, are potential strategies for the improvement of FE in pigs (and possibly other livestock). This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that determine RFI and FE in pigs.

  14. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P < 0.05) 40.2, 79.1 and 110.1 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-13.3 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P < 0.05) for 450 g moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  15. Effects of timing of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing associated with the administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine (IBR-PI3-BRSV-BVD) on day 0 or on day 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and the febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was t...

  16. Effect of body composition, feed intake, and ambient temperature on heat production of Vietnamese Sway-back pigs.

    PubMed

    Derno, M; Jentsch, W; Klein, M; Küchenmeister, U; Nürnberg, K; Hartung, M; Wünsche, J

    1997-12-01

    From theoretical considerations animals with a higher protein-fat ratio in the body should have a higher maintenance energy requirement (MEm). The literature on this problem shows a non-uniform picture with deviating results. From the results of a series of experiments it is possible to compare the heat production (HP) of male and female animals of the Vietnamese Sway-back breed pigs which vary quite widely in their body composition. The protein-fat ratio was 1.2 for the male and 0.2 for the female animals. In the experiments 4 male and 4 female animals in the live weight range of 20-33 kg and 33-42 kg, respectively, were involved. The HP measurements were carried out in climatized respiration chambers on two levels of energy intake at ambient temperatures of 6 degrees C, 12 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 24 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C. The dependence of HP on the ambient temperature has been described by a cubic regression function. Thermoneutral temperatures are lower in the female animals caused by the better insulation effect of the backfat. The difference in HP which was expected by the large difference in body composition, was not found. The absolute protein mass determined the correlation to HP. Certainly the difference increased after lowering the ambient temperature. The influence of different factors on HP is discussed.

  17. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  18. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  19. Antagonism of corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptors attenuates caloric intake of free feeding subordinate female rhesus monkeys in a rich dietary environment.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Johnson, Z P; Higgins, M; Toufexis, D; Wilson, M E

    2015-01-01

    Social subordination in macaque females is a known chronic stressor and previous studies have shown that socially subordinate female rhesus monkeys consume fewer kilocalories than dominant animals when a typical laboratory chow diet is available. However, in a rich dietary environment that provides access to chow in combination with a more palatable diet (i.e. high in fat and refined sugar), subordinate animals consume significantly more daily kilocalories than dominant conspecifics. Substantial literature is available supporting the role of stress hormone signals in shaping dietary preferences and promoting the consumption of palatable, energy-dense foods. The present study was conducted using stable groups of adult female rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that pharmacological treatment with a brain penetrable corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist would attenuate the stress-induced consumption of a palatable diet among subordinate animals in a rich dietary environment but would be without effect in dominant females. The results show that administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced daily caloric intake of both available diets among subordinate females compared to dominant females. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the attenuation in caloric intake in response to Antalarmin (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was significantly predicted by the frequency of submissive and aggressive behaviour emitted by females, independent of social status. Taken together, the findings support the involvement of activation of CRF1 receptors in the stress-induced consumption of excess calories in a rich dietary environment and also support the growing literature concerning the importance of CRF for sustaining emotional feeding.

  20. Antagonism of Corticotrophin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptors Attenuates Caloric Intake of Free Feeding Subordinate Female Rhesus Monkeys in a Rich Dietary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C J; Johnson, Z P; Higgins, M; Toufexis, D; Wilson, M E

    2015-01-01

    Social subordination in macaque females is a known chronic stressor and previous studies have shown that socially subordinate female rhesus monkeys consume fewer kilocalories than dominant animals when a typical laboratory chow diet is available. However, in a rich dietary environment that provides access to chow in combination with a more palatable diet (i.e. high in fat and refined sugar), subordinate animals consume significantly more daily kilocalories than dominant conspecifics. Substantial literature is available supporting the role of stress hormone signals in shaping dietary preferences and promoting the consumption of palatable, energy-dense foods. The present study was conducted using stable groups of adult female rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that pharmacological treatment with a brain penetrable corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist would attenuate the stress-induced consumption of a palatable diet among subordinate animals in a rich dietary environment but would be without effect in dominant females. The results show that administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced daily caloric intake of both available diets among subordinate females compared to dominant females. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the attenuation in caloric intake in response to Antalarmin (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was significantly predicted by the frequency of submissive and aggressive behaviour emitted by females, independent of social status. Taken together, the findings support the involvement of activation of CRF1 receptors in the stress-induced consumption of excess calories in a rich dietary environment and also support the growing literature concerning the importance of CRF for sustaining emotional feeding. PMID:25674637

  1. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003) with average daily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002) with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6), an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005). These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and ribeye area (REA), and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT). A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI, across multiple breeds

  2. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  3. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

  4. Influence of feed intake, forage physical form, and forage fiber content on particle size of masticated forage, ruminal digesta, and feces of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shaver, R D; Nytes, A J; Satter, L D; Jorgensen, N A

    1988-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine particle size of masticates, ruminal digesta, and feces of dairy cows. In Trial 1, three Holstein cows with ruminal cannulae were fed prebloom alfalfa hay in long, chopped, or pelleted form in a Latin square design (21-d periods) conducted in early lactation (wk 3 to 11) and again during the dry period to attain high (3.75) and low (1.95% of BW) feed consumption. In trial 2, prebloom, midbloom, and full bloom alfalfa hay, mature bromegrass hay, and corn silage were fed to early lactation (wk 5 to 15) Holsteins in a 5 X 5 Latin square design (15-d periods). All diets (Trials 1 and 2) were formulated to 17% CP and contained forage:grain in a 60:40 ratio (DM basis). Similar particle distributions of digesta from long and chopped hay diets suggest little influence of chopping forage on particle size reduction when high quality forage is fed. The large proportion of DM in the small particle (less than .6 mm) pool in the rumen in both trials suggests that rate of escape of small particles from the rumen is an important factor influencing ruminal retention time. Increased proportion of coarse (greater than or equal to 2.36-mm screen) fecal particles at high intake and with fine grinding appears related to a reduction in chewing per unit feed consumed. Soluble DM and particulate matter passing a .063-mm screen made up a significant portion (30 to 50%) of the total DM sieved from all sampling sites in both trials. PMID:2841366

  5. Unrestricted feed intake during the dry period impairs the postpartum oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Murondoti, A; Jorritsma, R; Beynen, A C; Wensing, T; Geelen, M J H

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of key hepatic enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in cows that had excessive body fat at parturition. Dairy cows were allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. All cows were offered a total mixed ration with an energy content of 6.6 MJ of net energy for lactation per kilogram of dry matter and consisting of corn silage, beet pulp, rapeseed meal, and soybean meal. Control cows were restricted to 6.8 kg/dry matter of the mixed ration in the dry period. Experimental cows had unrestricted access to the mixed ration during the dry period to increase body fat and induce fatty liver postpartum. Blood and liver samples were collected 1 wk before and 1, 2, and 4 wk after parturition. Before parturition, neither the serum nonesterifled fatty acids nor the hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations differed between experimental and control cows. After parturition, the values for these variables were greater in experimental cows than in control cows. Plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate increased sharply after parturition in the experimental group. In liver, the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was already significantly lower in the experimental group before parturition. After parturition, the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase dropped in the experimental group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in liver was less in experimental cows following parturition. Hepatic citrate synthase activity increased only in the control group after parturition. Unrestricted feed intake before parturition reduces de novo fatty acid synthesis as well as fatty acid oxidation after parturition. The reduction in fatty acid oxidation following parturition may contribute to postpartum accumulation of triacylglycerol in the livers of cows with unrestricted access to feed during the dry period.

  6. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in

  7. Porcine MAP3K5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Pu, L; Zhang, L C; Zhang, J S; Song, X; Wang, L G; Liang, J; Zhang, Y B; Liu, X; Yan, H; Zhang, T; Yue, J W; Li, N; Wu, Q Q; Wang, L X

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively. The deduced MAP3K5 protein sequence contains two conserved domains: a DUF4071 domain and a protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that porcine MAP3K5 forms a separate branch to vicugna and camel MAP3K5. Tissue expression analysis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that MAP3K5 was expressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, pancrea, ileum, and stomach tissues. Copy number variation was detected for porcine MAP3K5 and validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, a significant increase in average copy number was detected in the low RFI group when compared to the high RFI group in a Duroc pig population. These results provide useful information regarding the influence of MAP3K5 on RFI in pigs. PMID:27525933

  8. Screening for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in local and imported food and feed products available across the State of Kuwait and assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Husain, Adnan; Gevao, Bondi; Dashti, Basma; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter Aleaxnder; Al-Wadi, Majed; Al-Foudari, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    A total of 318 local and imported meat, milk, eggs, fish, and animal feed samples collected in Kuwait were analyzed by cell-based reporter gene assay (Dioxin-Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression DR-CALUX) for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) obtained by DR-CALUX bioassay were compared with the official maximum limits according to the European Commission (EC) regulations. Suspected and randomly chosen negative samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The results showed that among suspected samples, one sample was confirmed to be non-compliant. The positive sample was of imported origin. The correlation coefficient of 0.98 between DR-CALUX and GC-HRMS was found. Moreover, the average daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for the Kuwaiti population were estimated. Results obtained in this study were discussed and compared with other published data. PMID:24433787

  9. The effects of rearing density on growth, size heterogeneity and inter-individual variation of feed intake in monosex male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.

    PubMed

    Azaza, M S; Assad, A; Maghrbi, W; El-Cafsi, M

    2013-11-01

    The growth dispersion of farmed fish is a subject of increasing interest and one of the most important factors in stocking density. On a duration of 60 days, the effect of stocking density on the growth, coefficient of variation and inter-individual variation of feed intake (CVFI) of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (14.9 ± 1.2 g) were studied in an experimental tank-based flow-through system. Groups of fish were stocked at four stocking densities: 200, 400, 600 and 800 fish/m3, corresponding to a density of ∼3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/m3 and referred to as D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. Each treatment was applied to triplicate groups in a completely randomized design. No treatment-related mortality was observed. The fish densities increased throughout the experiment from 3 to 23.5, 6 to 43.6, 9 to 56.6 and 12 to 69 kg/m3. Results show that mass gain and specific growth rate (SGR, %M/day) were negatively correlated with increased stocking density. Groups of the D1 treatment reached a mean final body mass (FBM) of 119.3 g v. 88.9 g for the D4 groups. Feed conversion ratios (FCRs) were 1.38, 1.54, 1.62 and 1.91 at D1, D2, D3 and D4 treatments, respectively. Growth heterogeneity, expressed by the inter-individual variations of fish mass (CVM), was significantly affected by time (P < 0.001), stocking density (P < 0.001) and their interaction (P < 0.05). The difference in CVM was particularly conspicuous towards the end of the experiment and was positively correlated with stocking density. Similarly, radiographic study shows that CVFI was also found to be significantly greater for groups reared at high stocking densities (D3 and D4) than the other treatments (D1 and D2). These differences in both CVM and CVFI related to the stocking density need to be taken into account by husbandry practices to assure the production of more homogeneous fish size. A simple economic analysis indicates a parabolic relationship between profit and density with optimal final

  10. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  11. The effect of a non-starch polysaccharide-hydrolysing enzyme (Rovabio® Excel) on feed intake and body condition of sows during lactation and on progeny growth performance.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M C; Geraert, P A; Maillard, R; Kluess, J; Lawlor, P G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 200 (Large White × Landrace) sows were used in a 39-day study to evaluate the effects of feeding a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-hydrolysing enzyme multicomplex (Rovabio(®) Excel) in conjunction with a high- or reduced nutrient-density diet during lactation on sow body condition, feed intake and progeny performance. Eight sows were selected each week for 25 weeks, blocked by parity and BW into groups of four, and within the block randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (n = 50/treatment). Treatments were: (1) LND: low energy (13.14 MJ of DE/kg), low CP (15%) diet; (2) LND + RE: LND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme; (3) HND: high energy (14.5 MJ of DE/kg), high CP (16.5%) diet; and (4) HND + RE: HND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme. Sows were fed treatment diets from day 109 of gestation until the day of subsequent service. Between weaning and re-service, Rovabio(®) Excel addition to LND diets resulted in an increase in energy intake; however, a reduction was observed when supplemented to the HND diet (P < 0.05). The inclusion of Rovabio(®) Excel increased feed and energy intake during week 3 (days 15 to 21) of lactation (P < 0.05). Sows fed diets supplemented with Rovabio(®) Excel had greater back-fat depth at weaning and service (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in back-fat depth during lactation and from farrowing to service was not different between treatments. Feeding the HND diet increased energy intake before farrowing, throughout lactation and during the weaning to service interval (P < 0.01); however, overall, average daily feed intake tended to be reduced (P < 0.10). At service, sows fed the HND diet were heavier than sows fed the LND diet (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in BW between treatments was not different. Feeding the HND diet to sows resulted in a tendency for heavier piglets at birth (P = 0.10) that tended to grow at a faster rate and be heavier at weaning than piglets from sows fed the

  12. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer (PU) is common in immobile elderly patients, and there are some research works to investigate a preventive and curative method, but not to find sufficient effectiveness. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical effectiveness on wound healing in patients with PU by hydrogen-dissolved water (HW) intake via tube-feeding (TF). Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts OUMS-36 and normal human epidermis-derived cell line HaCaT keratinocytes were examined in vitro to explore the mechanisms relating to whether hydrogen plays a role in wound-healing at the cellular level. Methods Twenty-two severely hospitalized elderly Japanese patients with PU were recruited in the present study, and their ages ranged from 71.0 to 101.0 (86.7 ± 8.2) years old, 12 male and 10 female patients, all suffering from eating disorder and bedridden syndrome as the secondary results of various underlying diseases. All patients received routine care treatments for PU in combination with HW intake via TF for 600 mL per day, in place of partial moisture replenishment. On the other hand, HW was prepared with a hydrogen-bubbling apparatus which produces HW with 0.8-1.3 ppm of dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) and −602 mV to −583 mV of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), in contrast to reversed osmotic ultra-pure water (RW), as the reference, with DH of < 0.018 ppm and ORP of +184 mV for use in the in vitro experimental research. In in vitro experiments, OUMS-36 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were respectively cultured in medium prepared with HW and/or RW. Immunostain was used for detecting type-I collagen reconstruction in OUMS-36 cells. And intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified by NBT assay, and cell viability of HaCaT cells was examined by WST-1 assay, respectively. Results Twenty-two patients were retrospectively divided into an effective group (EG, n = 12) and a less effective group (LG, n = 10) according to

  13. Effects of long-term growth hormone-releasing factor treatment on growth, feed conversion efficiency and dry matter intake in growing female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mondal, M; Prakash, B S

    2005-08-01

    Effects of long-term growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) on growth performance, feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and dry matter intake (DMI) were studied in growing buffaloes. Twelve female Murrah buffaloes of 6-8 months of age were divided into two groups of six each on the basis of their body weights so that the average body weights of the groups did not differ (p > 0.05). Animals of each group were administered intravenously with either sterile distilled water (control group) or equal volume of GRF solution containing 10 mug GRF (1-44)-NH2/100 kg body weight (treatment group) at fortnight interval from week 6 (5-week pre-treatment period) for 36 weeks (weeks 6-42 treatment period). Thereafter a 10-week post-treatment period was added. All the animals were weighed consecutively 2 days in a week and the average body weight of the two observations in the week was thus considered for further calculation. Dry matter intake was recorded daily. Average daily gain, FCE and DMI/100 kg body weight were also calculated. Plasma progesterone was estimated in the samples collected twice a week at 3-4-day intervals to assess whether either group had begun ovarian cycles. It was found that ADG and FCE were higher (p < 0.01) in GRF-treated animals during treatment and even 10-week post-treatment period. Interestingly, total DMI was not different (p > 0.05) between the groups during treatment period but found to be lower in GRF treated animals during post-treatment period. The DMI/100 kg body weight was lower (p < 0.01) in GRF-treated animals during treatment and even after cessation of treatment for 10 weeks. The GRF administration for long-term increased (p < 0.05) plasma progesterone. Plasma progesterone concentrations suggest that no animal from either group reached puberty till the end of the experiment. In conclusion, repeated GRF administration for longer term decreased (p < 0.01) DMI/100 kg body weight and increased (p < 0.01) FCE and enabled the animals to grow faster

  14. Effects of long-term growth hormone-releasing factor treatment on growth, feed conversion efficiency and dry matter intake in growing female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mondal, M; Prakash, B S

    2005-08-01

    Effects of long-term growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) on growth performance, feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and dry matter intake (DMI) were studied in growing buffaloes. Twelve female Murrah buffaloes of 6-8 months of age were divided into two groups of six each on the basis of their body weights so that the average body weights of the groups did not differ (p > 0.05). Animals of each group were administered intravenously with either sterile distilled water (control group) or equal volume of GRF solution containing 10 mug GRF (1-44)-NH2/100 kg body weight (treatment group) at fortnight interval from week 6 (5-week pre-treatment period) for 36 weeks (weeks 6-42 treatment period). Thereafter a 10-week post-treatment period was added. All the animals were weighed consecutively 2 days in a week and the average body weight of the two observations in the week was thus considered for further calculation. Dry matter intake was recorded daily. Average daily gain, FCE and DMI/100 kg body weight were also calculated. Plasma progesterone was estimated in the samples collected twice a week at 3-4-day intervals to assess whether either group had begun ovarian cycles. It was found that ADG and FCE were higher (p < 0.01) in GRF-treated animals during treatment and even 10-week post-treatment period. Interestingly, total DMI was not different (p > 0.05) between the groups during treatment period but found to be lower in GRF treated animals during post-treatment period. The DMI/100 kg body weight was lower (p < 0.01) in GRF-treated animals during treatment and even after cessation of treatment for 10 weeks. The GRF administration for long-term increased (p < 0.05) plasma progesterone. Plasma progesterone concentrations suggest that no animal from either group reached puberty till the end of the experiment. In conclusion, repeated GRF administration for longer term decreased (p < 0.01) DMI/100 kg body weight and increased (p < 0.01) FCE and enabled the animals to grow faster.

  15. Effects of feed restriction to enhance the profitable farming of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii in sea cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sung-Yong; Kim, Min-Suk; Kwon, Joon Yeong; Maran, B. A. Venmathi

    2013-09-01

    The feed intake, growth and body composition of juvenile blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Sparidae) (5.6 g fish-1) were investigated for 16 weeks in sea cages under seven repetitive feeding cycles: every day feeding (control), 6-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F6.1), 5-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F5.1), 4-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F4.1), 3-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F3.1), 2-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F2.1), and 1-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F1.1). The survival of the fish during the experimental period was not different among the feeding cycles. The greatest weight gain of fish was observed in the control, but not significantly different from that of the F6.1 and F5.1 groups (p > 0.05). Total feed intake and daily feed intake decreased with the increase of fasting frequency, however, actual feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio increased with the increase of the fasting frequency. Proximate composition of the whole body of fish was not affected by different feeding cycles. These results suggest that juvenile blackhead seabreams subjected to repetitive feeding cycles of 6- or 5-days feeding and 1 day fasting for 16 weeks could achieve compensatory growth, and that such mild feeding deprivation could save significant amounts of feed without causing any profit reduction that might result from a decrease in fish size or quality.

  16. Effect of tanniferous leaf meal based multi-nutrient blocks on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes in Haemonchus contortus infected goats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Pathak, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB) supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87) were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat) group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT) supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source). All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) levels were found to be highest (p<0.001, p<0.05) in T1 group followed by T3 group and lowest values were observed in T2 group. However, The PCV values between T1 and T3 groups were found to be statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The humoral and CMI response were significantly (p<0.036) higher in T3 group as compared to T2 group. MNB-CT supplementation significantly (p<0.001) reduced fecal egg counts in T3 group as compared to MNB supplemented T2 group. Conclusion: Supplementation of MNB-CT could be used as an alternative sustainable method to control H. contortus and maintained health status and performance of goats in face of parasitic challenge. PMID:27047137

  17. Abomasal infusion of casein, starch and soybean oil differentially affect plasma concentrations of gut peptides and feed intake in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, Alejandro E; Reynolds, Christopher K

    2008-07-01

    The effects of specific nutrients on secretion and plasma concentrations of gut peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1((7-36)) amide (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)) differ across species, but are not reported for cattle. Our objective was to determine acute (hours) and chronic (1 week) effects of increased abomasal supply of protein, carbohydrate, or fat to the small intestine on dry matter intake (DMI) and plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, CCK, and insulin. Four mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment. Treatments were 7-day abomasal infusions of water, soybean oil (500 g/d), corn starch (1100 g/d), or casein (800 g/d). Jugular vein plasma was obtained over 7h at the end of the first and last day of infusions. Oil infusion decreased DMI on day 7, but total metabolizable energy (ME) supply (diet plus infusate) did not differ from water infusion. Casein and starch infusion had no effect on feed DMI; thus, ME supply increased. Decreased DMI on day 7 of oil infusion was accompanied by increased plasma GLP-1 concentration, but decreased plasma CCK concentration. Increased plasma GIP concentration was associated with increased ME supply on day 7 of casein and starch infusion. Casein infusion tended to increase plasma CCK concentration on both days of sampling, and increased plasma GLP-1 and insulin concentration on day 1 of infusion. The present data indicate a sustained elevation of plasma concentration of GLP-1, but not CCK, may contribute to the reduced DMI observed in dairy cows provided supplemental fat.

  18. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency.

  19. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  20. Rumen papillae morphology of beef steers relative to gain and feed intake and the association of volatile fatty acids with kallikrein gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs are the most expensive input in beef production. Improvement in the feed efficiency of beef cattle would lower feed inputs and reduce the cost of production. The rumen epithelium is responsible for absorption and metabolism of nutrients and microbial by-products, and may play a significan...

  1. Effects of different amounts of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Tan, C Q; Wei, H K; Zou, Y; Long, G; Ao, J T; Xue, H X; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different amounts of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in the gestation diet on the physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance during two successive reproductive cycles. Multiparous Landrace sows (n=140) were assigned randomly to one of four experimental diets, and four gestation diets were formulated to contain varying amounts of KF at 0%, 0.6%, 1.2% or 2.2%, respectively. The water binding capacity (WBC) (P<0.01), swelling capacity (P<0.01) of gestation diets, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids (P<0.05) after in vitro fermentation of gestation diets increased linearly with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. During the second reproductive cycle, increasing dietary KF linearly increased plasma concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) 4h postprandial (P<0.05) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 2h postprandial (P<0.05), but decreased the plasma concentration of cortisol (linearly, P<0.05) 1h postprandial. In addition, there was a linear decrease of the non-feeding oral behavior of gestating sows (P<0.01) when dietary KF increased. There were linear increases in lactation feed intake of sows during entire lactation period (P<0.01) with increasing amounts of KF in the gestation diet. In addition, the number of piglets weaned (linearly, P<0.01; quadratic, P=0.01), average piglet weights and litter weights on day 21 of lactation (linearly, P<0.01) increased with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. In conclusion, inclusion of dietary fiber with great WBC, swelling capacity and fermentation capacity in the gestation diet was beneficial for enhancing postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, increasing lactation feed intake and improved number of piglets weaned per litter through greater pre-weaning survival.

  2. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  3. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  4. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  5. Effect of method of applying fibrolytic enzymes or ammonia to Bermudagrass hay on feed intake, digestion, and growth of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Krueger, N A; Adesogan, A T; Staples, C R; Krueger, W K; Kim, S C; Littell, R C; Sollenberger, L E

    2008-04-01

    This study examined how different methods of applying a fibrolytic enzyme or ammonia affect the nutritive value of Bermudagrass hay and the performance of beef cattle. Fifty Angus x Brangus crossbred steers (mean initial BW 244 +/- 26 kg) were individually fed for ad libitum intake of a 5-wk regrowth of a mixture of Florakirk and Tifton 44 Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers] hay for 84 d with a concentrate supplement (77% soybean hull pellets, 23% cottonseed meal (DM basis) fed at 1% of BW daily. The Bermudagrass was conserved as hay without treatment (control), with NH(3) (30 g/kg of DM), or with a fibrolytic enzyme (16.5 g/t, air-dry basis) that was applied immediately after cutting (Ec), at baling (Eb), or at feeding. Chromic oxide was dosed to steers for 10 consecutive days, and fecal Cr concentrations from the last 5 d were used to estimate apparent total tract digestibility. In situ ruminal DM degradability was measured by incubating ground (4-mm) hay samples in duplicate in each of 2 ruminally cannulated cows having ad libitum access to Bermudagrass hay and 500 g/d of soybean meal. Unlike the enzyme treatment, ammoniation increased (P < 0.001) the CP concentration and reduced (P < 0.001) NDF, hemicellulose, and lignin concentrations of hay. Total DMI was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed hays treated with Ec or NH(3) than for those fed control hays. All additive treatments increased (P < 0.05) DM digestibility, and NH(3), Ec, and Eb treatments also increased (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility. The initial and final BW, ADG, BCS, G:F, and hip height of the steers were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. The wash loss fractions in hays treated with Ec and Eb were lower than that in the control hay, but the potentially degradable fraction, total degradable fraction, and the effective degradability were increased (P < 0.01) by NH(3) treatment. Application at cutting was the most promising method of enzyme treatment, and this treatment was almost as effective

  6. Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs.

    PubMed

    Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P < 0.05) as level of concentrate increased in complete rations. No significant difference was found in digestibilities of proximate nutrients. However, CP digestibility was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 2.12, 5.50, and 9.36 %, respectively, in lambs fed with CR-II (P > 0.05), CR-III (P > 0.05), and CR-IV (P < 0.05) rations in comparison to lambs fed with CR-I ration. Furthermore, CP digestibility was higher by 7.09 and 3.66 % in lambs fed with CR-IV ration than those fed with CR-II (P < 0.05) and CR-III (P > 0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.01) different and progressively increased by 31.46, 48.69, and 82.86 % in ram lambs fed with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. The N balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P > 0.05), 133.46 (P < 0.01), and 198.87 % (P < 0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs.

  7. Endocrine and hematological responses of beef heifers divergently ranked for residual feed intake following a bovine corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A K; Earley, B; McGee, M; Fahey, A G; Kenny, D A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their physiological stress response to an exogenous bovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (bCRH) challenge. Yearling Limousin × Friesian heifers ( = 86) were ranked by RFI. The 15 highest (mean 0.66 kg DM/d; high RFI) and 15 lowest (mean -0.72 kg DM/d; low RFI) ranking animals were used for this study. During the study period, heifers (mean age 485 ± 13 d; mean BW 408 ± 31.4 kg) were housed in a slatted-floor facility. To facilitate intensive blood collection, heifers were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters. All heifers received dexamethasone (DEX; 20 µg/kg BW i.m.) 12 h before the bCRH challenge (d 0). Heparinized blood samples were collected at -60 and 0 min before administration of DEX, and 12 h after DEX administration. Following DEX administration, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations similarly decreased ( ≥ 0.22) between high and low RFI groups. The response of the HPA axis to a standardized dose of bCRH (0.3 μg/kg BW) was examined. On d 0, serial blood samples were collected at -20, 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 330, and 390 min relative to the time of bCRH administration (0 min) and were analyzed for plasma cortisol and DHEA concentrations. Blood hematology variables were also determined at -20, 0, 20, 80, 150, 270, 330, and 390 min relative to bCRH administration. Neither an RFI × sampling time interaction nor a direct effect of RFI were detected ( ≥ 0.36) for plasma cortisol, DHEA concentrations, or cortisol:DHEA ratio. An effect of sample time was observed for cortisol ( < 0.001), DHEA ( = 0.04), and cortisol:DHEA ( = 0.02), with cortisol concentration peaking at 60 min post-CRH administration. The maximum concentration and rate of change in cortisol and DHEA concentrations following bCRH administration were not different ( ≥ 0.20) between the high

  8. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of forage particle size, level, source, and preservation method on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon

  9. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of forage particle size, level, source, and preservation method on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon

  10. Growth, feed intake and immune responses of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to low infectious doses of ectoparasite (Cryptocaryon irritans).

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Dan, Xue-Ming; Sun, Peng; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Gao, Quan-Xin; Peng, Shi-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of low-dose Cryptocaryon irritans infection on growth, feeding and antiparasitic immunity of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 5500 theronts/fish (Group I, 1/10 of 96 h LC50) or 11,000 theronts/fish (Group II) to infect E. coioides weighing 38 g on average at week 0, 2 and 4, respectively. Food consumption was recorded daily; the fish were weighed weekly; serum immobilizing titer (SIT), and acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM) activity were recorded every 2 weeks; the fish were treated with lethal dose (70,000 theronts/fish) of C. irritans in the 8th week and death number were recorded. The result shows that in the 1st week after the first infection, the fish's weight gain (WG), length gain (LG), and specific growth rate (SGR) dropped as parasite dose increased, and WG, SGR values were negative; while, after the 2nd and the 3rd infection, no significant differences were detected among the three groups. These results indicated that the 1st infection affected the fish most, while the following infections were protected by some immunity. In the 3rd, 7th, and 8th week, condition factor (CF) increased with the increased infectious dose, indicating that the parasite affected body length more than body weight. As the experiment went on, accumulated food consumption (AFC) of all three groups steadily grew (control > Group I > Group II). But on the 2nd day after the first infection, daily food consumption (DFC) of Group I and II significantly dropped, the decline of Group II was greater than that of Group I, DFC recovered in the following week, with Group I earlier than Group II. After the 2nd infection, DFC of Group I and II dropped again, Group II still dropped more than Group I, and both groups recovered on the 3rd day after infection. The 3rd infection caused no significant difference in week food consumption (WFC). These

  11. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  12. Influence of folic acid, vitamin B2 and B6 supplementation on feed intake, body and organs weight, and liver fatty acids composition in rats subjected to severe protein deprivation.

    PubMed

    Debski, B; Bertrandt, J; Klos, A; Gralak, M

    2006-01-01

    Growing rats fed for 3 months a low-protein (LP) diet (4.5% of energy from protein), possessed about 29% lower body weight than animals consuming adequate-protein diet (20% energy from protein). The LP diet feeding caused an increase in daily feed intake followed by a decrease in feed conversion efficiency. The enrichment of LP diet with folic acid, vitamin B2 and B6 (3 times above the level applied in the control diet) did not have any impact on rats BW and supplementation with these vitamins minimize the effect of LP diet on feed intake. The use of examined vitamins had a tendency to diminish an increase in feed conversion ratio caused by the LP nutrition. This effect was significant when all vitamins were added together. Rats fed the LP diet had higher relative weights of lungs, heart, liver and testis. Vitamins enriching the LP diet were observed to decrease a relative weight of lungs (folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin mixture), and liver (vitamin B6 and vitamin mixture). A tendency of increasing relative testis weight was also revealed in rats given the LP diet enriched with vitamins. The lower content of hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and a tendency for monounsaturated FA content to be higher were found in rats fed the LP diet. The LP diet enrichment with folic acid caused that these changes were more pronounced and statistically significant. Enrichment of LP diet with vitamins tested may cause a partial reverse of changes observed in the hepatic FA composition.

  13. Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

    2012-01-01

    Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

  14. Delayed Satiety-Like Actions and Altered Feeding Microstructure by a Selective Type 2 Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Agonist in Rats: Intra-Hypothalamic Urocortin 3 Administration Reduces Food Intake by Prolonging the Post-Meal Interval

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Éva M; Inoue, Koki; Zhao, Yu; Rivier, Jean E; Vale, Wylie W; Szücs, Attila; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2009-01-01

    Brain corticotropin-releasing factor/urocortin (CRF/Ucn) systems are hypothesized to control feeding, with central administration of ‘type 2’ urocortins producing delayed anorexia. The present study sought to identify the receptor subtype, brain site, and behavioral mode of action through which Ucn 3 reduces nocturnal food intake in rats. Non-food-deprived male Wistar rats (n = 176) were administered Ucn 3 into the lateral (LV) or fourth ventricle, or into the ventromedial or paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (VMN, PVN) or the medial amygdala (MeA), regions in which Ucn 3 is expressed in proximity to CRF2 receptors. LV Ucn 3 suppressed ingestion during the third–fourth post-injection hours. LV Ucn 3 anorexia was reversed by cotreatment with astressin2-B, a selective CRF2 antagonist and not observed following equimole subcutaneous or fourth ventricle administration. Bilateral intra-VMN and intra-PVN infusion, more potently than LV infusion, reduced the quantity (57–73%) and duration of ingestion (32–68%) during the third–fourth post-infusion hours. LV, intra-PVN and intra-VMN infusion of Ucn 3 slowed the eating rate and reduced intake by prolonging the post-meal interval. Intra-VMN Ucn 3 reduced feeding bout size, and intra-PVN Ucn 3 reduced the regularity of eating from pellet to pellet. Ucn 3 effects were behaviorally specific, because minimal effective anorectic Ucn 3 doses did not alter drinking rate or promote a conditioned taste aversion, and site-specific, because intra-MeA Ucn 3 produced a nibbling pattern of more, but smaller meals without altering total intake. The results implicate the VMN and PVN of the hypothalamus as sites for Ucn 3-CRF2 control of food intake. PMID:17019404

  15. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptor signaling in the lateral parabrachial nucleus contributes to the control of food intake and motivation to feed.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Baird, John-Paul; Swick, Jennifer C; Hayes, Matthew R; Grill, Harvey J

    2014-08-01

    Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. Although lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1R-expressing lPBN neurons is unexplored. Here, neuroanatomical tracing, immunohistochemical, and behavioral/pharmacological techniques are used to test the hypothesis that lPBN neurons contribute to the anorexic effect of central GLP-1R activation. Results indicate that GLP-1-producing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius project monosynaptically to the lPBN, providing a potential endogenous mechanism by which lPBN GLP-1R signaling may exert effects on food intake control. Pharmacological activation of GLP-1R in the lPBN reduced food intake, and conversely, antagonism of GLP-1R in the lPBN increased food intake. In addition, lPBN GLP-1R activation reduced the motivation to work for food under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Taken together, these data establish the lPBN as a novel site of action for GLP-1R-mediated control of food intake and reward. PMID:24681814

  16. Surface enlargement factor of rumen papillae and expression of genes involved in dermatological diseases and their relationships with feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs make up the largest portion of the total cost to produce beef. One way to reduce this cost, thereby increasing profitability of beef production, is to improve feed efficiency. The rumen is responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients and microbial by-products and may play a sig...

  17. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines.

  18. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. PMID:21541932

  19. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  20. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  1. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  2. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  3. Computational Analysis of the Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tabe-Bordbar, Shayan; Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Food-intake control is mediated by a heterogeneous network of different neural subtypes, distributed over various hypothalamic nuclei and other brain structures, in which each subtype can release more than one neurotransmitter or neurohormone. The complexity of the interactions of these subtypes poses a challenge to understanding their specific contributions to food-intake control, and apparent consistencies in the dataset can be contradicted by new findings. For example, the growing consensus that arcuate nucleus neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP neurons) promote feeding, while those expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons) suppress feeding, is contradicted by findings that low AgRP neuron activity and high POMC neuron activity can be associated with high levels of food intake. Similarly, the growing consensus that GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus suppress feeding is contradicted by findings suggesting the opposite. Yet the complexity of the food-intake control network admits many different network behaviors. It is possible that anomalous associations between the responses of certain neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with known interactions, but their effect on feeding depends on the responses of the other neural subtypes in the network. We explored this possibility through computational analysis. We made a computer model of the interactions between the hypothalamic and other neural subtypes known to be involved in food-intake control, and optimized its parameters so that model behavior matched observed behavior over an extensive test battery. We then used specialized computational techniques to search the entire model state space, where each state represents a different configuration of the responses of the units (model neural subtypes) in the network. We found that the anomalous associations between the responses of certain hypothalamic neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with the known structure

  4. Computational Analysis of the Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Tabe-Bordbar, Shayan; Anastasio, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Food-intake control is mediated by a heterogeneous network of different neural subtypes, distributed over various hypothalamic nuclei and other brain structures, in which each subtype can release more than one neurotransmitter or neurohormone. The complexity of the interactions of these subtypes poses a challenge to understanding their specific contributions to food-intake control, and apparent consistencies in the dataset can be contradicted by new findings. For example, the growing consensus that arcuate nucleus neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP neurons) promote feeding, while those expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons) suppress feeding, is contradicted by findings that low AgRP neuron activity and high POMC neuron activity can be associated with high levels of food intake. Similarly, the growing consensus that GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus suppress feeding is contradicted by findings suggesting the opposite. Yet the complexity of the food-intake control network admits many different network behaviors. It is possible that anomalous associations between the responses of certain neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with known interactions, but their effect on feeding depends on the responses of the other neural subtypes in the network. We explored this possibility through computational analysis. We made a computer model of the interactions between the hypothalamic and other neural subtypes known to be involved in food-intake control, and optimized its parameters so that model behavior matched observed behavior over an extensive test battery. We then used specialized computational techniques to search the entire model state space, where each state represents a different configuration of the responses of the units (model neural subtypes) in the network. We found that the anomalous associations between the responses of certain hypothalamic neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with the known structure

  5. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. Ninety-nine parent–child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. C...

  6. The effect of supplementation with fresh browse of Ziziphus mauritiana or Combretum aculeatum on feed intake, nitrogen utilization and growth of grazing range sheep.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, M; Fernández-Rivera, S; Hiernaux, P; Pandey, V S

    2003-10-01

    The influence of 0, 60 or 120 min access to a grove of either Ziziphus mauritiana (Ziziphus) or Combretum aculeatum (Combretum) on forage intake and on the digestibility, growth and excretion of nutrients was determined using 40 Oudah rams grazing for 7 h/day on poor-quality dry season pasture in the Sahel. The effects of browse species and browsing duration (0, 30, 60 or 120 min) on the ruminal ammonia content were also evaluated using 8 mature fistulated rams. Ziziphus increased both total digestible organic matter and total dry matter intakes per (kg live weight)0.75 without decreasing herbage intake, whereas 60 or 120 min access to Combretum reduced herbage intake by 6.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The digestibility of the diet decreased (p < 0.05) with the duration of access to the groves. Despite the provision of more nitrogen (N) than in the control diet, ruminal NH3-N decreased 24 h after browsing commenced. The reduced live weight gain of sheep browsing Combretum may indicate more deleterious compounds in Combretum than in Ziziphus. Ziziphus appears to have more potential than Combretum to increase sheep production in low-input crop/livestock systems.

  7. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  8. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed efficiency, production and selected conformation traits in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; Goonewardene, L; Miglior, F; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Okine, E; Wang, Z

    2016-03-01

    The difficulties and costs of measuring individual feed intake in dairy cattle are the primary factors limiting the genetic study of feed intake and utilisation, and hence the potential of their subsequent industry-wide applications. However, indirect selection based on heritable, easily measurable, and genetically correlated traits, such as conformation traits, may be an alternative approach to improve feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed intake, production, and feed efficiency traits (particularly residual feed intake; RFI) with routinely recorded conformation traits. A total of 496 repeated records from 260 Holstein dairy cows in different lactations (260, 159 and 77 from first, second and third lactation, respectively) were considered in this study. Individual daily feed intake and monthly BW and body condition scores of these animals were recorded from 5 to 305 days in milk within each lactation from June 2007 to July 2013. Milk yield and composition data of all animals within each lactation were retrieved, and the first lactation conformation traits for primiparous animals were extracted from databases. Individual RFI over 301 days was estimated using linear regression of total 301 days actual energy intake on a total of 301 days estimated traits of metabolic BW, milk production energy requirement, and empty BW change. Pair-wise bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters among the studied traits. Estimated heritabilities of total intake and production traits ranged from 0.27±0.07 for lactation actual energy intake to 0.45±0.08 for average body condition score over 301 days of the lactation period. RFI showed a moderate heritability estimate (0.20±0.03) and non-significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with lactation 3.5 % fat-corrected milk and average BW over lactation. Among the conformation traits, dairy strength, stature, rear attachment width

  9. Effects of different fresh-cut forages and their hays on feed intake, digestibility, heat production, and ruminal methane emission by Boer x Spanish goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer (87.5%) × Spanish wethers (32.5 ± 0.36 kg body weight) were used in a 32-day experiment to assess effects of frequency of feeding condensed tannin (CT)-containing Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) on ruminal methane emission. Fresh SL (15.3% CT) was fed at 1.3 time...

  10. Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

  11. Effect of breed composition, temperament, and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition, temperament, and subclinical paratuberculosis in dams are factors that may have an effect on growth and feed efficiency in beef cattle. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of breed group (Angus (A), Brahman (B), Brangus, 3/4 A 1/4 B, 1/2 A ½ B, and 1/4 A 3/4 B)...

  12. DNA polymorphisms and transcript abundance of PRKAG2 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase in the rumen are associated with gain and feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef steers with variation in feed efficiency phenotypes were evaluated previously on a high density SNP panel. Ten markers from rs110125325-rs41652818 on bovine chromosome 4 were associated with average daily gain (ADG). To identify the gene(s) in this 1.2Mb region responsible for variation in AD...

  13. Growth and body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits of developing gilts fed different dietary lysine and metabolizable energy levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to manipulate the lean:fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and ME content to replacement gilts housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (approximately 260 d of age) to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments. Crossbred ...

  14. [Actual diet of patients with gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Shakhovskaia, A K; Pavliuchkova, M S

    2000-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition of patients with erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal zone and of patients with operated ulcer has revealed defects in intake of essential nutrients by these patients: overeating of animal fat and refined carbohydrates, deficiency of oil, vitamins A, B2, C, D and food fibers.

  15. Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo M. F.; Baccari, Flávio; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the heat tolerance of animals of two Portuguese (Alentejana and Mertolenga) and two exotic (Frisian and Limousine) cattle breeds, through the monitoring of physiological acclimatization reactions in different thermal situations characterized by alternate periods of thermoneutrality and heat stress simulated in climatic chambers. In the experiment, six heifers of the Alentejana, Frisian and Mertolenga breeds and four heifers of the Limousine breed were used. The increase in chamber temperatures had different consequences on the animals of each breed. When submitted to heat stress, the Frisian animals developed high thermal polypnea (more than 105 breath movements per minute), which did not prevent an increase in the rectal temperature (from 38.7°C to 40.0°C). However, only a slight depression in food intake and in blood thyroid hormone concentrations was observed under thermal stressful conditions. Under the thermal stressful conditions, Limousine animals decreased food intake by 11.4% and blood triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentration decreased to 76% of the level observed in thermoneutral conditions. Alentejana animals had similar reactions. The Mertolenga cattle exhibited the highest capacity for maintaining homeothermy: under heat stressful conditions, the mean thermal polypnea increased twofold, but mean rectal temperature did not increase. Mean food intake decreased by only 2% and mean T3 blood concentration was lowered to 85,6% of the concentration observed under thermoneutral conditions. These results lead to the conclusion that the Frisian animals had more difficulty in tolerating high temperatures, the Limousine and Alentejana ones had an intermediate difficulty, and the Mertolenga animals were by far the most heat tolerant.

  16. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 1. Effects on feed intake, chewing behavior, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on intake, milk production, and chewing behavior were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) d in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a dry matter basis. Diet concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0 and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Increasing beet pulp in the diet caused a linear decrease in dry matter intake (DMI). Time spent eating per day and per kilogram of DMI increased, and sorting against NDF tended to increase, with added beet pulp. Substituting beet pulp for corn caused a quadratic response in milk fat yield, with the highest yield for the 6% beet pulp treatment. A tendency was detected for a similar quadratic response in 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield. Lower plasma insulin concentration may have resulted in lower body condition gain for cows fed diets with higher beet pulp concentration. Partial substitution of pelleted beet pulp for high-moisture corn decreased intake but also may have permitted greater fat-corrected milk yield.

  17. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  18. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

    2014-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p < 0.01). Chewing activity per kilogram of daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by the different diets tested. However, chewing activity significantly decreased for kilogram intake of NDF, but increased for peNDF > 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p < 0.01). Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients significantly increased for DM, organic matter (p < 0.05) and NDF (p < 0.01) but decreased for crude protein (p < 0.05) as the proportion of SH was increased in the diets. Rumen pH value of cattle was not influenced by the diets. Including medium and high amounts of SH in the diets decreased DMI of the animals (p < 0.05) without any significant effect on their daily milk or 4% fat-corrected milk production. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the NDF from a non-forage fibre source like SH had a lower potential for stimulating chewing activity than did forage NDF. Despite this, the small size of dietary particles increased not only the chewing activity per kilogram of peNDF intake but also saliva secretion as well as the potential for rumen to neutralize acids. The findings of this study demonstrate the greater differences in peNDF > 8 among the diets

  19. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

    2014-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p < 0.01). Chewing activity per kilogram of daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by the different diets tested. However, chewing activity significantly decreased for kilogram intake of NDF, but increased for peNDF > 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p < 0.01). Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients significantly increased for DM, organic matter (p < 0.05) and NDF (p < 0.01) but decreased for crude protein (p < 0.05) as the proportion of SH was increased in the diets. Rumen pH value of cattle was not influenced by the diets. Including medium and high amounts of SH in the diets decreased DMI of the animals (p < 0.05) without any significant effect on their daily milk or 4% fat-corrected milk production. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the NDF from a non-forage fibre source like SH had a lower potential for stimulating chewing activity than did forage NDF. Despite this, the small size of dietary particles increased not only the chewing activity per kilogram of peNDF intake but also saliva secretion as well as the potential for rumen to neutralize acids. The findings of this study demonstrate the greater differences in peNDF > 8 among the diets

  20. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  1. Physically effectiveness of beet pulp-based diets in dairy cows as assessed by responses of feed intake, digestibility, chewing activity and milk production.

    PubMed

    Teimouri Yansari, A

    2014-02-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 ± 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 × 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients' digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness.

  2. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  3. Effect of dietary ratio of Na:K on feed intake, milk production, and mineral metabolism in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Kung, L

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of altering the dietary ratio of Na:K while keeping the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) constant, on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and mineral metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Fifteen mid-lactation Holstein cows averaging 160 d in milk were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with treatments varying in the molar ratio of Na:K (0.21, 0.53, and 1.06). Diets contained A) 0.25% Na and 2.00% K, B) 0.50% Na and 1.60% K, or C) 0.75% Na and 1.20% K (on a DM basis), and all contained the same DCAD of 33 mEq (Na + K - Cl - S)/100 g of DM. There was a quadratic effect of the ratio of Na:K on DM intake (28.4, 27.5, and 28.3 kg/d for diets A, B, and C, respectively). The ratio of Na:K did not affect milk yield (average 39.2 kg/d), milk composition (average 3.60% fat; 3.01% protein; and 8.62% solids-not-fat), or coccygeal venous plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-) (average 29.3 mEq/L), Na(+) (average 136.7 mEq/L), K(+) (average 4.53 mEq/L), Cl(-) (average 97.5 mEq/L), Ca (average 10.06 mg/dL), and Mg (average 2.49 mg/dL), and urinary pH (average 8.38) and ratio of Cl(-):creatinine (average 4.35). The ratios of urinary Na(+):creatinine (1.80, 4.21, and 7.42), Ca:creatinine (0.035, 0.041, and 0.064), and Mg:creatinine (0.53, 0.60, and 0.77) increased linearly with increasing ratios of Na:K, whereas the ratio of urinary K(+):creatinine decreased linearly as the ratio of Na:K increased (22.4, 15.9, and 10.3). Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows was similar among dietary ratios of Na:K with the same DCAD of 33 mEq/100 g of DM.

  4. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  5. Short communication: genetic relationships among daily energy balance, feed intake, body condition score, and fat to protein ratio of milk in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Buttchereit, N; Stamer, E; Junge, W; Thaller, G

    2011-03-01

    Postpartum energy status is critically important to health and fertility, and it remains a major task to find suitable indicator traits for energy balance. Therefore, genetic parameters for daily energy balance (EB) and dry matter intake (DMI), weekly milk fat to protein ratio (FPR), and monthly body condition score (BCS) were estimated using random regression on data collected from 682 Holstein-Friesian primiparous cows recorded between lactation d 11 to 180. Average energy-corrected milk (ECM), EB, DMI, BCS, and FPR were 32.0 kg, 9.6 MJ of NE(L), 20.3 kg, 2.95, and 1.12, respectively. Heritability estimates for EB, DMI, BCS, and FPR ranged from 0.03 to 0.13, 0.04 to 0.19, 0.34 to 0.59, and 0.20 to 0.54. Fat to protein ratio was a more valid measure for EB in early lactation than DMI, BCS, or single milk components. Correlations between FPR and EB were highest at the beginning of lactation [genetic correlation (r(g)) = -0.62 at days in milk (DIM) 15] and decreased toward zero. Dry matter intake was the trait most closely correlated with EB in mid lactation (r(g) = 0.73 at DIM 120 and 150). Energy balance in early lactation was negatively correlated to EB in mid lactation. The same applied to DMI. Genetic correlations between FPR across lactation stages were all positive; the lowest genetic correlation (0.55) was estimated between the beginning of lactation and early mid lactation. Hence, to improve EB at the beginning of lactation, EB and indicator traits need to be recorded in early lactation. We concluded that FPR is an adequate indicator for EB during the energy deficit phase. Genetic correlations of FPR with ECM, fat percentage, and protein percentage showed that a reduction of FPR in early lactation would have a slightly negative effect on ECM, whereas milk composition would change in a desirable manner.

  6. Effects of limit feeding corn or dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 intakes during the growing phase on the performance of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C

    2011-07-01

    Energy density in growing diets may affect carcass quality of cattle; however, few reports have described the impact of energy source. The objectives of this research were to determine effects of source [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. corn] and amount (limit-fed to gain 0.9 vs. 1.4 kg of BW/d) of energy during the growing phase on feedlot performance and marbling. Angus-cross steers (144 head) were blocked by BW (average initial BW = 252 ± 36 kg), allotted within each block to 8 pens (6 steers/pen, 24 pens total), and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 feeding systems in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) 65% DDGS fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, 2) 65% DDGS fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d, 3) 65% corn fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, and 4) 65% corn fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. Fecal grab samples were collected on d 52 of the growing phase to determine digestibility of DM, ADF, NDF, ether extract (EE), and CP. After the 98-d growing phase, all steers were fed the same finishing diet. Steers were slaughtered by pen when average BW within the pen was 544, 522, and 499 kg for the large, medium, and small BW blocks, respectively. Average daily gain and DMI differed (P<0.01) by design during the growing phase. Compared with the corn-based diets, digestibilities of DM, NDF, and EE were decreased (P<0.02) when DDGS-based diets were fed during the growing phase, whereas the digestibility of N was increased (P<0.01). The ADG was greatest (P=0.02) during the finishing phase for steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d initially, but source of energy during the growing phase did not affect (P=0.24) finishing phase ADG. Steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing phase also had less backfat (P=0.08), decreased USDA yield grades (P=0.03), and greater LM area (P<0.01) than steers fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. There was an interaction between energy source and amount for marbling scores (P=0.02). Steers fed corn-based diets to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing

  7. Feed intake, growth, digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in young pigs as affected by dietary cation-anion difference and supplementation of xylanase.

    PubMed

    Dersjant-Li, Y; Schulze, H; Schrama, J W; Verreth, J A; Verstegen, M W

    2001-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na(+) + K(+)-Cl(-), mEq/kg diet) and xylanase addition on feed consumption, digestibility of nutrients, plasma electrolyte balance and growth performance in young pigs. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with three dietary CAD levels (-100, 200, and 500 mEq/kg) and two levels of xylanase supplementation (0 and 0.1% xylanase derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) was used. Thirty-six individually housed, castrated pigs (5 weeks old) with an initial body weight of 9.34 +/- 0.28 kg (mean +/- SEM) were randomly assigned to the six treatments. Diets were provided to pigs as cold pellets. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water. Venous plasma Cl(-) concentration was higher (p < 0.0001) in dietary CAD of - 100 mEq/kg group compared with the other two CAD groups. Dietary CAD did not affect Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in the venous plasma. Growth rates were higher (p < 0.05) in pigs receiving dietary CAD of 200 mEq/kg (657 g/pig.day) and dietary CAD of 500 mEq/kg (603 g/pig.day) than in pigs receiving dietary CAD of -100 mEq/kg (484 g/pig.day). Faecal dry matter and nitrogen decreased with increasing dietary CAD. Faecal apparent digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen was higher (p < 0.05) in the dietary CAD of 500 mEq/kg compared to the two lower level CAD groups. Supplementation of xylanase did not affect the performance of pigs. Xylanase addition in the diet significantly increased apparent faecal digestibility of dry matter and tended to increase apparent digestibility of nitrogen. No interaction between dietary CAD and xylanase was found. In conclusion, dietary CAD influenced the performance and digestibility of nutrients of pigs. Xylanase supplementation improved digestibility of dry matter.

  8. Effect of source and dose of probiotics and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on intake, feed efficiency, and growth of male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Malik, Raman; Bandla, Srinivas

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger and three commercial exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) were tested in vitro to select best source and optimum dose followed by in vivo studies on male buffalo calves. Bacterial (P < 0.001) and protozoal population were increased significantly (P < 0.001) with probiotics and EFE. In vitro dry matter digestibility was more (P < 0.001) on L. acidophilus and then on S. cerevisiae. Dose required for L. acidophilus and S. cerevisiae probiotics was 1 x 10(9) and 3 x 10(9) cfu/flask, respectively. Cellulase and xylanase were effective at 4,000 and 12,500 IU/kg DM. In vitro cell wall digestibility was increased (P < 0.001) when probiotics and EFE were used together. Best source and optimum dose of probiotics and EFE were fed to 18 male buffalo calves with concentrate supplement (CS). Calves were randomly divided into three groups either without probiotics and EFE (CG) or with probiotics (EG(1)) or probiotics combined with EFE (EG(2)) on wheat straw diet. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber digestibility was improved significantly. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in EG(2) than EG(1) or CG. Final body weight was 4% and 12% and feed efficiency was 2.6% or 1.6% more (P < 0.001) in EG(2) compared to CG or EG(1), respectively. Fortification of CS with probiotics and EFE together had more impact on FE and ADG in buffalo calves. PMID:20401692

  9. Effects of plane of nutrition on growth, feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (P<0.01), but the total DMI did not differ among the treatment groups. The DG throughout the experiment was high in the order of H, L-H and L, showing 0.72, 0.57 and 0.45kg, respectively (P<0.01). The digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber and N retention were higher in H than in L (P<0.05). The findings of this study thus revealed the greater DG has an advantage of shortening the growing period around 3months, and consequently increasing benefit in fattening of buffalo calves in Nepal. PMID:22250739

  10. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions.

  11. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. PMID:24997658

  12. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N I; Friggens, N C; Larsen, T; Andersen, J B; Nielsen, M O; Ingvartsen, K L

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two control groups (HHH and NNN), where H and N refer to a high and normal energy density in the total mixed ration (TMR), respectively. The experimental period covered the first 9 weeks post calving, which was split up in three 3-week periods. Thus, cows assigned to HNH or NHN shifted TMR in weeks 4 and 7 after calving while cows assigned to HHH or NNN were fed the same TMR for all 9 weeks. Results from cows on treatment HNH were compared with group HHH while cows on treatment NHN were compared with group NNN. When the diet changed from N to H and H to N, cows increased and decreased their dry-matter intake (DMI), respectively compared with control groups. Cows adjusted milk yield accordingly to changes in DMI, although not always significantly. Energy-corrected milk yield was not significantly affected by any of the changes in the energy density of the diet but generally showed same tendencies as milk yield. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and milk and triacylglycerol and glycogen content in the liver were not significantly affected by changes in the energy density of the diet, except from NEFA at one change. Glucose increased more when the diet changed from N to H and increased less when the diet changed from H to N, compared with control groups, although not always significantly. Collectively, these results suggest that cows adjust their DMI and partly milk yield according to the energy density of the diet and therefore only limited effects were observed in physiological parameters. PMID:22444331

  13. Feeding standards for lactating riverine buffaloes in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam S; Mandal, Asit B; Pathak, Nitya N

    2002-05-01

    Data from 33 feeding trials, conducted on lactating riverine buffaloes from different institutes across India, were subjected to multiple regression analysis to derive nutritional requirements for dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrients (TDN), crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) for maintenance, milk production and body weight gain. Maintenance requirements for DM, TDN, CP and DCP were 59.9, 35.3, 5.43 and 3.14 g/kgW(0.75), respectively; corresponding requirements for producing 1 kg 6% FCM were 688, 406, 90.3 and 55.2 g and for 1 g gain in body weight were 3.37, 1.97, 0.327 and 0.23 g. Regression equations had high R2 values (061. 0.66, 0.84 and 0.68 for prediction of DM, TDN, CP and DCP, respectively) and the equations (F-value) as well as coefficients were highly significant (P <0.001). Regressed values were used to derive feeding standards. Derived values matched well with the actual intake versus performance of animals under diverse feeding conditions. New standards predicted requirements and intake of nutrients for different production levels better than existing feeding standards. Because they are based on a more thorough analysis of data, the new feeding standards will be appropriate for use widely in India. PMID:12222796

  14. Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Calsamiglia, S; Hernandez, B; Hartnell, G F; Phipps, R

    2007-10-01

    The objectives were to compare the chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages containing 2 transgenes (2GM: herbicide tolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows in a single reversal design study. Cows were fed a TMR ration ad libitum and milked twice daily. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 45% corn silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 45% concentrate (1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM, 15.8% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fat). Each period was 28-d long. During the last 4 d of each period, feed intake and milk production data were recorded and milk samples taken for compositional analysis, including the presence of transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein. There was no significant difference in the chemical composition between C and 2GM silages, and both were within the expected range (37.6% DM, 1.51 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 8.6% crude protein, 40% neutral detergent fiber, 19.6% acid detergent fiber, pH 3.76, and 62% in vitro DM digestibility). Cows fed the 2GM silage produced milk with slightly higher protein (3.09 vs. 3.00%), lactose (4.83 vs. 4.72%) and solids-not-fat (8.60 vs. 8.40%) compared with C. However, the yield (kg/d) of milk (36.5), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (34.4), fat (1.151), protein (1.106), lactose (1.738), and solids-not-fat (3.094), somatic cell count (log10: 2.11), change in body weight (+7.8 kg), and condition score (+0.09) were not affected by type of silage, indicating no overall production difference. All milk samples were negative for the presence of transgenic DNA from either trait or the Cry1Ab protein. Results indicate that the 2GM silage modified with 2 transgenes did not affect nutrient composition of the silages and

  15. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  16. Jersey calf performance in response to high-protein, high-fat liquid feeds with varied fatty acid profiles: intake and performance.

    PubMed

    Bowen Yoho, W S; Swank, V A; Eastridge, M L; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk replacer (MR) with coconut oil, which contains a high concentration of medium-chain FA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n=18) and female (n=32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: (1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk [pSWM; 27.9% crude protein (CP) and 33.5% fat]; (2) 29.3% CP and 29.1% fat MR, containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); (3) 28.2% CP and 28.0% fat MR, containing 80% of fat as lard and 20% as coconut oil (80:20); and (4) 28.2% CP and 28.3% fat MR, containing 60% of the fat as lard and 40% as coconut oil (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water, and calves were monitored 1 wk postweaning. Average daily gain and body weight did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended to have greater hip height (HH) than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. No difference was observed in withers height between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on withers height, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had higher milk dry matter intake (DMI) than calves fed 80:20 (0.580 vs. 0.518 kg/d). No effect of coconut oil was observed on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score >2 compared with calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed

  17. Jersey calf performance in response to high-protein, high-fat liquid feeds with varied fatty acid profiles: intake and performance.

    PubMed

    Bowen Yoho, W S; Swank, V A; Eastridge, M L; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk replacer (MR) with coconut oil, which contains a high concentration of medium-chain FA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n=18) and female (n=32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: (1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk [pSWM; 27.9% crude protein (CP) and 33.5% fat]; (2) 29.3% CP and 29.1% fat MR, containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); (3) 28.2% CP and 28.0% fat MR, containing 80% of fat as lard and 20% as coconut oil (80:20); and (4) 28.2% CP and 28.3% fat MR, containing 60% of the fat as lard and 40% as coconut oil (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water, and calves were monitored 1 wk postweaning. Average daily gain and body weight did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended to have greater hip height (HH) than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. No difference was observed in withers height between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on withers height, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had higher milk dry matter intake (DMI) than calves fed 80:20 (0.580 vs. 0.518 kg/d). No effect of coconut oil was observed on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score >2 compared with calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed

  18. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Duquette, L.S.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 22sodium (22Na) turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) (2 F, 4 M) over a 31-day feeding period. Wolves were fed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was 44.8 .+-. 0.7 mEq/kg; there was no differeence between males and fem