Science.gov

Sample records for actual field site

  1. Meteorological field measurements at potential and actual wind turbine sites

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of experiences gained in a meteorological measurement program conducted at a number of locations around the United States for the purpose of site evaluation for wind energy utilization is provided. The evolution of the measurement program from its inception in 1976 to the present day is discussed. Some of the major accomplishments and areas for improvement are outlined. Some conclusions on research using data from this program are presented.

  2. Field site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, D. E.; Ellefsen, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Several general guidelines should be kept in mind when considering the selection of field sites for teaching remote sensing fundamentals. Proximity and vantage point are two very practical considerations. Only through viewing a broad enough area to place the site in context can one make efficient use of a site. The effects of inclement weather when selecting sites should be considered. If field work is to be an effective tool to illustrate remote sensing principles, the following criteria are critical: (1) the site must represent the range of class interest; (2) the site must have a theme or add something no other site offers; (3) there should be intrasite variation within the theme; (4) ground resolution and spectral signature distinction should be illustrated; and (5) the sites should not be ordered sequentially.

  3. A comparison of actual and perceived residential proximity to toxic waste sites.

    PubMed

    Howe, H L

    1988-01-01

    Studies of Memphis and Three Mile Island have noted a positive association between actual residential distance and public concern about exposure to the potential of contamination, whereas none was found at Love Canal. In this study, concern about environmental contamination and exposure was examined in relation to both perceived and actual proximity to a toxic waste disposal site (TWDS). It was hypothesized that perceived residential proximity would better predict concern levels that would actual residential distance. The data were abstracted from a New York State, excluding New York City, survey using all respondents (N = 317) from one county known to have a large number of TWDSs. Using linear regression, the variance explained in concern scores was 22 times higher with perceived distance than for actual distance. Perceived residential distance was a significant predictor of concern scores, while actual distance was not. However, perceived distance explained less than 5% of the variance in concern scores. PMID:3196077

  4. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  5. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  6. Comprehensive Evaluation of Attitude and Orbit Estimation Using Actual Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie K.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2000-01-01

    A single, augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit has been developed and successfully tested with real magnetometer and gyro data only. Because the earth magnetic field is a function of time and position, and because time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both orbit and attitude errors. Thus, conceivably these differences could be used to estimate both orbit and attitude; an observability study validated this assumption. The results of testing the EKF with actual magnetometer and gyro data, from four satellites supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center, are presented and evaluated. They confirm the assumption that a single EKF can estimate both attitude and orbit when using gyros and magnetometers only.

  7. Strontium and Actinides Removal from Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples by Freshly Precipitated Manganese Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    2003-10-30

    The authors investigated the performance of freshly precipitated manganese oxide and monosodium titanate (MST) for the removal of strontium (Sr) and actinides from actual high-level waste. Manganese oxide precipitation occurs upon addition of a reductant such as formate (HCO2-) or peroxide (H2O2) to a waste solution containing permanganate (MnO4-). Tests described in this document address the capability of manganese oxide treatment to remove Rs, Pu, and Np from actual high-level waste containing elevated concentrations of Pu. Additionally, tests investigate MST (using two unique batches) performance with the same waste for direct comparison to the manganese oxide performance.

  8. Thermal Performance of Cryogenic Piping Multilayer Insulation in Actual Field Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J.; Augustnynowicz, S.; Thompson, K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A standardized way of comparing the thermal performance of different pipelines in different sizes is needed. Vendor data for vacuum-insulated piping are typically given in heat leak rate per unit length (W/m) for a specific diameter pipeline. An overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is therefore proposed as a more generalized measure for thermal performance comparison and design calculation. The k(sub oafi) provides a direct correspondence to the k-values reported for insulation materials and illustrates the large difference between ideal multilayer insulation (MLI) and actual MLI performance. In this experimental research study, a section of insulated piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions, including simulated spacers and bending. Several different insulation systems were tested using a 1-meter-long cylindrical cryostat test apparatus. The simulated spacers tests showed significant degradation in the thermal performance of a given insulation system. An 18-meter-long pipeline test apparatus is now in operation at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, for conducting liquid nitrogen thermal performance tests.

  9. Comparison of Statistically Modeled Contaminated Soil Volume Estimates and Actual Excavation Volumes at the Maywood FUSRAP Site - 13555

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, James; Hays, David; Quinn, John; Johnson, Robert; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    As part of the ongoing remediation process at the Maywood Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) properties, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) assisted the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District by providing contaminated soil volume estimates for the main site area, much of which is fully or partially remediated. As part of the volume estimation process, an initial conceptual site model (ICSM) was prepared for the entire site that captured existing information (with the exception of soil sampling results) pertinent to the possible location of surface and subsurface contamination above cleanup requirements. This ICSM was based on historical anecdotal information, aerial photographs, and the logs from several hundred soil cores that identified the depth of fill material and the depth to bedrock under the site. Specialized geostatistical software developed by Argonne was used to update the ICSM with historical sampling results and down-hole gamma survey information for hundreds of soil core locations. The updating process yielded both a best guess estimate of contamination volumes and a conservative upper bound on the volume estimate that reflected the estimate's uncertainty. Comparison of model results to actual removed soil volumes was conducted on a parcel-by-parcel basis. Where sampling data density was adequate, the actual volume matched the model's average or best guess results. Where contamination was un-characterized and unknown to the model, the actual volume exceeded the model's conservative estimate. Factors affecting volume estimation were identified to assist in planning further excavations. (authors)

  10. Field test of the Cognitive Interview: enhancing the recollection of actual victims and witnesses of crime.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R P; Geiselman, R E; Amador, M

    1989-10-01

    The Cognitive Interview was tested in the field to enhance the recollection of actual victims and witnesses of crime. The technique is based on laboratory-tested principles of memory retrieval, knowledge representation, and communication. Seven experienced detectives from the Metro-Dade Police Department were trained to use the technique and were compared with 9 untrained detectives. Before and after training, all detectives tape-recorded interviews with victims and witnesses of crime. The trained detectives elicited 47% more information after than before training, and 63% more information than did the untrained detectives. Overall collaboration rates (94%) were extremely high and were equivalent for pre- and posttrained interviews. Because the Cognitive Interview reliably enhances memory and is easily learned and administered, it should be useful for a variety of investigative interviews. PMID:2793772

  11. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  12. CANTON CAFO FIELD SITE STUDY - SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTAMINANT IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation of CAFO research concerning the Canton CAFO field site study, including its characterization and contaminant impacts, was given at a NRMRL program review discussion of the CAFO Research Program.

  13. "Actually, I Wanted to Learn": Study-Related Knowledge Exchange on Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwammlein, Eva; Moskaliuk, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Social media open up multiple options to add a new dimension to learning and knowledge processes. Particularly, social networking sites allow students to connect formal and informal learning settings. Students can find like-minded people and organize informal knowledge exchange for educational purposes. However, little is known about in which way…

  14. Transport code for radiocolloid migration: with an assessment of an actual low-level waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1984-12-31

    Recently, there is increased concern that radiocolloids may act as a rapid transport mechanism for the release of radionuclides from high-level waste repositories. The role of colloids is, however, controversial because the necessary data and assessment methodology have been limited. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that colloids are an important consideration in the geological disposal of nuclear waste. To quantitatively assess the role of colloids, the TRACR3D transport code has been enhanced by the addition of the population balance equations. This new version of the code can simulate the migration of colloids through combinations of porous/fractured, unsaturated, geologic media. The code was tested against the experimental laboratory column data of Avogadro et al. in order to compare the code results to both experimental data and an analytical solution. Next, a low-level radioactive waste site was investigated to explore whether colloid migration could account for the unusually rapid and long transport of plutonium and americium observed at a low-level waste site. Both plutonium and americium migrated 30 meters through unsaturated volcanic tuff. The nature and modeling of radiocolloids are discussed along with site simulation results from the TRACR3D code. 20 references.

  15. Comparison of IEUBK model predictions and actual blood lead values at a former battery recycling site.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, T A; Forslund, B L

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of US EPA's integrated exposureuptake biokinetic model for lead (IEUBK model) using data obtained during emergency removal operations at a former lead-acid battery recycling plant and the surrounding community. Data employed in the study include soil lead and interior dust lead, air lead levels collected at the site perimeter, drinking water lead levels at the community water main and blood lead data collected from an annual blood lead monitoring programme conducted over a four year period during the remediation activities.Geometric mean soil and dust concentrations were found to be a better predictor of blood lead than arithmetic mean data. However, weight based dust lead data were believed to be an inappropriate measure of dust lead levels. Estimates of household dust lead concentrations based upon surface loading data (μg m(-2)) yielded blood lead predictions which were more consistent with data collected in the blood lead monitoring programme. PMID:24197215

  16. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, titled Geotechnical Considerations for Radiological Hazard Assessment of WIPP on January 17-18, 1980. During this conference, it was realized that a field trip to the site would further clarify the different views on the geological processes active at the site. The field trip of June 16-18, 1980 was organized for this purpose. This report provides a summary of the field trip activities along with the participants post field trip comments. Important field stops are briefly described, followed by a more detailed discussion of critical geological issues. The report concludes with EEG's summary and recommendations to the US Department of Energy for further information needed to more adequately resolve concerns for the geologic and hydrologic integrity of the site.

  17. The reconnaissance and siting of field hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boreham, A; Bricknell, M C M

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes the reconnaissance function for the siting of deployable field hospitals. It reports two levels of reconnaissance, theatre/operational and tactical. The paper describes the factors to be considered when conducting the reconnaissance and the format of the reconnaissance report. PMID:12024890

  18. Field site evaluation for seismic mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James S.; Larson, Gregg D.; Rogers, Peter H.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; McCall, George S., II

    2002-11-01

    A system has been developed that uses audio-frequency surface seismic waves for the detection and imaging of buried landmines. The system is based on the measurement of seismic displacements immediately above buried mines using noncontacting vibrometers that interrogate the surface motion with either radar or ultrasonic signals. In laboratory tests and limited field tests the system has demonstrated the ability to detect a variety of inert antipersonnel and antitank mines with background contrast in excess of 20 dB. Current work on the system is focused on the transition from the laboratory into the field. To facilitate this, a series of experiments has been undertaken to measure the characteristics of several field test sites. The tradeoff between image contrast and scanning speed is of primary concern in evaluating the features of these sites. The field experiments have investigated the nature of ambient seismic noise, input impedance at the seismic source (a ground contacting shaker), modal content of the seismic interrogation signal, and the nature of the nonlinearities in the soil. Observed nonlinear phenomena have included harmonic generation, phase speed slowing, dispersion and spall. Although interesting, the differences between the field sites and the laboratory model do not appear to pose problems for seismic mine detection.

  19. Assessment of actual transpiration rate in olive tree field combining sap-flow, leaf area index and scintillometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, C.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Models to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) in sparse vegetation area can be fundamental for agricultural water managements, especially when water availability is a limiting factor. Models validation must be carried out by considering in situ measurements referred to the field scale, which is the relevant scale of the modelled variables. Moreover, a particular relevance assumes to consider separately the components of plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), because only the first is actually related to the crop stress conditions. Objective of the paper was to assess a procedure aimed to estimate olive trees actual transpiration by combining sap flow measurements with the scintillometer technique at field scale. The study area, located in Western Sicily (Italy), is mainly cultivated with olive crop and is characterized by typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Measurements of sap flow and crop actual evapotranspiration rate were carried out during 2008 irrigation season. Crop transpiration fluxes, measured on some plants by means of sap flow sensors, were upscaled considering the leaf area index (LAI). The comparison between evapotranspiration values, derived by displaced-beam small-aperture scintillometer (DBSAS-SLS20, Scintec AG), with the transpiration fluxes obtained by the sap flow sensors, also allowed to evaluate the contribute of soil evaporation in an area characterized by low vegetation coverage.

  20. Low persistence of a monocarpic invasive plant in historical sites biases our perception of its actual distribution

    PubMed Central

    Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Perglová, Irena; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Procheş, Şerban

    2012-01-01

    Aim As accurate and up-to-date distribution data for plant species are rarely available, cumulative records over long periods of time are frequently used for mapping distributions, without taking into account that species do not persist in their historical localities forever. However, persistence is highly relevant in changing modern landscapes, especially for invasive species that dynamically spread in unstable human-made habitats. We studied how an invasive species, Heracleum mantegazzianum, persists at sites once colonized and how its ability to persist affects its distribution. Location The Czech Republic. Methods We visited 521 localities of H. mantegazzianum occurrence reported in the literature and herbaria to determine whether the species still occurs at these sites. By using G-tests and classification trees, we explored the roles of various factors affecting its persistence at a site. Results Of the total number of 521 historical sites at which the species has occurred since the end of the 19th century, it persists at only 124 (23.8%). The persistence rate differs with respect to habitat type and is highest in meadows and forest margins. Analysis using classification trees indicated that the factors that best explain persistence are: type of habitat (with meadow and forest margins over-represented); urbanity (with a higher persistence outside urban areas); proximity to the place of the species’ introduction into the country; metapopulation connectivity; and distance to the nearest neighbouring population. Main conclusions The use of cumulative historical records as a measure of species distribution, which is common in invasion literature, can seriously overestimate the actual distribution of alien plant species with low persistence. In the case of alien species such as H. mantegazzanium, which is non-clonal and reproduces only by seed, estimates of distribution and spread based on historical data are informative about potentially suitable habitat but may

  1. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  2. Field site selection: getting it right first time around.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Colin A; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart G J; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract--just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT. PMID:19917079

  3. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Colin A; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart GJ; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract - just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT. PMID:19917079

  4. Reactive transport studies at the Raymond Field Site

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, B.; Karasaki, K.; Solbau, R.; Cohen, A.

    1995-12-01

    To ensure the safety of a nuclear waste repository, an understanding of the transport of radionuclides from the repository nearfield to the biosphere is necessary. At the Raymond Field Site, in Raymond, California, tracer tests are being conducted to test characterization methods for fractured media and to evaluate the equipment and tracers that will be used for Yucca Mountain`s fracture characterization. Recent tracer tests at Raymond have used reactive cations to demonstrate transport with sorption. A convective-dispersive model was used to simulate a two-well recirculating test with reasonable results. However, when the same model was used to simulate a radially convergent tracer test, the model poorly predicted the actual test data.

  5. Effect of soil type patterns on the variability of bare soil evaporation within a field: comparison of eddy covariance measurements with potential and actual evaporation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderborght, J.; Graf, A.; Steenpass, C.; Scharnagl, B.; Prolingheuer, N.; Herbst, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-12-01

    Bare soil evaporation was measured with the eddy-covariance method at the Selhausen field site. The site has a distinct gradient in soil texture with a considerably higher stone content at the upper part of the field. Because of this gradient, a spatial variation in evaporation fluxes in the field is expected. Because of the higher stone content at the upper part of the field, it is expected that the water that is stored in the soil surface layer and can be evaporated at a maximal evaporation rate, which is determined by the energy that is available for evaporation, is considerable smaller in the upper than in the lower part of the field. We investigated whether this hypothesis is supported by eddy covariance (EC) measurements of the evaporation fluxes at the field site. The EC measurements were combined with a footprint model that predicts the location of the soil surface that contributes to the measured evaporation flux. In this way, evaporation measurements of the two parts of the field site could be distinguished. However, since only one EC station was available, simultaneous evaporation measurements for the two field parts were not available. As a consequence, the datasets of measurements had to be interpreted and put into context of the meteorological and soil hydrological conditions. The potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the FAO method (Allen et al., 1998) to represent the meteorological conditions whereas a simple soil evaporation model (Boesten and Stroosnijder, 1986) was used to represent the influence of the precipitation and soil hydrological conditions on the actual evaporation rate. Since different soil parameters were required to describe the evaporation measurements for the upper and lower part of the plot, our starting hypothesis that more water is evaporated in the lower part of the field could be confirmed. Allen, R. G., L. S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith (1998), Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water

  6. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD INITIATIVE SITE PROFILE: ESCAMBIA WOOD PRESERVING SITE - BROOKHAVEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Escambia Wood Preserving Site—Brookhaven in Brookhaven, Mississippi, is a former wood preserving facility that used pentachlo- rophenol (PCP) and creosote to treat wooden poles. The site contains two pressure treatment cylinders, a wastewater treatment system, five bulk pr...

  7. Testing an Energy Balance Model for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Data. [Hannover, West Germany barley and wheat fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.

  8. PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS USING NUPEC RECORDED FREE FIELD MOTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2002-08-04

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY BNL, USING THE FREE FIELD EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS RECORDED AT THE NUPEC TEST SITE. THE BNL ANALYSIS WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOIL PROPERTIES FOR THE TEST SITE TO BE USED FOR SSI ANALYSES. THE FREE FIELD DATA WERE PROVIDED BY NUPEC. THE METHODOLOGY EMPLOYED IN THE BNL PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF SITE IDENTIFICATION INCLUDES THE MONTE CARLO PR...

  9. A Coupled Remote Sensing and Simplified Surface Energy Balance Approach to Estimate Actual Evapotranspiration from Irrigated Fields

    PubMed Central

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Budde, Michael; Verdin, James P.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate crop performance monitoring and production estimation are critical for timely assessment of the food balance of several countries in the world. Since 2001, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring crop performance and relative production using satellite-derived data and simulation models in Africa, Central America, and Afghanistan where ground-based monitoring is limited because of a scarcity of weather stations. The commonly used crop monitoring models are based on a crop water-balance algorithm with inputs from satellite-derived rainfall estimates. These models are useful to monitor rainfed agriculture, but they are ineffective for irrigated areas. This study focused on Afghanistan, where over 80 percent of agricultural production comes from irrigated lands. We developed and implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to monitor and assess the performance of irrigated agriculture in Afghanistan using a combination of 1-km thermal data and 250-m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, both from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. We estimated seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over a period of six years (2000-2005) for two major irrigated river basins in Afghanistan, the Kabul and the Helmand, by analyzing up to 19 cloud-free thermal and NDVI images from each year. These seasonal ETa estimates were used as relative indicators of year-to-year production magnitude differences. The temporal water-use pattern of the two irrigated basins was indicative of the cropping patterns specific to each region. Our results were comparable to field reports and to estimates based on watershed-wide crop water-balance model results. For example, both methods found that the 2003 seasonal ETa was the highest of all six years. The method also captured water management scenarios where a unique year-to-year variability was identified in addition to water-use differences between

  10. A coupled remote sensing and simplified surface energy balance approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration from irrigated fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Budde, M.; Verdin, J.P.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate crop performance monitoring and production estimation are critical for timely assessment of the food balance of several countries in the world. Since 2001, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring crop performance and relative production using satellite-derived data and simulation models in Africa, Central America, and Afghanistan where ground-based monitoring is limited because of a scarcity of weather stations. The commonly used crop monitoring models are based on a crop water-balance algorithm with inputs from satellite-derived rainfall estimates. These models are useful to monitor rainfed agriculture, but they are ineffective for irrigated areas. This study focused on Afghanistan, where over 80 percent of agricultural production comes from irrigated lands. We developed and implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to monitor and assess the performance of irrigated agriculture in Afghanistan using a combination of 1-km thermal data and 250m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, both from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. We estimated seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over a period of six years (2000-2005) for two major irrigated river basins in Afghanistan, the Kabul and the Helmand, by analyzing up to 19 cloud-free thermal and NDVI images from each year. These seasonal ETa estimates were used as relative indicators of year-to-year production magnitude differences. The temporal water-use pattern of the two irrigated basins was indicative of the cropping patterns specific to each region. Our results were comparable to field reports and to estimates based on watershed-wide crop water-balance model results. For example, both methods found that the 2003 seasonal ETa was the highest of all six years. The method also captured water management scenarios where a unique year-to-year variability was identified in addition to water-use differences between

  11. On-site cell field test support program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  12. Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

    2006-06-01

    During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

  13. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring.

  14. A field guide for well site geologists: Cable tool drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Liikala, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    This field is intended for use by Pacific Northwest Laboratory well site geologists who are responsible for data collection during the drilling and construction of monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. This guide presents standardized methods for geologic sample collection and description, and well construction documentation. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Designing a Marketing Course with Field Site Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Doren, Doris; Corrigan, Hope Bober

    2008-01-01

    A key goal of including field site visits in marketing courses is to give business students increased interaction with industry professionals and community leaders. Site visits give students a concrete idea of how different marketing disciplines work in the business world. Business students gain greater insight into a career in marketing from this…

  16. PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS USING NUPEC RECORDED FREE FIELD MOTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2002-08-04

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY BNL, USING THE FREE FIELD EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS RECORDED AT THE NUPEC TEST SITE. THE BNL ANALYSIS WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOIL PROPERTIES FOR THE TEST SITE TO BE USED FOR SSI ANALYSES. THE FREE FIELD DATA WERE PROVIDED BY NUPEC. THE METHODOLOGY EMPLOYED IN THE BNL PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF SITE IDENTIFICATION INCLUDES THE MONTE CARLO PROCESS IN CONJUNCTION WITH EQUIVALENT LINEARCONVOLUTION ANALYSES FOR GENERATING A LARGE NUMBER OF SITE PROFILES FOR USE IN CONVOLUTION STUDIES FROM WHICH MEAN ESTIMATES OF RESPONSE CAN BE GENERATED. THE RANDOM VARIABLE SELECTED TO CHARACTERIZE THE SITE PROFILE IS THE SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY IN EACH SOIL LAYER OF THE SITE PROFILE. A LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION WAS ASSUMED WITH THE STANDARD DEVIATION DETERMINED FROM AVAILABLE SITE DATA AND APPLICABLE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS. THE CONVOLUTION ANALYSES WERE PERFORMED USING AN APPROPRIATE SOILDEGRADATION MODEL AN D THE OUTCROP INPUT MOTIONS GENERATED FROM THE RECORDED IN ROCK MOTIONS. THE BNL ANALYSIS PRODUCED RESULTS IN TERMS OF THE MEAN, MEDIAN AND VARIOUS FRACTILES OF FREE FIELD SOIL PROPERTIES AT THE TEST SITE, AND THE CORRESPONDING SURFACE RESPONSE SPECTRA, WHICH ARE PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER.

  17. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Field analytical technology verification: The ETV Site Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Jenkins, R.A.; Dindal, A.B.

    1998-06-01

    Innovative field characterization and monitoring technologies are often slow to be adopted by the environmental engineering/consulting community because of concerns that their performance has not been proven by an independent testing body, and/or they have not received the EPA`s blessing on a regional or national level. The purpose of the EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Site Characterization Pilot, a joint effort between EPA and DOE, is to accelerate the acceptance of technologies that reduce the cost and increase the speed of environmental clean-up and monitoring. Technology verifications that have been completed or are underway include: in situ technologies for the characterization of sub-surface hydrocarbon plumes, field-portable GC/MS systems, field-portable X-ray fluorescence analyzers, soil sampling technologies, field-portable PCB analyzers, analyzers for VOC analysis at the wellhead, and decision support software systems to aid site sample collection and contaminant plume definition. The verification process follows a somewhat generic pathway. A user-community need is identified, the vendor community is canvassed, and relevant, interested companies are selected. A demonstration plan is prepared by the verification organization and circulated to participants prior to the field activities. Field trials are normally held at two geologically or environmentally different sites and typically require one week at each site. Samples (soil, soil gas, water, surface wipe etc.) provided to the vendor at the demonstration include site-specific samples and standards or performance evaluation samples. Sample splits are sent to a pre-selected laboratory for analysis using a reference method. Laboratory data are used for comparison with field technology results during the data analysis phase of the demonstration.

  19. Use of Field Research Sites to Teach Field Techniques in Graduate Level Soil Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a field research site provides grauduate soil physics students with practical field-oriented experiences. Explains the structure of the course and the nature of the course's investigations. Assesses the advantages and obstacles associated with the field research technique. (ML)

  20. "I Actually Learned a Lot from This": A Field Assignment to Prepare Future Preservice Math Teachers for Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jayne A.; Cobbs, Georgia A.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs are cognizant of the need to prepare preservice teachers (PTs) to work effectively with children from diverse cultural backgrounds. Well-constructed field experiences can help PTs develop awareness and gain understanding of important cultural considerations related to effective teaching and learning (Sleeter, 2001). This…

  1. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  2. FIELD APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cleanup of hazardous waste sites is a challenging and complex field that offers numerous opportunities for the application of robotic technology. he contamination problem, long in the making, will take decades to resolve. ur ingenuity in developing robotic tools to assist in ...

  3. DENSE GAS PLUME FIELD MEASUREMENTS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field experiments on dense gas diffusion carried out at the Spills Test Facility on the Nevada Test Site are briefly described, including four "baseline" releases made in July 1993 and two new series planned for August-September 1995. he first series will target neutral to very s...

  4. Multi-Sited Ethnography and the Field of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierides, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the challenge of how educational research might be practised in a contemporary world that is no longer necessarily organised by nearness and unity. Focusing on ethnography, it argues for what a multi-sited imaginary contributes to research in the field of education. By giving prominence to the notion of multi-sited…

  5. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  6. Magnetic field survey at PG&E photovoltaic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.J.; Jennings, C.

    1994-08-01

    Public awareness has aroused concerns over the possible effects of magnetic fields on human health. While research continues to determine if magnetic fields do, in fact, affect human health, concerned individuals are requesting data on magnetic field sources in their environments to base personal decisions about limiting their exposure to these sources. Timely acceptance and implementation of photovoltaics (PV), particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops, windows, and vehicles, may be hampered by the lack of PV magnetic field data. To address this situation, magnetic flux density was measured around equipment at two PVUSA (Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications) project sites in Kerman and Davis, California. This report documents the data and compares the PV magnetic fields with published data on more prevalent magnetic field sources. Although not comprehensive, electric and magnetic field (EMF) data taken at PVUSA indicate that 60-Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) are significantly less for PV arrays than for household applications. Therefore, given the present EMF research knowledge, PV array EMF may not merit considerable concern. The PV system components exhibiting significant AC magnetic fields are the transformers and power conditioning units (PCUs). However, the AC magnetic fields associated with these components are localized and are not detected at PV system perimeters. Concern about transformer and PCU EMF would apply to several generation and storage technologies.

  7. Large field excursions from a few site relaxion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, N.; de Lima, L.; Machado, C. S.; Matheus, R. D.

    2016-07-01

    Relaxion models are an interesting new avenue to explain the radiative stability of the Standard Model scalar sector. They require very large field excursions, which are difficult to generate in a consistent UV completion and to reconcile with the compact field space of the relaxion. We propose an N -site model which naturally generates the large decay constant needed to address these issues. Our model offers distinct advantages with respect to previous proposals: the construction involves non-Abelian fields, allowing for controlled high-energy behavior and more model building possibilities, both in particle physics and inflationary models, and also admits a continuum limit when the number of sites is large, which may be interpreted as a warped extra dimension.

  8. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  9. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites (“virtual electrodes”) in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  10. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1994-10-21

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonoradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  11. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Site, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1992-12-03

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear fuel or nuclear reactors. i.e., the U.S. DOE and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS). Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason. information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  12. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1993-12-14

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  13. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1995-09-30

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring of DOE-sponsored activities to the regulatory agencies. i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL. which is the only area where DOE activities have been performed. While the major focus of attention is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  14. Rocketdyne Division annual site environmental report Santa Susana Field Laboratory and Desoto sites 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-30

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the DeSoto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The DeSoto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. SSFL consists of four administrative areas used for research, development, and test operations as well as a buffer zone. A portion of Area I and all of Area II are owned by the U.S. Government and assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A portion of Area IV is under option for purchase by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Detection of Binding Site Molecular Interaction Field Similarities.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Matthieu; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2015-08-24

    Protein binding-site similarity detection methods can be used to predict protein function and understand molecular recognition, as a tool in drug design for drug repurposing and polypharmacology, and for the prediction of the molecular determinants of drug toxicity. Here, we present IsoMIF, a method able to identify binding site molecular interaction field similarities across protein families. IsoMIF utilizes six chemical probes and the detection of subgraph isomorphisms to identify geometrically and chemically equivalent sections of protein cavity pairs. The method is validated using six distinct data sets, four of those previously used in the validation of other methods. The mean area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) obtained across data sets for IsoMIF is higher than those of other methods. Furthermore, while IsoMIF obtains consistently high AUC values across data sets, other methods perform more erratically across data sets. IsoMIF can be used to predict function from structure, to detect potential cross-reactivity or polypharmacology targets, and to help suggest bioisosteric replacements to known binding molecules. Given that IsoMIF detects spatial patterns of molecular interaction field similarities, its predictions are directly related to pharmacophores and may be readily translated into modeling decisions in structure-based drug design. IsoMIF may in principle detect similar binding sites with distinct amino acid arrangements that lead to equivalent interactions within the cavity. The source code to calculate and visualize MIFs and MIF similarities are freely available. PMID:26158641

  16. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  17. AmeriFlux US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames

    DOE Data Explorer

    Parkin, Tim [USDA; Prueger, John [National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 10 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 11 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  18. AmeriFlux US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames

    DOE Data Explorer

    Parkin, Tim [USDA; Prueger, John [National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 11 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 10 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  19. Site Study Plan for Aesthetics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Aesthetic Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of identification of the visually affected area; determination of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual management classes of the site and vicinity; and analysis of the level of visual contrast that would be created by the project. Field ratings of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual contrast will be supplemented by a public perception survey designed to incorporate the views of the public. This plan describes the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule for proposed activities, and quality assurance program. This study will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, SRPO Requirement Document (SRP-RD). 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) at the Hanford Site: Installation and initial tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Campbell, M.D.

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this program are to test barrier design concepts and to demonstrate a barrier design that meets established performance criteria for use in isolating wastes disposed of near-surface at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the program is designed to assess how well the barriers perform in controlling biointrusion, water infiltration, and erosion, as well as evaluating interactions between environmental variables and design factors of the barriers. To assess barrier performance and design with respect to infiltration control, field lysimeters and small- and large-scale field plots are planned to test the performance of specific barrier designs under actual and modified (enhanced precipitation) climatic conditions. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site just east of the 200 West Area and adjacent to the Hanford Meteorological Station. The FLTF data will be used to assess the effectiveness of selected protective barrier configurations in controlling water infiltration. The facility consists of 14 drainage lysimeters (2 m dia x 3 m deep) and four precision weighing lysimeters (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m deep). The lysimeters are buried at grade and aligned in a parallel configuration, with nine lysimeters on each side of an underground instrument chamber. The lysimeters were filled with materials to simulate a multilayer protective barrier system. Data gathered from the FLTF will be used to compare key barrier components and to calibrate and test models for predicting long-term barrier performance.

  1. Preliminary Study on the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) Application to Actual Paddy Fields by ALOS/PALSAR Full-polarimetry SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Kim and van Zyl (2001) proposed a kind of radar vegetation index (RVI). RVI = 4*min(λ1, λ2, λ3) / (λ1 + λ2 + λ3) They modified the equation as follows. (2009) RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv +σ0hv ) by L-band full-polarimetric SAR data. They applied it into rice crop and soybean. (Y.Kim, T.Jackson et al., 2012) They compared RVI for L-, C- and X-bands to crop growth data, LAI and NDVI. They found L-band RVI was well correlated with Vegetation Water Content, LAI and NDVI. But the field data were collected by the multifrequency polarimetric scatterometer. The platform height was 4.16 meters from the ground. The author tried to apply the method to actual paddy fields near Tsukuba science city in Japan using ALOS/PALSAR, full-polarimetry L-band SAR data. The staple crop in Eastern Asia is rice and paddy fields are dominant land use. A rice-planting machine comes into wide use in this areas. The young rice plants were bedded regularly ridged line in the paddy fields by the machine. The space between two ridges of rice plants is about 30 cm and the wave length of PALSAR sensor is about 23 cm. Hence the Bragg scattering will appear depending upon the direction of the ridges of paddy fields. Once the Bragg scattering occurs, the backscattering values from the pixels should be very high comparing the surrounding region. Therefore the radar vegetation index (RVI) would be saturated. The RVI did not follow the increasing of vegetation anymore. Japan has launched ALOS-2 satellite and it has PALSAR-2, L-band SAR. Therefore RVI application product by PALSAR-2 will be watched with deep interest.

  2. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ``Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards.

  3. SITE IVESTIGATIONS (SI) AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS (FI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: OCTOBER 2005 – SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Investigations (SIs) and expanded Field Investigations (FIs) conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) require developing and implementing work plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Pl...

  4. SITE IVESTIGATIONS (SI) AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS (FI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: AUGUST 2007 – SEPTEMBER 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Investigations (SIs) and Field Investigations (FIs) conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) require developing and implementing work plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Project Pla...

  5. SITE INVESTIGATIONS (SI) AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS (FI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: OCTOBER 2006 – JULY 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Investigations (SIs) and Field Investigations (FIs) conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) require developing and implementing work plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Project Pla...

  6. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  8. Estimation of Actual Crop ET of Paddy Using the Energy Balance Model SMARET and Validation with Field Water Balance Measurements and a Crop Growth Model (ORYZA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallasamy, N. D.; Muraleedharan, B. V.; Kathirvel, K.; Narasimhan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable management of water resources requires reliable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) at fine spatial and temporal resolution. This is significant in the case of rice based irrigation systems, one of the major consumers of surface water resources and where ET forms a major component of water consumption. However huge tradeoff in the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite images coupled with lack of adequate number of cloud free images within a growing season act as major constraints in deriving ET at fine spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing based energy balance models. The scale at which ET is determined is decided by the spatial and temporal scale of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which form inputs to energy balance models. In this context, the current study employed disaggregation algorithms (NL-DisTrad and DisNDVI) to generate time series of LST and NDVI images at fine resolution. The disaggregation algorithms aimed at generating LST and NDVI at finer scale by integrating temporal information from concurrent coarse resolution data and spatial information from a single fine resolution image. The temporal frequency of the disaggregated images is further improved by employing composite images of NDVI and LST in the spatio-temporal disaggregation method. The study further employed half-hourly incoming surface insolation and outgoing long wave radiation obtained from the Indian geostationary satellite (Kalpana-1) to convert the instantaneous ET into daily ET and subsequently to the seasonal ET, thereby improving the accuracy of ET estimates. The estimates of ET were validated with field based water balance measurements carried out in Gadana, a subbasin predominated by rice paddy fields, located in Tamil Nadu, India.

  9. Characterization of instrumented sites for Onsite Fuel-Cell Field-Test project. Volume 3. Topical report, 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    During the site-selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands, building gas usage, and other parameters necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial, and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40-kW fuel-cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in this comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization and simulation of new or improved energy-utilization equipment in actual sites. This volume focuses on hotels, laundries, and restaurants.

  10. Virtual and Actual: Relative Accuracy of On-Site and Web-based Instruments in Auditing the Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Joseph, Eran; Lee, Jae Seung; Cromley, Ellen K.; Laden, Francine; Troped, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relative accuracy and usefulness of web tools in evaluating and measuring street-scale built environment characteristics. Methods A well-known audit tool was used to evaluate 84 street segments at the urban edge of metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, using on-site visits and three web-based tools. The assessments were compared to evaluate their relative accuracy and usefulness. Results Web-based audits, based-on Google Maps, Google Street View, and MS Visual Oblique, tend to strongly agree with on-site audits on land-use and transportation characteristics (e.g., types of buildings, commercial destinations, and streets). However, the two approaches to conducting audits (web versus on-site) tend to agree only weakly on fine-grain, temporal, and qualitative environmental elements. Among the web tools used, auditors rated MS Visual Oblique as the most valuable. Yet Street View tends to be rated as the most useful in measuring fine-grain features, such as levelness and condition of sidewalks. Conclusion While web-based tools do not offer a perfect substitute for on-site audits, they allow for preliminary audits to be performed accurately from remote locations, potentially saving time and cost and increasing the effectiveness of subsequent on-site visits. PMID:23247423

  11. Far-Field Rock Size-Frequency Distribution at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site and Comparison to the Near Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Forsberg, N. K.; Golombek, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed measurements of rocks in the far field at the Mars Pathfinder landing site are consistent with the near field exponential drop off in the cumulative number or area covered by large diameter rocks (and with similar behavior at the Viking sites).

  12. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  13. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  14. Nonpotential magnetic fields at sites of gamma-ray flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Smith, J. B., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The relation between the degree of nonpotentiality of photospheric magnetic fields and the occurrence of gama-ray flares is examined to determine whether there are special signatures of the stressed fields for this type of flare. Observations of the flares in the active region of April 1984 (AR 4474) are analyzed, showing that the big flare initiated at the location on the magnetic neutral line where the field deviated the most from a potential field. The nonpotential signatures of AR 4474 are compared with those of four other regions. The results suggest that gamma-ray flares are associated with strongly nonpotential fields that extend over relatively larger lengths of the magnetic neutral line that the fields associated with flares that do not produce gamma-ray events.

  15. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Cushing, C.E.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The goals were: (1) determine the variability (both within and between laboratories) for the various bioassay procedures using contaminated soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA); (2) assess variability within and between plots for several assessment techniques (for sampling small mammals, plants, insects including honeybees and microarthropods) so that field studies could be designed to detect a defined biotic change; (3) establish three field plant transects which are apparently (a) contaminated, (b) appear contaminated and (c) could serve as a control; (4) assess the feasibility (in the laboratory) of using Basin F water to contaminate RMA soil artificially, and to supply information for the design of a field plot study in 1983; (5) attempt to obtain preliminary data on any promising field or laboratory bioassessment techniques not currently mentioned in the statement of work; and (6) obtain field data to assess the ecological status of RMA lakes and compare these observations to results from bioassessment testing.

  16. Effects of topography and soil properties on recharge at two sites in an agricultural field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Healy, R.W.; Landon, M.K.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1992 to 1995 to estimate ground water recharge rates at two sites located within a 2.7-hectare agricultural field. The field lies in a sand plain setting in central Minnesota and is cropped continuously in field corn. The sites are located at a topographically high (upland) site and a topographically low (lowland) site in an effort to quantify the effects of depression focusing of recharge. Three site-specific methods were used to estimate recharge rates: well hydrograph analysis, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and an unsaturated zone water balance. All three recharge methods indicated that recharge rates at the lowland site (annual average of all methods of 29 cm) exceeded those at the upland site (annual average of 18 cm). On an annual basis, estimates by the individual methods ranged from 12 to 44 percent of precipitation at the upland site and from 21 to 83 percent at the lowland site. The difference in recharge rates between the sites is primarily attributed to depression focusing of surface water runon at the lowland site. However, two other factors were also important: the presence of thin lamellae at the upland site, and coarser textured soils below a depth of 1.5 m at the lowland site.

  17. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring.

  18. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

  19. Incorporating Sustainability into Site Closure - A Field Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austrins, L. M.; West, J.

    2013-12-01

    Long term management of former chemical production facilities can be a costly and time consuming element of site closure, however, implementation of creative measures to introduce sustainability and reduce the need for onsite presence can be successfully incorporated into the site closure process. A case study demonstrating this involves a facility located in Sarnia, Ontario, which was an active multi chemical production facility from the 1940s, until it was decommissioned and sold between 2005 and 2010. The facility consisted of 322 acres of production areas. Several elements which allowed for reduced onsite presence and lower management costs were incorporated into the site decommissioning plan, including; phased remediation planning, and selection of sustainable components as part of remediation, surface water management, and groundwater management. The sustainability and management modifications were successfully negotiated and approved by the local regulatory agency. Due to the size and complexity of the site, a holistic approach for the facility was needed and included the development of a comprehensive decision matrix. Each remediation alternative incorporated sustainable practices. Ex-situ remediation consisted of excavation of contaminated subsurface medium and consolidation at a 4.7 acre onsite soil treatment area designed specifically for the site closure process. In-situ remediation consisted of injection of amendment into the native soils using hydraulic fracture and injection. When the plant was an active operating facility, groundwater management required active pumping and groundwater treatment through a series of carbon treatment units. Active pumping has been replaced by passive hydraulic control through the use of tree plantations.

  20. Evaluation in the Field: The Need for Site Visit Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of programs is enhanced when trained, skilled, and observant evaluators go "into the field"--the real world where programs are conducted--paying attention to what's going on, systematically documenting what they see, and reporting what they learn. The article opens by presenting and illustrating twelve reasons for…

  1. SITE INVESTIGATIONS/FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: APRIL 1, 2003 - MAY 31, 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    These projects require developing and implementing Work Plans which include the Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Plan and the Health and Safety Plan. In general, these large complex investigations involve: collecting soil, sediment, sur...

  2. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  3. Physical and chemical control of released microorganisms at field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Donegan, K.; Seidler, R.; Matyac, C.

    1991-01-01

    An important consideration in the environmental release of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) is the capability for reduction or elimination of GEM populations once their function is completed or if adverse environmental effects are observed. The decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tilling, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria released on the phylloplane. Field plots of bush beans sprayed with the bacterium Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (1) control, (2) control + till, (3) burn, (4) burn + till, (5) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (6) Kocide + till, (7) Agri-strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (8) Agri-strept + till. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled -1, 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, and 27 days after application of the decontamination treatments. Burning produced a significant and persistent reduction in the number of bacteria whereas tilling, alone or in combination with the biocide treatments, stimulated a significant and persistent reduction in the number of bacteria, whereas tilling, alone or in combination with the biocide treatments, stimulated a significant increase in bacterial populations that persisted for several weeks.

  4. Geological characterization of remote field sites using visible and infrared spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod field test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Ruff, S.W.; Moersch, J.; Roush, T.; Horton, K.; Bishop, J.; Cabrol, N.A.; Cockell, C.; Gazis, P.; Newsom, Horton E.; Stoker, C.

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming Mars Surveyor lander missions will include extensive spectroscopic capabilities designed to improve interpretations of the mineralogy and geology of landing sites on Mars. The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) was a Mars rover simulation designed in part to investigate the utility of visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site in the California Mojave Desert. The experiment simultaneously investigated the abilities of an off-site science team to effectively analyze and acquire useful imaging and spectroscopic data and to communicate efficiently with rover engineers and an on-site field team to provide meaningful input to rover operations and traverse planning. Experiences gained during the MFE regarding effective communication between different mission operation teams will be useful to upcoming Mars mission teams. Field spectra acquired during the MFE mission exhibited features interpreted at the time as indicative of carbonates (both dolomitic and calcitic), mafic rocks and associated weathering products, and silicic rocks with desert varnish-like coatings. The visible/near-infrared spectra also suggested the presence of organic compounds, including chlorophyll in one rock. Postmission laboratory petrologic and spectral analyses of returned samples confirmed that all rocks identified as carbonates using field measurements alone were calc-silicates and that chlorophyll associated with endolithic organisms was present in the one rock for which it was predicted. Rocks classified from field spectra as silicics and weathered mafics were recognized in the laboratory as metamorphosed monzonites and diorite schists. This discrepancy was likely due to rock coatings sampled by the field spectrometers compared to fresh rock interiors analyzed petrographically, in addition to somewhat different surfaces analyzed by laboratory thermal spectroscopy compared to field

  5. Geological characterization of remote field sites using visible and infrared spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Ruff, Steven W.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Roush, Ted; Horton, Keith; Bishop, Janice; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Cockell, Charles; Gazis, Paul; Newsom, Horton E.; Stoker, Carol

    2001-04-01

    Upcoming Mars Surveyor lander missions will include extensive spectroscopic capabilities designed to improve interpretations of the mineralogy and geology of landing sites on Mars. The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) was a Mars rover simulation designed in part to investigate the utility of visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site in the California Mojave Desert. The experiment simultaneously investigated the abilities of an off-site science team to effectively analyze and acquire useful imaging and spectroscopic data and to communicate efficiently with rover engineers and an on-site field team to provide meaningful input to rover operations and traverse planning. Experiences gained during the MFE regarding effective communication between different mission operation teams will be useful to upcoming Mars mission teams. Field spectra acquired during the MFE mission exhibited features interpreted at the time as indicative of carbonates (both dolomitic and calcitic), mafic rocks and associated weathering products, and silicic rocks with desert varnish-like coatings. The visible/near-infrared spectra also suggested the presence of organic compounds, including chlorophyll in one rock. Postmission laboratory petrologic and spectral analyses of returned samples confirmed that all rocks identified as carbonates using field measurements alone were calc-silicates and that chlorophyll associated with endolithic organisms was present in the one rock for which it was predicted. Rocks classified from field spectra as silicics and weathered mafics were recognized in the laboratory as metamorphosed monzonites and diorite schists. This discrepancy was likely due to rock coatings sampled by the field spectrometers compared to fresh rock interiors analyzed petrographically, in addition to somewhat different surfaces analyzed by laboratory thermal spectroscopy compared to field

  6. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-10-07

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials.

  7. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Philip, J.

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass.

  8. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION RATES AT A PCE SITE (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was performed to evaluate vapor intrusion (VI) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other chlorinated solvents at a commercial retail site in Dallas, TX. The building is approximately 40 years old and once housed a dry cleaning operation. Results from an initial site ch...

  9. Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual technical progress report, July 28, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments will be conducted to provide data which will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fluid fracture rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment that are conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic-fracturing test site.

  10. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes. PMID:26760443

  11. Me and My Environment Formative Evaluation Report 1. Arranging Field Tests: Characteristics of Sites and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joe M.

    The first in a series of evaluation reports gives characteristics of sites and approximately 500 students in field tests of Me and My Environment, a 3-year life science curriculum for 13- to 16-year-old educable mentally handicapped (EMH) adolescents. Described are the field test design, which involves 14 data gathering approaches, and the…

  12. Sites for Student Field Experiences in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, George; And Others

    This report on sites for student field experiences in refugee mental health has been prepared by the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs. After a brief introduction describing the mission of the Technical Assistance Center, the characteristics of field experience in mental…

  13. Direct observation of the field-stimulated exoemission sites at tungsten surfaces using field ion microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, T.; Umeno, M.; Dohkuni, K.; Tagawa, M.; Ohmae, N.

    2001-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the field-stimulated exoemission (FSEE) from the W tip surface annealed at 800 K for 600 s and the atomic arrangement of the emitting surface were correlated using field ion microscopy (FIM) and field emission microscopy. The FSEE was observed at around the (111) plane of the annealed W tip surface. FIM observation of the annealed W tip revealed the existence of a pyramid-like protrusion at the W(111) surface. From these experimental results, a new emission model of the FSEE was proposed relating to the field-assisted surface structural change. This model deals with the buildup/collapse of the pyramid-like protrusion at the W(111) surface under the effect of negative high electric field. The temperature dependence of the FSEE reported previously [Shiota et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6811 (1999)] was qualitatively explained by this emission model.

  14. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  15. Characterization of instrumented sites for the onsite fuel-cell field-test project. Volume 4. Topical report, 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    During the site-selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands, building gas usage, and other parameters necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial, and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food-processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40-kW fuel-cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in this comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization and simulation of new or improved energy-utilization equipment in actual sites. This volume covers metal-plating facilities, nurseries, nursing homes, office buildings and other industrial applications.

  16. Characterization of instrumented sites for the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field-Test project. Volume 2. Topical report, 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    During the site selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands building gas usage, and other parameters which were necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food-processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40-kW fuel-cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in this comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization, and simulation of new or improved energy-utilization equipment in actual sites. This volume focuses on food processors, groceries, health clubs, and hospitals.

  17. Characterization of instrumented sites for the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field-Test project. Executive Summary. Topical report, 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    During the site selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands building gas usage, and other parameters which were necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food-processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40 kW fuel cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in the comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization, and simulation of new or improved energy utilization equipment in actual sites.

  18. Characterization of instrumented sites for the onsite fuel-cell field-test project. Volume 5. Topical report, 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    During the site-selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands, building gas usage, and other parameters necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial, and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food-processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40-kW fuel-cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in the comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization and simulation of new or improved energy-utilization equipment in actual sites. This volume focuses on photographic laboratories, restaurants, schools, telephone communications, trucking terminals, and water-processing plants.

  19. Characterization of instrumented sites for the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field-Test project. Volume 1. Topical report, 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    During the site selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands building gas usage, and other parameters which were necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food-processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40-kW fuel-cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in the comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization, and simulation of new or improved energy-utilization equipment in actual sites. This volume focuses on apartments, bakeries, bowling alleys, and dormitories.)

  20. Integration of Multiple Field Methods in Characterizing a Field Site with Bayesian Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoy, H.; Dietrich, P.; Osorio-Murillo, C. A.; Kalbacher, T.; Kolditz, O.; Ames, D. P.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A hydraulic property of a field can be expressed as a space random function (SRF), and the parameters of that SRF can be constrained by the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD). MAD is a general Bayesian inverse modeling technique that quantifies the uncertainty of SRF parameters by integrating various direct local data along with indirect non-local data. An example is given with a high-resolution 3D aquifer analog with known hydraulic conductivity (K) and porosity (n) at every location. MAD is applied using different combinations of simulated measurements of K, n, and different scales of hydraulic head that represent different field methods. The ln(K) and n SRF parameters are characterized with each of the method combinations to assess the influence of the methods on the SRFs and their implications. The forward modeling equations are solved by the numerical modeling software OpenGeoSys (opengeosys.org) and MAD is applied with the software MAD# (mad.codeplex.com). The inverse modeling results are compared to the aquifer analog for success evaluation. The goal of the study is to show how integrating combinations of multi-scale and multi-type measurements from the field via MAD can be used to reduce the uncertainty in field-scale SRFs, as well as point values, of hydraulic properties.

  1. Traffic Management Advisor: Iterative Field Development and Assessment at Multiple Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, Beverly D.; Lee, Katharine K.; Harwood, Kelly; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the necessity of involving users in the development of automation aids, especially for complex domains such as air traffic control (ATC). Traditional development only demanded a single field test to validate a completed system, but a more iterative combination of development and assessment ensures that the technology meets the requirements of its application domain. Exposure across an adequate spectrum of field users is also required during development, and the use of multiple development sites provides an opportunity to consider individual facility cultures as they relate to implementation strategies. The development of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) at the Denver and Dallas ATC facilities demonstrates successful iterative development and assessment at multiple field sites. The use of field development changes the nature of assessment. As development progresses, periodic assessments are required to validate that system development is progressing along an appropriate track. In the development of the TMA, assessments were performed based on software in the field, and input from traffic managers was analyzed and incorporated into subsequent releases of the TMA, to be reassessed in the field. This has led to a tool with operational suitability and broad user acceptance. Assessment at multiple sites provides a more generalizable perspective that allows the production of a system that is both generic enough to be used at different sites and tailored enough to be of use at any site. In addition to providing a better understanding of specific facility requirements, the use of multiple assessment sites in the development of TMA has provided an opportunity to consider individual facility operations, procedures and cultures as they relate to development and implementation strategies.

  2. Woodlouse locomotor behavior in the assessment of clean and contaminated field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bayley, M.; Baatrup, E.; Bjerregaard, P.

    1997-11-01

    Specimens of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus were collected at four clean field sites and from a recently closed iron foundry heavily contaminated with zinc, lead, chromium, and nickel. Each of the 30 woodlice per group was housed individually and acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 2 d on a humid plaster of paris substrate. Thereafter, the locomotor behavior of each animal was measured for 4 h employing automated computer-aided video tracking. Linear discriminant analysis of five locomotor parameters revealed average velocity and path length as the principle components separating the polluted site and control animals. Post hoc analysis of the discriminant variable for animals from all five sites showed that the animals from the polluted site where significantly hyperactive when compared to all controls. Further, control animals collected from sites separated by several hundred kilometers were remarkably similar in their locomotor behavior. This preliminary study highlights the potential utility of quantitative analysis of animal locomotor behavior in environmental monitoring.

  3. Rocketdyne division environmental monitoring annual report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, De Soto, and Canoga Sites, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1991-06-20

    This annual report discuses environmental monitoring at three manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Southern California area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL.), the De Soto site, and the Canoga site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto and Canoga sites are essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and have little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear and radioactive materials, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS), Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major realm of interest is radiological, this report also includes some discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL

  4. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Stephen D.; Bagchi, Sayan; Boxer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes use protein architecture to impose specific electrostatic fields onto their bound substrates, but the magnitude and catalytic effect of these electric fields have proven difficult to quantify with standard experimental approaches. Using vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy, we found that the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) exerts an extremely large electric field onto the C=O chemical bond that undergoes a charge rearrangement in KSI’s rate-determining step. Moreover, we found that the magnitude of the electric field exerted by the active site strongly correlates with the enzyme’s catalytic rate enhancement, enabling us to quantify the fraction of the catalytic effect that is electrostatic in origin. The measurements described here may help explain the role of electrostatics in many other enzymes and biomolecular systems. PMID:25525245

  5. Research Highlights and Recent Enhancements at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Hegarty, P.; Seale, S. H.; Lamere, T.; Stinson, E.; Wojcik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NEES@UCSB facility consists of experimental facilities and cyber infrastructure for active testing and passive earthquake monitoring at instrumented geotechnical field sites. There have been a number of facility enhancements to both the experimental facilities and the cyber infrastructure for facilitating research at the sites and access to the data they produce. Through both the maintenance and operations and the NEES Research program funding sources, the scope of monitoring at the field sites continues to expand. A permanent cross-hole source and sensor array has been installed at both the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and at the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) field sites. This enhancement provides daily measurements of shear-wave velocity and automated post-earthquake observations of velocity to examine soil modulus reduction and recovery. After a very large event, where nonlinear soil behavior is expected, cross-hole hammer source time intervals are as short as 5 minutes. While waiting for larger earthquakes to occur, the daily cross-hole hammer tests are providing interesting data on shear-wave velocity changes with seasonal water table height. Testing of a small reconfigurable structure at both the WLA and GVDA sites was conducted using the NEES@UCLA mobile shakers. The structure, which is a smaller version of a permanent structure at GVDA, has been left at the GVDA site and can be used for future experiments or site instrumentation enhancements. The large soil-foundation-interaction structure at GVDA has a 1D shaker mounted under its roof slab. This shaker runs nightly and the data provide insight into the influence of environmental conditions on the response of the structure. At WLA, additional sensors have been installed in a dense Shape Accelerometer Array (SAA). Each of the seven arrays contain 24 3-component MEMS accelerometers at approximately 0.3 meter spacing that span the upper 8 meters of the site, from above to below the liquefiable

  6. Effective removal of field-emitting sites from metallic surfaces by dry ice cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Dangwal, Arti; Mueller, Guenter; Reschke, Detlef; Floettmann, Klaus; Singer, Xenia

    2007-08-15

    Systematic results of the field emission properties of polycrystalline copper and niobium and single-crystal Nb are reported. Dry ice cleaning (DIC) is found to suppress enhanced field emission from metallic surfaces. The cleaning effect on the emitting sites was investigated by means of field emission scanning microscopy up to fields of 250 MV/m and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The number density of emitters at given fields was drastically reduced by dry ice cleaning. Current-voltage measurements and derived Fowler-Nordheim parameters are partially discussed with respect to the morphology and impurity content of localized emitters. No emission from grain boundaries on large-grain Nb samples was observed. The microscopy results prove the effective removal of field-emitting particulates down to 400 nm as well as the partial smoothing of surface protrusions by DIC.

  7. Health system reform and the role of field sites based upon demographic and health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Tollman, S. M.; Zwi, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Field sites for demographic and health surveillance have made well-recognized contributions to the evaluation of new or untested interventions, largely through efficacy trials involving new technologies or the delivery of selected services, e.g. vaccines, oral rehydration therapy and alternative contraceptive methods. Their role in health system reform, whether national or international, has, however, proved considerably more limited. The present article explores the characteristics and defining features of such field sites in low-income and middle-income countries and argues that many currently active sites have a largely untapped potential for contributing substantially to national and subnational health development. Since the populations covered by these sites often correspond with the boundaries of districts or subdistricts, the strategic use of information generated by demographic surveillance can inform the decentralization efforts of national and provincial health authorities. Among the areas of particular importance are the following: making population-based information available and providing an information resource; evaluating programmes and interventions; and developing applications to policy and practice. The question is posed as to whether their potential contribution to health system reform justifies arguing for adaptations to these field sites and expanded investment in them. PMID:10686747

  8. MGS-TES Phase Effects and Thermal Infrared Directional Emissivity Field Measurements of Martian Analog Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, K. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Wolff, M. J.

    2006-03-01

    We present a set of on- and off-nadir thermal IR field and laboratory emissivity spectra for three undisturbed Mars terrain analog sites and analyze them for presence or absence of directional emissivity effects. Comparisons to moderate and low albedo surface MGS-TES EPF sequences are discussed.

  9. Upscaling of point soil moisture measurements to field averages at the OPE3 test site.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand how point soil moisture values relate to field-scale estimates of soil moisture a comprehensive evaluation of soil water dynamics was studied at the Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE3) research site in Beltsville, Maryland. The ranking...

  10. Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual report, August 1, 1995--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments are to be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The primary Project goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic fracturing test site to diagnose, characterize, and test hydraulic fracturing technology and performance. It is anticipated that the research work being conducted by the multi-disciplinary team of GRI and DOE contractors will lead to the development of a commercial fracture mapping tool/service.

  11. Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography at the Field Scale: Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D.; Barrash, W.; Cardiff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The use of sinusoidal or periodic testing for field-scale tomography of aquifer parameters (conductivity / storativity) is a novel, minimally-invasive method for aquifer characterization between boreholes. Previous results have demonstrated the effectiveness of this method, which we name Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT), through both numerical and laboratory experiments. However, implementation and analysis of field-scale OHT testing has not been achieved to-date, and thus the technique remains unproven for application in real-world aquifers. We present an evaluation of OHT at the field scale here through application at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS), a field-scale (~20m diameter x 20m thickness) research site. Through Bayesian inversion, we assess issues such as data quality impacts and resolution of obtained tomographic images. We discuss issues associated with both data collection and data processing, and based on our experiences suggest a workflow for OHT performance at other field sites. The advantages of OHT, relative to "traditional" hydraulic tomography with constant rate pumping tests, include the ability to test across a range of stimulation frequencies (obtaining increased heterogeneity information), very high signal-to-noise ratios. Additionally, we examine the impact of nonlinear effects - such as water table boundary conditions - and their impact on OHT analysis algorithms.

  12. Numerical modeling of field tests in unsaturated fractured basalt at the Box Canyon site

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.

    1998-05-01

    A TOUGH2 model of a ponded infiltration test has been developed and used to predict the results of a field experiment conducted in the vadose zone of the fractured Snake River Plain basalts, at the Box Canyon site in southeastern idaho. The key question addressed is how fracture-pattern characteristics and connectivity affect the pattern of liquid infiltration. The numerical model, a two-dimensional vertical cross-section, uses half-meter discretization for the shallow field site, which extends about 20 m from the ground surface to an underlying perched water body. The model includes explicit but highly simplified representations of major fractures and other important hydrological features. It adequately reproduces the majority of the field observations, confirming the notion that infiltration is largely fracture-controlled.

  13. Field screening at petroleum contaminated sites: A tool to save time, money

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, G.M.; Pucel, P.G.; Allee, P.

    1998-01-01

    The most expensive part of an environmental assessment is often lab services. Control of these costs while still collecting adequate data to assess a site is sometimes the difference between solvency and bankruptcy, especially for small companies. Fortunately, the use of field screening techniques can significantly reduce the quantity of samples going to the laboratory for analysis, thus controlling overall project costs. Chemical and Environmental Consultants, Inc. (CEC) has been field evaluating a rapid, widely applicable method for field screening petroleum contaminated soils and wastes for SVOCs. The method is similar in application to US EPA Method 418.1 and allows for the field screening of soil and waste samples in about 10 minutes. The method uses fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of a solvent extract of the soil or waste sample.

  14. Terrestrial field dissipation of diclosulam at four sites in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zabik, J M; van Wesenbeeck, I J; Peacock, A L; Kennard, L M; Roberts, D W

    2001-07-01

    The soil dissipation of diclosulam was studied using 14C-labeled and nonradiolabeled material in Mississippi, North Carolina, Georgia, and Illinois between 1994 and 1997. The test substance was preemergence broadcast applied at target rates of 35 and 37 g ai x ha(-1) for the 14C-labeled and the nonradiolabeled studies, respectively. The degradation of diclosulam was rapid with half-lives ranging from 13 to 43 days at the four sites. Rapid degradation rates and the increasing sorption to soil over time resulted in low persistence and mobility of this compound. Metabolite formation and dissipation in the field reflected observations of photolysis, hydrolysis, and aerobic soil metabolism studies in the laboratory. The rapid field dissipation rates, metabolite formation patterns, and sorption characteristics obtained in these field studies were consistent with the laboratory data generated for diclosulam, and reflect the multiple concurrent degradation mechanisms occurring in the field. PMID:11453764

  15. Field demonstration of remedial technologies at a former manufactured gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    From the mid 1800s until the late 1950s, the major energy source for domestic lighting, heating, and cooking was a manufactured fuel derived from the pyrolysis of coal and oil. These manufactured gas production facilities were located throughout the country; at one time more than 3000 plants may have been in operation, with 180 in New York state alone. During the 1950s, the installation of a vast interstate gas pipeline system allowed the transport of relatively inexpensive natural gas from oil production fields to the metropolitan areas. This natural gas had a BTU content of almost twice that of manufactured gas and, being inherently cheaper, resulted in the overnight demise of the MGP industry. The vast majority of the MGP facilities were demolished and the sites either converted to other uses or abandoned. In the early 1980s, utilities discovered these long abandoned production facilities during various environmental site assessments and audits. In 1990, NMPC initiated a project at a MGP byproduct disposal site (EPRI Site 24) to investigate the technologies necessary for removal of contaminated source materials and soils, treatment of the impacted soil, and evaluation of the potential for natural attenuation of a contaminated groundwater plume (EPRI, 1996). MGP-impacted soil from this site was transported to two treatment facilities: a cement Kiln in North Carolina, and an asphalt plant in Virginia. This experience generated considerable data on management of these sites, even though this site was a simple disposal area and not a former production facility. A long-term monitoring program is indicating that natural attenuation processes appear to b responsible for the decreasing levels of key constituents in the groundwater after source materials are removed. A number of key lessons learned were generated from the study, especially recognizing that transportation is a major cost component in site remediation.

  16. Absence of the hyperfine magnetic field at the Ru site in ferromagnetic rare-earth intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, D.; DeMarco, M.; Ho, P. C.; Maple, M. B.; Sayles, T.; Lynn, J. W.; Huang, Q.; Toorongian, S.; Haka, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Moessbauer effect (ME) is frequently used to investigate magnetically ordered systems. One usually assumes that the magnetic order induces a hyperfine magnetic field, B{sub hyperfine}, at the ME active site. This is the case in the ruthenates, where the temperature dependence of B{sub hyperfine} at {sup 99}Ru sites tracks the temperature dependence of the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order. However this does not happen in the rare-earth intermetallics, GdRu{sub 2} and HoRu{sub 2}. Specific heat, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, Moessbauer effect, and neutron diffraction have been used to study the nature of the magnetic order in these materials. Both materials are found to order ferromagnetically at 83.1 and 15.3 K, respectively. Despite the ferromagnetic order of the rare-earth moments in both systems, there is no evidence of a correspondingly large B{sub hyperfine} in the Moessbauer spectrum at the Ru site. Instead the measured spectra consist of a narrow peak at all temperatures which points to the absence of magnetic order. To understand the surprising absence of a transferred hyperfine magnetic field, we carried out ab initio calculations which show that spin polarization is present only on the rare-earth site. The electron spin at the Ru sites is effectively unpolarized and, as a result, B{sub hyperfine} is very small at those sites. This occurs because the 4d Ru electrons form broad conduction bands rather than localized moments. These 4d conduction bands are polarized in the region of the Fermi energy and mediate the interaction between the localized rare-earth moments.

  17. Absence of the hyperfine magnetic field at the Ru site in ferromagnetic rare-earth intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, D.; Demarco, M.; Ho, P. C.; Maple, M. B.; Sayles, T.; Lynn, J. W.; Huang, Q.; Toorongian, S.; Haka, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Mössbauer effect (ME) is frequently used to investigate magnetically ordered systems. One usually assumes that the magnetic order induces a hyperfine magnetic field, Bhyperfine , at the ME active site. This is the case in the ruthenates, where the temperature dependence of Bhyperfine at R99u sites tracks the temperature dependence of the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order. However this does not happen in the rare-earth intermetallics, GdRu2 and HoRu2 . Specific heat, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, Mössbauer effect, and neutron diffraction have been used to study the nature of the magnetic order in these materials. Both materials are found to order ferromagnetically at 83.1 and 15.3 K, respectively. Despite the ferromagnetic order of the rare-earth moments in both systems, there is no evidence of a correspondingly large Bhyperfine in the Mössbauer spectrum at the Ru site. Instead the measured spectra consist of a narrow peak at all temperatures which points to the absence of magnetic order. To understand the surprising absence of a transferred hyperfine magnetic field, we carried out ab initio calculations which show that spin polarization is present only on the rare-earth site. The electron spin at the Ru sites is effectively unpolarized and, as a result, Bhyperfine is very small at those sites. This occurs because the 4d Ru electrons form broad conduction bands rather than localized moments. These 4d conduction bands are polarized in the region of the Fermi energy and mediate the interaction between the localized rare-earth moments.

  18. Expected near-field thermal performance for nuclear waste repositories at potential salt sites: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, E.G.

    1987-08-01

    Thermal analyses were made for the environmental assessments of seven potential salt sites for a nuclear waste repository. These analyses predicted that potential repository sites in domal salts located in the Gulf Coast will experience higher temperature than those in bedded salts of Paradox and Palo Duro Basins, mainly because of higher ambient temperatures at depth. The TEMPV5 code, a semi-analytical heat transfer code for finite line sources, calculated temperatures for commercial high-level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel from pressurized-water reactors (SFPWR). Benchmarks with HEATING6, THAC-SIP-3D, STEALTH, and SPECTROM-41 showed that TEMPV5 agreed closely in the very near field around the waste package and approximately in the near-field and far-field regions of the repository. The analyses used site-specific thermal conductivities that were increased by 40% to compensate for reductions caused by testing technique, salt impurities, and other heterogeneities, and sampling disturbance. Analyses showed peak salt temperatures of 236/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 134/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the bedded salt and 296/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 180/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the domal salt. Analyses with uncorrected laboratory thermal conductivities would increase peak salt temperatures by about 120/sup 0/C for CHLW and about 60/sup 0/C for SFPWR. These temperature increases would increase the thermally induced flow of brine and accelerate corrosion of the waste package. 30 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs.

  19. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  20. A novel genome-wide polyadenylation sites recognition system based on condition random field.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiuqiang; Zhang, Shanxin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Polyadenylation including the cleavage of pre-mRNA and addition of a stretch of adenosines to the 3'-end is an essential step of pre-mRNA processing in eukayotes. The known regulatory role of polyadenylation in mRNA localization, stability, and translation and the emerging link between poly(A) and disease states underline the necessary to fully characterize polyadenylation sites. Several artificial intelligence methods have been proposed for poly(A) sites recognition. However, these methods are suitable to small subsets of genome sequences. It is necessary to propose a method for genome-wide recognition of poly(A) sites. Recent efforts have found a lot of poly(A) related factors on DNA level. Here, we proposed a novel genome-wide poly(A) recognition method based on the Condition Random Field (CRF) by integrating multiple features. Compared with the polya_svm (the most accurate program for prediction of poly(A) sites till date), our method had a higher performance with the area under ROC curve(0.8621 versus 0.6796). The result suggests that our method is an effective method in genome wide poly(A) sites recognition. PMID:25571055

  1. A Guide to Field Trip Sites in Coastal North Carolina. Project CAPE Teaching Module SC3a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Walter B.; Carroll, Carolyn H.

    This guide provides information on preparing students in grades 4-10 for field trips and describes possible field trip sites in the northeastern, mid-eastern, and southeastern regions of North Carolina. Selected sites in the northeastern region (from Roanoke Island to Ocracoke) include the Dare Coastline and Cape Hatteras National Seashore.…

  2. Sample Characterization of FIDO-2000 and FIDO-2002 Blind Field Test Sites by an APXS Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, T. E.

    2002-12-01

    The Mars Rover Explorer (MER) Project conducted in the past few years two major blind field test that involved the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover, with a payload not quite, but close to the real MER mission flight payload. Since the APXS and the MB spectrometer cannot operate properly in the Earth's atmosphere, a representative variety of rocks and soil samples from designated "landing" sites were collected and sent to the respective laboratories for analyses with these two instruments. During the field tests, the data from FIDO instruments, together with the appropriate data from the APXS and MB spectrometers, which, according to the site operators opinion, most closely resembled the real analyzed samples, were transmitted to the control room at JPL for target evaluation. The APXS analyzed both, the natural side and the fresh cut side, of most of the rocks that were made available. By comparing the analytical results from both sides, it was possible to clearly detect and evaluate alteration rinds and coatings on the analyzed rocks. Desert varnish, thin iron and carbon coatings were found on natural side of some rocks, but not others. The elemental composition results by the APXS contributed synergistically with the other FIDO instruments to derive the mineralogical and geological characterization of the sites by imposing limits on the amounts and the variety of specific minerals. Most of the analyzed samples from both FIDO field test sites were very high in silica and alumina. In a few cases, the analyses were compatible with pure quartz. The alpha mode of the APXS is especially valuable for detecting even small amounts of carbonates. In many instances, it was possible to show that the carbon was only on the surface of some rocks. Examples of the APXS results from both blind field tests will be presented and discussed at the meeting The APXS results will be compared to the Pathfinder APXS rock analyses and conclusions will be made about rinds

  3. Secondary organic aerosol characterization at field sites across the United States during the spring-summer period

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sources of secondary organic carbon at 15 field sites across the United States (U.S.) during the years 2003-2010 have been examined. Filter samples have been taken for 24-h at a site in Research Triangle Park, NC; at SEARCH sites in southeastern U.S. during May and August 2005; ...

  4. Analysis of field size distributions, LACIE test sites 5029, 5033, and 5039, Anhwei Province, People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the field size distributions for LACIE test sites 5029, 5033, and 5039, People's Republic of China. Field lengths and widths were measured from LANDSAT imagery, and field area was statistically modeled. Field size parameters have log-normal or Poisson frequency distributions. These were normalized to the Gaussian distribution and theoretical population curves were made. When compared to fields in other areas of the same country measured in the previous study, field lengths and widths in the three LACIE test sites were 2 to 3 times smaller and areas were smaller by an order of magnitude.

  5. SUMMARY OF TECHNIQUES AND UNIQUE USES FOR DIRECT PUSH METHODS IN SITE CHARACTERIZATION ON CONTAMINATED FIELD SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site characterization of subsurface contaminant transport is often hampered by a lack of knowledge of site heterogeneity and temporal variations in hydrogeochemistry. Two case studies are reviewed to illustrate the utility of macro-scale mapping information along with spatially-...

  6. Post Audit of a Field Scale Reactive Transport Model of Uranium at a Former Mill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site near Naturita CO has been monitored for nearly 30 years by the US Department of Energy and the US Geological Survey. Groundwater at the site has high concentrations of chloride, alkalinity and U(VI) as a owing to ore processing at the site from 1941 to 1974. We previously calibrated a multicomponent reactive transport model to data collected at the site from 1986 to 2001. A two dimensional nonreactive transport model used a uniform hydraulic conductivity which was estimated from observed chloride concentrations and tritium helium age dates. A reactive transport model for the 2km long site was developed by including an equilibrium U(VI) surface complexation model calibrated to laboratory data and calcite equilibrium. The calibrated model reproduced both nonreactive tracers as well as the observed U(VI), pH and alkalinity. Forward simulations for the period 2002-2015 conducted with the calibrated model predict significantly faster natural attenuation of U(VI) concentrations than has been observed by the persistent high U(VI) concentrations at the site. Alternative modeling approaches are being evaluating evaluated using recent data to determine if the persistence can be explained by multirate mass transfer models developed from experimental observations at the column scale(~0.2m), the laboratory tank scale (~2m), the field tracer test scale (~1-4m) or geophysical observation scale (~1-5m). Results of this comparison should provide insight into the persistence of U(VI) plumes and improved management options.

  7. Combined remediation technologies: results from field trials at chlorinated solvent impacted sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Lomheim, L.; Boparai, H. K.; Weber, K.; Austrins, L. M.; Edwards, E.; Sleep, B.; de Boer, C. V.; Garcia, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are one class of waste liquids often generated from waste mixtures in industrial processes containing surfactants, chlorinated hydrocarbons and other compounds. Chlorinated solvents, a particularly persistent NAPL contaminant, frequently contaminate water sources for decades and are one of the more common contaminants at brownfield and industrialized sites. Although considerable advances in our understanding of the phenomena governing NAPL remediation have been made, and a number of innovative remediation technologies have been developed, existing technologies are rarely able to achieve clean up goals in contaminated aquifers at the completion of remedial activities. The development and pilot scale testing of new and innovative remediation technologies is, therefore, crucial to achieve clean up goals at contaminated sites. Our research group is currently investigating a number of innovative remediation technologies, either individually or as combined remedies. This includes the applicability of nanometals and ISCO (e.g., persulfate) for contaminated site remediation. These technologies can be combined with technologies to enhance amendment delivery (e.g., electrokinetics) or create conditions favorable for enhanced biotic contaminant degradation. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a number of field trials conducted at chlorinated solvent impacted sites by our group with a particular focus on combined remediation technologies.

  8. Evaluating three trace metal contaminated sites: a field and laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Murray, P; Ge, Y; Hendershot, W H

    2000-01-01

    Selecting guidelines to evaluate elevated metals in urban brownfields is hindered by the lack of information for these sites on ecosystem structure and function. A study was performed to compare three trace metal-contaminated sites in the metropolitan Montreal area. The goal was to obtain an idea of the organisms that may be present on urban brownfields and to measure if elevated metals alter the presence and activity of the indigenous biota. Field and laboratory studies were conducted using simple methodologies to determine the extent to which microbial activity affected by trace metal content, to assess diversity of plant and soil invertebrate communities and to measure phytoaccumulation of trace metals. It was found that microbial activity, as measured by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and nitrification, was not affected by the levels of soil Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn recorded on the sites. Seven of the 12 invertebrate groups collected were sampled on soils with similar Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. Diversity of plant species increased as a function of the length of time the sites had been inactive. Levels of metals in plant tissue were influenced by soil characteristics and not by total soil Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. PMID:15093016

  9. Problems getting from the laboratory to the field: Reclamation of an AML site

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.; Bigham, J.M.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    Acid and toxic abandoned mineland sites provide an opportunity whereby flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product can be beneficially used as a reclamation amendment material. Studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of FGD by-product, as compared with resoil, for reclamation purposes. Initial studies provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the FGD by-product and how to transport and blend the FGD by-product with yard waste compost. Greenhouse studies indicated that rates of 125 dry tons/acre of FGD and 50 dry tons/acre of yard waste compost would provide optimum results for reclamation of acid and toxic spoil contained at the Fleming abandoned mineland (AML) site. Their results showed that heavy metal loading rates were much lower using the FGD/compost mixture than using resoil material. Dioxin in the mixture was also less than the 5 ppt level considered as normal background. The technical problems of using FGD by-product for reclamation of an AML site were solved. However, considerable efforts to educate the public about the merits of reclaiming the Fleming AML site using this FGD/compost mixture were required before initiating field reclamation activities. Education efforts must continue if FGD by-products are to achieve general acceptance as a reclamation alternative to resoil in cases where resoil is of scarce supply.

  10. Criteria for Identifying and Evaluating Candidate Sites for Open-Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David M.; Alphey, Luke S.; McKemey, Andrew; Beech, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent laboratory successes in the development of genetically engineered mosquitoes for controlling pathogen transmission have fostered the need for standardized procedures for advancing the technical achievements to practical tools. It is incumbent in many cases for the same scientists doing the in-laboratory discovery research to also take on the initial challenges of developing the pathway that will move the technologies to the field. One of these challenges is having a set of criteria for selecting collaborators and sites for efficacy and safety field trials that combine rigorous science with good ethical and legal practices. Specific site-selection criteria were developed in four categories—Scientific, Regulatory, Community Engagement, and Resources—in anticipation of open-field releases of a transgenic mosquito strain designed to suppress populations of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The criteria are derived from previous published material, discussions, and personal experiences with the expectation of providing guidance to laboratory scientists for addressing the conceptual and operational considerations for identifying partner researchers and countries with whom to collaborate. These criteria are not intended to be prescriptive nor can they be applied to every circumstance where genetic approaches are proposed for deployment. However, we encourage those involved in the discovery phase of research to consider each criterion during project planning activities, and where appropriate, incorporate them into a “go/no-go” decision-making process for further development and testing of the technologies. PMID:24689963

  11. Criteria for identifying and evaluating candidate sites for open-field trials of genetically engineered mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Brown, David M; Alphey, Luke S; McKemey, Andrew; Beech, Camilla; James, Anthony A

    2014-04-01

    Recent laboratory successes in the development of genetically engineered mosquitoes for controlling pathogen transmission have fostered the need for standardized procedures for advancing the technical achievements to practical tools. It is incumbent in many cases for the same scientists doing the in-laboratory discovery research to also take on the initial challenges of developing the pathway that will move the technologies to the field. One of these challenges is having a set of criteria for selecting collaborators and sites for efficacy and safety field trials that combine rigorous science with good ethical and legal practices. Specific site-selection criteria were developed in four categories-Scientific, Regulatory, Community Engagement, and Resources-in anticipation of open-field releases of a transgenic mosquito strain designed to suppress populations of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The criteria are derived from previous published material, discussions, and personal experiences with the expectation of providing guidance to laboratory scientists for addressing the conceptual and operational considerations for identifying partner researchers and countries with whom to collaborate. These criteria are not intended to be prescriptive nor can they be applied to every circumstance where genetic approaches are proposed for deployment. However, we encourage those involved in the discovery phase of research to consider each criterion during project planning activities, and where appropriate, incorporate them into a "go/no-go" decision-making process for further development and testing of the technologies. PMID:24689963

  12. Field Sampling Plan for the Distler Brickyard Superfund Site, Hardin County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Martin; L. N. Peterson; C. J. Taylor

    1999-08-01

    This plan describes the field and analytical activities to be conducted at the Distler Brickyard Superfund Site, Hardin County, Kentucky, in order to evaluate natural attenuation processes within the aquifer system. Sampling will consist of a single round to take place in October 1999. Analytes will consist of the contaminants of concern (chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons), electron donors (non-chlorinated organic compounds), oxidation-reduction indicators, and water quality parameters. These activities are conducted in order to evaluate the water quality parameters. These activities are conducted in order to evaluate the extent to which natural attenuation processes, in the form of anaerobic reductive dechlorination, may be taking place in the aquifer system. These data will then be used to select the appropriate remediation technology for this site.

  13. Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G.; Dzombak, D.; Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

    2008-10-01

    In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

  14. Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Norkus, R G; Maurer, J; Schultz, N A; Stuart, J D; Robbins, G A; Bristol, R D

    1996-08-01

    Various portable electrodes and an on-line colorimetric test kit were used in the field to examine ground water quality as an indicator of natural bioremediation across two sites in Connecticut having subsurface gasoline contamination. The parameters examined included dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, direct redox potential (Eh), nitrate, ammonia and pH. These parameters permitted delineating regions of aerobic and anaerobic microbiological activity. Variations in these parameters over an eighteen month period along with gas chromatographic analyses of certain gasoline components in the ground water indicated that in-situ bioremediation was effective at containing the petroleum contamination at both sites. It was found that a new on-line colorimetric test kit for the determination of oxygen was more accurate than a commonly used dissolved oxygen electrode. PMID:8680831

  15. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time on regions-of-interest and histogram-bin analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, K. G.; Chou, M.-C.; Preciado, R. I.; Gimi, B.; Rollins, N. K.; Song, A.; Turner, J.; Mori, S.

    2016-03-01

    It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.

  16. Quantifying diffuse and discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; EscartíN, Javier; Gracias, Nuno; Olive, Jean-Arthur; Barreyre, Thibaut; Davaille, Anne; Cannat, Mathilde; Garcia, Rafael

    2012-04-01

    The relative heat carried by diffuse versus discrete venting of hydrothermal fluids at mid-ocean ridges is poorly constrained and likely varies among vent sites. Estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow range from 0% to 100% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we present an approach that integrates imagery, video, and temperature measurements to accurately estimate this partitioning at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperatures, photographic mosaics of the vent site, and video sequences of fluid flow were acquired during the Bathyluck'09 cruise (Fall, 2009) and the Momarsat'10 cruise (Summer, 2010) to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field by the ROV Victor6000 aboard the French research vessel the "Pourquoi Pas"? (IFREMER, France). We use two optical methods to calculate the velocities of imaged hydrothermal fluids: (1) for diffuse venting, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time, and (2) for discrete jets, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixel intensities between subsequent images. To circumvent video blurring associated with rapid velocities at vent orifices, exit velocities at discrete vents are calculated from the best fit of the observed velocity field to a model of a steady state turbulent plume where we vary the model vent radius and fluid exit velocity. Our results yield vertical velocities of diffuse effluent between 0.9 cm s-1 and 11.1 cm s-1 for fluid temperatures between 3°C and 33.5°C above that of ambient seawater, and exit velocities of discrete jets between 22 cm s-1 and 119 cm s-1 for fluid temperatures between 200°C and 301°C above ambient seawater. Using the calculated fluid velocities, temperature measurements, and photo mosaics of the actively venting areas, we calculate a heat flux due to diffuse venting from thin fractures of 3.15 ± 2.22 MW, discrete venting of

  17. Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

  18. A field strategy to monitor radioactivity associated with investigation derived wastes returned from deep drilling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rego, J.H.; Smith, D.K.; Friensehner, A.V.

    1995-05-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA) is drilling deep (>1500m) monitoring wells that penetrate both unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones potentially contaminated by sub-surface nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drill site radiological monitoring returns data on drilling effluents to make informed management decisions concerning fluid management. Because of rapid turn-around required for on-site monitoring, a representative sample will be analyzed simultaneously for {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} emitters by instrumentation deployed on-site. For the purposes of field survey, accurate and precise data is returned, in many cases, with minimal sample treatment. A 30% efficient high purity germanium detector and a discriminating liquid scintillation detector are being evaluated for {gamma} and {alpha}/{beta} monitoring respectively. Implementation of these detector systems complements a successful on-site tritium monitoring program. Residual radioactivity associated with underground nuclear tests include tritium, activation products, fission products and actinides. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is used in {alpha}/{beta} liquid scintillation counting and is a function of the time distribution of photon emission. In particular, we hope to measure {sup 241}Am produced from {sup 241}Pu by {beta} decay. Because {sup 241}Pu is depleted in fissile bomb fuels, maximum PSD resolution will be required. The high purity germanium detector employs a multichannel analyzer to count gamma emitting radionuclides; we will designate specific window configurations to selectively monitor diagnostic fission product radionuclides (i.e., {sup 137}Cs).

  19. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  20. Directional changes of the geomagnetic field in West Africa: Insights from the metallurgical site of Korsimoro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Kapper, Lisa; El Kateb, Akram

    2015-11-01

    This work shows the first archeomagnetic directions from Western Africa measured on 32 iron smelting kilns dated between 650 and 1800 AD. The archeological excavation of the vast metallurgical site of Korsimoro established the existence of four distinct iron-smelting techniques. The time-frame of each technique could be clearly determined with radiocarbon dating. Many of the kilns investigated in this study could also be dated individually with residual charcoals found in their inside. The results indicate that the inclination of the field changed gradually from shallow normal to shallow reversed during 800 to 1300 AD, and then went back to shallow normal around 1600-1700 AD. The declination was instead stable around 10°E between 800 and 1400 AD, thereafter it started changing towards North. This trend correlates well with available secular variation curves from the Balkan and from Spain, and indicates that the field variation in West Africa was similar to the one in Europe.

  1. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  2. Modeling unsaturated flow and transport processes at the Busted Butte Field Test Site, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Tseng, P-H; Soll, W E; Gable, C W; Turin, H J; Bussod, G Y

    2003-01-01

    A numerical model was used to simulate the flow and transport processes at the Busted Butte Field Test Site for the purpose of quantifying the effects of hydrogeologic conditions beneath the potential Yucca Mountain repository horizon. In situ experiments were conducted on a 10 x 10 x 7 m block comprising a layered Topopah Springs/Calico Hills formation with two imbedded faults. Tracer solution was continuously injected in eight parallel boreholes arranged on two horizontal planes. Twelve collection boreholes were emplaced perpendicular to the injection holes and were both horizontal and inclined. Solution samples were collected regularly using a sampling assembly consisting of an inverted membrane and sorbing-paper sampling pads. Comparisons between measurements and predictions show that, except for the occasional drops of concentrations observed in the field, the current model is able to capture the general characteristics of the system with varying levels of agreement using laboratory-measured mean hydraulic properties. Simulation results and field observations revealed a capillary-driven flow in the system. Good quantitative agreement is generally observed for near-field boreholes, however, this agreement deteriorates and the simulated solute concentration is underestimated at boreholes farther away from the injection points. Increasing the spatial resolution of the simulation improves the model predictions only to a limited extent. Scaling issues may need to be considered to describe flow and transport events, as the travel distance becomes large. PMID:12714297

  3. Investigation of water productivity for maize with focus on the difference in global radiation between a greenhouse and a field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    time. The study concludes with the quantification of the crops' different exposure to global radiation at the three sites and compares achieved crop yields and water consumption. Results give a first indication about the actual difference in global radiation exposure and how to improve simulation models when conduction small pot irrigation experiments and transfer of their results to the field.

  4. Field studies of the potential for wind transport of plutonium- contaminated soils at sites in Areas 6 and 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.; Metzger, S.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes and documents a series of field experiments carried out in Areas 6 and 11 of the Nevada Test Site in June and July 1994 to determine parameters of boundary layer winds, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover that can be used to predict dust emissions from the affected sites. Aerodynamic roughness of natural sites is determined largely by the lateral cover of the larger and more permanent roughness elements (shrubs). These provide a complete protection of the surface from wind erosion. Studies using a field-portable wind tunnel demonstrated that natural surfaces in the investigated areas of the Nevada Test Site are stable except at very high wind speeds (probably higher than normally occur, except perhaps in dust devils). However, disturbance of silty-clay surfaces by excavation devices and vehicles reduces the entrainment threshold by approximately 50% and makes these areas potentially very susceptible to wind erosion and transport of sediments.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-16

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario.

  6. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  7. Risk-Based Cleanup Actions for Closure of a Brown field Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, H.W.; Feild, J.F.; Farr Jr, L.C.

    2007-07-01

    Operating as a rail yard from approximately 1908 to 1987, Station Place is a 7.1-acre (4,046 square meter) property located in the downtown Portland, Oregon, River District Urban Renewal Area. The site soils were impacted with metals and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). Benzene and select PAHs were detected in the shallow groundwater. Residual non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was detected within the shallow saturated zone between 15 and 40 feet (4.5 to 12 meters) below grade and in the Troutdale Formation (used for municipal water supply at up-gradient location) at depths of up to 80 feet (24 meters) below grade. Site closure was obtained and redevelopment was completed at the site, by the Portland Development Commission and REACH Community Development, Inc., following the preparation of a baseline deterministic human health risk assessment, and beneficial land and water use determination to assess whether exposure to groundwater and soil posed a threat to human health or the environment. The property now provides affordable housing for the elderly and a city-owned parking garage. The housing provides substantial community benefit, allowing elderly people to live in a vibrant, exciting part of the city. Portland's city-owned parking garages also provide much needed parking space at reasonable rates. Both of these additions have changed an under-used Brown Field into affordable facilities, in a lively urban environment. (authors)

  8. MODIS tools for land validation, field site characterization, data intensive science and classroom education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhana Vannan, S.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor data are highly useful for field research. The spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of MODIS products have made them an important data source for analyzing key science questions relating to Earth System processes at regional, continental, and global scales. MODIS data are particularly useful to validate and inter-compare ground measurements at various field sites such as flux tower locations. MODIS data are also useful in land validation, understanding biogeochemical and ecological processes, and providing environmental data to support citizen science efforts. However, MODIS data volume and the complexity in data format makes MODIS data less usable in some cases. To solve this usability issue, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has developed a system that prepares and distributes subsets of selected MODIS land products in a scale and format useful for field researchers. Web and Web service tools provide MODIS subsets in ASCII format and in GIS compatible GeoTIFF format. Users can download and visualize MODIS subsets for a set of pre-defined locations, order MODIS subsets for any land location or automate the process of subset extraction using a SOAP based Web service. This paper provides a description of these tools and services with couple of application examples. The MODIS tools and services can be extended to support the large volume of data that would be produced by the various decadal survey missions. The MODIS subsets are provided for more than 1,000 sites across the globe. Most of the eddy covariance flux tower sites are included in the site list. The subsets are offered in tabular ASCII format and in GIS compatible GeoTIFF format. Time series plots and grid visualizations to help characterize field sites are also provided. In addition to offering subsets for fixed sites, the ORNL DAAC also offers the capability to create user

  9. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltash, Abdolreza

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  10. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: characterizing the effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time using the histogram distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, K. G.; Chou, M.-C.; Preciado, R. I.; Gimi, B.; Rollins, N. K.; Song, A.; Turner, J.; Mori, S.

    2016-03-01

    MRI-based multi-site trials now routinely include some form of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in their protocol. These studies can include data originating from scanners built by different vendors, each with their own set of unique protocol restrictions, including restrictions on the number of available gradient directions, whether an externally generated list of gradient directions can be used, and restrictions on the echo time (TE). One challenge of multi-site studies is to create a common imaging protocol that will result in a reliable and accurate set of diffusion metrics. The present study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two common metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA). We have shown in earlier work that ROI metrics and the mean of MD and FA histograms are not sufficiently sensitive for use in site characterization. Here we use the distance between whole brain histograms of FA and MD to investigate within- and between-site effects. We concluded that the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time could influence the results in multi-center trials and that histogram distance is sensitive metrics for each of these variables.

  11. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  12. A FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: PART I, METHODOLOGY AND FIELD SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. This paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, C...

  13. Investigating temporal field sampling strategies for site-specific calibration of three soil moisture-neutron intensity parameterisation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, J.; Rosolem, R.; Baatz, R.; Wagener, T.; Bogena, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) can provide soil moisture information at scales relevant to hydrometeorological modelling applications. Site-specific calibration is needed to translate CRNS neutron intensities into sensor footprint average soil moisture contents. We investigated temporal sampling strategies for calibration of three CRNS parameterisations (modified N0, HMF, and COSMIC) by assessing the effects of the number of sampling days and soil wetness conditions on the performance of the calibration results while investigating actual neutron intensity measurements, for three sites with distinct climate and land use: a semi-arid site, a temperate grassland, and a temperate forest. When calibrated with 1 year of data, both COSMIC and the modified N0 method performed better than HMF. The performance of COSMIC was remarkably good at the semi-arid site in the USA, while the N0mod performed best at the two temperate sites in Germany. The successful performance of COSMIC at all three sites can be attributed to the benefits of explicitly resolving individual soil layers (which is not accounted for in the other two parameterisations). To better calibrate these parameterisations, we recommend in situ soil sampled to be collected on more than a single day. However, little improvement is observed for sampling on more than 6 days. At the semi-arid site, the N0mod method was calibrated better under site-specific average wetness conditions, whereas HMF and COSMIC were calibrated better under drier conditions. Average soil wetness condition gave better calibration results at the two humid sites. The calibration results for the HMF method were better when calibrated with combinations of days with similar soil wetness conditions, opposed to N0mod and COSMIC, which profited from using days with distinct wetness conditions. Errors in actual neutron intensities were translated to average errors specifically to each site. At the semi-arid site, these errors were below the

  14. Implementation of a DOD ELAP Conforming Quality System at a FUSRAP Site Field Temporary Radiological Screening Laboratory - 13500

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.S.; McElheny, G.; Houston, L.M.; Masset, M.R.; Spector, H.L.

    2013-07-01

    A case study is presented on specific program elements that supported the transition of a temporary field radiological screening lab to an accredited operation capable of meeting client quality objectives for definitive results data. The temporary field lab is located at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Linde Site in Tonawanda, NY. The site is undergoing remediation under the direction of the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, with Cabrera Services Inc. as the remediation contractor and operator of the on-site lab. Analysis methods employed in the on-site lab include gross counting of alpha and beta particle activity on swipes and air filters and gamma spectroscopy of soils and other solid samples. A discussion of key program elements and lessons learned may help other organizations considering pursuit of accreditation for on-site screening laboratories. (authors)

  15. Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management.

  16. Surgical Site Infection After Skin Excisions in Children: Is Field Sterility Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Nuzzi, Laura C; Greene, Arin K; Meara, John G; Taghinia, Amir; Labow, Brian I

    2016-03-01

    Skin excisions are common procedures in children. They may be performed in the clinic using field sterility or the operating room with strict sterile technique. We compared the effect of these locations and the use of antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after skin excisions. Patients ages 0-18 years presenting to our department for the excision of lesions from 2006 to 2010 with complete medical records were included in our study. Records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, presentation, perioperative conditions, and postoperative SSI and other wound complications. Analyses were performed to estimate the costs associated with sterility technique and perioperative antibiotic use. We identified 700 patients with a mean age of 9.1 years. Of 872 lesions excised, 0.3% resulted in SSI and 1.8% had other wound complications. The incidence of SSI did not vary according to sterility technique, antibiotic usage, surgeon, age, or lesion size, type, or location. The equipment costs to excise a lesion in the operating room were 200% greater than in the clinic. The incidence of SSI after excision of benign lesions in children did not differ between those performed using clinic field sterility and those using the standard aseptic sterile technique in the operating room. A considerable cost savings could be realized by adopting field sterility for simple excisions performed in the operating room and avoiding routine perioperative antibiotics in pediatric skin excisions. PMID:25727412

  17. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  18. Numerical simulations of water flow and tracer transport in soils at the USDA-ARS Beltsville OPE3 field site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a realistic model to simulate the complex processes of flow and tracer transport in USDA-ARS OPE3 field site and to compare simulation results with the detailed monitoring observations. The site has been studied for over 10 years with the extensive availabl...

  19. Efficient, Off-Grid LiDAR Scanning of Remote Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, P.; Gold, R.; Cowgill, E.; Kreylos, O.; Hamann, B.

    2007-12-01

    As terrestrial LiDAR scanning systems become increasingly available, strategies for executing efficient field surveys in settings without access to the power grid are increasingly needed. To evaluate scan methods and develop an off-grid power system, we used a tripod-mounted laser scanner to create high resolution (≤40 mm point spacing) topographic maps for use in neotectonic studies of active faulting in arid, high elevation settings. We required 1-2 cm internal precision within point clouds spanning field sites that were ~300 x 300 m. Main components of our survey system included a Trimble GX DR200+ terrestrial laser scanner, a Leica TCR407power total station, a ruggedized laptop (2 GB RAM, 2.33 GHz dual-processor, and an Intel GMA 950 graphics card), batteries, and a portable photovoltaic array. Our first goal was to develop an efficient field-survey workflow. We started each survey project by using the total station for 1-2 days to locate an average of 8 ground control locations per site and to measure key geomorphic features within the project area. We then used the laser scanner to capture overlapping scans of the site, which required an average of six, 5-hour scanning sessions and an average of ten station setups. At each station, the scanner located itself on a particular point by measuring the relative positions of an average of four backsights, each of which is a ~17 x 17cm reflective target mounted on a tripod over the ground control point. To locate the scanner at a particular station prior to scanning, we experimented with both setting up over known points as measured using the total station, and resectioning, by positioning the scanner over an unmeasured location and backsighting on previously scanned points. We found that resectioning provided the smallest errors in scan registration. We then framed and queued a series of scans from each station that optimized point density and minimized data repetition. We also increased the accuracy of the

  20. Distinguishing 'new' from 'old' organic carbon in reclaimed coal mine sites using thermogravimetry: II. Field validation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharaj, S.; Barton, C.D.; Karathanasis, T.A.D.; Rowe, H.D.; Rimmer, S.M.

    2007-04-15

    Thermogravimetry was used under laboratory conditions to differentiate 'new' and 'old' organic carbon (c) by using grass litter, coal, and limestone to represent the different C fractions. Thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetry curves showed pyrolysis peaks at distinctively different temperatures, with the peak for litter occurring at 270 to 395{sup o}C, for coal at 415 to 520 {sup o}C, and for limestone at 700 to 785{sup o}C. To validate this method in a field setting, we studied four reforested coal mine sites in Kentucky representing a chronosequence since reclamation: 0 and 2 years located at Bent Mountain and 3 and 8 years located at the Starfire mine. A nonmined mature (approximate to 80 years old) stand at Robinson Forest, Kentucky, was selected as a reference location. Results indicated a general peak increase in the 270 to 395{sup o}C region with increased time, signifying an increase in the 'new' organic matter (OM) fraction. For the Bent Mountain site, the OM fraction increased from 0.03 to 0.095% between years 0 and 2, whereas the Starfire site showed an increase from 0.095 to 1.47% between years 3 and 8. This equates to a C sequestration rate of 2.92 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for 'new' OM in the upper 10-cm layer during the 8 years of reclamation on eastern Kentucky reclaimed coal mine sites. Results suggest that stable isotopes and elemental data can be used as proxy tools for qualifying soil organic C (SOC) changes over time on the reclaimed coal mine sites but cannot be used to determine the exact SOC accumulation rate. However, results suggested that the thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetry methods can be used to quantify SOC accumulation and has the potential to be a more reliable, cost-effective, and rapid means to determine the new organic C fraction in mixed geological material, especially in areas dominated by coal and carbonate materials.

  1. Expedited characterization of ground water contamination at a large industrial site through field sampling and on-site analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fusillo, T.V.; Potts, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    Ground water contamination by chlorinated solvents was detected at a former manufacturing facility in central New Jersey. The site, which occupies approximately 30 acres and is located in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, is underlain by a thin layer of fine sand that extends to approximately 4 to 15 feet below ground surface (bgs) and a dense clay to silty clay that underlies the sand to a depth of at least 30 feet bgs, with ground water at a depth of 4 to 10 feet bgs. To expedite the ground water investigation, ENVIRON utilized a Geoprobe{reg_sign} sampling system together with an onsite mobile laboratory to perform site-wide ground water delineation sampling. Ground water samples were collected from the upper 5 feet of the water table using disposable tubing for on-site analysis of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a Photovac 10S Plus GC/PID. Sampling and analysis were conducted by On-Site Services of Newark, Delaware. Duplicate samples were also collected from all locations for analysis of VOCs by US EPA method 8240 at a commercial laboratory. Sampling began in the vicinity of the most highly contaminated monitoring well and proceeded in all directions until low or nondetectable concentrations were measured using the on-site GC or until the property boundaries were reached. Over the three-day sampling period, 33 ground water samples were collected. The sampling results provided a detailed picture of ground water quality across the large site, and contaminant distribution patterns confirmed the likely variability in ground water flow directions.

  2. Preliminary results of numerical investigations at SECARB Cranfield, MS field test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Nicot, J.; Meckel, T. A.; Chang, K.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration partnership sponsored by DOE has chosen the Cranfield, MS field as a test site for its Phase II experiment. It will provide information on CO2 storage in oil and gas fields, in particular on storage permanence, storage capacity, and pressure buildup as well as on sweep efficiency. The 10,300 ft-deep reservoir produced 38 MMbbl of oil and 677 MMSCF of gas from the 1940's to the 1960's and is being retrofitted by Denbury Resources for tertiary recovery. CO2 injection started in July 2008 with a scheduled ramp up during the next few months. The Cranfield modeling team selected the northern section of the field for development of a numerical model using the multiphase-flow, compositional CMG-GEM software. Model structure was determined through interpretation of logs from old and recently-drilled wells and geophysical data. PETREL was used to upscale and export permeability and porosity data to the GEM model. Preliminary sensitivity analyses determined that relative permeability parameters and oil composition had the largest impact on CO2 behavior. The first modeling step consisted in history-matching the total oil, gas, and water production out of the reservoir starting from its natural state to determine the approximate current conditions of the reservoir. The fact that pressure recovered in the 40 year interval since end of initial production helps in constraining boundary conditions. In a second step, the modeling focused on understanding pressure evolution and CO2 transport in the reservoir. The presentation will introduce preliminary results of the simulations and confirm/explain discrepancies with field measurements.

  3. Outdoor field evaluation of passive tritiated water vapor samplers at Canadian power reactor sites.

    PubMed

    Wood, M J

    1996-02-01

    Tritium is one of several radioactive nuclides routinely monitored in and around CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) power reactor facilities. Over the last ten years, passive samplers have replaced active sampling devices for sampling tritiated water vapor in the workplace at many CANDU stations. The potential of passive samplers for outdoor monitoring has also been realized. This paper presents the results of a 1-y field trial carried out at all five Canadian CANDU reactor sites. The results indicate that passive samplers can be used at most sampling locations to measure tritiated water vapor in air concentrations as low as 1 Bq m-3 over a 30-d sampling period. Only in one of the five sampling locations was poor agreement observed between active and passive monitoring data. This location, however, was very windy and it is suspected that the gusty winds were the source of the discrepancies observed. PMID:8567295

  4. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2007-04-01

    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  5. Wind Field Predictions for the Columbia Gorge and the Goodnoe Hills Wind Turbine Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Veenhuizen, Scott D.; Lin, Jung-Tai.

    1980-08-01

    Numerical estimates of the long term seasonal mean wind speeds, wind directions, and available wind power density were conducted for comparison with the results of field wind measurements obtained by the Bonneville Power Administration for the Columbia Gorge region along the Oregon-Washngton border. The authors had previously used the numerical method of estimating wind flows in complex terrain to identify high wind energy areas within the Olympic Peninsula and Northern Cascade regions of the State of Washington. The numerical technique was used as a generalized wind prospecting tool to provide the link between regional assessments and on-site biological or geomorphological indicators of mean wind speeds and available wind energy. The wind flow model used is a two dimensional model based upon simplified hydrodynamical equations describing the fluid and thermodynamic motion of the atmosphere.

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Comparison of Symbiotic and Free-Living Cyanobacteria from a Single Field Site

    PubMed Central

    West, N. J.; Adams, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    PCR amplification techniques were used to compare cyanobacterial symbionts from a cyanobacterium-bryophyte symbiosis and free-living cyanobacteria from the same field site. Thirty-one symbiotic cyanobacteria were isolated from the hornwort Phaeoceros sp. at several closely spaced locations, and 40 free-living cyanobacteria were isolated from the immediate vicinity of the same plants. One of the symbiotic isolates was a species of Calothrix, a genus not previously known to form bryophyte symbioses, and the remainder were Nostoc spp. Of the free-living strains, two were Calothrix spp., three were Chlorogloeopsis spp. and the rest were Nostoc spp. All of the symbiotic and all but one of the free-living strains were able to reconstitute the symbiosis with axenic cultures of both Phaeoceros and the liverwort Blasia sp. Axenic cyanobacterial strains were compared by DNA amplification using PCR with either short arbitrary primers or primers specific for the regions flanking the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer. With one exception, the two techniques produced complementary results and confirmed for the first time that a diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria infect Phaeoceros in the field. Symbionts from adjacent colonies were different as often as they were the same, showing that the same thallus could be infected with many different cyanobacterial strains. Strains found to be identical by the techniques employed here were often found as symbionts in different thalli at the same locale but were never found free-living. Only one of the free-living strains, and none of the symbiotic strains, was found at more than one sample site, implying a highly localized distribution of strains. PMID:16535734

  7. Personal UV exposure on a ski-field at an alpine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, A. M.; Casale, G. R.; Diémoz, H.; Agnesod, G.; Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Colosimo, A.

    2008-02-01

    Mountain sites experience enhanced ambient UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect data of personal UV exposure in the mountainous areas of Italy, for the first time. Personal UV exposure (expressed in terms of Exposure Ratio, ER) of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers) at the Alpine site of La Thuile (Valle d'Aosta region, Italy) was assessed using polysulphone dosimetry which was tested in a mountainous snow-covered environment. In addition measurements of biological markers of individual response to UV exposure such as skin colorimetric parameters were carried out. It was found that snow and altitude of study site affect calibration curves of polysulphone dosimeters in comparison to a situation without snow. The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. There are no differences in exposures across skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experience lower values. UV exposures are not sensitive to the use of sunscreen across instructor/skier group by day or by seasons or by photo-type. With regard to colorimetric parameters, the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of L* and b* after exposure i.e. becoming darker but the inappropriate sunscreen use did not reveal any changes in skin colorimetric parameters except in one spring day. In conclusions UV intensities on the ski-fields are often significantly higher than those on horizontal surfaces. Given the high levels of exposure observed in the present study, dedicated public heath messages on the correct sunscreen use should be adopted.

  8. Spatial Distribution of an Uranium-Respiring Betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO Field Research Site

    PubMed Central

    Koribanics, Nicole M.; Tuorto, Steven J.; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R.; Häggblom, Max M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site. PMID:25874721

  9. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial Valley, California as a site for continental scientific drilling. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    The Salton Trough, where seafloor spreading systems of the East Pacific Rise transition into the San Andreas transform fault system, is the site of such continental rifting and basin formation today. The largest thermal anomaly in the trough, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), is of interest to both thermal regimes and mineral resources investigators. At this site, temperatures >350/sup 0/C and metal-rich brines with 250,000 mg/L TDS have been encountered at <2 km depth. Republic Geothermal Inc. will drill a new well to 3.7 km in the SSGF early in 1983; we propose add-on experiments in it. If funded, we will obtain selective water and core samples and a large-diameter casing installed to 3.7 km will permit later deepening. In Phase 2, the well would be continuously cored to 5.5 km and be available for scientific studies until July 1985. The deepened well would encounter hydrothermal regimes of temperature and pressure never before sampled.

  10. Spatial distribution of an uranium-respiring betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO field research site.

    PubMed

    Koribanics, Nicole M; Tuorto, Steven J; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R; Häggblom, Max M; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Kerkhof, Lee J

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site. PMID:25874721

  11. The explosion sites of nearby supernovae seen with integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo

    2015-08-01

    The progenitor stars of supernovae are still not very well constrained, despite numerous efforts in studying these objects directly or indirectly. There have been detections of the progenitor candidates in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images, but these are rare and it is difficult to increase the statistics due to the limited availability of usable pre-explosion images. Alternatively, one may perform statistical studies on the supernova environments to derive useful constraints on the SN progenitor star. Integral field spectroscopy of nearby supernova sites within ~30 Mpc have been obtained using multiple IFU spectrographs in Hawaii and Chile. This technique enables both spatial and spectral information of the explosion sites to be acquired simultaneously, thus providing the identification of the parent stellar population of the supernova progenitor and the estimates for its physical parameters including age and metallicity. While this work has mainly been done in the optical wavelengths using instruments such as VIMOS, GMOS, and MUSE, a near-infrared approach has also been carried out using the AO-assisted SINFONI. By studying the supernova parent stellar population, we aim to characterize the mass and metallicity of the progenitors of different types of supernovae.

  12. Spatial distribution of an uranium-respiring betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO field research site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Koribanics, Nicole M.; Tuorto, Steven J.; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R.; Häggblom, Max M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Morais, Paula V

    2015-04-13

    The Department of Energy’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminalmore » electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site.« less

  13. Spatial distribution of an uranium-respiring betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO field research site

    SciTech Connect

    Koribanics, Nicole M.; Tuorto, Steven J.; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R.; Häggblom, Max M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Morais, Paula V

    2015-04-13

    The Department of Energy’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site.

  14. Ground water and oil field waste sites: a study in Vermilion Parish.

    PubMed

    Rainey, J M; Groves, F D; DeLeon, I R; Joubert, P E

    1990-06-01

    Water samples were obtained from 128 private water wells surrounding eight oil field waste sites in Vermilion Parish. The specimens were analyzed for five heavy metals: barium, arsenic, chromium, lead, and cadmium. Half of the specimens were then analyzed for 16 volatile organic compounds. A blood sample was obtained from healthy adults drinking water from the wells tested for volatile organic compounds and this blood sample was also analyzed for volatile organic compounds. None of the water samples had levels of heavy metals or volatile organic compounds that exceeded the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Barium levels in excess of 250 parts per billion suggested that styrene, toluene, and chloroform might be present. Blood levels of volatile organic compounds were significantly higher than could be accounted for by water consumption with levels in smokers significantly higher than in nonsmokers. These data suggest that as yet there is no contamination of ground water supplies around these sites. Volatile organic accumulation in humans probably occurs from a respiratory rather than from an oral route. PMID:2362163

  15. Dynamic temperature fields under Mars landing sites and implications for supporting microbial life.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Richard; Kral, Tim; Chevrier, Vincent; Pilgrim, Robert; Roe, Larry

    2010-01-01

    While average temperatures on Mars may be too low to support terrestrial life-forms or aqueous liquids, diurnal peak temperatures over most of the planet can be high enough to provide for both, down to a few centimeters beneath the surface for some fraction of the time. A thermal model was applied to the Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity landing sites to demonstrate the dynamic temperature fields under the surface at these well-characterized locations. A benchmark temperature of 253 K was used as a lower limit for possible metabolic activity, which corresponds to the minimum found for specific terrestrial microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of salts known to exist on Mars can provide liquid solutions well below this temperature. Thermal modeling has shown that 253 K is reached beneath the surface at diurnal peak heating for at least some parts of the year at each of these landing sites. Within 40 degrees of the equator, 253 K beneath the surface should occur for at least some fraction of the year; and, within 20 degrees , it will be seen for most of the year. However, any life-form that requires this temperature to thrive must also endure daily excursions to far colder temperatures as well as periods of the year where 253 K is never reached at all. PMID:20735254

  16. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE UV/OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO TREAT CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the field evaluation results of the ultraviolet radiation (UV)/oxidation technology developed by Ultrox International, Santa Ana, California. The field evaluation of the technology was performed at the Lorentz Barrel and Drum (LB&D) site in San Jose, Californi...

  18. SITE IVESTIGATIONS (SI) AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS (FI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: JUNE 2004 - SEPT. 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    These projects require developing and implementing work plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Plan, and a Health and Safety Plan. In general, these large complex investigations involve: collecting soil, sediment, surfac...

  19. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  20. Controlled Soil Warming Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125

  1. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of

  2. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  3. Seismic aftershock monitoring for on-site inspection purposes. Experience from Integrated Field Exercise 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, P.; Arndt, R.; Villagran, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of the Integrated Field Experiment in 2008 (IFE08) in Kazakhstan was testing the prototype elements of the Seismic aftershock monitoring system (SAMS) for on-site inspection purposes. The task of the SAMS is to collect the facts, which should help to clarify nature of the triggering event. Therefore the SAMS has to be capable to detect and identify events as small as magnitude -2 in the inspection area size up to 1000 km2. Equipment for 30 mini-arrays and 10 3-component stations represented the field equipment of the SAMS. Each mini-array consisted of a central 3-component seismometer and 3 vertical seismometers at the distance about 100 m from the central seismometer. The mini-arrays covered approximately 80% of surrogate inspection area (IA) on the territory of former Semipalatinsk test site. Most of the stations were installed during the first four days of field operations by the seismic sub-team, which consisted of 10 seismologists. SAMS data center comprised 2 IBM Blade centers and 8 working places for data archiving, detection list production and event analysis. A prototype of SAMS software was tested. Average daily amount of collected raw data was 15-30 GB and increased according to the amount of stations entering operation. Routine manual data screening and data analyses were performed by 2-6 subteam members. Automatic screening was used for selected time intervals. Screening was performed using the Sonoview program in frequency domain and using the Geotool and Hypolines programs for screening in time domain. The screening results were merged into the master event list. The master event list served as a basis of detailed analysis of unclear events and events identified to be potentially in the IA. Detailed analysis of events to be potentially in the IA was performed by the Hypoline and Geotool programs. In addition, the Hyposimplex and Hypocenter programs were also used for localization of events. The results of analysis were integrated

  4. Holocene geomagnetic field intensity variations: Contribution from the low latitude Canary Islands site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wandres, C.

    2015-11-01

    New absolute paleomagnetic intensity (PI) are investigated from 37 lava flows located at Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). They complete previously published directional results from the same flows and therefore allow to examine the time variations of the full geomagnetic vector. Twenty-eight flows are radiocarbon dated between 1706 AD and about 13 200 BC and one is historical. Eight other flows are not dated but they have stratigraphic links with the dated flows and archeomagnetic ages had been attributed to them based on their paleomagnetic directions. Various mineralogical analyses were conducted, giving access to the nature of the magnetic minerals and to their grain size. We performed the original Thellier and Thellier paleointensity (PI) experiments with a success rate of about 65% coupling this experiment with the strict set of selection criteria PICRIT-03. The mean PIs at the flow level are based on 3 to 12 independent PI determinations except for one site in which only one reliable determination could be obtained. The data indicate some variability in the local field intensity with a prominent PI peak centered around 600 BC and reaching 80 μT (VADM 16 ×1022 Am2), documented for the first time in this region. Combined with the published data obtained from western Africa, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the Azores within a 2000 km-radius around the Canary Islands, our data allow to construct a curve illustrating the Earth magnetic field intensity fluctuations for Southwestern Europe/Western Africa. This curve, compared to the one produced for the Middle East and one calculated for Central Asia shows that maximum intensity patches have a very large geographical extent. They do not yet appear clearly in the models of variations of the dipolar field intensity.

  5. Petrophysical properties of saprolites from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Revil, André; Skold, Magnus; Hubbard, Susan S.; Wu, Yuxin; Watson, David B.; Karaoulis, Marios

    2013-01-01

    At the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the shallow saprolitic aquifer is contaminated by nitric acid, uranium, and metals originating from the former S3 settling ponds. To interpret low-frequency geophysical methods used to image contaminant plumes, we have characterized the petrophysical properties of three representative saprolite core samples. Their hydraulic conductivity ranges from to in agreement with field data. Complex conductivity measurements, in the frequency range of 1 mHz to 45 kHz, were performed with NaCl solutions with electrical conductivities in the range to , a range representative of field conditions. The electrical conductivity data were well reproduced with a simple linear conductivity model between the saprolite conductivity and the pore water conductivity. The conductivity plots were used to estimate the formation factor (the cementation exponent was about ) and the surface conductivity ( ). The magnitude of the surface conductivity depended on the degree of weathering and therefore on the amount of smectite and mixed layer (illite-smectite) clays present in the saprolite. The chargeability of the core samples was in the range of and is strongly dependent on the salinity. We also performed streaming potential measurements with the same pore fluid composition as that used for the complex conductivity measurements. We found an excess of movable electrical charges on the order of 100 to in agreement with previous investigations connecting the movable excess charge density to permeability. The zeta potential was in the range of to independent on the salinity. The electrical measurements were consistent with an average cation exchange capacity in the range of 1.4 to and a specific surface area on the order of 4000 to about 30,000 . Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/abs/10.1190/geo2012-0176.1

  6. Initial field trials of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station waste oil and solvents disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.S.; Douglas, D.H.; Sharp, M.K.; Olsen, R.A.; Comes, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    At the request of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Southern Division, Charleston, SC, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted the initial field trial of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS), Jacksonville FL. This work was carried out by a field crew consisting of personnel from WES and the Naval Ocean Systems Center during the period of 16 July 1990 to 14 August 1990. The SCAPS investigation at the Jacksonville NAS has two primary objectives: (a) to provide data that could be useful in formulating remediation plans for the facility and (b) to provide for the initial field trial of the SCAPS currently under development by WES for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), now the U.S. Army Environmental Center. The original concepts for the SCAPS was to develop an integrated site screening characterization system whose capabilities would include (a) surface mapping, (b) geophysical surveys using magnetic, induced electromagnetic, and radar instruments, (c) measurements of soil strength, soil electrical resistivity, and laser-induced soil fluorometry Cone penetrometer, Site Characterization and Analysis Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF), Penetrometer System(SCAPS) POL Contamination, using screening instrumentation mounted in a soil penetrometer, (d) soil and fluid samplers, and (e) computerized data acquisition, interpretation, and visualization. The goal of the SCAPS program is to provide detailed, rapid, and cost-effective surface and subsurface data for input to site assessment/remediation efforts.

  7. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-09-28

    This report documents field activity associated with the collection, preparation, and shipment of fish samples. The purpose of the report is to describe the sampling locations, identify samples collected, and describe any modifications and additions made to the sampling and analysis plan.

  8. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Local fields at nonmagnetic impurity sites in a perovskite La 0 . 7 Ca 0 . 3 MnO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Osa, A.; Sato, T. K.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic hyperfine field and electric field gradient at the 111Cd(leftarrow ^{111m}Cd) and 111Cd(leftarrow ^{111}In) probe nuclei introduced in a perovskite manganese oxide La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 ( T C ˜ 250 K) were measured for the study of the local magnetism and structure by means of time-differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. In the ferromagnetic phase at 77 K, a very slight supertransferred magnetic hyperfine field (SMHF) (< 0.014 T) combined with a well-defined electric field gradient was observed at the nonmagnetic 111Cd nucleus on the La/Ca A site. This observation suggests that the large magnetic hyperfine field ( B h f = 6.9 T) measured, in our previous work, at the 140Ce probe nucleus on the A site originates from the contribution of a 4 f spin oriented by the SMHF from adjacent Mn ions.

  10. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    on the conditions to develop at the test site during artificial recharge. The data collected during the laboratory experiments and in the test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes developing in the batches and of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone in the test site area. 3. Field test site The infiltration site of Sant Vicenç dels Horts has been selected to assessing the biogeochemical processes occurring during SAT. The system consists of two ponds that have been built as compensatory measure for the reduction in natural recharge caused by the construction of the High Speed Train Line. The first pond acts as a decantation pond while the second one acts as an infiltration basin (Figure 1). Recharge water comes from the tertiary treatment plant of the El Prat de Llobregat WWTP and the river (?). The CUADLL (Lower Llobregat Aquifer End-Users Community) is now managing the system operation. Tasks that are currently being carried out at this Test Site aims at (i) improving the local experience on MAR through infiltration ponds operational aspects and (ii) monitoring the changes in water quality during the recharge processes (unsaturated and saturated zone). Special attention is being paid to the fate of emerging organic pollutants (pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides, etc.). The yielding of the monitoring will be compared with the results from the laboratory batch experiments on the behaviour of selected emerging organic pollutants. To this end, observation wells have been constructed, pressure / temperature / electrical conductivity transducers have been installed and the vadose zone under the infiltration pond has been instrumented (tensiometers, water content probes and suction cups). In addition double ring and infiltration tests have been performed in order to forecast the infiltration capacity of the basin.

  11. A field evaluation of five on-site drug-testing devices.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Dennis J; Hersch, Rebekah K; Cook, Royer F; Frank, James F; Walsh, J Michael

    2002-10-01

    A field study was performed at two police agencies to evaluate the utility and accuracy of five on-site urine analysis drug-testing devices when used to test driving under the influence (DUI) arrestees. The devices evaluated were AccuSign, Rapid Drug Screen, TesTcup-5, TesTstik, and Triage. Standard workplace screening cut-off concentrations were used and samples were tested for marijuana, cocaine and metabolites, amphetamine(s), opiates, and PCP (except opiates 300 ng/mL). Four-hundred arrestees were recruited at each site, informed consent was obtained, and urine specimens were collected from each subject for analysis. Police officers conducted the testing with one device, and trained technicians performed testing with the other four devices. The device used by the officers was rotated. All positive and 5% of the negative samples were confirmed in a laboratory using mass spectrometry. Laboratory cut-off concentrations were 4 ng/mL for carboxy-THC; 50 ng/mL for benzoylecgonine; 100 ng/mL for amphetamines; 50 ng/mL for opiates; and 5 ng/mL for PCP. Approximately one-third (36%) of the subjects tested positive for at least one drug. No randomly selected sample, that tested negative on the devices, tested positive at the laboratory. Based on 800 specimens, the false-negative rate for each device was < 1% for all drug classes. A false positive was defined as testing positive with the device, but the specimen did not contain detectable drug, given the study reporting criteria. For marijuana, benzoylecgonine, and opiates, all devices had < or = 0.25% false-positive rates. For PCP, the false-positive rates were all < or = 1.5%. For amphetamine(s), the false-positive rates were all < or = 1.75%. These rates were adjusted because study confirmation batteries included methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), additional over-the-counter sympathomimetic amines, hydromorphone, and hydrocodone. Without the expanded confirmation battery, false

  12. Expanded CRISM mosaics of the MSL Curiosity field site in Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Seelos, F. P.; Arvidson, R. E.; Murchie, S. L.; Viviano, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Mineralogic evidence for past aqueous environments in Gale crater and Gale's selection as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), Curiosity, landing site largely results from analysis of visible/near infrared reflectance data acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). We present a series of derived products from mosaicked CRISM targeted images (hyperspectral, 20 m/pix) to provide high resolution mineralogic context for Curiosity, focusing here on the distribution of iron-bearing mineralogy, i.e., olivine, high-calcium pyroxene (HCP), and iron oxides (such as hematite and surface dust). To create the expanded mosaic, individual CRISM images are processed through the prototype MTRDR pipeline then subjected to statistically rigorous wavelength-dependent balancing. The mosaic extends from Peace Vallis fan in the northeast to the edge of the sand sea and layered Mt. Sharp materials in the west-southwest. Mosaicked summary parameter composites demonstrate the presence and relative abundance of the different iron-bearing minerals. Surface dust covers the landing site and upper portion of Mt. Sharp, but wanes proximal to the circumferential dune field and lower mound layered materials. Hematite signatures that occur along a distinct, high-standing ridge associated with a fan at the base of Mt. Sharp have been examined in detail by Fraeman et al. (2013). In the mosaic, we also observe an additional prominent hematite-rich area downslope from the ridge and fan that may be related in origin. The dunes exhibit spectral signatures consistent with olivine and HCP, but the relative concentration of these minerals varies as a function of morphology: the barchan dunes have an increased olivine signature compared to the longitudinal dunes. This may indicate that olivine-bearing grains are typically larger or more dense than the HCP-bearing grains and, as a result, are preferentially retained in the higher shear stress

  13. Research plan and preliminary results - A field research site for emerging contaminants in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael; Skopec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Research has recently documented the prevalence of a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and other emerging contaminants (ECs) in streams across the United States. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been found to be an important source and collection point of ECs to streams as many ECs are incompletely removed during treatment. To investigate the complex in-stream processes (e.g., dilution, sorption, degradation, dispersion, etc.) that can affect ECs following their input from a WWTP and determining if such input is having an effect on the aquatic ecosystem requires the integration of multi-disciplinary efforts at a carefully selected field site. Preliminary work has identified an 8-km reach of Fourmile Creek in central Iowa as an ideal research site to investigate such important research questions pertaining to ECs. Unique aspects of Fourmile Creek included: (1) it single source effluent-dominated stream, (2) background data document the input of a wide variety of ECs from WWTP discharge, (3) small basin size, (4) relatively simple flow system, (5) background data suggest that undefined processes are taking place decreasing the level of select ECs during stream transport, (6) the WWTP uses a treatment technology (activated sludge) typical of many towns in Iowa and the United States (7) a hydrogeologic setting of a low-gradient, small stream (average discharge less than 1.41 m³/s) in glacial drift is typical of many areas in Iowa and across the Midwest, and (8) the existence of a low-head clam approximately 2 km upstream of the WWTP outfall allowing more accurate "above WWTP" and "below WWTP" comparisons in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the WWTP is scheduled to close by 2011 providing a unique opportunity to determine how stream hydrology, water chemistry and aquatic biota react to the removal of the primary source of flow and ECs in this system. This will allow a novel "before" and "after" assessment not previously available in EC research. Research to date

  14. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z H; He, Xiao

    2015-11-14

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein's internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties. PMID:26567650

  15. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z. H.; He, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein's internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.

  16. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z. H.; He, Xiao

    2015-11-14

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein’s internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.

  17. Holocene geomagnetic field variations from low latitude site: contribution from the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Perez-Torrado, Francisco; Carrracedo, Juan-Carlos; Wandres, Camille

    2016-04-01

    Full geomagnetic vector information was retrieved from 37 lava flows (corresponding to 38 sites because one flow was sampled at two different localities) located in Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Twenty-eight flows are dated between 1706 AD and about 13200 BC and one is historical. Eight other non-dated flows have stratigraphic links with the dated flows and at the end, our study allowed us to attribute to them archeomagnetic ages based on their paleomagnetic characteristics. Various mineralogical analyses were conducted, giving access to the nature and grain size of the magnetic minerals. Full stepwise (about 13 steps) thermal and AF demagnetizations were conducted on more than 400 samples to determine the paleomagnetic directions. The individual MAD values are on the average about 2° and the mean precision parameter at the flow scale (alpha95) is 4.2°. For paleointensities (PI), we performed the original Thellier and Thellier experiments with a success rate of about 65%, coupling it with the strict set of selection criteria PICRIT-03. The mean PIs at the flow level are based on 3 to 12 independent PI determinations except for one site in which only one reliable determination could be obtained. The obtained data are unique in this area over the 1000-14000 BC period and they are complementary to the dataset obtained in the Canary Islands for the last 500 years. Over the last 3 kyr, they indicate some variability in the local field intensity with a prominent PI peak centered around 600 BC and reaching 80 μT (VADM 16 x 10 ^22 Am ^2), documented by four different flows and associated to significantly easterly deviated declinations. The directional data are rather consistent with the most recent models proposed for that area but the obtained PI indicate that models largely underestimate the paleointensities. Combined with published data obtained from western Africa, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the Azores within a 2000 km-radius around the Canary

  18. Field experiment on CO2 back-production at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Sonja; Möller, Fabian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Streibel, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    The operational phase of the Ketzin pilot site for geological CO2 storage in Germany started in June 2008 and ended in August 2013. Over the period of approximately five years, a total amount of 67 kt of CO2 was successfully injected into a saline aquifer (Upper Triassic sandstone) at a depth of 630 m - 650 m. The CO2 used was mainly of food grade quality. In addition, 1.5 kt of CO2 from the pilot capture facility "Schwarze Pumpe" (lignite power plant CO2) was used in 2011. At the end of the injection period, 32 t N2 and 613 t CO2 were co-injected during a four-week field test in July and August 2013. In October 2014, a field experiment was carried out at Ketzin with the aim to back-produce parts of the injected CO2 during a two-week period. This experiment addressed two main questions: (i) How do reservoir and wellbore behave during back-production of CO2? and (ii) What is the composition of the CO2 and the co-produced formation fluid? The back-production was carried out through the former injection well. It was conducted continuously over the first week and with an alternating regime including production during day-time and shut-ins during night-time in the second week. During the test, a total amount of 240 t of CO2 and 57 m3 of brine were safely back-produced from the reservoir. Production rates up to 3,200 kg/h - which corresponds to the former highest injection rate - could be tested. Vital monitoring parameters included production rates of CO2 and brine, wellhead and bottomhole pressure and temperature at the production and observation wells and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along the production well. A permanently installed geoelectrical array was used for crosshole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring of the reservoir. Formation fluid and gas samples were collected and analysed. The measured compositions allow studying the geochemical interactions between CO2, formation fluid and rocks under in-situ conditions The field experiment

  19. A review of aerial radiological surveys of Nevada Test Site fallout fields 1951 through 1970

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-01

    Aerial surveys of offsite fallout radiation fields from the Nevada Test Site began in the early 1950s and continued throughout the above-ground testing period. The results of the aerial surveys were used to support ground data in determining the extent of the fallout patterns. For the series of tests conducted in 1953 and 1955, the primary uncertainty of the results was knowing the location of the aircraft. Navigation was made from aeronautical charts of a scale 1:1,000,000, and errors in location of several miles were experienced. Another problem was that exposure rate readings made in the aircraft of 1 milliroentgen per hour or lower were not reliable. Exposure rate measurements above 1 milliroentgen per hour were more accurate, however, and are considered reliable to within a factor of two or three in predicting 3-foot exposure rate levels. For the 1957 series, the aircraft position data were quite accurate. Ground-level exposure rates predicted from aerial data obtained by the United States Geological Survey aircraft for the five-detector array were considered reliable to within +-40% or better for most of the surveys. When the single detector was used, the accuracy decreased to about a factor of two. Relative count rates obtained by the aircraft operated by the Atomic Energy Commission, Raw Materials Division, are probably valid, but quantitative determination of 3-foot exposure rates are not. The Aerial Radiological Monitoring System performed all the aerial surveys in the 1960s. However, the air-to-ground conversion factors used were too low. Using a corrected conversion factor, the predicted 3-foot exposure rates should be valid to +-40% in most fallout fields if all other parameters are considered. 40 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Assessing field-scale migration of mobile radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Moran, J E; Zavarin, M

    2006-09-26

    Numerous long-lived radionuclides, including {sup 99}Tc (technetium) and {sup 129}I (iodine), are present in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a result of 828 underground nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. We synthesize a body of groundwater data collected on the distribution of a number of radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in the subsurface and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors, to assess their migration at NTS, at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters and for durations of more than thirty years. Qualitative evaluation of field-scale migration of these radionuclides in the saturated zone provides an independent approach to validating their presumably conservative transport in the performance assessment of the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, which is located on the western edge of NTS. The analyses show that the interaction of {sup 3}H with a solid surface via an isotopic exchange with clay lattice hydroxyls may cause a slight delay in the transport of {sup 3}H. The transport of {sup 14}C could be retarded by its isotopic exchange with carbonate minerals, and the exchange may be more pronounced in the alluvial aquifer. In particular, {sup 99}Tc may not necessarily exist as a mobile and conservative species {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, as commonly assumed for NTS groundwater. This is corroborated with recent in situ redox potential measurements, both across and near Yucca Mountain, showing that groundwater at multiple locations is not oxidizing. Speciation of iodine and its associated reactivity and mobility is also complex in the groundwater at the NTS and deserves further attention. The assumption of no retardation for the transport of {sup 99}Tc (especially) and {sup 129}I, used at the performance assessment of Yucca Mountain repository, is probably overly conservative and results in unrealistically high estimated doses for

  1. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report for IRP site No. 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota - Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Site Investigation Report for IRP Site No 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Volume I. This is the first volume of a two volume site investigation report. Two sites (Site 12 - Ramp area and Site 13 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Facility) was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. No further action was recommended on site 13 and quarterly sampling was recommended for site 12. South Dakota Regulators have agreed to both recommendations. Decision documents will be prepared for each site.

  2. Soil invertebrate community change over fuel-contaminated sites on a subantarctic island: An ecological field-based line of evidence for site risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wasley, Jane; Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K

    2016-04-01

    A number of fuel spills, of both recent and historic origins, have occurred on World Heritage-listed subantarctic Macquarie Island. Sites contaminated by mainly diesel fuels are undergoing remediation by the Australian Antarctic Division. The risks posed by these sites are being managed using a "weight of evidence" approach, for which this study provides a preliminary line of evidence for the ecological assessment component of this site management decision framework. This knowledge is pertinent, given the absence of environmental guidelines for fuel contaminants in subantarctic ecosystems. We provide a field-based, site-specific ecological risk assessment for soil invertebrate communities across the fuel spill sites, before the commencement of in situ remediation activities. Springtails (Collembola) were the most abundant taxa. Springtail community patterns showed only limited correlations with the level of fuel contamination at the soil surface, even when elevated levels occurred in the substratum layers. Of the environmental variables measured, community patterns were most strongly correlated with vegetation cover. We identify a suite of 6 species that contribute most to the community dynamics across these sites. A subset of these we propose as useful candidates for future development of single-species toxicity tests: Folsomotoma punctata, Cryptopygus caecus, Cryptopygus antarcticus and Parisotoma insularis. Findings from this study advance our understanding of soil invertebrate community dynamics within these contaminated sites, directly contributing to the improved management and restoration of the sites. Not only does this study provide an important line of evidence for the island's ecological risk assessment for fuel contaminants, it also enhances our understanding of the potential impact of fuels at other subantarctic islands. PMID:26202610

  3. Characteristics of the atmospheric electric field and correlation with CO2 at a rural site in southern Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelis, Nikolaos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, 4 years of atmospheric electric field observations at a rural site near Xanthi, Greece, are presented for 2011-2014. The site is situated in an area with very high radon fluxes and high thunderstorm activity. The annual variation is consistent with that at other Northern Hemisphere continental stations, with maxima (minima) occurring during the cold (warm) months. The diurnal variation of the atmospheric electric field both for fair weather (FW) and all weather is found to exhibit a double-peak structure corresponding to local effects and global thunderstorm activity. Comparison with the Carnegie curve shows that nighttime hours and winter months are preferable for observing the Global Electric Circuit at the Xanthi site. Finally, it is shown that atmospheric CO2 measurements can be effectively utilized as a stratification proxy, indicating conditions of potential radon trapping, whereas CO2 was found to anticorrelate with the atmospheric electric field during such conditions.

  4. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  5. Field-Scale Migration of 99Tc and 129I at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D K

    2004-03-29

    The groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contains many long-lived radionuclides, including {sup 99}Tc (technetium) and {sup 129}I (iodine), as a result of 828 underground nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. We synthesized a body of data collected on the distribution of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I in groundwater to assess their migration at NTS, at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters and for durations up to forty years and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. The results of our study show that Tc does not necessarily exist as a mobile and conservative species TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, as has been commonly assumed. This conclusion is corroborated by recent in situ redox potential measurements, which show that groundwaters at multiple locations of the NTS are not oxidizing, and mobility of reduced Tc species (TcO{sub 2} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O) is greatly decreased. Speciation of iodine and its associated reactivity is also complex in the groundwater at the NTS, and its effect on the mobility of iodine should be the subject of future studies.

  6. Field Measurements at River and Tidal Current Sites for Hydrokinetic Energy Development: Best Practices Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S; Gunawan, Budi

    2011-09-01

    In this report, existing data collection techniques and protocols for characterizing open channel flows are reviewed and refined to further address the needs of the MHK industry. The report provides an overview of the hydrodynamics of river and tidal channels, and the working principles of modern acoustic instrumentation, including best practices in remote sensing methods that can be applied to hydrokinetic energy site characterization. Emphasis is placed upon acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and acoustic-Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments, as these represent the most practical and economical tools for use in the MHK industry. Incorporating the best practices as found in the literature, including the parameters to be measured, the instruments to be deployed, the instrument deployment strategy, and data post-processing techniques. The data collected from this procedure aims to inform the hydro-mechanical design of MHK systems with respect to energy generation and structural loading, as well as provide reference hydrodynamics for environmental impact studies. The standard metrics and protocols defined herein can be utilized to guide field experiments with MHK systems.

  7. Field-emplaceable air samplers for automated ambient, site, and IAQ use (including TO-17 applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Padden, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    Air samples taken on collection media for laboratory analysis remain a highly sensitive and cost-effective means of assessment. However, collection of samples can be difficult using non-automated samplers, particularly over long terms or at remote locations. This paper describes a number of automated air samplers for sorbent-tube and filter use. The samplers are battery-powered, portable and weatherproof. They are suitable for: (1) Very rapid sampling of dual sorbent tubes for survey use. The sampler is very small and lightweight for ease of field use. (2) Sequential sampling of 24 tubes over a period up to 1 month. This technology is suitable for long-term ambient and superfund site monitoring. A meteorological station can be integrated. (3) Simultaneous sampling of 4 separate media at different flows during multiple events over a one month maximum period. This technology is useful for hazard identification and location. One application of interest to the environmental community is the use of a variant of the 24 tube sequential samplers by the United Nations for chemical weapon ban verification. 2 refs.

  8. Reconnaissance of Field Sites for the Study of Chemical Weathering on the Guayana Shield, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Steefell, C I

    2003-02-01

    Despite the fact that chemical weathering of silicate rocks plays an important role in the draw-down of CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales (Berner and Berner, 1996), the overall controls on the rate of chemical weathering are still not completely understood. Lacking a mechanistic understanding of these controls, it remains difficult to evaluate a hypothesis such as that presented by Raymo and Ruddiman (1992), who suggested that enhanced weathering and CO{sub 2} draw-down resulting from the uplift of the Himalayas contributed to global cooling during the Cenozoic. At an even more fundamental level, the three to four order of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates is still unresolved (White et al., 1996). There is as yet no comprehensive, mechanistic model for silicate chemical weathering that considers the coupled effects of precipitation, vadose zone flow, and chemical reactions. The absence of robust process models for silicate weathering and the failure to resolve some of these important questions may in fact be related-the controls on the overall rates of weathering cannot be understood without considering the weathering environment as one in which multiple, time-dependent chemical and physical processes are coupled (Malmstrom, 2000). Once chemical weathering is understood at a mechanistic process level, the important controls on chemical weathering (physical erosion, temperature, precipitation) can be folded into larger scale models tracking the global carbon cycle. Our goal in this study was to carry out the preliminary work needed to establish a field research site for chemical weathering om the Cuayana Shield in South America. The Guayana Shield is a Precambrian province greater than 1.5 billion years old covering portions of Venezuela, Guyana (the country), Surinam, French Guiana, and Brazil (Figure 1). More important than the age of the rocks themselves, however, is the age of the erosion surface developed on the Shield, with

  9. Borehole Completion and Conceptual Hydrogeologic Model for the IFRC Well Field, 300 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horner, Jacob A.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Lanigan, David C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2009-04-20

    A tight cluster of 35 new wells was installed over a former waste site, the South Process Pond (316-1 waste site), in the Hanford Site 300 Area in summer 2008. This report documents the details of the drilling, sampling, and well construction for the new array and presents a summary of the site hydrogeology based on the results of drilling and preliminary geophysical logging.

  10. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: A FIELD AND LABORATORY REFERENCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document has the following purposes: 1) to discuss the scientific basis for assessing adverse ecological effects at hazardous waste sites (HWSs), and 2) to present methods for evaluating the on-site and off-site ecological effects of HWSs. The methods are intended for implem...

  11. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  12. Application of microseismic technology to hydraulic fracture diagnostics: GRI/DOE Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmer, R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Wright, T.B.; Branagan, P.T.; Fix, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct field experiments and analyze data that will result in definitive determinations of hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments will be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment as well as surface facilities and equipment conducive to acquiring high-quality data. It is anticipated that the project`s research advancements will provide a foundation for a fracture diagnostic service industry and hydraulic fracture optimization based on measured fracture response. The M-Site Project is jointly sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site developed for M-Site hydraulic fracture experimentation is the former DOE Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site located near Rifle, Colorado. The MWX project drilled three closely-spaced wells (MWX-1, MWX-2 and MWX-3) which were the basis for extensive reservoir analyses and tight gas sand characterizations in the blanket and lenticular sandstone bodies of the Mesaverde Group. The research results and background knowledge gained from the MWX project are directly applicable to research in the current M-Site Project.

  13. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  14. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

  15. Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site: Field-Scale Test Facility for Addressing Fundamental Questions of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrash, W.; Routh, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a research wellfield or field-scale test facility developed in a shallow, coarse, fluvial aquifer with the objectives of supporting (a) development of cost-effective, non- invasive methods for quantitative characterization and imaging methods in heterogeneous aquifers using hydrologic and geophysical techniques; (b) examination of fundamental relationships and processes at multiple scales; (c) testing theories and models for groundwater flow and solute transport; and (d) educating and training the next generation of professionals in multidisciplinary subsurface science and engineering. The design of the wells and the wellfield provide for a wide range of single-well, cross-hole, multiwell and multilevel hydrologic, geophysical, and combined hydrologic-geophysical experiments. Efforts have been focused largely on (a) establishing the 3D distributions of geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical parameters which can then be used as the basis for testing methods to jointly invert hard and soft data to return the "known" 3D K distribution and (b) developing subsurface measurement and imaging methods including static and time-lapse tomographic imaging methods. From this work we have developed a good understanding of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the BHRS as a hierarchical system which includes layers and lenses; this framework is recognized with geologic, hydrologic, radar, seismic, and EM methods and tracer tests. Work to date has been conducted by Boise State University with some collaboration and exchange with researchers and students from other institutions. At this point the BHRS is functioning well as a field-scale control volume and test cell in a multiscale heterogeneous aquifer so there is an opportunity to increase the range of both collaborative participation and research activities at the BHRS. In this regard, opportunities exist to investigate and monitor process and property variation in time and space

  16. Particle size distribution and inorganic aerosol characterization during DAURE 2009 winter field campaign at Montseny site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranzazu Revuelta, M.; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Plaza, Javier; Coz, Esther; Pey, Jorge; Cusack, Michael; Pandolfi, Marco; Rodríguez-Maroto, Jesús J.; Pujadas, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    During DAURE 2009 winter field campaign, one of the sampling sites was Montseny, a rural background station located 40 km NNE from Barcelona and 25 km W from the Mediterranean Sea. It is a Natural Park and a protected area, thus with low human activity, mainly agriculture. The sampling station was located on a valley with it axis oriented on the direction NW-SE. At this site, a TSI-SMPS (DMA 3071 and CPC 3022) was installed in order to measure the particle number distribution in the size range 15-600 nm during the period March 19-27 with a measurement cycle of 12 minutes The particle mass distribution was measured by a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) using eleven size stages with aluminum substrates and a quartz fiber backup filter. Four samples were taken during the period 13-19 March, two during 24 hours and other two during 48 hours. This impactor has a wider size range allowing to measure from 56 to 18000 nm. The substrates and filters obtained were later analyzed for determining soluble ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and calcium) by IC. There are mainly two different kinds of events measured with the SMPS. When the air masses were coming from SE, which meant that they could come from the park but also from the urban and industrial areas located in the pre-coastal depression, it was characterized by higher particle number concentrations and by size distributions centered on 80 nm. This meant it was an aged aerosol, which had grown up by coagulation, condensation and oxidation processes. When the air masses were coming from NW (the second valley axis side), the particle measured were much smaller, the instrument started to detect particles with 15 nm, but smaller ones could be possible. This meant that new particle nucleation could have occurred in the valley, just before arriving to the sampling point. From MOUDI samplings, two different types of events were also observed. Three of the four samplings coincided with stagnation of air masses or

  17. The Data Transport Network: A Usenet-Based Approach For Data Retrieval From Remote Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentic, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Data Transport Network coordinates the collection of scientific data, instrument telemetry and post-processing for the delivery of real-time results over the Internet from instruments located at remote field sites with limited or unreliable network connections. The system was originally developed in 1999 for the distribution of large data sets collected by the radar, lidars and imagers at the NSF upper atmosphere research facility in Sondrestrom, Greenland. The system helped to mitigate disruptions in network connectivity and optimized transfers over the site's low-bandwidth satellite link. The core idea behind the system is to transfer data files as attachments in Usenet messages. The messages collected by a local news server are periodically transmitted to other servers on the Internet when link conditions permit. If the network goes down, data files continue to be stored locally and the server will periodically attempt to deliver the files for upwards of two weeks. Using this simple approach, the Data Transport Network is able to handle a large number of independent data streams from multiple instruments. Each data stream is posted into a separate news group. There are no limitations to the types of data files that can be sent and the system uses standard Internet protocols for encoding, accessing and transmitting files. A common framework allows for new data collection or processing programs to be easily integrated. The two-way nature of the communications also allows for data to be delivered to the site as well, a feature used for the remote control of instruments. In recent years, the Data Transport Network has been applied to small, low-power embedded systems. Coupled with satellite-based communications systems such as Iridium, these miniature Data Transport servers have found application in a number of remote instrument deployments in the Arctic. SRI's involvement as a team member in Veco Polar Resources, the NSF Office of Polar Programs Arctic

  18. Azimuthal Resistivity Investigation of an Unconfined Aquifer at the Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, W. J.; Ward, A. L.; Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T. C.; Draper, K.

    2009-12-01

    Developing a robust large-scale groundwater contaminate transport model requires quantifying the effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy on solute transport. Here we investigated the feasibility of using surface azimuthal resistivity methods to characterize near-surface anisotropy and heterogeneity in order to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport through unconsolidated sediment at the Integrated Field Research Challenge Site (IFRC) which borders the Columbia River. A generalized azimuthal resistivity array was constructed with seven telescoping radii and 15° rotations between each electrode. Azimuthal array data were acquired by multiplexing with the MPT-DAS1 system connected to 172 surface electrodes. Array geometries included the square array, arrow array, offset wenner and equatorial dipole-dipole. Effective depths of exploration ranged between 5 and 57 m. Results from the upper 5m of exploration depth exhibit an isotropic resistivity which is consistent with the excavation and homogonous fill depth of the waste ponds at the IFRC. Exploration depths beyond 5 m are influenced by the Hanford and Ringold Formations. These formations exhibit a strong anisotropic resistivity which increases with depth. Assuming that the response is entirely controlled by hydrologic anisotropy, these azimuthal resistivity data suggest a preferential path with a mean azimuth between 150° and 170°. This azimuthal resistivity trend coincides with an incision feature in the Ringold formation measured in a suite of core logs and is consistent with the trajectory of a tracer plume from an injection test conducted in March 2009. Surface azimuthal resistivity methods may also have application in characterizing localized anisotropy and heterogeneity within shallow alluvial deposits at Hanford allowing for the optimal placement of tracer injections and borehole electrodes.

  19. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C.

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  20. Use of single-well tracer dilution tests to evaluate LNAPL flux at seven field sites.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Nicholas; Sale, Tom; Smith, Tim; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum liquids, referred to as light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), are commonly found beneath petroleum facilities. Concerns with LNAPLs include migration into clean soils, migration beyond property boundaries, and discharges to surface water. Single-well tracer dilution techniques were used to measure LNAPL fluxes through 50 wells at 7 field sites. A hydrophobic tracer was mixed into LNAPL in a well. Intensities of fluorescence associated with the tracer were measured over time using a spectrometer and a fiber optic cable. LNAPL fluxes were estimated using observed changes in the tracer concentrations over time. Measured LNAPL fluxes range from 0.006 to 2.6 m/year with a mean and median of 0.15 and 0.064 m/year, respectively. Measured LNAPL fluxes are two to four orders of magnitude smaller than a common groundwater flux of 30 m/year. Relationships between LNAPL fluxes and possible governing parameters were evaluated. Observed LNAPL fluxes are largely independent of LNAPL thickness in wells. Natural losses of LNAPL through dissolution, evaporation, and subsequent biodegradation, were estimated using a simple mass balance, measured LNAPL fluxes in wells, and an assumed stable LNAPL extent. The mean and median of the calculated loss rates were found to be 24.0 and 5.0 m3/ha/year, respectively. Mean and median losses are similar to values reported by others. Coupling observed LNAPL fluxes to observed rates of natural LNAPL depletion suggests that natural losses of LNAPL may be an important parameter controlling the overall extent of LNAPL bodies. PMID:23289131

  1. Test Plan for Field Experiments to Support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bacon, Diana H.

    2001-09-01

    Much of the data collected to support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) simulations have been obtained in the laboratory on a relatively small scale (less than 10 cm). In addition, the PA simulations themselves are currently the only means available to integrate the chemical and hydrologic processes involved in the transport of contaminants from the disposal facility into the environment. This report describes the test plan for field experiments to provide data on the hydraulic, transport, and geochemical characteristics of the near-field materials on a more representative (i.e., larger) scale than the laboratory data currently available. The experiments will also provide results that encompass a variety of transport processes likely to occur within the actual disposal facility. These experiments will thus provide the first integrated data on the ILAW facility performance and will provide a crucial dataset to evaluate the simulation-based estimates of overall facility performance used in the PA.

  2. EFFICACY OF BURNING, TILLAGE, AND BIOCIDES IN CONTROLLING BACTERIA RELEASED AT FIELD SITES AND EFFECTS ON INDIGENOUS BACTERIA AND FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental use of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMS) must include risk control methods that are effective and also safe to non-target organisms. n important component of risk control is the decontamination of field release sites of GEMS after their function is co...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11, Isolated from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center Site

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Jayashree; Waters, R. Jordan; Skerker, Jeffrey M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Jiawen; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11 was isolated from groundwater at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC) site. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11. The genome contains 8,421,483 bp, 7,661 predicted protein-coding genes, and a total GC content of 64.4%. PMID:25977418

  4. Within and Between Field Dispersal of Diabrotica barberi and D. virgifera virgifera in the South Dakota Areawide Management Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is a means by which organisms search for food, shelter, mates, oviposition sites, etc., and can ultimately result in gene flow among populations. We investigated the within and between field movement of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence and D. virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: C...

  5. Complete genome sequence of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11, isolated from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ray, Jayashree; Waters, R. Jordan; Skerker, Jeffrey M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Jiawen; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-14

    Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11 was isolated from groundwater at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC) site. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11. The genome contains 8,421,483 bp, 7,661 predicted protein-coding genes, and a total GC content of 64.4%.

  6. Within and Between Field Movement of Diabrotica barberi and D. virgifera virgifera in the South Dakota Areawide Management Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is a way insects search for food, shelter, mates, oviposition sites, etc., and can ultimately result in gene flow among populations. We investigated the within and between field movement of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence and D. virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)...

  7. Sensitivity analysis of tracer transport in variably saturated soils at USDA-ARS OPE3 field site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of uncertainties in hydrologic and geochemical parameters on the results of simulations of the tracer transport in variably saturated soils at the USDA-ARS OPE3 field site. A tracer experiment with a pulse of KCL solution applied to an irrigatio...

  8. "Dreams Are Born on Places Like This": The Process of Interpretive Community Formation at the "Field of Dreams" Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aden, Roger C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the narratives of 113 visitors to the site of the film "Field of Dreams." Develops a theory that explains how interpretive communities are formed despite theoretical writings that argue for individualized interpretations of text. Demonstrates that individuals can at once converge and diverge symbolically within the confines of an…

  9. 77 FR 40637 - Wyatt VI, Inc., A Division of Wyatt Field Service Company, Working On-Site at Hovensa Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wyatt VI, Inc., A Division of Wyatt Field Service Company, Working On-Site at Hovensa Oil Refinery, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI; Notice of Affirmative Determination... Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Wyatt VI, Inc., a division of...

  10. Is site-specific APEX calibration necessary for field scale BMP assessment?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The possibility of extending parameter sets obtained at one site to sites with similar characteristics is appealing. This study was undertaken to test model performance and compare the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) using three parameters sets obtained from three watersheds when a...

  11. CO2 Field Laboratory at Svelvik Ridge: Site characterization after the first injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddensiek, M. L.; Lindeberg, E.; Mørk, A.; Jones, D.; Girard, J. F.; Kuras, O.; Barrio, M.; Royse, K.; Gal, F.; Meldrum, P.; Pezard, P.; Levannier, A.; Desroches, J.; Neyens, D.; Paris, J.; Henry, G.; Bakk, A.; Wertz, F.; Aker, E.; Børresen, M.

    2012-04-01

    The safety and acceptance of CO2 storage will depend on the ability to detect and quantify CO2 within and outside the storage complex. To determine sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems with respect to CO2 distribution and leakage detection, the CO2 Field Lab project comprises two controlled CO2 injection tests in the shallow (100-300 m) and very shallow (20 m) subsurface of the glacial deposit that forms Svelvik ridge, 50 km south of Oslo. The CO2 displacement in the subsurface and at the surface has and will be monitored with an exhaustive set of techniques. Iteratively, observations and flow modeling will provide frequent updates of the CO2 distribution. The results will be upscaled to assess monitoring systems and requirements with the ultimate objective to provide guidelines to regulators, operators and technology providers for monitoring systems. The formation that comprises the laboratory is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the Ski stage of the Holocene deglaciation. Nearby outcrops show that the formation is channeled and variably laminated with a significant variation in grain size and structure. Prior to the injection experiments, the site was characterized including 2D seismic and electric surveys, the drilling, logging and sampling of a 330 m deep appraisal well, core and flow line sample analyses, ground penetrating radar (GPR), a hydrodynamic appraisal, and geochemical and soil gas baseline surveys. These data were used to populate a geomodel. Flow modeling of the plume development included some variability in permeability and anisotropy, and various injection scenarios. Accordingly, the 20 m injection experiment was conducted in fall 2011 with a monitoring plan designed to spatially and temporally monitor the expected plume development. The monitoring equipment was thus distributed around the 20 m deep injection point of an inclined well. It included seven 6 m deep monitoring wells equipped with resistivity, sonic and

  12. Interaction between CME and surrounding magnetic fields producing multiple flaring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia M.

    2015-08-01

    L. van Driel-Gesztelyi (1,2,3), D. Baker (1), T. Török (4), E. Pariat (2), L.M. Green (1),D.R. Williams (1), J. Carlyle (1,5) G. Valori (1, 2), P. Démoulin (2), B. Kliem (1,7,8),D. Long (1), S.A. Matthews (1), J.-M. Malherbe (2)(1) UCL/MSSL, UK, (2) Paris Observatory, LESIA, CNRS, France, (3) Konkoly Observatory, Hungary, (4) Predictive Science, Dan Diego, USA, (5) Max Planck Inst., Göttingen, Germany, (6) INAF, Obs. Roma, Italy, (7) Potsdam Univ., Germany, (8) Yunnan Observatories, Kunming, ChinaAnalyzing Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observations of the spectacular Coronal Mass Ejection eruption on 7 June 2011, we present evidence of coronal magnetic reconnection between the expanding magnetic structure of the CME and the magnetic fields of an adjacent active region (AR). The onset of reconnection first became apparent in the SDO/AIA images when filament plasma, originally contained within the erupting flux rope, was re-directed towards remote areas in the neighboring AR, tracing the change of large-scale magnetic connectivity. The observations are presented jointly with a topological analysis of the pre-eruption magnetic configuration, and a data-constrained numerical simulation of the three-AR complex, demonstrating the formation/intensification of current sheets along a pre-existing hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) at the interface between the CME and the neighboring AR, where a secondary flare ribbon was created. Reconnection across this current sheet resulted in the formation of new magnetic connections between the erupting magnetic structure and a neighboring AR about 200 Mm from the eruption site, in strong qualitative agreement with the observations. In addition, the CME temporarily created unusually dense plasma conditions around a reconnection region at high coronal altitudes, enabling us to observe emission resulting from it. We argue that this exceptional observation of a coronal brightening was directly observable at SDO/AIA wavelengths owing to the

  13. Gas monitoring during the CO2 back production field test at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szizybalski, Alexandra; Zimmer, Martin; Kujawa, Christian; Erzinger, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences operates Europe's first on-shore CO2 storage site in Ketzin, a small town near Berlin. From June 2008 until August 2013 about 67 kt of CO2 were injected into Upper Triassic sandstones in 630 to 650 m depth. The injection phase ended with an experiment to evaluate the influence of additives on CO2 storage. During this experiment 32 t N2 and 613 t CO2 were co-injected into the borehole over a period of 25 days followed by the final injection of 66 t pure CO2. At the beginning of the experiment 10,000 l (10 Nm3) Kr were pumped into the borehole, to separate the previous pure CO2 and the CO2-N2 mixture. For the same reason, CO2 with a different isotopic composition (δ13C = -3.4±0.2o instead of δ13C = -30.6±0.4) was used for the first 548 t of the total 613 t. To demonstrate that the stored CO2 is retrievable a field test was carried out in October 2014 during a period of two weeks. Of interest, in this context, is the composition of the back-produced gas which delivers key information on possible interactions between the CO2, formation fluid and rocks. In total 240 t of gas were produced via the former injection well. The flow rates ranged between 800 and 3,200 kg gas/h. The gas was sampled after the gas/water separator and continuously analysed using a mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph and a photoacoustic sensor, thus covering all gas components and concentrations. In addition, gas samples were collected for stable carbon isotopes investigations in the laboratory. Preliminary results show that the produced gas consists of > 97% CO2 plus mainly N2. The N2 was detected from the beginning, although the injection in 2013 ended with pure CO2. The N2 concentration decreased from about 3% to 1% during the two weeks of the experiment. In addition to these major components CH4, CO and H2 (up to 0.01%) as well as Kr and SF6 (up to 0.001%, both were used as tracers in 2013) were detected. The gas composition of natural

  14. Do the Choices for Field, Lab, and Data Analysis Methods Affect the Site Assessments in Biomonitoring Programs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silldorff, E. L.; Herbst, D. B.

    2005-05-01

    Broad differences remain in the field, lab, and data analysis methods used for bioassessment programs across local, state, national, and international boundaries. Recent calls for direct comparisons among these methods have begun to be fulfilled, including performance-based evaluations, but such comparisons remain limited to a handful of studies. Here, we present the results from our research on 3 intensive methods currently used by California bioassessment groups. These 3 methods were simultaneously used to collect and process samples from the same 40 streams in the eastern Sierra Nevada. The resulting data from each method were then analyzed using both multi-metric IBI and RIVPACS-type multivariate predictive models. Although the field and lab methods differed with respect to replication (1, 3, or 5 composite samples per stream), level of identification (family vs. genus for Chironomidae), and number of individuals processed per site (500 vs. 900 vs. 1500), all field/lab protocols clearly discriminated between independently identified reference and impaired streams. Furthermore, both the multimetric IBI analyses and the RIVPACS-type models produced effective separation of the reference sites from the impaired sites for all field/lab methodologies. These results suggest that alternative methodologies are interchangeable and could complement one another. Thus, the decisions among methods may hinge on objectives, costs, interpretability, and ease of use rather than ability to detect impairment.

  15. Site investigation report for IRP site numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, West Virginia Air National Guard, 130th Airlift Group, Yeager Field, Charleston, West Virginia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Site Investigation Report for IRP Sites Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 West Virginia Air National Guard, 130th Airlift Group, Yeager Field, Charleston, West Virginia. No further action was recommended for all 5 sites, and was agreed to by the WVDEP.

  16. Hydrologic Instrumentation of Field Sites to Understand Short Term Changes in Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Clayton, M.

    2011-12-01

    This project is funded by a successful NSF-CCLI grant currently in effect. The objective of this project is to build a real time water quality monitoring facility by the Dry Run Creek on the University of Northern Iowa campus. The long term goal is to turn this site into a model outdoor educational resource for students to study the critical elements of the hydrologic environment. Weekly class sessions otherwise make it difficult for students to deal with the daily changes is water chemistry. Upon completion of the project, students will be able to look at the diurnal variations in the water quality through a website available for public viewing. Besides, they will have the opportunity to participate in a variety of research and learning activities directly at the site. Four (4) pieces of instruments are in the process of being installed at the experimental site. The instruments are 1) YSI 6600 V2 extended deployment probe to measure water quality parameters in the Dry Run Creek (i.e., pH, Total Dissolved Solids, conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, temperature, turbidity, chlorophyll, etc.); 2) OTT RLS Radar to measure water level fluctuations in the creek; 3) Hydrolab MS5 mini-sonde to continuously measure pH, TDS, conductivity, DO, temperature, turbidity, and nitrate in a 70 ft deep ground water well on the site; and 4) DL 3000 data logger to receive all data from the above 3 pieces of equipment and automatically upload them to a website. Site preparation, including digging trenches for data cable and electric wires has been completed. Instrumental calibration is in progress and the site is expected to be up and running soon. We expect that this well site expansion plan will considerably strengthen our hydrology curriculum and facilitate more effective dissemination of the project outcome.

  17. Comparison of site calibration and cross calibration of Gao Fen (GF)-1 Wide Field of View (WFV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Wen; Lu, Shuning; Fu, Qiaoyan; Pan, Zhiqiang; Shi, Tingting

    2015-10-01

    The Wide Field of View (WFV) is one of the key instruments for China's high resolution earth observing system, operating on the Gao Fen-1 (GF-1) satellite which was launched on April 26, 2013. WFV has 4 typical reflective solar bands from 0.45-0.89 μm with 16m nadir spatial resolution. Because of GF-1's lacking in onboard calibrators, on-orbit radiometric calibration is mainly relies on site calibration. The reflectance-based method of site calibration has been used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the GF-1 WFV on June 26th, 2013 and August 3rd, 2014. The reflectance-based method relies on ground-based measurements of the surface reflectance and atmospheric conditions at Dunhuang test site nearly coincident with the imaging of the test site by the WFV. Site calibration is a time consuming and hard sledding method, which is also difficult to reveal or adequately correct for the deficiency of instrument calibration by its own calibration subsystem. Cross-calibration can be a powerful method to remedy the insufficient of the site calibration. Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with its high accuracy onboard calibration system has been selected as reference sensor. Cross calibration between GF-1/WFV and Terra/MODIS are based on the near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs over Dunhuang test site on the same day with site calibration. Spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for the cross calibration are determined by SRF, solar zenith and azimuth angle, sensors' zenith and azimuth angle and a typical reflectance spectrum over the Dunhuang test site obtained by in-situ measurements. The percentage difference between the site calibrations is within 5% which reflects that the GF-1/WFV is stable after the launch and the reflectance-based method itself is reliable. The comparison of site calibration and cross calibration shows that site calibration has higher accuracy than the cross calibration, the cross calibration is affected by

  18. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W. , Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  19. Actualities and Perspectives in Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Iencean, SM; Brehar, FM

    2008-01-01

    In the field of neurosurgery, like in other surgical specialties, the last decades have brought major achievements. The series of revolutionary discoveries has started during the last century in the fifties, with stereotactic radiosurgery, then continued with the implementation of operative microscope (during the seventies), the endovascular embolisation in the nineties and finally with the major improvement in robotic neurosurgery and molecular neurosurgery at the beginning of this century. The major innovation has been brought not only in the field of therapeutical measures but also in the field of neuro– imaging. Thus, the modern MRI with more than 3 Tesla, can reveal to the neurosurgeon the most intimate structures of the nervous system. Several important areas in neurosurgery like: vascular neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery and brain tumors pathology, benefit from the modern technology and from the latest discoveries from genetic and molecular biology. In conclusion, summarizing the discoveries of the last decade, we emphasize that the related areas like genetics, molecular biology, computer technology become more and more important in the future progress of the neurosurgery. PMID:20108475

  20. Spatial distributions and chemical properties of PM2.5 based on 21 field campaigns at 17 sites in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Wu, Zhijun; Kumar, Prashant; Li, Mengren; Wang, Yujue; Guo, Song

    2016-09-01

    Severe air pollution and its associated health impacts have become one of the major concerns in China. A detailed analysis of PM2.5 chemical compositions is critical for optimizing pollution control measures. In this study, daily 24-h bulk filter samples were collected and analyzed for totally 21 field campaigns at 17 sites in China between 2008 and 2013. The 17 sites were classified into four groups including six urban sites, seven regional sites, two coastal sites in four fast developing regions of China (i.e. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin), and two ship cruise measurements covered the East China Sea and Yellow Sea of China. The high average concentrations of PM2.5 and the occurrences of extreme cases at most sites imply the widespread air pollution in China. Fine particles were largely composed of organic matter and secondary inorganic species at most sites. High correlation between the temporal trends of PM2.5 and secondary species of urban and regional sites highlights the uniformly distributed air pollutants within one region. Secondary inorganic species were the dominant contributors to the high PM2.5 concentration in Northern China. However in Southern China, the relative contributions of different chemical species kept constant as PM2.5 increased. This study provides us a better understanding of the current state of air pollution in diversified Chinese cities. Analysis of chemical signatures of PM2.5 could be a strong support for model validation and emission control strategy. PMID:27341151

  1. Field-induced detrapping in doped organic semiconductors with Gaussian disorder and different carrier localizations on host and guest sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheb, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Jungemann, C.

    2015-09-01

    For organic host-guest systems with a low fraction of guest sites, i.e., the trap-limited case, field-induced detrapping of charge carriers is studied via master equation calculations under the assumption of Miller-Abrahams rates and two Gaussian distributions of uncorrelated energy levels. Among existing descriptions of carrier redistributions in the presence of an electric field, the effective temperature derived by F. Jansson, S. D. Baranovskii, F. Gebhard, and R. Österbacka [Phys. Rev. B 77, 195211 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.195211] for pure host materials shows the best agreement with the simulation results. The detrapping description based on carrier heating is extended to the case that the two material-specific hopping rate parameters ν0 (attempt frequency) and α (decay constant or inverse localization length of charge carriers) are different for host and guest sites.

  2. Field tests of automatic water-level monitor systems: Technology Development Program: Site Investigation Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.; Schalla, R.

    1990-10-01

    Groundwater in the aquifer beneath the Hanford Site contains radioactive and other contaminants from deposits in the overlying vadose zone. These contaminants flow with the groundwater into the Columbia River. The rate of contaminant movement toward the river depends on hydraulic gradients resulting from aquifer recharge by process water and other liquid waste. Historically, hydraulic gradients were deduced from water-level measurements made manually using steel tapes. However, frequent or simultaneous measurements essential to proper site characterization and remediation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been either too costly or impossible. This investigation was authorized to identify technologies capable of meeting site characterization and remediation requirements with precision suitable to EPA. Therefore, we identified and tested available automatic monitoring systems for cost-effective and timely measurements of aquifer water levels. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  3. A network of field test sites as a platform for research on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Frangopol, Dan M.; Ghasemi, Hamid; Shenton, Harry W.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Madanat, Samar

    2004-07-01

    An effort is currently underway to create an Engineering Research Consortium Initiative (ERCI) focused on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure. The goal of the ERCI will be to provide administrative and logistical support for a coordinated, problem-focused research program on the highway transportation infrastructure system. The cornerstone of the initiative will be field test-sites. Example sites might include major long span bridges, sample populations of operating bridges, decommissioned bridges, a regional network of highways and bridges, various types of pavement and geotechnical structures, or a major transportation hub serving a metropolitan area. Sites would be instrumented to collect a broad range of engineering (structural, geotechnical, hydraulic), human (traffic) and natural (climatological, seismological) response data. The field sites would be networked to provide real-time access to test facilities across the country; a secure central repository would be established for collecting data from the sites. The data and information gathered from these sites would be used by engineers and scientists to study the complex interactions and cause-and-effect relations of the various engineered, human and natural components of the highway hyper-system. A major research thrust of the ERCI will be security of the highway infrastructure system, with particular emphasis on bridges. The National Science Foundation and the Federal Highway Administration are expected to provide funding for the program through a joint agency initiative. Two workshops were recently held with experts from around the world to discuss the plans for the ERCI. The paper provides more details on the ERCI and the status of the effort to date.

  4. Natural horizontal transfer of a naphthalene dioxygenase gene between bacteria native to a coal tar-contaminated field site.

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, J B; Stuart-Keil, K G; Ghiorse, W C; Madsen, E L

    1997-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of genes responsible for pollutant biodegradation may play a key role in the evolution of bacterial populations and the adaptation of microbial communities to environmental contaminants. However, field evidence for horizontal gene transfer between microorganisms has traditionally been very difficult to obtain. In this study, the sequences of the 16S rRNA and naphthalene dioxygenase iron-sulfur protein (nahAc) genes of nine naphthalene-degrading bacteria isolated from a coal tar waste-contaminated site, as well as a naphthalene-degrading bacterium from a contaminated site in Washington state and two archetypal naphthalene-degrading strains, were compared. Seven strains from the study site had a single nahAc allele, whereas the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the strains differed by as much as 7.9%. No nahAc alleles from the site were identical to those of the archetypal strains, although the predominant allele was closely related to that of Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4, isolated in the British Isles. However, one site-derived nahAc allele was identical to that of the Washington state strain. Lack of phylogenetic congruence of the nahAc and 16S rRNA genes indicates that relatively recent in situ horizontal transfer of the nahAc gene has occurred, possibly as a direct or indirect consequence of pollutant contamination. Alkaline lysis plasmid preparations and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis have revealed the presence of plasmids ranging in size from 70 to 88 kb in all site isolates. Southern hybridizations with a 407-bp nahAc probe have suggested that the nahAc gene is plasmid borne in all the site isolates but one, a strain isolated from subsurface sediment 400 m upstream from the source of the other site isolates. In this strain and in the naphthalene-degrading strain from Washington state, nahAc appears to be chromosomally located. In addition, one site isolate may carry nahAc on both chromosome and plasmid. Within the group of bacteria with

  5. Uranium Desorption From Contaminated Sediments at the USDOE IFC Research Site in Rifle, CO: From Batch to Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P. M.; Hyun, S. P.; Davis, J. A.; Hayes, K.; Dayvault, R.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium contamination in the subsurface is a part of the legacy of nuclear weapons and energy production, resulting from both mining activities and nuclear waste disposal. The Rifle IFC project focuses on gaining a better mechanistic understanding of U mobility in the subsurface and the use of bioremediation to achieve groundwater U concentrations below the MCL at a former U mill tailings site, integrating biological, geochemical, and hydrological studies. As a part of this project we have performed a series of experiments to better understand the U(VI) sorption-desorption and transport behavior under oxidizing conditions at this site. A series of U(VI) desorption experiments on aquifer sediment was conducted at the batch, column, and field scales. As one proceeds from the batch to the field scale, there is an increase in complexity and heterogeneity in both the geochemical and hydrological conditions. A surface-complexation model for U(VI) developed using batch adsorption and desorption experiments on homogenized sediments was applied to describe U(VI) desorption and transport behavior under high alkalinity conditions in a column experiment with the same sediments. An array of multi-level samplers was installed at the Rifle field site in order to investigate U behavior in both 3-dimensional spatial and temporal scales. A high degree of geochemical and hydrological heterogeneity was observed through the investigation of sediment core samples, nonreactive tracer tests, and geochemical groundwater sampling. A U(VI) desorption tracer test was performed in the field under high alkalinity conditions to compare with the batch and column work. The results from these multiple scales investigations are being integrated to assess the impact of the observed field-scale heterogeneities on U reactive transport in contaminated aquifers.

  6. Application of an Optimal Search Strategy for the DNAPL Source Identification to a Field Site in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longting, M.; Ye, S.; Wu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Identification and removing the DNAPL source in aquifer system is vital in rendering remediation successful and lowering the remediation time and cost. Our work is to apply an optimal search strategy introduced by Zoi and Pinder[1], with some modifications, to a field site in Nanjing City, China to define the strength, and location of DNAPL sources using the least samples. The overall strategy uses Monte Carlo stochastic groundwater flow and transport modeling, incorporates existing sampling data into the search strategy, and determines optimal sampling locations that are selected according to the reduction in overall uncertainty of the field and the proximity to the source locations. After a sample is taken, the plume is updated using a Kalman filter. The updated plume is then compared to the concentration fields that emanate from each individual potential source using fuzzy set technique. The comparison followed provides weights that reflect the degree of truth regarding the location of the source. The above steps are repeated until the optimal source characteristics are determined. Considering our site case, some specific modifications and work have been done as follows. K random fields are generated after fitting the measurement K data to the variogram model. The locations of potential sources that are given initial weights are targeted based on the field survey, with multiple potential source locations around the workshops and wastewater basin. Considering the short history (1999-2010) of manufacturing optical brightener PF at the site, and the existing sampling data, a preliminary source strength is then estimated, which will be optimized by simplex method or GA later. The whole algorithm then will guide us for optimal sampling and update as the investigation proceeds, until the weights finally stabilized. Reference [1] Dokou Zoi, and George F. Pinder. "Optimal search strategy for the definition of a DNAPL source." Journal of Hydrology 376.3 (2009): 542

  7. Site-specific risk factors for ray blight in Tasmanian pyrethrum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ray blight of pyrethrum, caused by Phoma ligulicola var. inoxydablis can cause significant reductions in crop growth and pyrethrin yield. Weather and site-specific disease risk factors for ray blight have not been identified or quantified in terms of relative risk, which has limited the efficiency ...

  8. Geomorphic stability field reconnaissance site visit, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, December 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    To license the Canonsburg site, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has required that geomorphic stability be demonstrated for the stream banks and slopes around the perimeter of the site for 200 years. Based on a study of the stream channel and slopes, it has been determined that due to recent human intervention, the required geomorphic stability cannot now be achieved without installation of erosion protection works and continued monitoring of the site. The Pittsburgh District Corps of Engineers has plans to channelize Chartiers Creek and install erosion protection rock within the next 5 or 6 years, if local government agencies raise the necessary matching funds. Much of the stream bank and slope adjacent to the ``fenced in`` western area of the site is anticipated to remain geomorphically stable for more than 20 years, but less than 200 years without human intervention. Therefore in much of this area, the Corps of Engineers will have adequate time to perform its work without jeopardizing the integrity of the controlled area. In contrast, two approximately 200-foot (ft) (60-meter [m]) long portions of the stream channel located north-northwest of the encapsulation area are subject to active stream erosion that threatens the integrity of the controlled area. These areas should be fixed by installation of erosion protection rock within the next 2 years.

  9. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  10. Changes in Contaminant Mass Discharge from DNAPL Source Mass Depletion: Evaluation at Two Field Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from aggressive remediation of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone were investigated at two sites, one at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah, and the other at Ft. Lewis Military Reservation, WA. Passive Flux Meters (PFM) and a va...

  11. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF FUEL CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER AT A FIELD SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A spill of gasoline occurred at an automobile service station in 1986. ily phase residue in the subsurface has continued for the past eight years to release water soluble fuel hydrocarbons into the aquifer. he site was characterized for implementation of in@ic remediation. he sub...

  12. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF FUEL CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER AT A FIELD SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A spill of gasoline occurred at an automobile service station in 1986. Oily phase residue in the subsurface has continued for the past 8 yr to release water soluble fuel hydrocarbons into the aquifer. The site was characterized for implementation of intrinsic remediation. The sub...

  13. Fate and Transport of Bacteriophage (MS2 and PRD1) During Field-Scale Infiltration at a Research Site in Los Angeles County, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, R.; Chrysikopoulos, C. V.

    2003-12-01

    As the use of tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water) for replenishment purposes continues to increase, provisions are being established to protect ground-water resources by ensuring that adequate soil-retention time and distance requirements are met for pathogen removal. However, many of the factors controlling virus fate and transport (e.g. hydraulic conditions, ground-water chemistry, and sediment mineralogy) are interrelated and poorly understood. Therefore, conducting field-scale experiments using surrogates for human enteric viruses at an actual recharge basin that uses recycled water may represent the best approach for establishing adequate setback requirements. Three field-scale infiltration experiments were conducted at such a basin using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human viruses, bromide as a conservative tracer, and recycled water. The specific research site consists of a test basin constructed adjacent to a large recharge facility (spreading grounds) located in the Montebello Forebay of Los Angeles County, California. The soil beneath the test basin is predominantly medium to coarse, moderately sorted, grayish-brown sand. The first experiment was conducted over a 2-day period to determine the feasibility of conducting field-scale infiltration experiments using recycled water seeded with high concentrations of bacteriophage and bromide as tracers. Based on the results of the first experiment, a second experiment was completed when similar hydraulic conditions existed at the test basin. The third infiltration experiment was conducted to confirm the results obtained from the second experiment. Data were obtained for samples collected during the second and third field-scale infiltration experiments from the test basin itself and from depths of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.6 m below the bottom of the test basin. These field-scale tracer experiments indicate bacteriophage are attenuated by removal and (or

  14. Virus fate and transport during recharge using recycled water at a research field site in the Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles County, California, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, Robert; Yanko, William A.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Jackson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria distributions in subsurface water samples collected at a research field site in Los Angeles County were found to increase from nondetectable levels immediately before artificial recharge using tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water). This rapid increase indicates that bacteria can move through the soil with the percolating recycled water over intervals of a few days and vertical and horizontal distances of about 3 meters. This conclusion formed the basis for three field-scale experiments using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human enteric viruses and bromide as a conservative tracer to determine the fate and transport of viruses in recycled water during subsurface transport under actual recharge conditions. The research field site consists of a test basin constructed adjacent to a large recharge facility (spreading grounds) located in the Montebello Forebay of Los Angeles County, California. The soil beneath the test basin is predominantly medium to coarse, moderately sorted, grayish-brown sand. The three tracer experiments were conducted during August 1997, August-September 1998, and August 2000. For each experiment, prepared solutions of bacteriophage and bromide were sprayed on the surface of the water in the test basin and injected, using peristaltic pumps, directly into the feed pipe delivering the recycled water to the test basin. Extensive data were obtained for water samples collected from the test basin itself and from depths of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.6 meters below the bottom of the test basin. The rate of bacteriophage inactivation in the recycled water, independent of any processes occurring in the subsurface, was determined from measurements on water samples from the test basin. Regression analysis of the ratios of bacteriophage to bromide was used to determine the attenuation rates for MS2 and PRD1, defined as the logarithmic reduction in the ratio during each

  15. An estimate of field size distributions for selected sites in the major grain producing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    The field size distributions for the major grain producing countries of the World were estimated. LANDSAT-1 and 2 images were evaluated for two areas each in the United States, People's Republic of China, and the USSR. One scene each was evaluated for France, Canada, and India. Grid sampling was done for representative sub-samples of each image, measuring the long and short axes of each field; area was then calculated. Each of the resulting data sets was computer analyzed for their frequency distributions. Nearly all frequency distributions were highly peaked and skewed (shifted) towards small values, approaching that of either a Poisson or log-normal distribution. The data were normalized by a log transformation, creating a Gaussian distribution which has moments readily interpretable and useful for estimating the total population of fields. Resultant predictors of the field size estimates are discussed.

  16. Source of the Australasian tektite strewn field - A possible off-shore impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Walter, L. S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Although there is a preponderance of evidence that tektites were formed by asteroid impacts on the earth, no source crater has been found for the largest and youngest of the strewn fields - the Austalasian strewn field. A combined Seasat/Geos 3 altimeter data set of sea surface heights in the northern portion of the Australasian strewn field has been examined for negative gravity anomalies on the continental shelf and slope which might be related to the source crater for these tektites. A large negative anomaly called the Qui Nhon Slope Anomaly is a sea surface depression of approximately 1.5 meters over an area of 100 km diameter. It corresponds to a gravity anomaly of about -50 mgal. It is proposed that this anomaly may be due to the impact structure that produced the Australasian strewn field.

  17. Are methyl halides produced on all ice surfaces? Observations from snow-laden field sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Aaron L.; Blake, Nicola J.; Blake, Donald R.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Dibb, Jack E.; Lefer, Barry L.; Atlas, Elliot

    We present data collected from a number of snow-covered environments including two polar locations (Summit, Greenland and the South Pole) and two mid-latitude regions (a remote site in northern Michigan, and Niwot Ridge, Colorado). At each site, concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I were enhanced within the interstitial air near the snow surface, compared to levels in boundary layer air. Fluxes of CH3Br from surface snow to the atmosphere were observed at each site except Niwot Ridge, where CH3Br appeared to have a sink. The mid-latitude sites showed significant emissions of CH3Cl, mostly originating at the ground surface and traveling up through the snow, while at the polar locations CH3Cl emissions from firn air were relatively small. In general, methyl halide mixing ratios in firn air were significantly greater at Summit than at the South Pole, with Summit showing a strong diurnal cycle in the production of alkyl halides that was well correlated with actinic radiation and firn temperature. We suggest that the most likely route to alkyl halide formation is through an acid catalyzed nucleophilic substitution of an alcohol type function by a halide, both of which should be preferentially segregated to the quasi-liquid layer at the surface of the snow grains. A series of experiments using a snow-filled quartz chamber irradiated by natural sunlight allowed estimation of emission trends that were hard to measure in the natural snowpack. These static chamber experiments confirmed significant production of the primary alkyl halides, following the order CH3Cl>CH3Br>C2H5Cl>CH3I>C2H5Br>C2H5I>1-C3H7Br>1-C3H7I. Our observations at all four locations, including polar and mid-latitude sites, imply that alkyl halide production may be associated with all surface snows.

  18. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC.

  19. Field and laboratory results for the evaluation of metal contaminants at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, C.A.; Svirsky, S.; Bollman, M.

    1994-12-31

    Measurements were made for seed germination plant uptake, laboratory biomass (lettuce, Lactuca saliva), mortality and bioaccumulation tests (earthworm, Eisenia fetida) in the field and laboratory, field and laboratory uptake with small mammals and laboratory uptake with Xenopus. Metals included cadmium, arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc collected in soils at five stations and a reference station, and in earthworm tissue, gut contents, in plants, small mammals and frogs exposed in the laboratory. These measurement endpoints were selected to assess the potential risks of the metal plating wastes to avian, mammalian, and wetland assessment endpoints in support of ecological risk assessment. Mortality was observed in the field earthworm test after a 7 day exposure. No inhibition of 4 day seed germination was observed at any station in field or greenhouse studies, however 28 day biomass tests for lettuce resulted in significant reductions in biomass. Cadmium measured in earthworm tissue was considerably greater for indigenous earthworms compared to laboratory exposed earthworms for 28 days, or to earthworms exposed in the field for 26 days. Differences in the results obtained from field and laboratory exposures for bioaccumulation of metals demonstrates the importance of infield exposure in studies to support ecological risk assessment.

  20. Soil-water movement under natural-site and waste-site conditions: A multiple-year field study in the Mojave Desert, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    flow at the field sites. Below the depth of temporal water content change, the estimated liquid fluxes ranged from 10-10 to 10-15 cm/s, isothermal vapor fluxes ranged from 10-10 to 10-13 cm/s, and the nonisothermal vapor fluxes ranged from 10-8 to 10-10 cm/s.

  1. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Kalpataru E-mail: phy.kalpa@gmail.com; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-10-20

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17 V/μm with high EFE current density of 5.08 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 7.0 V/μm. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local current–voltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  2. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  3. Field site leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    PubMed

    Engelsen, Christian J; Wibetoe, Grethe; van der Sloot, Hans A; Lund, Walter; Petkovic, Gordana

    2012-06-15

    The release of major and trace elements from recycled concrete aggregates used in an asphalt covered road sub-base has been monitored for more than 4 years. A similar test field without an asphalt cover, directly exposed to air and rain, and an asphalt covered reference field with natural aggregates in the sub-base were also included in the study. It was found that the pH of the infiltration water from the road sub-base with asphalt covered concrete aggregates decreased from 12.6 to below pH 10 after 2.5 years of exposure, whereas this pH was reached within only one year for the uncovered field. Vertical temperature profiles established for the sub-base, could explain the measured infiltration during parts of the winter season. When the release of major and trace elements as function of field pH was compared with pH dependent release data measured in the laboratory, some similar pH trends were found. The field concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be low throughout the monitoring period. During two of the winter seasons, a concentration increase of Cr and Mo was observed, possibly due to the use of de-icing salt. The concentrations of the trace constituents did not exceed Norwegian acceptance criteria for ground water and surface water Class II. PMID:22554532

  4. [Field measurement of Gobi surface emissivity spectrum at Dunhuang calibration site of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Yuan; Rong, Zhi-guo; Hu, Xiu-qing; Zhang, Li-jun; Liu, Jing-jing

    2009-05-01

    Gobi surface emissivity spectrum of Dunhuang radiometric calibration site of China is one of the key factors to calibrate the thermal infrared remote sensors using land surface. Based on the iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation (ISSTES)algorithm, Dunhuang Gobi surface emissivity spectrum was measured using BOMEM MR154 Fourier transform spectroradiometer and Infrared Golden Board. Emissivity spectrum data were obtained at different time and locations. These spectrum data were convolved with the channel response function of CE312 radiometer and compared with the channel emissivity measured by the same instrument. The results showed that the difference between these two kinds of channel emissivity was within 0.012 and exhibited a good consistency. With these measured emissivity spectra, all of the mainstream thermal infrared remote sensors can be calibrated using Dunhuang Gobi surface at radiometric calibration site of China. PMID:19650456

  5. Prediction of Substrate Removal Rates of Attached Microorganisms and of Relative Contributions of Attached and Suspended Communities at Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David L.; Gattie, David K.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model composed of a direct proportionality relationship between bulk water velocities and field-determined second-order microbial transformation rate coefficients, and the relative rate coefficient of a benchmark chemical, was developed for estimating the substrate removal rates of rapidly degraded chemicals by attached organisms in shallow (<1 m deep) aquatic ecosystems. Data from 31 field experiments involving the addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid methyl ester (2,4-DME) in nine field areas were used to determine a field-derived second-order rate coefficient for microbial transformation of the ester. By using 2,4-DME as a benchmark chemical, the model was used to predict microbial transformation rates of the butoxyethyl ester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DBE) at five other field sites. The predicted half-lives of 2,4-DBE varied 1,500-fold and were within about a threefold range or less of the measured half-lives. Under conditions of mass transport limitation, the contributions of attached microorganisms relative to total microbial activities at various field sites were related to the ratio of water velocity, U, and depth, D, showing that historical definitions of ecosystems according to flow and depth characteristics are also valid for describing the process-related structure of ecosystems. An equation was developed for predicting the relative contributions of attached and suspended communities with values of U and D for lotic and lentic ecosystems. On the basis of this equation, attached microorganisms were expected to be insignificant in deep lentic ecosystems and suspended microorganisms were expected to be insignificant in shallow lotic systems for the same process carried out by both populations. Neglecting epiphytic microorganisms, both suspended and attached organisms were expected to be significant in wetlands. PMID:16347556

  6. Technical procedures for ecology: Environmental field program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including walkover surveys for threatened, endangered, or candidate species; vegetation classification and mapping; reclamation planning; wetland and floodplain determination and characterization of playas; wildlife habitat mapping methods; mammal sampling; bird survey methods; reptile and amphibian survey methods; preexisting environmental; stress and disturbance studies methods; voucher specimens for plants; and voucher specimens to wildlife. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Terminal Antarctic melting inferred from a far-field coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, Barbara; Ruggieri, Gabriella; Spada, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    The contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to deglacial sea-level rise is poorly constrained. This shortfall gives rise to concerns because incorrect AIS estimates impact significantly on our ability to predict sea-level change in the course of global warming. Given the scarcity of geological data and the complexity of the Antarctic response to glacio-isostatic adjustment processes, there is a need for accurate data to constrain the timing of the ice-sheet retreat. Here, we provide such data on the Holocene Antarctic melting through an isolated geographic site on the northern hemisphere, which we show is sensitive to the Antarctic signal. Using both our site, and other mid-latitudinal relative sea-level sites, our model provides a consensus estimate that the AIS released water corresponding to 5 m equivalent sea level at 8 ka and ceased melting at 6 ka. This is different to most AIS models, which release an equal amount of water at 11 ka or after 6 ka. Our findings change model assumptions about the terminal AIS melting and show that future Holocene sea-level research should focus on broad shelves and large coast embayments in the mid latitudes.

  8. Remote sensing strategy at the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement field site

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Griffin, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US Department of Energy to improve climate model simulations of radiative energy transport and cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation. ARM stresses the modeling of phenomena occurring at subgrid scales in general circulation models (GCMs). Measurements to support the modeling research will be made at three primary locations. The central facility, the primary location at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site for study of radiative transfer, uses ground-based remote sensing instrumentation to observe radiation and the atmospheric properties that affect it. Remote sensing instruments and balloon-borne sounding systems installed at several boundary facilities on the perimeter of the overall Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site evaluate vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity. These observations are needed to run single-column models derived from GCMs for a single grid square with an area equivalent to the overall CART area. Observations of local meteorological conditions, air-surface exchange, and solar and infrared radiation at up to 23 extended facilities scattered throughout the CART site provide the surface boundary information needed in the single-column models. Finally, auxiliary facilities at the central facility and at a few locations within 10 km of the central facility will contain whole-sky imaging systems to map cloud characteristics. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the strategy used to obtain remote sensing instrumentation for continuous operation at the central facility.

  9. Archaeological field survey automation: concurrent multisensor site mapping and automated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowicz, Mateusz; Sokolov, Oleksandr; Meszyński, Sebastian; Siemińska, Dominika; Kołosowski, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    ABM SE develops mobile robots (rovers) used for analog research of Mars exploration missions. The rovers are all-terrain exploration platforms, carrying third-party payloads: scientific instrumentation. "Wisdom" ground penetrating radar for Exomars mission has been tested onboard, as well as electrical resistivity module and other devices. Robot has operated in various environments, such as Central European countryside, Dachstein ice caves or Sahara, Morocco (controlled remotely via satellite from Toruń, Poland. Currently ABM SE works on local and global positioning system for a Mars rover basing on image and IMU data. This is performed under a project from ESA. In the next Mars rover missions a Mars GIS model will be build, including an acquired GPR profile, DEM and regular image data, integrated into a concurrent 3D terrain model. It is proposed to use similar approach in surveys of archaeological sites, especially those, where solid architecture remains can be expected at shallow depths or being partially exposed. It is possible to deploy a rover that will concurrently map a selected site with GPR, 2D and 3D cameras to create a site model. The rover image processing algorithms are capable of automatic tracing of distinctive features (such as exposed structure remains on a desert ground, differences in color of the ground, etc.) and to mark regularities on a created map. It is also possible to correlate the 3D map with an aerial photo taken under any angle to achieve interpretation synergy. Currently the algorithms are an interpretation aid and their results must be confirmed by a human. The advantages of a rover over traditional approaches, such as a manual cart or a drone include: a) long hours of continuous work or work in unfavorable environment, such as high desert, frozen water pools or large areas, b) concurrent multisensory data acquisition, c) working from the ground level enables capturing of sites obstructed from the air (trees), d) it is possible to

  10. Scenario-based modelling of mass transfer mechanisms at a petroleum contaminated field site-numerical implications.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, M; Nambi, Indumathi M; Suresh Kumar, G

    2016-06-15

    Knowledge about distribution of dissolved plumes and their influencing factors is essential for risk assessment and remediation of light non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in groundwater. Present study deals with the applicability of numerical model for simulating various hydro-geological scenarios considering non-uniform source distribution at a petroleum contaminated site in Chennai, India. The complexity associated with the hydrogeology of the site has limited scope for on-site quantification of petroleum pipeline spillage. The change in fuel composition under mass-transfer limited conditions was predicted by simultaneously comparing deviations in aqueous concentrations and activity coefficients (between Raoult's law and analytical approaches). The effects of source migration and weathering on the dissolution of major soluble fractions of petroleum fuel were also studied in relation to the apparent change in their activity coefficients and molar fractions. The model results were compared with field observations and found that field conditions were favourable for biodegradation, especially for the aromatic fraction (benzene and toluene (nearly 95% removal), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 65% removal) and xylene (nearly 45% removal). The results help to differentiate the effect of compositional non-ideality from rate-limited dissolution towards tailing of less soluble compounds (alkanes and trimethylbenzene). Although the effect of non-ideality decreased with distance from the source, the assumption of spatially varying residual saturation could effectively illustrate post-spill scenario by estimating the consequent decrease in mass transfer rate. PMID:27017268

  11. Characterizing The Microbial Community In A TCE DNAPL Site: SABRE Column And Field Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) project is evaluating accelerated anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in areas of high concentration, such as DNAPL source areas. In support of a field scale pilot test, column studies were conducted to design the system and ob...

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE METHODS MANUAL FOR FOREST SITE CLASSIFICATION AND FIELD MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this third version of this manual is to provide a set of standardized, technically sound and well documented, methods that would allow data or measurement precision and bias to be estimated and controlled, and thus promote the comparabiLity of forestry fieLd...

  13. Variable rate application of nematicides on cotton fields: A promising site-specific management strategy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted to determine if differences in response to nematicide application (i.e., root-knot nematode (RKN) population levels, cotton yield, and profitability) occurred among RKN management zones (MZ). The MZ were delineated using variables related to soil texture, including appare...

  14. Joining Forces: A Collaborative Venture To Develop Exemplary Field Partnership School Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Donna J.; Ramey, Linda

    This paper describes a recent collaboration between a public university teacher education preparation program, a large urban school district, and a neighboring suburban school district. It highlights the professional experiences of teacher education interns who entered the field from prior professions or training. Candidates were immersed in an…

  15. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  16. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  17. MULTI-SITE FIELD EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE SAMPLERS FOR MEASURING COARSE-MODE PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to expected changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, comprehensive field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring coarse mode aerosols (i.e. PMc). Five separate PMc sampling approaches w...

  18. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-08-01

    Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, with improved farming practices, it seems possible to significantly increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize). Alternative cultivation techniques such as runoff harvesting and in-field micro-storage structures are compared. These techniques aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field but, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes under different cultivation techniques. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. It appears that about 50% of the diverted water leaves the root zone through deep percolation. Modelling shows that during the field trials the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1-1.4 mm d-1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7-1.0 mm d-1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23-29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33-48% of the available water. Conclusions from the research are that the innovations tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. It is also concluded that there is more scope for efficient utilisation of the diverted runoff water if storage structures could be installed to regulate water flow to the root zone when required.

  19. Computation of linear and nonlinear site response for near field ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Luis Fabian

    The near-surface geological site conditions in the upper tens of meters are one of the dominant factors in controlling the amplitude and variation of strong ground motion during large earthquakes. The understanding of these site effects comes primarily from surface recordings. For instance, different methods to estimate site response and their variability are studied using aftershock data for the 17 January 1994 M6.7 Northridge, California earthquake. A second approach corresponds to borehole measurements. We use the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA), which consists of a set of seven downhole strong-motion instruments ranging from 0 to 500 meters depth, to study site response effects. The GVDA velocity structure is first studied, then the H/ V is evaluated, and finally some considerations of 2D and 3D basin effects are also shown. These previous studies considered small to moderate earthquakes, where strain levels are small enough, so that linear wave propagation is assumed. However, for strong motions produced during large earthquakes, the soils behave nonlinearly. In this study we present evidence that nonlinearity can be directly observed in acceleration time histories such as Wildlife Refuge, 1987 Superstition Hills, CA; Kushiro Port station, 1993 Kushiro-Oki, Japan; among others. To understand the nature of nonlinear soil dynamics, we developed a model that includes anelastic dissipation of energy due to hysteresis. The hysteresis is described by the generalized Masing rules. This new hysteresis formulation, based on the classical Masing rules, has a functional representation, and depends only on one parameter that can be related to damping ratio tests. The coupling with pore pressure generation shows the degradation of the shear modulus and the yield stress during the cyclic response of the material. The simulations show amplitude reduction as well as the shift of the fundamental frequency to lower frequencies as observed on vertical arrays. The synthetic

  20. Rocketdyne division, envionmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1989-05-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 16 km from division sites. Groundwater from Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL) supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to assure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits. These procedures also help identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are measured. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  1. Site-investigation report. 147th Fighter Interceptor Group Texas Air National Guard, Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steakley, L.G.

    1991-01-04

    This document is a site investigation report on Ellington Field, Houston, Texas, as the second phase of the Installation Restoration Program. The report outlines the results from geophysical surveys, soil sampling, ground water samplings, surface soil samplings, and hydrology studies. Two sites were investigated in this study to confirm or deny the presence of contamination. At former landfills geophysical surveys were completed to locate any underground storage tanks that might be present. Two possible locations were noted from the surveys. The soils and ground water samples taken did not show any volatile organic compounds. Pesticides were reported in low concentrations in soils and ground water and several BNA's were present in surface soil samples. The preliminary risk assessment concluded that there did not appear to be any risk to human health or the environment and the site was recommended for no further action. At a Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants Area (POL), contamination was detected in soil samples and in one monitoring well. The site was recommended for further study, so the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons contamination could be established and the soil remediated.

  2. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil; Lenox, Art; Blair, Lori; Amar, Ravnesh; Costa, Paul; Galvez, Lydia; Jameson, Blythe; Galvez, Lydia

    2008-09-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2007 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended until DOE completes the SSFL Area IV Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2007 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste disposal. No liquid radioactive wastes were released into the environment in 2007.

  3. Incorporating dynamic root growth enhances the performance of Noah-MP at two contrasting winter wheat field sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Wöhling, Thomas; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Attinger, Sabine; Streck, Thilo; Wulmeyer, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between the soil, the vegetation, and the atmospheric boundary layer require close attention when predicting water fluxes in the hydrogeosystem, agricultural systems, weather and climate. However, land-surface schemes used in large scale models continue to show deficits in consistently simulating fluxes of water and energy from the subsurface through vegetation layers to the atmosphere. In this study, the multi-physics version of the Noah land-surface model (Noah-MP) was used to identify the processes, which are most crucial for a simultaneous simulation of water and heat fluxes between land-surface and the lower atmosphere. Comprehensive field data sets of latent and sensible heat fluxes, ground heat flux, soil moisture, and leaf area index from two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany are used to assess the accuracy of simulations. It is shown that an adequate representation of vegetation-related processes is the most important control for a consistent simulation of energy and water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. In particular, using a newly implemented sub-module to simulate root growth dynamics has enhanced the performance of Noah-MP at both field sites. We conclude that further advances in the representation of leaf area dynamics and root/soil moisture interactions are the most promising starting points for improving the simulation of feedbacks between the sub-soil, land-surface and atmosphere in fully-coupled hydrological and atmospheric models.

  4. Onchocerciasis transmission levels and Simulium damnosum complex biting activity at riverside and rice field sites in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Davies, J B; Beech-Garwood, P A; Thomson, M C; McMahon, J E

    1988-10-01

    Biting densities of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex of blackflies and their levels of parasitism by Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) were compared at two ecologically contrasted sites in the Southern Province of Sierre Leone, West Africa: by the Tabe riverside close to Gbaiima village where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic (63.1% positive skin-snips) and in open rice fields 2 km from the mesoendemic (54.9%) village of Senehun. Using a combination of morphometric and enzyme electrophoresis techniques, the primary vector was found to belong to the S.sanctipauli subcomplex and was most probably S.soubrense 'B' (sensu Post, 1986). In the wet season biting activity took place throughout the day at the village, but had morning and evening peaks in the rice fields. Transmission of O.volvulus was detected at the village in all months except February-April, while in the rice fields it was detected only during September-November and May at one tenth the level of the village. There was a significant difference between the two sites in the proportion of parous flies carrying third stage larvae in the head, but not of other larval stages. PMID:2980195

  5. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2010-04-01

    Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, through the introduction of appropriate farming practices, it is possible to substantially increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize). The yields from farming system innovations (SIs), which are basically alternative cultivation techniques, are compared against traditional farming practices. The SIs tested in this research are runoff harvesting used in combination with in-field trenches and soil bunds (fanya juus). These SIs aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field and, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes for the "with" and "without" SI scenarios. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. Simulation results show that, during the field trials, the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1-1.4 mm d-1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7-1.0 mm d-1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23-29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33-48% of the available water. The field system has been successfully modelled using the spreadsheet-based water balance 1-D model. Conclusions from the research are that the SIs that were tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. From the partitioning analysis, it is also

  6. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  7. Field test of six-phase soil heating at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Roberts, J.S.; Bergsman, T.M.

    1994-11-01

    Six-Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) was demonstrated as a viable technology for heating low permeability soils containing volatile organic contaminants as part of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC Non-Arid ID) at the Savannah River Site. The soil at the integrated demonstration site is contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE); the highest soil contamination occurs in clay rich zones that are ineffectively treated by conventional soil vapor extraction due to the very low permeability of the clay. The SPSH demonstration sought to heat the clay zone and enhance the performance of conventional soil vapor extraction. Thermocouples at 30 locations quantified the areal and vertical heating within the treated zone. Results show successful heating of the targeted clay zone that contained the higher levels of soil contamination. The clay-zone temperatures increased to 1,000 C after 8 days of heating and were maintained near 1,000 C for 17 days. Electrical heating removed 17,000 gal of water from the soil as steam, with peak removal rate of 1,500 gpd of condensed steam.

  8. Relationship between magnetic field evolution and flaring sites in AR 6659 in June 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Hagyard, M. J.; Guoxiang, AI; Hongqi, Zhang; Kalman, B.; Gyori, L.; Rompolt, B.; Demoulin, P.; Machado, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    During the international campaign of June 1991, the active region AR 6659 produced six very large, long-duration flares (X10/12) during its passage across the solar disk. We present the characteristics of four of them (June 4, 6, 9, 15). Precise measurements of the spot motions from Debrecen and Tokyo white-light pictures are used to understand the fragmentation of the main sunspot group with time. This fragmentation leads to a continuous restructuring of the magnetic field pattern while rapid changes are evidenced due to fast new flux emergence (magnetograms of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huairou). The first process leads to a shearing of the field lines along which there is energy storage; the second one is the trigger which causes the release of energy by creating a complex topology. We conjecture that these two processes with different time scales are relevant to the production of flares.

  9. New Experiences With Steam Injection From The MÜhlacker Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

    A thermally enhanced remediation scheme employing steam injection has been used at a former hazardous waste disposal site near the City of Mühlacker, Germany, to remove chlorinated solvents. Finding SVE (soil vapour extraction) to be ineffective in the unsaturated soil zone, a pilot-scale project was initiated in 1999 to employ steam injection in the highly contaminated unsaturated low permeable zone 7-15 meters be- low ground surface, limited on top and bottom by very low permeable layers. After completion of the project in September 2001, approximately 2.8 tons of chlorinated hydrocarbons had been removed from the 2500 m3 target area. This project served as a pilot site in the State of Baden-Württemberg EPA (Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz, LfU) site cleanup program, which was funded through the State's "Kommunaler Alt- lastenfonds". Detailed evaluation of SVE technology had indicated that the low permeability in this soil served as a limiting factor for "cold" SVE. As a result, alternative technologies were considered and thermally enhanced SVE by steam injection was selected in 1998 to address the unsaturated zone contaminants. A 20-meter diameter, egg-shaped test- ing area was constructed at the site for pilot-scale demonstration of the steam injection process. The testing area comprised one central injection well surrounded by six ex- traction wells that could be used simultaneously for vapor and liquid extraction. Ten monitoring lances with a total of 100 temperature sensors measured subsurface tem- peratures through the soil horizon. Using a gas-fired 100 kW generator, steam was injected at a rate of up to 100 kg/hour and a pressure of up to 2.5 bars. After ten months of steam injection, nearly complete heating of the target zone had been achieved. of the 2800 kg of TCE removed, approximately 95% was extracted in the gaseous phase and the remaining part as solute in condensed water from the capillary barrier on bottom of the soil horizon. This condensed

  10. Parameterisation, evaluation and comparison of pesticide leaching models to data from a Bologna field site, Italy.

    PubMed

    Garratt, James A; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco; Errera, Giuseppe; Wilkins, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    Effective prediction of pesticide fate using mathematical models requires good process descriptions in the models and good choice of parameter values by the user. This paper examines the ability of seven pesticide leaching models (LEACHP, MACRO, PELMO, PESTLA, PLM, PRZM and VARLEACH) to describe an arable field environment where sunflowers are grown in the Po Valley, northern Italy. Two pesticides were considered, aclonifen and ethoprophos. The models were evaluated in terms of their ability to reproduce field data of soil water content and pesticide residues in the soil and ground water. The evaluation was based on a combination of calibrated and uncalibrated runs. The results from the models were compared with each other to explore the differences between the models. The models varied in their ability to predict soil water content in the summer: the capacity models PRZM, PELMO and VARLEACH predicted less drying than MACRO, PESTLA, PLM and LEACHP. The models varied in their ability to simulate the persistence of the pesticides in the soil. Differences in the simulated pesticide degradation rate were observed between the models, due to variations in the simulated soil water content and soil temperature, and also differences in the equation linking degradation rate to soil water content. There were large differences among the predictions of the models for the mean leaching depth of ethoprophos. PRZM, PELMO, PESTLA and LEACHP all showed similar mean leaching depth to each other, whereas VARLEACH predicted lower ethoprophos mobility and PLM and MACRO predicted greater mobility. All the models overpredicted dispersion of ethoprophos through the soil profile, as compared to the field data. None of the models was able to simulate the field data of rapid leaching of pesticide to ground water except PLM after calibration of the percentage of macropores in the mobile pore space. More work is required in the parameterisation of macropore flow for those models that include

  11. Nature and structure of aluminum surface sites grafted on silica from a combination of high-field aluminum-27 solid-state NMR spectroscopy and first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Rachel Nathaniel; Kermagoret, Anthony; Callens, Emmanuel; Florian, Pierre; Massiot, Dominique; Lesage, Anne; Copéret, Christophe; Delbecq, Françoise; Rozanska, Xavier; Sautet, Philippe

    2012-04-18

    The determination of the nature and structure of surface sites after chemical modification of large surface area oxides such as silica is a key point for many applications and challenging from a spectroscopic point of view. This has been, for instance, a long-standing problem for silica reacted with alkylaluminum compounds, a system typically studied as a model for a supported methylaluminoxane and aluminum cocatalyst. While (27)Al solid-state NMR spectroscopy would be a method of choice, it has been difficult to apply this technique because of large quadrupolar broadenings. Here, from a combined use of the highest stable field NMR instruments (17.6, 20.0, and 23.5 T) and ultrafast magic angle spinning (>60 kHz), high-quality spectra were obtained, allowing isotropic chemical shifts, quadrupolar couplings, and asymmetric parameters to be extracted. Combined with first-principles calculations, these NMR signatures were then assigned to actual structures of surface aluminum sites. For silica (here SBA-15) reacted with triethylaluminum, the surface sites are in fact mainly dinuclear Al species, grafted on the silica surface via either two terminal or two bridging siloxy ligands. Tetrahedral sites, resulting from the incorporation of Al inside the silica matrix, are also seen as minor species. No evidence for putative tri-coordinated Al atoms has been found. PMID:22440230

  12. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  13. Field monitoring and performance evaluation of a field-scale in-well aeration system at a gasoline-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Hall, B L; Lachmar, T E; Dupont, R R

    2001-03-30

    Several in-well aeration (IWA) technologies have been used since the early 1990s, but few field studies have been performed to evaluate the extent of water circulation around IWA systems. In this study, 27 discrete monitoring points (MPs) were installed at a gasoline-contaminated site to assess the efficacy of IWA. Pressure transducers and dissolved oxygen (DO) probes were sealed into the MPs, allowing them to be used to characterize subsurface changes in total head and DO with depth, distance and orientation from a central injection well. No change in DO or in hydrocarbon total mass or distribution occurred across the site during two trials (41 and 20 days) of the system. Water level fluctuations during the trials were similar in all MPs, and were due to seasonal water table changes and rainfall events. No circulation cell was established around the IWA well after 41 days of operation, and the impact of the well extended less than 90cm from it. Groundwater only circulated through the sand pack around the well. Little, if any, recharge occurred through the lower screen. Silt accumulated in the well, limiting its operation time, even with a fabric filter sock over the lower screen. Obviously, IWA was ineffective at this site, probably because the horizontal hydraulic conductivity (K(h)) of the soil opposite the lower screen was low (0.09cm per day) and because the distance between the two screens was short relative to the borehole radius. Long remediation times would likely make IWA unattractive at this or other sites where the K(h) of the soil is so low that the air injection rate would have to be low to prevent blowing the well dry. PMID:11230915

  14. Laboratory and Field Studies Related to Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Martinez; D. L. Finnegan; Joseph L. Thompson; K. S. Kung

    1999-03-01

    In this report, we describe the work done in FY 1998 at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMA) funded by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE/NV). The major part of our research effort was to measure radionuclides present in water or soil samples collected from near nuclear tests. We report our measurements for materials collected in both saturated and unsaturated horizons adjacent to nuclear test cavities or collapse chimneys and from within several cavities. Soil samples collected from above the cavities formed by the Halfbeak, Jerboa, and Bobac tests contained no radioactivity, although a test similar to Bobac in the same area had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. Water samples from near the Shoal test contained no measurable radionuclides, whereas those from near Faultless and Aleman had concentrations similar to previous measurements. Water from the Tybo-Benham site was similar to earlier collections at that site; this year, we added {sup 241}Am to the list of radionuclides measured at this location. Two Bennett pumps in tandem were used to extract water from the piezometer tube in the cavity of the Dalhart event. This extraction is a significant achievement in that it opens the possibility of purging similar tubes at other locations on the NTS. The Cheshire post shot hole was reconfigured and pumped from two horizons for the first time since mid-1980. We are especially interested in examining water from the level of the working point to determine the hydrologic source term in a cavity filled with groundwater for over 20 years. We devoted much time this year to examining the colloid content of NTS groundwater. After developing protocols for collecting, handling, and storing groundwater samples without altering their colloid content, we analyzed water from the Tybo-Benham and from the Cheshire sites. Whereas the colloid concentration did not vary much with depth at Tybo

  15. Field Evaluation of the Restorative Capacity of the Aquifer Downgradient of a Uranium In-Situ Recovery Mining Site

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, Paul William

    2015-05-22

    A two-part field study was conducted in Smith Ranch-Highland in-situ recovery (ISR) near Douglas, Wyoming, to evaluate the restorative capacity of the aquifer downgradient (i.e., hydrologically downstream) of a Uranium ISR mining site with respect to the transport of uranium and other potential contaminants in groundwater after mining has ceased. The study was partially conducted by checking the Uranium content and the alkalinity of separate wells, some wells had been restored and others had not. A map and in-depth procedures of the study are included.

  16. Site-Specific Spectroscopic Reporters of the Local Electric Field, Hydration, Structure, and Dynamics of Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Waegele, Matthias M.; Culik, Robert M.; Gai, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of protein folding and function is a very exciting and active research area, but poses significant challenges. This is due in part to the fact that existing experimental techniques are incapable of capturing snapshots along the ‘reaction coordinate’ in question with both sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. In this regard, recent years have seen increased interests and efforts in development and employment of site-specific probes to enhance the structural sensitivity of spectroscopic techniques in conformational and dynamical studies of biological molecules. In particular, the spectroscopic and chemical properties of nitriles, thiocyanates, and azides render these groups attractive for the interrogation of complex biochemical constructs and processes. Here, we review their signatures in vibrational, fluorescence and NMR spectra and their utility in the context of elucidating chemical structure and dynamics of protein and DNA molecules. PMID:22003429

  17. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  18. Vertical Transport of Heavy Metals in the Soil at a Field Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, S.; Wenger, K.; Wettstein, B.; Fruth, D.

    2003-04-01

    The transport of zinc and copper in soil during a long-term phytoremediation test site was assessed by sampling, analysis and numerical modelling. Initially heavy metal contamination had been applied at different concentration levels using three replicates, and soil properties and vertical heavy metal concentration distribution were measured after 4 years. The results of this study show the change in the vertical distribution of zinc and copper after the following period of ten years. The vertical transport was interpreted considering recharge, evapotranspiration, sorption, plant uptake and outflux. Numerical modelling with Hydrus-1D was applied especially for the zinc movement. It illustrated the vertical movement downwards and the relative importance of the processes involved and the impact of the planned remediation strategy.

  19. Field test of in situ soil amendments at the Tar Creek National Priorities List Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Compton, H; Basta, N T

    2007-01-01

    A range of soil amendments including diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), municipal biosolids (BS), biosolids compost, and Al- and Fe-based water treatment residuals were tested on Pb-, Zn-, and Cd-contaminated yard soils and tailings at the Tar Creek NPL site in Oklahoma to determine if amendments could restore a vegetative cover and reduce metal availability in situ. For the yard soils, all amendments reduced bioaccessible (assessed with a physiologic-based extraction method) Pb, with reductions ranging from 35% (BS+Al, DAP 0.5%, DAP+Compost+Al) to 57% (Compost+Al). Plant Zn (Cynadon dactylon L.) and NH4 NO3-extractable Cd and Zn were also reduced by a number of amendments. For the tailings, all amendments excluding BS reduced bioaccessible Pb, with the largest reductions observed in the DAP 3% and DAP3%+BS treatments (75 and 84%). Plant growth was suppressed in all treatments that contained DAP for the first season, with the highest growth in the treatments that included compost and biosolids. In the second year, growth was vigorous for all treatments. Plant Zn and Cd and extractable metal concentration were also reduced. A number of treatments were identified that reduced bioaccessible Pb and sustained a healthy plant with reduced metal concentrations. For the yard soil, Compost+Al was the most effective treatment tested. For the tailings, BS+DAP 1% was the most effective treatment tested. These results indicate that in situ amendments offer a remedial alternative for the Tar Creek site. PMID:17940262

  20. Microbiological and Geochemical Heterogeneity in an In Situ Uranium Bioremediation Field Site

    PubMed Central

    Vrionis, Helen A.; Anderson, Robert T.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; O'Neill, Kathleen R.; Resch, Charles T.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Dayvault, Richard; White, David C.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    The geochemistry and microbiology of a uranium-contaminated subsurface environment that had undergone two seasons of acetate addition to stimulate microbial U(VI) reduction was examined. There were distinct horizontal and vertical geochemical gradients that could be attributed in large part to the manner in which acetate was distributed in the aquifer, with more reduction of Fe(III) and sulfate occurring at greater depths and closer to the point of acetate injection. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes derived from sediments and groundwater indicated an enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the order Desulfobacterales in sediment and groundwater samples. These samples were collected nearest the injection gallery where microbially reducible Fe(III) oxides were highly depleted, groundwater sulfate concentrations were low, and increases in acid volatile sulfide were observed in the sediment. Further down-gradient, metal-reducing conditions were present as indicated by intermediate Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratios, lower acid volatile sulfide values, and increased abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the dissimilatory Fe(III)- and U(VI)-reducing family Geobacteraceae. Maximal Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction correlated with maximal recovery of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene sequences in both groundwater and sediment; however, the sites at which these maxima occurred were spatially separated within the aquifer. The substantial microbial and geochemical heterogeneity at this site demonstrates that attempts should be made to deliver acetate in a more uniform manner and that closely spaced sampling intervals, horizontally and vertically, in both sediment and groundwater are necessary in order to obtain a more in-depth understanding of microbial processes and the relative contribution of attached and planktonic populations to in situ uranium bioremediation. PMID:16204552

  1. Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors : site selection, field operation, calibration, record computation, and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Mattraw, H.C.; Ritz, G.F.; Smith, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey uses continuous water-quality monitors to assess variations in the quality of the Nation's surface water. A common system configuration for data collection is the four-parameter water-quality monitoring system, which collects temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH data, although systems can be configured to measure other properties such as turbidity or chlorophyll. The sensors that are used to measure these water properties require careful field observation, cleaning, and calibration procedures, as well as thorough procedures for the computation and publication of final records. Data from sensors can be used in conjunction with collected samples and chemical analyses to estimate chemical loads. This report provides guidelines for site-selection considerations, sensor test methods, field procedures, error correction, data computation, and review and publication processes. These procedures have evolved over the past three decades, and the process continues to evolve with newer technologies.

  2. Low field magnetocaloric effect and heat capacity of A-site ordered NdBaMn 2O 6 manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, A. M.; Gamzatov, A. G.; Kalitka, V. S.; Kaul, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the A-site ordered manganite NdBaMn 2O 6 is studied. The MCE in this compound has an anomalous behavior. In low magnetic fields, the abrupt transitions between the direct and inverse magnetocaloric effects are observed. In a relatively strong magnetic field H=11 kOe, the direct and inverse effects are observed only at cooling, while the heating mode reveals only an inverse MCE. The value of the MCE ( -ΔS=0.7 J/kg K and ΔS=1.02 J/kg K for ΔH=11 kOe) does not reach high values, but the proximity of the effects occurring at room temperatures expects the use of both effects in the magnetic cooling technology.

  3. Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2011-02-23

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  4. Measurement uncertainties in quantifying aeolian mass flux: evidence from wind tunnel and field site data.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Ate; Keijsers, Joep G S; Maroulis, Jerry; Visser, Saskia M

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian sediment traps are widely used to estimate the total volume of wind-driven sediment transport, but also to study the vertical mass distribution of a saltating sand cloud. The reliability of sediment flux estimations from such measurements are dependent upon the specific configuration of the measurement compartments and the analysis approach used. In this study, we analyse the uncertainty of these measurements by investigating the vertical cumulative distribution and relative sediment flux derived from both wind tunnel and field studies. Vertical flux data was examined using existing data in combination with a newly acquired dataset; comprising meteorological data and sediment fluxes from six different events, using three customized catchers at Ameland beaches in northern Netherlands. Fast-temporal data collected in a wind tunnel shows that the median transport height has a scattered pattern between impact and fluid threshold, that increases linearly with shear velocities above the fluid threshold. For finer sediment, a larger proportion was transported closer to the surface compared to coarser sediment fractions. It was also shown that errors originating from the distribution of sampling compartments, specifically the location of the lowest sediment trap relative to the surface, can be identified using the relative sediment flux. In the field, surface conditions such as surface moisture, surface crusts or frozen surfaces have a more pronounced but localized effect than shear velocity. Uncertainty in aeolian mass flux estimates can be reduced by placing multiple compartments in closer proximity to the surface. PMID:25071984

  5. Measurement uncertainties in quantifying aeolian mass flux: evidence from wind tunnel and field site data

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Joep G.S.; Maroulis, Jerry; Visser, Saskia M.

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian sediment traps are widely used to estimate the total volume of wind-driven sediment transport, but also to study the vertical mass distribution of a saltating sand cloud. The reliability of sediment flux estimations from such measurements are dependent upon the specific configuration of the measurement compartments and the analysis approach used. In this study, we analyse the uncertainty of these measurements by investigating the vertical cumulative distribution and relative sediment flux derived from both wind tunnel and field studies. Vertical flux data was examined using existing data in combination with a newly acquired dataset; comprising meteorological data and sediment fluxes from six different events, using three customized catchers at Ameland beaches in northern Netherlands. Fast-temporal data collected in a wind tunnel shows that the median transport height has a scattered pattern between impact and fluid threshold, that increases linearly with shear velocities above the fluid threshold. For finer sediment, a larger proportion was transported closer to the surface compared to coarser sediment fractions. It was also shown that errors originating from the distribution of sampling compartments, specifically the location of the lowest sediment trap relative to the surface, can be identified using the relative sediment flux. In the field, surface conditions such as surface moisture, surface crusts or frozen surfaces have a more pronounced but localized effect than shear velocity. Uncertainty in aeolian mass flux estimates can be reduced by placing multiple compartments in closer proximity to the surface. PMID:25071984

  6. Installation restoration program site investigation. Gulfport Field Training Site, Mississippi Air National Guard Gulfport-Biloxi Regional Airport Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Site Investigation Report, Volume: 2. A Site Investigation was performed at 3 sites at the Combat Readiness Training Center, Gulfport-Bolixi. The 3 sites investigated are the: Former Fire Training Area (Site 1), the Former JP-4 Bulk Storage Area, Mill Road (Site 2), and the Motor Pool Above-Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tank Area (Site 3). The findings of this investigation recommended further investigation at the Fire Training Area and the JP-4 Bulk Storage Tank. At Site 3 the levels of contamination did not represent a risk to human health or the environment; therefore, no further action was recommended. Volume two of this report consisted of the following Appendixes: Site Photographs (A), Well Inventory (B), Boring Logs (C), CSL Technical Memorandum (D), Data Review and Validation (E), GPS Memorandum (F), Level C Analytical Data Summary Tables (G), Slug Test (H), Special-Status Species (I), and Representative Species of Less Mobile Fish and Wildlife (J).

  7. Integrated metagenomics and field measurements of polygon features at the NGEE-Arctic Barrow site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, N.; Wu, Y.; Smith, L. J.; Ulrich, C.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Torn, M. S.; Hubbard, S. S.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Jansson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils contain an estimated 12-42% of terrestrial carbon, most of which is sequestered in permafrost. High latitudes have experienced the greatest regional warming in recent decades and observations suggest that permafrost degradation is now commonly observed in the region. With increasing global temperatures, permafrost soils are becoming a potential source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because of widespread permafrost thaw much of the soil organic matter may be available for rapid mineralization by microorganisms in the soil. Yet little is known about the vulnerability of permafrost and the potential response of soil microorganisms to availability of new carbon sources. On the Alaskan North Slope the collapse and rise of soil due to formation of ice wedges and permafrost thaw create distinct features called polygons. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) in the Arctic, we aimed to determine the distribution of microbial populations across a range of polygon features and to correlate the microbial data to GHG flux data. To determine the microbial community distribution and metabolic potential, we collected seasonally thawed active layer soil samples along two polygon transects (Site 0 and AB), including high-centered, transitional and low-centered polygons. Illumina HiSeq technology was used to sequence 16SrRNA genes and metagenomes from these active layer soils. The sequence data was correlated to GHG flux measurements and to environmental data from the site, including geophysical and geochemical soil characteristics. Both the microbial communities and the flux measurements varied along the polygon transect. Each polygon had a distinct microbial community structure; however, these microbial communities shared many metabolic capabilities. For example, many genes involved in degradation of chitin could be found all three polygons. Functional genes involved in methanogenesis and CH4-flux measurements

  8. Field and Numerical Modeling Study of Reductive Bioimmobilization of Cr (VI) in Groundwater at Hanford 100-H Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, T. C.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Steefel, C. I.; Long, P. E.; Faybishenko, B.

    2009-12-01

    The 2004-2008 field experiment at the Hanford 100-H Site showed that a single injection of the hydrogen release compound (HRC)—a mixture of slow release glycerol polylactate, fast disassociating lactic acid, and glycerol into groundwater— stimulated an increase in biomass and a depletion of terminal electron acceptors, resulting in a significant decrease in soluble Cr (VI). The Cr (VI) concentration remained below the background concentration in the downgradient pumping/monitoring well, and below the detection limit in the injection well, for more than 3 years after the initial HRC injection in 2004. Reaction-transport modeling of the field experiment was performed to elucidate reaction pathways and rates of biogeochemical processes governing Cr (VI) bioimmobilization. Field observation data were used to develop a 3-D hydraulic and reaction-transport-isotopic model, simulated using the TOUGHREACT code. This model was used to assess the degradation kinetics of the HRC, the effects of lactate and acetate-induced bioreduction of Cr and Fe, and the effects on Cr and Sr isotopic compositions in the fluids and mineral phases (calcite dissolution in the acidic plume and precipitation at the fringes). The 2008 experiment involved reinjection of HRC into the same zones as the earlier injection and likely resulted in dissolution of previously precipitated Cr (Fe) hydroxides and additional calcite dissolution in sediments outside of the wellbore. Detailed results of the integrated field and modeling study will be presented.

  9. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  10. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  11. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The City of Hamburg is characterized by a large number of greens, parks and roadside trees: 600.000 trees cover about 14% of the city area, and moreover, 245.000 roadside trees can be found here. Urban vegetation is generally known to positively contribute to the urban micro-climate via cooling by evapotranspiration (ET). The water for ET is predominantly stored in the urban soils. Hence, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is - beside atmospheric drivers - determined by soil water availability at the soil surface and in the rooting zones of the respective vegetation. The overall aim of this study is to characterize soil water availability as a regulative factor for ETa in urban soil-vegetation systems. The specific questions addressed are: i) What is the spatio-temporal variation in soil water availability at the study sites? ii) Which soil depths are predominantly used for water uptake by the vegetation forms investigated? and iii) Which are the threshold values of soil water tension and soil water content (Θ), respectively, that limit ETa under dry conditions on both grass-dominated and tree-dominated sites? Three study areas were established in the urban region of Hamburg, Germany. We selected areas featuring both single tree stands and grass-dominated sites, both representing typical vegetation forms in Hamburg. The areas are characterized by relatively dry soil conditions. However, they differ in regard to soil water availability. At each area we selected one site dominated by Common Oak (Quercus ruber L.) with ages from 40 to 120 years, and paired each oak tree site with a neighboring grass-dominated site. All field measurements were performed during the years 2013 and 2014. At each site, we continuously measured soil water tension and Θ up to 160 cm depth, and xylem sap flux of each of three oak trees per site in a 15 min-resolution. Furthermore, we measured soil hydraulic properties as pF-curve, saturated and unsaturated conductivity at all sites

  12. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  13. Evaluation of Human vs. Teleoperated Robotic Performance in Field Geology Tasks at a Mars Analog Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Briggs, G.

    2003-01-01

    Exploration mission designers and planners have costing models used to assess the affordability of given missions - but very little data exists on the relative science return produced by different ways of exploring a given region. Doing cost-benefit analyses for future missions requires a way to compare the relative field science productivity of spacesuited humans vs. virtual presence/teleoperation from a nearby habitat or orbital station, vs. traditional terrestrial-controlled rover operations. The goal of this study was to define science-return metrics for comparing human and robotic fieldwork, and then obtain quantifiable science-return performance comparisons between teleoperated rovers and spacesuited humans. Test runs with a simulated 2015-class rover and with spacesuited geologists were conducted at Haughton Crater in the Canadian Arctic in July 2002. Early results imply that humans will be 1-2 orders of magnitude more productive per unit time in exploration than future terrestrially-controlled robots.

  14. Electric Field Gradients at Hf and Fe Sites in Hf2Fe Recalculated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belošević-Čavor, J.; Cekić, B.; Novaković, N.; Koteski, V.; Milošević, Z.

    2004-11-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) of the Hf2Fe intermetallic compound were calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plain-wave (FP-LAPW) method as embodied in the WIEN 97 code. The obtained values are compared with other ab-initio calculations and on a qualitative basis with the previously reported experimental data obtained from TDPAC. The calculated results, -23.1·1021 V/m2 and 2.7·1021 V/m2 for Hf 48f and Fe 32e position, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental data (23.4·1021 V/m2 and 2.7·1021 V/m2), better than those reported in earlier calculations. The calculated EFG for Hf 16c position (4.2·1021 V/m2) is stronger than the experimental one (1.1·1021 V/m2).

  15. In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence study of hazardous waste site vegetation under field and controlled conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mayasich, S.A.; Zygmont, N.J. CDM Federal Programs Corp., South Plainfield, NJ )

    1993-06-01

    Cattail (Typha sp.) and Arrow Arum (Peltandra virginica) were studied to determine the effects of cadmium and nickel contamination in a freshwater tidal marsh. An in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence instrument was used in the field to estimate photosynthetic capacity. No definitive effects on photosynthesis were observed. A laboratory study was then designed to determine whether fluorescence could detect sublethal impacts of cadmium and whether tolerant plants had developed in the contaminated area. Arrow Arum seeds collected from a reference wetland and from the contaminated wetland were grown in horticultural vermiculite with cadmium concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/L. Results indicate that, regardless of seed origin, fluorescence can detect an effect at cadmium levels at which there are no visual signs of stress. However, the plants from the contaminated wetland exhibited reduced growth, and deformities in several individuals.

  16. A new integrated approach to field GC/MS for on-site analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenrode, B.

    1997-12-31

    There is a large amount of redundancy in commercially available standalone peripheral sampling devices especially with regard to the power supplies, controllers, and embedded intelligence. The integration of sampling control as well as the sampling/desorbing devices reduces the need for many cumbersome {open_quotes}external{close_quotes} sample handling methods. The integration of sampling and analysis strategies also provides a simpler portability profile for the overall system. In the design of portable analytical instrumentation, developers inevitably confront tradeoffs between overall system performance and the issues of size, weight, power requirements, and cost. It is clear that to a limited degree most field chemists will compromise size, weight, power requirements, and cost before they compromise performance. As we develop smaller and lighter systems, it is our intent to provide an instrumentation platform that is adaptable and upgradable, allowing the customer a choice of system compromises.

  17. Field-Integrated Studies of Long-Term Sustainability of Chromium Bioreduction at Hanford 100H Site

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of the project are to investigate coupled hydraulic, geochemical, and microbial conditions, and to determine the critical biogeochemical parameters necessary to maximize the extent of Cr(VI) bioreduction and minimize Cr(III) reoxidation in groundwater. Specific goals of the project are as follows: (1) Field testing and monitoring of Cr(VI) bioreduction in ground water and its transformation into insoluble species of Cr(III) at the Hanford 100H site, to develop the optimal strategy of water sampling for chemical, microbial, stable isotope analyses, and noninvasive geophysical monitoring; (2) Bench-scale flow and transport investigations using columns of undisturbed sediments to obtain diffusion and kinetic parameters needed for the development of a numerical model, predictions of Cr(VI) bioreduction, and potential of Cr(III) reoxidation; and (3) Development of a multiphase, multi-component 3D reactive transport model and a code, TOUGHREACT-BIO, to predict coupled biogeochemical-hydrological processes associated with bioremediation, and to calibrate and validate the developed code based on the results of bench-scale and field-scale Cr(VI) biostimulation experiments in ground water at the Hanford Site.

  18. SIGNAL : Water vapour flux variability and local wind field investigations within five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, Christian; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Optimising soil water uptake and ground water consumption in mono-specific agricultural systems plays an important role for sustainable land management. By including tree alleys into the agricultural landscape, called agroforestry (AF), the wind flow is modified leading to a presumably favourable microclimate behind the tree alleys. We expect that this zone is characterized by increased air temperature and atmospheric water vapour content, compared to mono-specific fields. This would extend the growing season and increase the yield production behind the tree alleys. Within the SIGNAL (Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture through Agroforestry) project the evapotranspiration (ET) variability and the local wind field of agroforestry sites compared to mono-specific agricultural systems is investigated. Our study is based on the comparison of five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany. All site feature one agroforestry plot and one reference plot, which represents a mono-specific cropped system. Each plot is equipped with an eddy-covariance tower, including a high frequency 3D SONIC anemometer and instruments gathering standard meteorological parameter as pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, ground heat flux, net- and global radiation. The Surface Energy Budget (SEB) method will be used to calculate evapotranspiration QE as QE = ‑ QN ‑ QH ‑ QG ‑ Res by measuring the sensible heat flux, QH, with the eddy covariance method, the radiation balance, QN and the ground heat flux, QG. QH and QN will be measured continuously long-term. We will quantify site specific energy balance non-closure, Res, by temporarily measuring QE, using eddy covariance and a roving tower and then solving the SEB equation for Res. The short term Res will be used to then continuously derive QE from the SEB method. We will compare measured evapotranspiration rates from the SEB method to modelled evapotranspiration of the agroforestry systems through

  19. Effect of uncertain hydraulic conductivity on the fate and transport of BTEX compounds at a field site

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wolfsberg, Andrew

    2002-01-05

    A Monte Carlo analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of uncertain hydraulic conductivity on the fate and transport of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) at a field site on Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Microbially mediated BTEX degradation has occurred at the site through multiple terminal electron-accepting processes, including aerobic respiration, denitrification, Fe(III) reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis degradation. Multiple realizations of the hydraulic conductivity field were generated and substituted into a multispecies reactive transport model developed and calibrated for the Hill AFB site in a previous study. Simulation results show that the calculated total BTEX masses (released from a constant-concentration source) that remain in the aquifer at the end of the simulation period statistically follow a lognormal distribution. In the first analysis (base case), the calculated total BTEX mass varies from a minimum of 12% less and a maximum of 60% more than that of the previously calibrated model. This suggests that the uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity can lead to significant uncertainties in modeling the fate and transport of BTEX. Geometric analyses of calculated plume configurations show that a higher BTEX mass is associated with wider lateral spreading, while a lower mass is associated with longer longitudinal extension. More BTEX mass in the aquifer causes either a large depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO) and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, or a large depletion of DO and a large production of Fe{sup 2+}, with moderately depleted NO{sub 3}{sup -}. In an additional analysis, the effect of varying degrees of aquifer heterogeneity and associated uncertainty is examined by considering hydraulic conductivity with different variances and correlation lengths. An increase in variance leads to a higher average BTEX mass in the aquifer, while an increase in correlation length results in a lower average. This observation is

  20. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance. PMID:27435622

  1. Field-mapping and petrographic analysis of volcanoes surrounding the Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site, northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, S. M.; Zimmer, B.; Liutkus, C.; Carmichael, S. K.; McGinnis, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site is located in northern Tanzania along the East African Rift escarpment. The site is positioned south of Lake Natron within an ephemeral channel of the Engare Sero River. The hominid footprints are preserved in a tuff, which originated from one of the volcanic centers surrounding the site. Two large volcanoes in the surrounding region, including the active carbonatite producing Oldoinyo L’engai and the now extinct Kerimasi are possible sources. This area also contains over 30 smaller tuff cones and tuff rings that have been poorly mapped and not analyzed in detail. The site is significant as it is the oldest modern human trackway in East Africa and one of the largest collections of hominid footprints in the world. Determining the source of the footprinted volcanic ash requires detailed field mapping, and both petrographic and geochemical analyses. Extensive field-mapping of the region revealed multiple regional beds that stratigraphically overlay the footprinted layer. Age dating as well as geochemical analysis is being conducted to relate these beds to the footprinted layer. Field-mapping showed that the footprinted tuff is over 35 cm thick, suggesting a large, sustained eruption. The bulk of the tuff cones examined in the field visibly varied in composition to the footprinted tuff and, based on proximity to the footprint site, are too small to produce the requisite volume of ash. Field analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal the most similar mineral assemblages to the footprinted layer, and the large volcano provides a source substantial enough to create a thick ash bed 10 km north of the summit. Preliminary research reveals that the footprinted tuff is a phonolite, characterized by silica depletion and the presence of sanidine, augite, and annite with interstitial calcite. XRD analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal a nepheline-rich phonolite with zeolites (ie. phillipsite

  2. Evaluating the summer night sky brightness at a research field site on Lake Stechlin in northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jechow, Andreas; Hölker, Franz; Kolláth, Zoltán; Gessner, Mark O.; Kyba, Christopher C. M.

    2016-09-01

    We report luminance measurements of the summer night sky at a field site on a freshwater lake in northeastern Germany (Lake Stechlin) to evaluate the amount of artificial skyglow from nearby and distant towns in the context of a planned study on light pollution. The site is located about 70 km north of Berlin in a rural area possibly belonging to one of the darkest regions in Germany. Continuous monitoring of the zenith sky luminance between June and September 2015 was conducted utilizing a Sky Quality Meter. With this device, typical values for clear nights in the range of 21.5-21.7 magSQM/arcsec2 were measured, which is on the order of the natural sky brightness during starry nights. On overcast nights, values down to 22.84 magSQM/arcsec2 were obtained, which is about one third as bright as on clear nights. The luminance measured on clear nights as well as the darkening with the presence of clouds indicates that there is very little influence of artificial skyglow on the zenith sky brightness at this location. Furthermore, fish-eye lens sky imaging luminance photometry was performed with a digital single-lens reflex camera on a clear night in the absence of moonlight. The photographs unravel several distant towns as possible sources of light pollution on the horizon. However, the low level of artificial skyglow makes the field site at Lake Stechlin an excellent location to study the effects of skyglow on a lake ecosystem in a controlled fashion.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Study of Wind and Turbulence in a Near-Field Dispersion Campaign at an Inhomogeneous Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao; Dupont, Eric; Gilbert, Eric; Musson-Genon, Luc; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed experimental and numerical study of the local flow field for a pollutant dispersion experimental program conducted at SIRTA (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique), a complex and intensively instrumented site in a southern suburb of Paris. Global analysis of continuous measurements over 2 years highlights the impact of terrain heterogeneity on wind and turbulence. It shows that the forest to the north of the experimental field induces strong directional shear and wind deceleration below the forest canopy height. This directional shear is stronger with decreasing height and decreasing distance from the forest edge. Numerical simulations are carried out using Code_Saturne, a computational fluid dynamics code, in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode with a standard k{-}\\varepsilon closure and a canopy model, in neutral and stable stratifications. These simulations are shown to reproduce globally well the characteristics of the mean flow, especially the directional wind shear in northeasterly and northwesterly cases and the turbulent kinetic energy increase induced by the forest. However, they slightly underestimate wind speed and the directional shear of the flow below the forest canopy height. Sensitivity studies are performed to investigate the influence of leaf area density, inlet stability condition, and roughness length. These studies show that the typical features of the canopy flow become more pronounced as canopy density increases. Performance statistics indicate that the impact of the forest and adequate inlet profiles are the most important factors in the accurate reproduction of flow at the site, especially under stable stratification.

  4. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  5. Field Performance of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final cover At A Humid Site

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Mcdonald, Eric V.; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

    2006-11-01

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA to evaluate how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a landfill final cover changed over a 4-yr service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed CE Database subject headings: landfill, hydrogeology, compacted soils, lysimeters, desiccation continuous monitoring of the water balance. Patterns in the drainage (i.e., flow from the bottom of the cover) record suggest that preferential flow paths developed in the clay barrier soon after construction, apparently in response to desiccation cracking. After four years, the clay barrier was excavated and examined for changes in soil structure and hydraulic conductivity. Tests were conducted in situ with a sealed double-ring infiltrometer and two-stage borehole permeameters and in the laboratory on hand-carved blocks taken during construction and after four years of service. The in situ and laboratory tests indicated that the hydraulic conductivity increased approximately three orders of magnitude (from ? 10-7 to ? 10-4 cm s-1) during the service life. A dye tracer test and soil structure analysis showed that extensive cracking and root development occurred throughout the entire depth of the barrier layer. Laboratory tests on undisturbed specimens of the clay barrier indicated that the hydraulic conductivity of damaged clay barriers can be under-estimated significantly if small specimens (e.g., tube samples) are used for hydraulic conductivity assessment. The findings also indicate that clay barriers must be protected from desiccation and root intrusion if they are expected to function as intended, even at sites in warm, humid locations.

  6. Improving time-lapse seismic repeatability: CO2CRC Otway site permanent geophone array field trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevzner, Roman; Dupuis, Christian; Shulakova, Valeriya; Urosevic, Milovan; Lumley, David

    2013-04-01

    The proposed Stage 2C of the CO2CRC Otway project involves injection of a small amount (around 15,000 tonnes) of CO2/CH4 gas mixture into saline acquifer (Paaratte formation) at the depth of ~1.5 km. The seismic time-lapse signal will depend largely on the formation properties and the injection scenario, but is likely to be relatively weak. In order to improve time-lapse seismic monitoring capabilities by decreasing the noise level, a buried receiver arrays can be used. A small-scale trial of such an array was conducted at Otway site in June 2012. A set of 25 geophones was installed in 3 m deep boreholes in parallel to the same number of surface geophones. In addition, four geophones were placed into boreholes of 1 to 12 m depth. In order to assess the gain in the signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability, both active and passive seismic surveys were carried out. The surveys were conducted in relatively poor weather conditions, with rain, strong wind and thunderstorms increasing the noise level. We found that noise level for buried geophones is on average 20 dB lower compared to the surface ones. Furthermore, the combination of active and passive experiments has allowed us to perform a detailed classification of various noise sources. Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the Australian government through its CRC program to support this CO2CRC research project. We also acknowledge the CO2CRC's corporate sponsors and the financial assistance provided through Australian National Low Emissions Coal Research and Development (ANLEC R&D). ANLEC R&D is supported by Australian Coal Association Low Emissions Technology Limited and the Australian Government through the Clean Energy Initiative.

  7. Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska: A Terrestrial Analog Site for Polar, Topographically Confined Martian Dune Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, C. L.; Hooper, D. M.; Michaels, T. I.; McGinnis, R. N.; Stillman, D.; Bjella, K.; Stothoff, S.; Walter, G. R.; Necsoiu, M.; Grimm, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Martian dune systems belong to two broad categories: (i) the sprawling north polar erg, rich in and immobilized by seasonal and perennial volatiles; and (ii) isolated low- to high-latitude dune fields confined by topography. While modern dune migration on Mars is nearly imperceptibly slow, recent studies are producing robust evidence for aeolian activity, including bedform modification. Cold-climate terrestrial dunes containing volatile reservoirs provide an important analog to Martian polar dunes because permafrost and seasonal cycles of CO2 and H2O frost mantling are thought to partially decouple Martian polar dunes from atmospheric forcing. The 67°N latitude, 62 km2 Great Kobuk Sand Dunes (GKSD) are a terrestrial analog for polar, intercrater dune fields on Mars. Formative winds affected by complex topography and the presence of volatiles and intercalated snow within the GKSD have direct analogy to factors that impede migration of Martian polar dunes. This system offers the opportunity to study cold-climate, noncoastal, topographically constrained, climbing and reversing barchanoid, transverse, longitudinal, and star dunes. The Kobuk Valley climate is subarctic and semiarid with long, cold winters and brief, warm summers. Niveoaeolian sedimentation occurs within west-facing lee slope catchments. In March 2010, we found the seasonally frozen layer to range in thickness from 1.5 to 4.0 m, and no evidence for shallow permafrost. Instead, using GPR and boreholes, we found a system-wide groundwater aquifer that nearly parallels topography and cuts across steeply dipping bedforms. GPR cannot uniquely detect ice and water; however, a similar analysis of rover-based GPR might be used to detect volatiles in Martian dunes. The perennial volatile reservoir is liquid because of mean annual air temperature, intense solar heating before, during, and after 38 days of continuous summer daylight, high dry sand thermal conductivity, higher wet sand thermal conductivity

  8. What have we Learned after a Decade of Experiments and Monitoring at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Civilini, F.; Seale, S. H.; Hegarty, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) located in southern California are facilities that for the last decade have been supported under the National Science Foundations George E. Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. These densely instrumented geotechnical and structural engineering field sites continuously record both acceleration and pore pressure, with accelerometers located on the surface and at various depths below the surface, and pore pressure transducers installed at depth within the liquefiable layers. Permanently instrumented structures for examining soil-foundation-structure interaction and a permanent cross-hole array at the sites have transformed these sites into multi-disciplinary earthquake engineering research facilities. Over the last decade, local and regional seismic activity, including multiple extremely active earthquake swarms, have produced a valuable new data set providing a unique opportunity to observe site response and the evolution of pore pressure generation with time throughout the liquefiable layer at an unprecedented level of detail. In addition to the earthquakes provided by nature, active testing experiments using the mobile shakers from NEES@UTexas and NEES@UCLA have produced an equally valuable data set on both site characterization studies and soil-foundation-structure interaction. The new observations of pore pressure and acceleration with depth are providing in situ empirical evidence documenting the range of ground motion levels at which the onset of nonlinear behavior and excess pore pressure begins, augmenting previous case history data, and laboratory data from cyclic tri-axial and centrifuge testing. The largest static pore pressure increases observed in the 'NEES' decade of monitoring were generated by four events at the WLA site, ranging in magnitude from 4.6 to 5.4 and all at distances less than 10km from the site. The largest peak horizontal

  9. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  10. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2013 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2013 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. Due to the suspension of D&D activities in Area IV, no effluents were released into the atmosphere during 2013. Therefore, the potential radiation dose to the general public through airborne release was zero. Similarly, the radiation dose to an offsite member of the public (maximally exposed individual) due to direct radiation from SSFL is indistinguishable from background. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste

  11. Use of radium isotopes to determine the age and origin of radioactive barite at oil-field production sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Budahn, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a potential health threat. Accurate determinations of radium isotopes (226Ra+228Ra) in soils are required to establish the level of soil contamination and the volume of soil that may exceed regulatory limits for total radium content. In this study the radium isotopic data are used to provide estimates of the age of formation of the radiobarite contaminant. Age estimates require that highly insoluble radiobarite approximates a chemically closed system from the time of its formation. Age estimates are based on the decay of short-lived 228Ra (half-life=5.76 years) compared to 226Ra (half-life=1600 years). Present activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra in radiobarite-rich scale or highly contaminated soil are compared to initial ratios at the time of radiobarite precipitation. Initial ratios are estimated by measurements of saline water or recent barite precipitates at the site or by considering a range of probable initial ratios based on reported values in modern oil-field brines. At sites that contain two distinct radiobarite sources of different age, the soils containing mixtures of sources can be identified, and mixing proportions quantified using radium concentration and isotopic data. These uses of radium isotope data provide more description of contamination history and can possibly address liability issues. Copyright ?? 2000 .

  12. Field measurements of aerosol particle dry deposition on tropical foliage at an urban site.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjit; Kumari, K Maharaj; Srivastava, S S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents dry deposition of major ions on tropical foliage (leaves of Ashok (Polyalthia longifolia) and Cassia (Cassia siamea)) at St. John's, Agra, an urban site of tropical India on nonrainy, nondewy, and nonfoggy days. The deposition flux was higher on Cassia leaf than Ashok leaf probably due to a rougher surface as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Dry deposition of cations varies from 0.46 to 12.16 mg m(-2) day(-1) while anions vary from 0.04 to 3.24 mg m(-2) day(-1). The percentage contribution of alkaline components is greater than that of acidic components, indicating the alkaline nature of dry deposition. Two-way analysis of variance results reveal significant seasonal variation only for K+, SO4(2-), and F-; however, values varied season to season for Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, and NH4+ also. The large seasonal variation in deposition flux may be due to meteorological conditions, diameter of particles, and variation in atmospheric level. SO42- and NO3- show significant correlation, indicating their origin from similar sources while significant correlation between Ca2+ and Mg2+ implies their origin from soil. Poor correlation between Ca2+ and SO4(2-), Ca2+ and NO3-, and Mg2+ and SO4(2-) indicates that in addition to soil other sources also contribute to dry deposition. Low dry deposition fluxes of SO2- and NO3- compared to Ca2+ and Mg2+ may be due to low mass medium diameters of SO4(2-) and NO3- and may be due to uptake through the stomatal pores abundant on leaf surfaces. Factor analysis was employed to identify the sources. F-, Cl, SO4(2-), NO3-, and K+ are grouped together in the first factor, indicating their probable contribution from combustion, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4+ are grouped in factor II, which may be attributed to road dust and soil, and factor III includes mainly Na+ and F-, probably contributed from brick-kiln industries. Atmospheric concentrations of F-, Cl-, NOs-, SO4(2-), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4+ were found to be 0.38, 2

  13. Characterization of the inorganic aerosol in Barcelona site during DAURE 2009 field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Javier; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Aránzazu Revuelta, M.; Coz, Esther; Moreno, Natalia; Pujadas, Manuel; Artíñano, Begoña.

    2010-05-01

    Inorganic compounds account for a significant mass of the ambient aerosol. However this contribution varies with time and aerosol size fraction, depending on the influence of source emissions and ambient conditions, which can be relevant in the formation processes of secondary species. Time series of particulate nitrate, 10 m time resolution, have been obtained during the February-March and July 2009 DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean) field campaigns in the urban area of Barcelona by means of an R&P8400N monitor. Meteorological conditions during these periods were relevant for the photochemical formation and accumulation of secondary species. Ambient concentrations were higher in winter, specially coinciding with development of atmospheric stagnant episodes that enhanced the accumulation of pollutants including particulate nitrate that reached concentrations of 25 µgm-3 in some occasions, day or night, under these conditions. High humidity periods favored in occasions the formation of nitrates at submicronic scale. Variations in wind direction resulted in transport of particulate nitrate from near emission areas. Size segregated aerosol was sampled during the winter campaign with a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) using eleven size stages with aluminum substrates and a quartz fiber backup filter. Samples were collected twice per day for day/night periods. The first sampling period tried to collect secondary aerosol as it started after the early morning emission period. The second sample collected the night aerosol and the emission period. Soluble ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and calcium) were later analyzed by IC. The nitrate mass was concentrated in two modes, the accumulation one around 0.75 µm and the coarse one around 3.90 µm. The sulfate and ammonium masses were concentrated in the accumulation mode, around 0.50 µm, although a small peak close to 5 µm

  14. Nutrient export in run-off from an in-field cattle overwintering site in East-Central Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Schoenau, J; Lardner, H A; Elliott, J

    2011-01-01

    Wintering cattle directly in the field creates potential concerns with water quality, as nutrients added from urine and fecal material over the winter can end up in runoff water, ground water and soil. In 2008/2009 an experiment was conducted to observe the effect of in-field winter feeding of cows on the nutrients in spring snowmelt run-off water. Low temperatures give little opportunity for organic N, urea and ammonium added in the urine and fecal matter to convert to nitrate, resulting in nitrate-N concentrations in snowmelt run-off water that were similar in the control and winter fed areas. Orthophosphate-P and ammonium-N concentrations were significantly elevated in run-off from the winter feed treatment basins compared to the controls. Surface soil sampled in the spring from the winter feeding site had higher soluble nitrate while soluble forms of phosphorus in the soil were lower compared to the fall soil samples. Caution should be used when utilizing in-field winter feeding systems so that the runoff water does not reach sensitive water bodies. PMID:22020470

  15. Effect of A-site La and Ba doping on threshold field and characteristic temperatures of PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 relaxor studied by acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dul'kin, E.; Mihailova, B.; Gospodinov, M.; Roth, M.

    2012-09-01

    The structural transitions in Pb1-xLaxSc(1+x)/2Ta(1-x)/2O3, x = 0.08 (PLST) relaxor crystals were studied by means of acoustic emission (AE) under an external electric field (E) and compared with those observed in pure PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 (PST) and Pb0.78Ba0.22Sc0.5Ta0.5O3 (PBST) [E. Dul'kin et al., EPL 94, 57002 (2011)]. Similar to both the PST and PBST compounds, in zero field PLST exhibits AE corresponding to a para-to-antiferroelectric incommensurate phase transition at Tn = 276 K, lying in the vicinity of dielectric temperature maximum (Tm). This AE signal exhibits a nontrivial behavior when applying E resembling the electric-field-dependence of Tn previously observed for both the PST and PBST, namely, Tn initially decreases with the increase of E, attains a minimum at a threshold field Eth = 0.5 kV/cm, accompanied by a pronounced maximum of the AE count rate Ṅ = 12 s-1, and then starts increasing as E enhances. The similarities and difference between PST, PLST, and PBST with respect to Tn, Eth, and Ṅ are discussed from the viewpoint of three mechanisms: (i) chemically induced random local electric field due to the extra charge on the A-site ion, (ii) disturbance of the system of stereochemically active lone-pair electrons of Pb2+ by the isotropic outermost electron shell of substituting ion, and (iii) change in the tolerance factor and elastic field to the larger ionic radius of the substituting A-site ion due to the different radius of the substituting ion. The first two mechanisms influence the actual values of Tn and Eth, whereas the latter is shown to affect the normalized Ṅ, indicating the fractions undergoing a field-induced crossover from a modulated antiferroelectric to a ferroelectric state. Creation of secondary random electric field, caused by doping-induced A-site-O ionic chemical bonding, is discussed.

  16. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  17. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2005. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    This annual report describes the environmental monitoring programs related to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) activities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) facility located in Ventura County, California during 2005. Part of the SSFL facility, known as Area IV, had been used for DOE’s activities since the 1950s. A broad range of energy related research and development (R&D) projects, including nuclear technologies projects, was conducted at the site. All the nuclear R&D operations in Area IV ceased in 1988. Current efforts are directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and closure of facilities used for liquid metal research.

  18. Multidimensional Field Mapping of Gaseous C-H-O-S Species in Hydrothermal Systems: Distinguishing Potential Sites for Hydrocarbon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Dunn, E. E.; Shock, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Organic compounds in hydrothermal gas emissions have been documented since the mid-1800's, yet their origin is still a matter of some debate. Thermal alteration such as maturation and cracking can produce thermogenic hydrocarbons from pre-existing organic matter in hydrothermal systems. Gas-phase radical reactions and catalytic hydrogenation reactions of CO2 and CO to methane and higher hydrocarbons have also been suggested as being responsible for observations of organic compounds in hydrothermal emissions. Recently published data indicated that some organic signatures in volcanic-hydrothermal systems cannot be explained by pre-existing organic matter alone, and more representative analyses are now required to shed light on this question. Choosing a representative site within a hydrothermal field for sampling is in itself a complicated task, and heterogeneities can be easily missed. Spatial analysis of the distribution of C-O-H-S species in the gas phase can potentially indicate possible sites of increased hydrocarbon generation potentials via the catalytic hydrogenation pathway. This approach offers the advantage of providing information in the field that can be used to judge appropriate sampling locations prior to the more complex and costly standard organic analyses of gaseous emissions. A portable multi-sensor system with electrochemical and infrared sensors can in a short time provide large spatial data sets that yield potential target areas for selectively sampling organic compounds. Statistical methods, including probability tests and spatial correlation of concentrations and fluxes of selected species, can be applied later to yield information on the number of populations as well as genetic relationships between different populations. This approach was tested at three acid-sulfate sites in Yellowstone National Park, USA. The chosen sites were the Greater Obsidian Pool area (GOPA, Mud Volcanoes hot spring group), the Sylvan Springs area, and the Washburn

  19. Field monitoring and performance evaluation of an in situ air sparging system at a gasoline-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Hall, B L; Lachmar, T E; Dupont, R R

    2000-06-30

    In situ air sparging (IAS) has been used since the mid-1980s, but few carefully designed field studies have been performed to evaluate its effectiveness. In this study, 27 discrete monitoring points (MPs) were installed at a gasoline-contaminated site to investigate the efficacy of IAS. Each MP was instrumented with a pressure transducer and a Technalithics dissolved oxygen (DO) probe, and located so they could be used to characterize subsurface changes in total head and DO with depth, distance and orientation around a central injection well. Because the blower over-heated and automatically shut down after approximately 30 min and short-circuiting of air into two MPs occurred within 2 min, the study was designed as three sets of three 30-min trials. Longer trials would not have yielded different nor more insightful results. A volume of soil was not oxygenated during any injection. Instead, air traveled directly to at least four of seven different MPs during eight of the nine trials, probably as a result of an air bubble forming beneath a confining layer. The order of air arrival at the MPs varied during the first few trials, but once a preferential pathway was established, it did not collapse between trials and provided the shortest distance to the vadose zone during subsequent trials. Oxygen uptake rates estimated for MPs that received air during any trial exceeded the consumption rates of the Technalithics DO probes, and indicate that the probes could be used for estimating oxygen transfer during system operation or for oxygen uptake measurements during shut-down tests. The data from the monitoring system indicate that IAS is infeasible for remediation of soil and groundwater at this site due to its low horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Similar behavior is anticipated when IAS is applied at other sites with low hydraulic conductivity materials. PMID:10794912

  20. Efficient implementation of three-dimensional reference interaction site model self-consistent-field method: Application to solvatochromic shift calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minezawa, Noriyuki; Kato, Shigeki

    2007-02-01

    The authors present an implementation of the three-dimensional reference interaction site model self-consistent-field (3D-RISM-SCF) method. First, they introduce a robust and efficient algorithm for solving the 3D-RISM equation. The algorithm is a hybrid of the Newton-Raphson and Picard methods. The Jacobian matrix is analytically expressed in a computationally useful form. Second, they discuss the solute-solvent electrostatic interaction. For the solute to solvent route, the electrostatic potential (ESP) map on a 3D grid is constructed directly from the electron density. The charge fitting procedure is not required to determine the ESP. For the solvent to solute route, the ESP acting on the solute molecule is derived from the solvent charge distribution obtained by solving the 3D-RISM equation. Matrix elements of the solute-solvent interaction are evaluated by the direct numerical integration. A remarkable reduction in the computational time is observed in both routes. Finally, the authors implement the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to the solute nuclear coordinates. They apply the present method to "solute" water and formaldehyde in aqueous solvent using the simple point charge model, and the results are compared with those from other methods: the six-dimensional molecular Ornstein-Zernike SCF, the one-dimensional site-site RISM-SCF, and the polarizable continuum model. The authors also calculate the solvatochromic shifts of acetone, benzonitrile, and nitrobenzene using the present method and compare them with the experimental and other theoretical results.

  1. Observations of Magnetic Reconnection From Multiple Merging Sites Along the Same Field Lines Under Northward IMF Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, B. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Chandler, M. O.; Pollock, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Several researchers have shown that when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is northward, magnetic reconnection occurs at the Earth's high latitude magnetopause in regions poleward of the magnetospheric cusps for both the northern and southern hemispheres. With a non-zero By component there is also the possibility for reconnection to occur equatorward of the cusp [e.g., Moore et al., 2002; Chandler et al., 2008]. This paper reexamines the observations of Chandler et al., 2008 in the context of several newly identified, similar events from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) onboard the Polar spacecraft. The observations consist of distinct, overlapping populations of velocity-dispersed magnetosheath ion distributions and outflowing ionospheric ions and occur under a variety of northward IMF conditions. In each case, evidence will be presented to show that the observations are consistent with interactions with separate reconnection sites and plausible scenarios are explored for the location of the sites. The objective is to show that the Chandler et al., 2008 observation is not unique and that the interpretation of these events can be reconciled with those of other investigators studying the dayside magnetic topology for northward IMF.

  2. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil; Dassler, David

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  3. Field Investigation to Determine the Extent of Sediment Recontamination at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2001-11-16

    This field investigation was undertaken to determine the present condition of sediment in Lauritzen Channel and Parr Canal approximately 2 years after completion of sediment remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Superfund site. The study was designed to supplement the post-remediation monitoring program by determining the extent and identifying potential sources of observed pesticide contamination in marine sediments near the site. Core samples collected from Lauritzen Channel and Parr Canal in July 1999 were described geologically, and samples were prepared from different sediment types, such as younger bay mud or older bay mud. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, organic carbon, and DDT compounds. Only minor changes have occurred in Parr Canal since remedial actions were taken in 1996-1997, but in Lauritzen Channel, DDT concentrations exceed the remedial goal of 590 ug/kg dry weight in nearly all the unconsolidated sediment (younger bay mud, sand, and disturbed older bay mud). The source of contaminated sediment could not be confirmed by this study; there was no clear correlation between high DDT concentrations and sediment remaining between the pilings, as was originally suspected. There also was no correlation between high DDT concentrations in sediment and the locations of outfalls, although some of the contamination retained by the creosote-treated wood appeared to be highest close to the known outfalls.

  4. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil; Dassler, David

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  5. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil; Amar, Ravnesh

    2011-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2010 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2010 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  6. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil; Amar, Ravnesh

    2010-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2009 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2009 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  7. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2004. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil; Lee, Majelle

    2005-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2004 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2004 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  8. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2006. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil

    2007-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2006 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2006 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  9. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Rutherford, Phil; Amar, Ravnesh

    2009-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2008 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended by the DOE. The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2008 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  10. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  11. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  12. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  13. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  14. 25 CFR 700.153 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., dismantling, removing, reassembling and reinstalling relocated household appliances, and other personal... subpart, a certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses for— (a... mileage allowance schedules of the household and personal property from the acquired site to...

  15. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

  16. Mafic Silicate and Ferric Oxide Mineralogy of Gale Crater and the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.; Anderson, R. B.; Milliken, R.; Hamilton, V. E.; Edgett, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    Gale, a 155 km diameter impact crater on the boundary of the Martian southern highlands near 5S, 222W, has been selected as the field site for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. Several published studies have focused on the discovery, mapping, and analysis of hydrated or hydroxylated minerals (e.g., sulfates, phyllosilicates) in Gale as exciting potential targets for in situ exploration. Less attention has generally been paid to the anhydrous mafic (ferrous) silicates and ferric oxides which have also been detected in Gale from orbital remote sensing studies and which may be the precursor parent materials that weathered into the observed aqueous phases. Here we review previous and new observations regarding the presence and spatial distribution of anhydrous ferrous silicates and ferric oxides in Gale and discuss the scientific implications for the close-up study of these materials with the MSL payload. Despite a common misconception that Gale is a "dusty" site, visible to near-IR observations from the Mars Express OMEGA and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM and thermal infrared observations from Mars Global Surveyor TES and Mars Odyssey THEMIS provide evidence for olivine and pyroxene and the anhydrous ferric oxide, hematite, associated with distinct geologic materials in Gale. Olivine-bearing mafic (likely basaltic) materials have been interpreted to occur in low albedo aeolian dunes near and around the base of the 5 km high mound of sedimentary rock in the crater. Both low and high calcium pyroxene (LCP, HCP) have been identified in and around the crater, with CRISM data showing HCP-bearing material occurring primarily within a "cap rock" on the relatively flat crater floor and within the relatively dust-free units of the lower few km of the sedimentary rock mound. Potentially more mobile (via wind) LCP-bearing material occurs throughout the crater and the lower few km of the mound and into the low albedo wind streak that extends ~200 km to

  17. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  18. Data collection and field experiments at the Apache Leap research site. Annual report, May 1995--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Chen, G.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the research performed during the period May 1995-May 1996 for a project of the U.S. Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-051) by the University of Arizona. The project manager for this research in Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this research were to examine hypotheses and test alternative conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. Each chapter in this report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. Topics include: crosshole pneumatic and gaseous tracer field and modeling experiments designed to help validate the applicability of contiuum geostatistical and stochastic concepts, theories, models, and scaling relations relevant to unsaturated flow and transport in fractured porous tuffs; use of geochemistry and aquifer testing to evaluate fracture flow and perching mechanisms; investigations of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U fractionation to evaluate leaching selectivity; and transport and modeling of both conservative and non-conservative tracers.

  19. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care. PMID:18039565

  20. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  1. Efficacy of burning, tillage, and biocides in controlling bacteria released at field sites and effects on indigenous bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Donegan, K; Fieland, V; Fowles, N; Ganio, L; Seidler, R

    1992-04-01

    Decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tillage, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria applied to the leaves of plants in field plots. In addition, the effects of these control methods on indigenous leaf and soil bacteria and fungi were assessed. Field plots of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), sprayed with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (i) control, (ii) tillage, (iii) burning, (iv) burning plus tillage (burn-tillage), (v) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (vi) Kocide plus tillage, (vii) Agri-Strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (viii) Agri-Strep plus tillage. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled at 1 day before and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 days after application of the decontamination treatments. The burn and burn-tillage treatments produced the most significant reductions in bacterial populations. The Agri-Strep treatment was more effective than the Kocide treatment in eliminating applied bacteria, but neither biocide produced consistent or persistent control. In contrast, the tillage treatment, alone or in combination with the Agri-Strep or Kocide treatments, had a short-term stimulatory effect and increased populations of applied bacteria and also levels of indigenous fungi and bacteria. Agri-Strep and Kocide treatments caused significant reductions in indigenous bacterial populations up to 14 days after application and in indigenous fungal populations on day 7 after application. Our results suggest that conventional plant disease control methods may not provide satisfactory control of genetically engineered microorganisms and indicate a need for further development of effective and selective methods to control release microorganisms at field sites. PMID:1599240

  2. Efficacy of burning, tillage, and biocides in controlling bacteria released at field sites and effects on indigenous bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Donegan, K; Fieland, V; Fowles, N; Ganio, L; Seidler, R

    1992-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tillage, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria applied to the leaves of plants in field plots. In addition, the effects of these control methods on indigenous leaf and soil bacteria and fungi were assessed. Field plots of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), sprayed with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (i) control, (ii) tillage, (iii) burning, (iv) burning plus tillage (burn-tillage), (v) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (vi) Kocide plus tillage, (vii) Agri-Strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (viii) Agri-Strep plus tillage. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled at 1 day before and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 days after application of the decontamination treatments. The burn and burn-tillage treatments produced the most significant reductions in bacterial populations. The Agri-Strep treatment was more effective than the Kocide treatment in eliminating applied bacteria, but neither biocide produced consistent or persistent control. In contrast, the tillage treatment, alone or in combination with the Agri-Strep or Kocide treatments, had a short-term stimulatory effect and increased populations of applied bacteria and also levels of indigenous fungi and bacteria. Agri-Strep and Kocide treatments caused significant reductions in indigenous bacterial populations up to 14 days after application and in indigenous fungal populations on day 7 after application. Our results suggest that conventional plant disease control methods may not provide satisfactory control of genetically engineered microorganisms and indicate a need for further development of effective and selective methods to control release microorganisms at field sites. PMID:1599240

  3. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  4. Effect of nematode-trapping fungi on an entomopathogenic nematode originating from the same field site in California.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, A M; Jaffee, B A; Muldoon, A E; Strong, D R; Kaya, H K

    1996-11-01

    We determined whether nematode-trapping fungi may influence the dynamics of a coastal shrub community. The food chain interactions in the shrub community involve the dominant plant species, its major insect herbivore, and an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis hepialus. Of the 12 nematode-trapping fungi previously isolated from soils at the study site, 5 were selected for this study. Arthrobotrys oligospora, Geniculifera paucispora, Monacrosporium eudermatum, and Monacrosporium cionopagum efficiently trapped and colonized H. hepialus on agar; in contrast Nematoctonus concurrens trapped but did not infect or colonize the nematode on agar. To determine whether these fungi can suppress H. hepialus in soil, we added the fungi in the form of fungal-colonized nematodes to pasteurized (2 hr at 62 degrees C) and raw (nontreated) soil from the study site. Suppression was measured by comparing nematode invasion into a wax moth larva in fungus-treated and untreated soil in vials at 20 degrees C. Fungal population density in soil was estimated using dilution plating and most probable number procedures. All fungi suppressed H. hepialus if the wax moth larvae were added 4 days after the nematodes. Suppression ranged between 37 and 54% and did not differ among fungi. Suppression was usually greater in raw than in pasteurized soil. Raw soil contained a constant background of nematode-trapping fungi, and A. oligospora was the most common among these; no background was detected in pasteurized soil. The presence of background fungi in raw soil may explain the higher suppression in raw than in pasteurized soil. Fungal propagule densities in our laboratory experiments were similar to those observed in the field, suggesting that nematode-trapping fungi may influence the dynamics of the plant, insect herbivore, and entomopathogenic nematode in the coastal ecosystem. PMID:8931364

  5. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1993-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 μg g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 μg g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 μg g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 μg g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 μg g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic. PMID:24201735

  6. Field investigations and on-site toxicity testing: an assessment of habitat suitability-Arkansas River, Pueblo, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.F.; Baldridge, D.A.; Iley, G.; Nimmo, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    An on-site bioassay and aquatic ecological survey were conducted on the Arkansas River near Pueblo, CO. A mobile bioassay trailer was used to test the toxicity of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent using Arkansas River water for dilution. The aquatic survey was conducted upstream and downstream of the STP's outfall. This study was conceived in accordance with the intent of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) site-specific water quality criteria guidelines, which recognize that national criteria may not be applicable to species in specific bodies of water because of biological, chemical, and physical variables. Flow-through tests were conducted using bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and a daphnid (Daphnia magna). Standard field and laboratory techniques were used to evaluate physical and biological components of the stream ecosystem. The physical components included flow, substrate, and qualitative fishery habitat description, and the biological components included benthic macroinvertebrate densities, diversity calculations, and fish population surveys. The results of the bioassay tests generally indicated the following: there were distinct differences in species' sensitivity to the effluent (that is, the sensitivity was bluegills > fathead minnows > daphnid); the required dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the test tanks were difficult to maintain even though the flow-through rate was increased to four times that required by protocol; the toxicity of the postchlorinated/dechlorinated effluent was less than that of the prechlorinated effluent; no single pollutant could be targeted as the toxic fraction, however, concentrations of chlorine, cyanide, copper, and zinc were at or near LC/sub 50/ values for the test organisms.

  7. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.; Tirado-Corbalá, R.; Zhang, H.; Ayars, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in tropical environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using eddy covariance (EC) towers at two irrigated sugarcane fields on the leeward (dry) side of Maui, Hawaii, USA in contrasting climates. We calculated reference ET at the fields using the short (ET0) and tall (ETr) vegetation versions of the American Society for Civil Engineers (ASCE) equation. The ASCE equations were compared to the Priestley-Taylor ET (ETPT) and ETEC. Reference ET from the ASCE approaches exceeded ETEC during the mid-period (when vegetation coefficients suggest ETEC should exceed reference ET). At the windier tower site, cumulative ETr exceeded ETEC by 854 mm over the course of the mid-period (267 days). At the less windy site, mid-period ETr still exceeded ETEC, but the difference was smaller (443 mm). At both sites, ETPT approximated mid-period ETEC more closely than the ASCE equations ((ETPT-ETEC) < 170 mm). Analysis of applied water and precipitation, soil moisture, leaf stomatal resistance, and canopy cover suggest that the lower observed ETEC was not the result of water stress or reduced vegetation cover. Use of a custom-calibrated bulk canopy resistance improved the reference ET estimate and reduced seasonal ET discrepancy relative to ETPT and ETEC in the less windy field and had mixed performance in the windier field. These divergences suggest that modifications to reference ET equations may be warranted in some tropical regions.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

    2004-03-17

    Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also

  9. Uncertainties in Eddy Covariance fluxes due to post-field data processing: a multi-site, full factorial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, S.; Fratini, G.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2012-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is the only technologically available direct method to measure carbon and energy fluxes between ecosystems and atmosphere. However, uncertainties related to this method have not been exhaustively assessed yet, including those deriving from post-field data processing. The latter arise because there is no exact processing sequence established for any given situation, and the sequence itself is long and complex, with many processing steps and options available. However, the consistency and inter-comparability of flux estimates may be largely affected by the adoption of different processing sequences. The goal of our work is to quantify the uncertainty introduced in each processing step by the fact that different options are available, and to study how the overall uncertainty propagates throughout the processing sequence. We propose an easy-to-use methodology to assign a confidence level to the calculated fluxes of energy and mass, based on the adopted processing sequence, and on available information such as the EC system type (e.g. open vs. closed path), the climate and the ecosystem type. The proposed methodology synthesizes the results of a massive full-factorial experiment. We use one year of raw data from 15 European flux stations and process them so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options across a selection of the most relevant processing steps. The 15 sites have been selected to be representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (mediterranean, nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setup (e.g. open vs. closed path). The software used for this analysis is EddyPro™ 3.0 (www.licor.com/eddypro). The critical processing steps, selected on the basis of the different options commonly used in the FLUXNET community, are: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density

  10. Responses of Mycorrhizal Symbioses to Deliberate Leaks from AN Experimental CO2 Sequestration Field: the Zert Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Rowe, J. O.; Zhou, X.; Jewell, S.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a means of reducing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 . It is important to monitor carbon sequestration fields for surface detection of possible leaks of CO2 . At The Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) site, CO2 is injected at 0.15 tonnes/day increased to 0.3 tonnes/day into the soil through a shallow horizontal injection well with deliberate zones of leaking CO2 , which wells up through the soil and reaches concentrations of 16% w/v. The ZERT site is an experimental facility designed for developing means of surface detection of leaking CO2 and for determining the responses of plants to very high soil CO2 . Within 1 - 2 weeks of CO2 injections, dandelions and grasses begin to form circular zones of leaf dieback called hot spots. While the hotspots are visually apparent, the responses of the underground mycorrhizal symbioses to very high soil CO2 at the ZERT site are as yet undetermined. To examine the effects of leaking CO2 on mycorrhizae, we collected soil and root samples between and at the hotspots before CO2 was injected, then inoculated the rhizosphere with mycorrhizal inoculum containing spores of Glomus and Gigaspora sp., and resampled the soil and roots after three weeks of CO2 injection. We then evaluated the samples for percent mycorrhizal colonization via the line-intercept method in cleared roots in which fungal structures were stained with India-ink. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi benefit by improved P uptake, so we hypothesize that where plants have increased anthocyanin production, a symptom of P deficiency, mycorrhizal colonization would be reduced. In previous summers of the ZERT experiments, leaves have turned red/purple with CO2 exposure, and as of August, 2012, current year leaves appear to have increased anthocyanin above hotspots. Plant roots exude organic carbon into the soil, where it is used by mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal symbioses are key in the carbon dynamics of soil and in linking the above and below

  11. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water. PMID:19329695

  12. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region, September 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  13. Modeling a tracer test at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) using a lattice Boltzmann method and transmissivity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Lanyon, G. W.; Baik, M. H.; Blechschmidt, I.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tracer tests have been conducted in the Migration (MI) Shear Zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) for the Colloid Formation and Migration Project (CFM). As a part of the series, a dipole test (Tracer Test Run 13-05) using radionuclides, colloids and conservative tracers was performed to determine the breakthrough between CRR99.002-i2 and BOMI87.010-i2. To date, the breakthrough data of only the conservative dye tracer (Amino-G acid) are available. In the preceding project, the Colloid and Radionuclide Retardation Project (CRR), a transmissivity field for the MI shear zone was obtained by the geostatistical inverse modeling approach. In this study, the breakthrough of the tracer was computed by a gray lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The transmissivity field with finite elements grid was transformed to the effective fracture aperture or flow porosity according to the cubic law, and the grid was uniformalized by the interpolation. The uniform mesh of the effective aperture was utilized as the model domain of the gray LBM. In the gray LBM, the heterogeneity of the aperture was dealt with a partial-bounceback scheme. The profiles of hydraulic heads monitored at the boreholes nearby were used as the reference values in the calculation of the pressure distribution in the model domain. The modeling results could reveal a dominant pathway of tracers in the dipole test. The developed model can be utilized in the calculation of the reactive transports of radionuclides and colloids by coupling with a geochemical model, such as Phreeqc, the Geochemist's Workbench, etc.

  14. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Edgett, K. S.; Rice, J. W., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  15. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  16. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  17. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  18. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  19. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  20. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  1. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  2. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  3. UNRESOLVED MIXED POLARITY MAGNETIC FIELDS AT FLUX CANCELLATION SITE IN SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE AT 0.''3 SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Masahito; Low, Boon Chye; Lites, Bruce W

    2014-09-20

    This is a follow-up investigation of a magnetic flux cancellation event at a polarity inversion line (PIL) on the Sun observed with the spectropolarimeter on board Hinode. Anomalous circular polarization (Stokes V) profiles are observed in the photosphere along the PIL at the cancellation sites. Kubo et al. previously reported that the theoretically expected horizontal fields between the canceling opposite-polarity magnetic elements in this event are not detected at granular scales. We show that the observed anomalous Stokes V profiles are reproduced successfully by adding the nearly symmetric Stokes V profiles observed at pixels immediately adjacent to the PIL. This result suggests that these observed anomalous Stokes V profiles are not indications of a flux removal process, but are the result of either a mixture of unresolved, opposite-polarity magnetic elements or the unresolved width of the PIL, at an estimated resolution element of about 0.''3. The hitherto undetected flux removal process accounting for the larger-scale disappearance of magnetic flux during the observing period is likely to also fall below resolution.

  4. Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Efforts and Observations at the Rocknest Eolian Sand Shadow in Curiosity's Gale Crater Field Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Goetz, W.; Kah, L. C.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Beegle, L. W.; Carsten, J. L.; Cooper, B.; Deen, R. G.; Dromart, G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hardgrove, C. J.; Harker, D. E.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herrera, P. N.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Jandura, L.; Ming, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is focused on assessing the past or present habitability of Mars, through interrogation of environment and environmental records at the Curiosity rover field site in Gale crater. The MSL team has two methods available to collect, process and deliver samples to onboard analytical laboratories, the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. One approach obtains samples by drilling into a rock, the other uses a scoop to collect loose regolith fines. Scooping was planned to be first method performed on Mars because materials could be readily scooped multiple times and used to remove any remaining, minute terrestrial contaminants from the sample processing system, the Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA). Because of this cleaning effort, the ideal first material to be scooped would consist of fine to very fine sand, like the interior of the Serpent Dune studied by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit team in 2004 [1]. The MSL team selected a linear eolian deposit in the lee of a group of cobbles they named Rocknest (Fig. 1) as likely to be similar to Serpent Dune. Following the definitions in Chapter 13 of Bagnold [2], the deposit is termed a sand shadow. The scooping campaign occurred over approximately 6 weeks in October and November 2012. To support these activities, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired images for engineering support/assessment and scientific inquiry.

  5. A pilot and field investigation on mobility of PCDDs/PCDFs in landfill site with municipal solid waste incineration residue.

    PubMed

    Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2002-09-01

    A field investigation by boring was carried out in a landfill site primarily with municipal solid waste incineration residue. From the collected core samples, vertical profiles of homologous content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the landfill layer were traced and the behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. In addition, a pilot-scale study was conducted on the PCDDs/PCDFs leached from incineration fly ash and the treated one using large landfill simulation columns (lysimeters) and the leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. As a result, it was found that the coexistence of dissolved coloring constituents (DCCs), which might be composed of constituents like dissolved humic matters having strong affinity for hydrophobic organic pollutants, could enhance the leachability of PCDDs/PCDFs, thus contributing to the vertical movement and leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs in the landfill layers of the incineration residue. Moreover, it is highly probable that DCCs derive from the unburned carbon in the bottom ash mixed and buried with the fly ash containing a high content of PCDDs/PCDFs. PMID:12222779

  6. Field Calibration of Wind Direction Sensor to the True North and Its Application to the Daegwanryung Wind Turbine Test Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Wan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a field calibration technique for aligning a wind direction sensor to the true north. The proposed technique uses the synchronized measurements of captured images by a camera, and the output voltage of a wind direction sensor. The true wind direction was evaluated through image processing techniques using the captured picture of the sensor with the least square sense. Then, the evaluated true value was compared with the measured output voltage of the sensor. This technique solves the discordance problem of the wind direction sensor in the process of installing meteorological mast. For this proposed technique, some uncertainty analyses are presented and the calibration accuracy is discussed. Finally, the proposed technique was applied to the real meteorological mast at the Daegwanryung test site, and the statistical analysis of the experimental testing estimated the values of stable misalignment and uncertainty level. In a strict sense, it is confirmed that the error range of the misalignment from the exact north could be expected to decrease within the credibility level.

  7. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, J. C.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Nunez, J. I.; Quinn, J. W.; Sanders, G. B.; Sellar, R. G.; Sigurdson, L.; Taylor, R.; Zacny, K.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  8. Chronic recordings from single sites of kitten striate cortex during experience-dependent modifications of receptive-field properties.

    PubMed

    Mioche, L; Singer, W

    1989-07-01

    1. With the use of chronically implanted floating microelectrodes, we obtained simultaneous single-unit recordings from multiple sites in the kitten striate cortex and followed experience-dependent modifications of receptive-field properties. For induction of experimental modifications, we used the paradigm of monocular deprivation and reverse occlusion. Kittens were implanted when 4-5 wk old. During the following 2 days, receptive-field properties of the recorded units were determined once under light ketamine anesthesia and repeatedly while the kittens were awake and only lightly restrained. Subsequently, one eye was patched, and the resulting changes in neuronal eye preference were followed by repeated measurements of response properties. For investigation of the effects of reverse occlusion, the deprived eye was opened and the previously open eye closed when the neurons had become unresponsive to the initially deprived eye. Alternatively, kittens were monocularly deprived for 1 wk by lid suture before implantation. The closed eye was then opened, the other eye patched, and the effects of reverse occlusion were studied for up to 1 wk by repeated measurements of receptive-field properties. 2. The earliest effect of monocular deprivation was the disappearance of binocular summation, i.e., binocular responses ceased to be superior over monocular responses. Overt changes of ocular dominance were observed as early as 6 h after the beginning of monocular deprivation. These consisted of a gradual decrease of the excitatory response to deprived eye stimulation and, on occasions, of an additional moderate increase of responses to the normal eye. A complete loss of excitatory responses to deprived-eye stimulation was seen as early as 12 h after occlusion. In numerous cells, however, stimulation of the deprived eye continued to evoke inhibitory responses even after excitatory responses had vanished completely. During this shift in ocularity, neurons preserved their

  9. EVALUATION, DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION OF FIELD METHODS FOR RAPID, ON-SITE DETERMINATION OF APPROPRIATED CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel involved in chemical spill emergency response and hazardous waste site activities often have the need to make on-site decisions regarding the effectiveness and limitations of their available chemical protective clothing. Three gravimetric test methods, typically used in...

  10. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    extension and consolidation are identified. These data correlate with results of seismic and mining works. Hydrogeological 3D Model. The hydrogeological 3D Model de- velopment starts from the upper hydrodynamic zone, for which the data are available on hydraulic parameters. After calibration of the upper model elements, the deep part of the model is developed using data about the permeability structure of the crystalline rock massif, obtained from the 3D STSM. The results of analysis and the discrepancy of hydrodynamic regime modeling are used to refine the 3D Model for the rocks per- meability structure. This iterative process of consecutive correlation and refinement of model may be repeated many times. As a result of this technique implementation, the areas of active and very slow water exchange are found, and the system is revealed of vertically alternating zones of enhanced filtration and weak permeability. Based on these data, the sites are pre-selected, which are prospective for subsequently more detailed works on grounding the possibility of nuclear wastes isolation in geological formations. The use of the methodology described above is expedient at the stage of more detailed works, if the corresponding complex is provided of geophysical, hydro- geological, field testing and modeling investigations. Summary Successful testing of 3D STSM technology was carried out starting from 1997 till 1999 by the Ministry of Emergency Situations and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine during the realization of the project "Choosing the favorable geological structures for safe isolation of dangerous nuclear wastes of Chernobyl NPP". The performed works enabled us to draw prelim- inary 3D Space-Time Surface Model, structural-kinematic and geodynamic map of 2 the region understudy. As a result, two regions were selected, which are characterized by existence of geodynamic processes of cooling, thermal shrinkage and structural substance compression of geospace medium. Such regions seem to be the

  11. Chemical Concentrations in Field Mice from Open-Detonation Firing Sites TA-36 Minie and TA-39 Point 6 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.

  12. Understanding the ecological background of rice agriculture on the Ningshao Plain during the Neolithic Age: pollen evidence from a buried paddy field at the Tianluoshan cultural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhai; Zheng, Yunfei; Yu, Shiyong; Li, Yongxiang; Shen, Huadong

    2012-03-01

    The progressive rise of atmospheric CH4 level since 5 ka has been hypothesized to result from human agricultural activities that turned forested lands, which would otherwise be a carbon sink, into paddy fields. Increasing numbers of Neolithic cultural sites unearthed in coastal eastern China, providing unique opportunities to test this hypothesis. Here, we present detailed pollen data from a buried paddy field at Tianluoshan cultural site on the Ningshao Plain, eastern China, to reconstruct the ecological conditions associated with the establishment of paddy fields. Stratigraphic data, radiocarbon ages, and pollen analyses show that vegetation underwent six phases of evolution and paddy fields were developed from 7000 to 4200 cal. yr BP. We found no evidence of slash-and-burn agriculture at the study site. Together with no presence of the irrigation system, our pollen data suggest the paddy fields at this site originated from wetlands. Hence, our findings do not support the hypothesis that anthropogenic-induced deforestation play ed a significant role in the rise of the atmospheric CH4 rise since the middle Holocene.

  13. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  14. Investigation of hydrologic and biogeochemical controls on arsenic mobilization using distributed sensing at a field site in Munshiganj, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Estrin, D.; Harmon, T.; Harvey, C.; Jay, J.; Kohler, E.; Rothenberg, S.

    2006-12-01

    deployed in many habitat monitoring sensor networks. While using Sympathy at our Bangladesh field site we received 80% of the sensor data expected at the base station, upon returning, post-deployment analysis revealed that 42% of these sensor data were potentially faulty. Due to the remote location of the deployment, we were unable to go back and validate the questionable segments of the data set, forcing us to discard potentially interesting information. In addition to being undesirable, this response is often avoidable as well. Even simple actions such as checking sensor connections and quickly validating sensors in the field could have increased our confidence in the quality of the data, minimizing doubts that data observations were simply caused by badly behaving hardware. To improve data quality, we have designed a system called Confidence, which continuously monitors data collected at a base-station to identify faulty data and notify the user in the field of actions they can take to validate the data or remediate the sensor fault. Augmenting a sensor network deployment with Confidence and Sympathy enables users in the identification and remediation of faults impacting the quality and quantity of data respectively.

  15. Comparing the performance of coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere models at two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, S.; Wöhling, T.; Priesack, E.; Wizemann, H.-D.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2012-04-01

    of their structural complexity on two winter wheat research fields under different climate in South-West Germany. We investigate the ability of the models to simultaneously fit measured soil water contents, leaf area development and actual evapotranspiration rates from eddy-covariance measurements. The calibration of the models is performed in a multi-criteria context using three objective functions, which describe the discrepancy between measurements and simulations of the three data types. We use the AMALGAM evolutionary search algorithm to simultaneously estimate the most important plant and soil hydraulic parameters. The results show that the trade-off in fitting soil moisture, leaf area development and evapotranspiration can be quite large for those models that represent plant processes by simple concepts. However, these trade-offs are smaller for the more mechanistic plant growth models, so that it can be expected that these optimized mechanistic models will provide the basis for improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere feedback processes.

  16. Early Oligocene geomagnetic field behavior from ODP Site 1128: Complex records of short-period polarity events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Garza, R. S.; Fuller, M. D.

    2001-12-01

    At Site 1128, in the Great Australian Bight, Leg 182 of the Ocean Drilling Program recovered a thick (~350 m) section of Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene marine calcareous clays. Shipboard measurements established a magnetostratigraphy that can unambiguously be correlated to chrons C13n to C10n of the global polarity time scale (GPTS), and a less complete record of chrons C17n to C15r (due to poor core recovery). Correlation to the GPTS is further supported by available biostratigraphic data. For the Lower Oligocene sequence, average sedimentation rate is estimated at ~4 cm/kyr. The sediments recovered thus allow to test for the completeness and reliability of the geomagnetic field polarity during the Early Oligocene. The original shipboard long-core measurements suggested the presence of additional short polarity events or geomagnetic field excursions during chrons C13n, C12r, C11r, and C11n. In order to examine the reliability of the record and the nature of possible short-polarity events, we obtained discrete samples from the entire sequence at ~1 m intervals, with a closer sample spacing in critical intervals (~10 cm). The natural remanence of these sediments is normally simple. After removing a small soft overprint, the magnetization decays towards the origin with distributed coercivities and distributed unblocking temperatures. Demagnetization behavior and other rock magnetic data indicate that the remanence resides primarily in a cubic phase such as magnetite or maghemite, with a small contribution from hematite. Discrete samples from chron C12r did not reproduce the long-core record for two of the supposed events, single samples suggest the presence of short events or cryptochrons near the base of both C13n and C12r, and multiple samples suggest the existence of short-period normal polarity events during C11r and near the top of C12r. The records of these events are, however, complex. Demagnetization results indicate that the magnetization consists of an

  17. Potential Geophysical Field Transformations and Combined 3D Modelling for Estimation the Seismic Site Effects on Example of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Meirova, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that the local seismic site effects may have a significant contribution to the intensity of damage and destruction (e.g., Hough et al., 1990; Regnier et al., 2000; Bonnefoy-Claudet et al., 2006; Haase et al., 2010). The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, usually are derived from seismic velocities. At the same time, thickness of sediments may be determined (or defined) on the basis of 3D combined gravity-magnetic modeling joined with available geological materials, seismic data and borehole section examination. Final result of such investigation is a 3D physical-geological model (PGM) reflecting main geological peculiarities of the area under study. Such a combined study needs in application of a reliable 3D mathematical algorithm of computation together with advanced methodology of 3D modeling. For this analysis the developed GSFC software was selected. The GSFC (Geological Space Field Calculation) program was developed for solving a direct 3-D gravity and magnetic prospecting problem under complex geological conditions (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2004). This program has been designed for computing the field of Δg (Bouguer, free-air or observed value anomalies), ΔZ, ΔX, ΔY , ΔT , as well as second derivatives of the gravitational potential under conditions of rugged relief and inclined magnetization. The geological space can be approximated by (1) three-dimensional, (2) semi-infinite bodies and (3) those infinite along the strike closed, L.H. non-closed, R.H. on-closed and open). Geological bodies are approximated by horizontal polygonal prisms. The program has the following main advantages (besides abovementioned ones): (1) Simultaneous computing of gravity and magnetic fields; (2) Description of the terrain relief by irregularly placed characteristic points; (3) Computation of the effect of the earth-air boundary by the method of selection directly in the process of interpretation; (4

  18. Field-scale Stability Assessment of Multi-year Spatiotemporal Variability in Cotton for the Site-specific Management of Tarnished Plant Bugs (Lygus ineolaris Palisot de Beauvois)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management of Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB) infestations is dependent upon several factors contributing to field-scale variability that promote variations in cotton crop vigor. Six years of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data (2001-2006) have been used to examine gradations ...

  19. Complete genome sequence of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11, isolated from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center site

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jayashree; Waters, R. Jordan; Skerker, Jeffrey M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Jiawen; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-14

    Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11 was isolated from groundwater at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC) site. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11. The genome contains 8,421,483 bp, 7,661 predicted protein-coding genes, and a total GC content of 64.4%.

  20. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and III FEMs for PM10â2.5 and PM2.5 C Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR...

  1. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  2. Determining Virtual Environment "Fit": The Relationship between Navigation Style in a Virtual Field Trip, Student Self-Reported Desire to Visit the Field Trip Site in the Real World, and the Purposes of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutwiler, M. Shane; Lin, Ming-Chao; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a follow-up analysis of the data reported in Lin et al. ("Learn Media Technol." doi: 10.1080/17439884.2011.629660 , 2011), we investigated the relationship between student use of a virtual field trip (VFT) system and the probability of students reporting wanting to visit the national park site upon which the VFT was modeled,…

  3. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  4. A field test for competitive effects of Aedes albopictus on A. aegypti in South Florida: differences between sites of coexistence and exclusion?

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip; O’Meara, George F.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether interspecific competition from Aedes albopictus had measurable effects on A. aegypti at the typical numbers of larval mosquitoes found in cemetery vases in south Florida. We also tested whether the effect of interspecific competition from A. albopictus on A. aegypti differed between sites where A. aegypti either persists or went extinct following invasion by A. albopictus. Similar experiments manipulating numbers of A. albopictus in cemetery vases were conducted at three sites of A. aegypti persistence and three sites where A. aegypti was apparently extinct. The experiments were done using numbers of larvae that were determined by observed numbers of larvae for each site, and with resources (leaf detritus) that accumulated in experimental vases placed into each field site. In both the early rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was low) and the late rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was high), there was a significant effect of treatment on developmental progress of experimental A. aegypti. In the late rainy season, when numbers of larvae were high, there was also a significant effect of treatment on survivorship of A. aegypti. However, the competition treatment × site type (A. aegypti persists vs extinct) interaction was never significant, indicating that the competitive effect of A. albopictus on A. aegypti did not differ systematically between persistence versus extinction sites. Thus, although competition from A. albopictus is strong under field conditions at all sites, we find no evidence that variation in the impact of interspecific competition is associated with coexistence or exclusion. Interspecific competition among larvae is thus a viable explanation for exclusion or reduction of A. aegypti in south Florida, but variation in the persistence of A. aegypti following invasion does not seem to be primarily a product of variation in the conditions in the aquatic environments of cemetery vases. PMID:15024640

  5. Potential Geophysical Field Transformations and Combined 3D Modelling for Estimation the Seismic Site Effects on Example of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Meirova, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that the local seismic site effects may have a significant contribution to the intensity of damage and destruction (e.g., Hough et al., 1990; Regnier et al., 2000; Bonnefoy-Claudet et al., 2006; Haase et al., 2010). The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, usually are derived from seismic velocities. At the same time, thickness of sediments may be determined (or defined) on the basis of 3D combined gravity-magnetic modeling joined with available geological materials, seismic data and borehole section examination. Final result of such investigation is a 3D physical-geological model (PGM) reflecting main geological peculiarities of the area under study. Such a combined study needs in application of a reliable 3D mathematical algorithm of computation together with advanced methodology of 3D modeling. For this analysis the developed GSFC software was selected. The GSFC (Geological Space Field Calculation) program was developed for solving a direct 3-D gravity and magnetic prospecting problem under complex geological conditions (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2004). This program has been designed for computing the field of Δg (Bouguer, free-air or observed value anomalies), ΔZ, ΔX, ΔY , ΔT , as well as second derivatives of the gravitational potential under conditions of rugged relief and inclined magnetization. The geological space can be approximated by (1) three-dimensional, (2) semi-infinite bodies and (3) those infinite along the strike closed, L.H. non-closed, R.H. on-closed and open). Geological bodies are approximated by horizontal polygonal prisms. The program has the following main advantages (besides abovementioned ones): (1) Simultaneous computing of gravity and magnetic fields; (2) Description of the terrain relief by irregularly placed characteristic points; (3) Computation of the effect of the earth-air boundary by the method of selection directly in the process of interpretation; (4

  6. Role of post-field raw data processing: a multi-site and full factorial uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Simone; Fratini, Gerardo; Arriga, Nicola; Papale, Dario

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainties in the Eddy Covariance flux measurements are a fundamental issue not yet completely solved. The complexity of the method, involving many, not standardized processing steps is one among the source of such uncertainty. The goal of our work is to quantify uncertainties deriving from post-field raw data processing, needed to calculate fluxes from collected turbulence measurements. The methodology we propose is a full-factorial design, performed using as factors a number of selected processing steps. We applied this approach to 15 European flux stations representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (Mediterranean, Nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setups (e.g. open vs. closed path systems). Then we processed one year of raw data from each of the selected stations so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options (levels) relative to all the critical processing steps, i.e: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density fluctuations; and length of the flux averaging interval. The software we used is EddyPro™. At last we calculated the cumulative NEE (response) for each process, and performed an analysis of variance of the factorial design. In addition to the global uncertainty, from this statistical approach we obtain information about the factors that most contribute to the uncertainties, and also the most relevant two-level interactions between factors. Here we present partial results from the first sites analysed. For the beech forest of Sorø, Denmark (Gill R2 anemometer and closed path GA, tube length = 50 m) the factor that most contributes to the variance in 2007 (40.4 %) is the trend removal, with an uncertainty of 7.5%. It is followed by the angle of attack (16.1 % of the total variability, uncertainty 3.5 %) and the interaction between trend removal and time lag compensation

  7. Comparison of Field Groundwater Biostimulation Experiments Using Polylactate and Lactate Solutions at the Chromium-Contaminated Hanford 100-H Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, T. C.; Faybishenko, B.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Steefel, C.; Larsen, J.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Christensen, J. N.; Brown, S. T.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S. E.; Geller, J. T.; Chakraborty, R.; Nico, P. S.; Long, P. E.; Newcomer, D. R.; Arntzen, E.

    2011-12-01

    The primary contaminant of concern in groundwater at the DOE Hanford 100 Area (Washington State) is hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in Hanford coarse-grained sediments. Three lactate injections were conducted in March, August, and October 2010 at the Hanford 100-H field site to assess the efficacy of in situ Cr(VI) bioreductive immobilization. Each time, 55 gal of lactate solution was injected into the Hanford aquifer. To characterize the biogeochemical regimes before and after electron donor injection, we implemented a comprehensive plan of groundwater sampling for microbial, geochemical, and isotopic analyses. These tests were performed to provide evidence of transformation of toxic and soluble Cr(VI) into less toxic and poorly soluble Cr(III) by bioimmobilization, and to quantify critical and interrelated microbial metabolic and geochemical mechanisms affecting chromium in situ reductive immobilization and the long-term sustainability of chromium bioremediation. The results of lactate injections were compared with data from two groundwater biostimulation tests that were conducted in 2004 and 2008 by injecting Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC°), a slow-release glycerol polylactate, into the Hanford aquifer. In all HRC and lactate injection tests, 13C-labeled lactate was added to the injected solutions to track post-injection carbon pathways. Monitoring showed that despite a very low initial total microbial density (from <104 to 105 cells/mL), both HRC and lactate injections stimulated anaerobic microbial activity, which led to an increase in biomass to >107 cells/mL (including sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacteria), resulting in a significant decrease in soluble Cr(VI) concentrations to below the MCL. In all tests, lactate was consumed nearly completely within the first week, much faster than HRC. Modeling of biogeochemical and isotope fractionation processes with the reaction-transport code TOUGHREACT captured the biodegradation of lactate, fermentative production

  8. Laboratory and field studies related to radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site October 1, 1998-September 30, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Finnegan; K. S. Kung; B. A. Martinez

    2000-02-01

    In this report the author describes his research in FY 1999 at the Nevada Test Site regarding the movement of radionuclides in groundwater. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office through their Defense Programs and Environmental Restorations divisions. Significant accomplishments include upgrading a spectrometer used to characterize groundwater colloids, acquisition of a probe to allow in situ measurement of groundwater parameters, and purchase of pumps for use in small-diameter access tubing. He collected water samples from a number of nuclear test sites during the past year. Samples from the chimney horizon at the Camembert site show that only volatile radionuclides are present there, as expected. Groundwater from the cavity region at the Cheshire site shows evidence of fission product leaching or desorption from melt glass or rock surfaces. Colloids present in this water were found to be remarkably stable during storage for many years. The colloid content of groundwater at the Cambric site and at UE-5n was found to be low relative to that in groundwater on Pahute Mesa. This, coupled with the apparent lack of groundwater flow in the alluvial rock at the Cambric site, suggests that radionuclide movement underground in this area is relatively minimal. He continued the yearly monitoring of the thermally hot cavity fluids at the Almendro site. He concludes this report by listing documents reviewed and presentations and publications generated by the program.

  9. Three-site Bose-Hubbard model subject to atom losses: Boson-pair dissipation channel and failure of the mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Shchesnovich, V. S.; Mogilevtsev, D. S.

    2010-10-15

    We employ the perturbation series expansion for derivation of the reduced master equations for the three-site Bose-Hubbard model subject to strong atom losses from the central site. The model describes a condensate trapped in a triple-well potential subject to externally controlled removal of atoms. We find that the {pi}-phase state of the coherent superposition between the side wells decays via two dissipation channels, the single-boson channel (similar to the externally applied dissipation) and the boson-pair channel. The quantum derivation is compared to the classical adiabatic elimination within the mean-field approximation. We find that the boson-pair dissipation channel is not captured by the mean-field model, whereas the single-boson channel is described by it. Moreover, there is a matching condition between the zero-point energy bias of the side wells and the nonlinear interaction parameter which separates the regions where either the single-boson or the boson-pair dissipation channel dominate. Our results indicate that the M-site Bose-Hubbard models, for M>2, subject to atom losses may require an analysis which goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation for correct description of their dissipative features. This is an important result in view of the recent experimental works on the single-site addressability of condensates trapped in optical lattices.

  10. Investigating temporal field sampling strategies for site-specific calibration of three soil moisture - neutron intensity parameterisation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, J.; Rosolem, R.; Baatz, R.; Wagener, T.; Bogena, H. R.

    2015-02-01

    The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) can provide soil moisture information at scales relevant to hydrometeorological modeling applications. Site-specific calibration is needed to translate CRNS neutron intensities into sensor footprint average soil moisture contents. We investigated temporal sampling strategies for calibration of three CRNS parameterisations (modified N0, HMF, and COSMIC) by assessing the effects of the number of sampling days and soil wetness conditions on the performance of the calibration results, for three sites with distinct climate and land use: a semi-arid site, a temperate grassland and a temperate forest. When calibrated with a year of data, COSMIC performed relatively good at all three sites, and the modified N0 method performed best at the two humid sites. It is advisable to collect soil moisture samples on more than a single day regardless of which parameterisation is used. In any case, sampling on more than ten days would, despite the strong increase in work effort, improve calibration results only little. COSMIC needed the least number of days at each site. At the semi-arid site, the N0mod method was calibrated better under average wetness conditions, whereas HMF and COSMIC were calibrated better under drier conditions. Average soil wetness condition gave better calibration results at the two humid sites. The calibration results for the HMF method were better when calibrated with combinations of days with similar soil wetness conditions, opposed to N0mod and COSMIC, which profited from using days with distinct wetness conditions. The outcomes of this study can be used by researchers as a CRNS calibration strategy guideline.

  11. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  16. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  17. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  18. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  19. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  20. Carrier redistribution between different potential sites in semipolar (202{sup ¯}1) InGaN quantum wells studied by near-field photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Marcinkevičius, S.; Gelžinytė, K.; Zhao, Y.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

    2014-09-15

    Scanning near-field photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at different excitation powers was applied to study nanoscale properties of carrier localization and recombination in semipolar (202{sup ¯}1) InGaN quantum wells (QWs) emitting in violet, blue, and green-yellow spectral regions. With increased excitation power, an untypical PL peak energy shift to lower energies was observed. The shift was attributed to carrier density dependent carrier redistribution between nm-scale sites of different potentials. Near-field PL scans showed that in (202{sup ¯}1) QWs the in-plane carrier diffusion is modest, and the recombination properties are uniform, which is advantageous for photonic applications.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover initial Mastcam geomorphologic and multispectral characterization of the Gale crater field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.; Malin, M.; Maki, J.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edgett, K. S.; Edwards, L.; Garvin, J. B.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Johnson, J. R.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, M. S.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sletten, R. S.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater on August 6, 2012 and has been enabling the exploration of a variety of geologic terrains between the rover's landing site at Bradbury Rise and the nearby topographic low point known as Yellowknife Bay. Curiosity carries a multispectral imaging system known as Mastcam, which consists of two boresighted CCD cameras, one of which acquires relatively wide field images (34-mm focal length, 18.4x15 degree FOV) and the other of which obtains narrower-angle telephoto images (100-mm focal length, 6.3x5.1 degree FOV). Each of these cameras has an 8-position filter wheel to enable imaging through broadband RGB Bayer filtes, nine specific narrowband filters in the 445 to 1012 nm region to enabled limited detectability of certain ferric, ferrous, and hydrated minerals, and neutral density solar filters for monitoring of atmospheric opacity. The Mastcams acquire images designed primarily to address specific scientific goals in geology, mineralogy, and atmospheric science, but also to support operational decisions related to rover driving, arm instrument placement, and rover subsystems status. Here we provide an overview of the initial scientific imaging results from the Mastcam investigation, from sol 0 (landing sol) through the end of the drilling campaign in Yellowknife Bay and the beginning of the long drive from there to the base of Mt. Sharp. A diversity of materials exposed at the surface have been encountered. This includes angular to sub-angular rock fragments scattered across the surface, boulder to fine gravel in size, variably dusty, and commonly fine grained. Thin outcrops of pebble to gravel conglomerate have been encountered across Bradbury rise. Granular ripples and other fine grained deposits were periodically encountered. In the wind-eroded Yellowknife Bay area, extensive polygonally fractured outcrops of sandstone and mudstone (with light-toned fracture fills) were discovered. The occurrence of

  2. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1987-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on=site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits and to identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources, to local fallout of radioactive debris from the Chernobyl reactor accident, and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  3. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual Report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limited and to identify processes that rnay require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. Work in nuclear energy research and development in what has become the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation began in 1946. In addition to a broad spectrum of conventional programs in rocket propulsion, utilization of space, and national defense, Rocketdyne is working on the design, development, and testing of components and systems for central station nuclear power plants, the decladding of irradiated nuclear fuel, and the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities.

  4. What Does Ratemyprofessors.com Actually Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayson, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    This research looks closely at claims that ratemyprofessors.com creates a valid measure of teaching effectiveness because student responses are consistent with a learning model. While some evidence for this contention was found in three datasets taken from the site, the majority of the evidence indicates that the instrument is biassed by a halo…

  5. The nonrelativistic limit of (central-extended) Poincare group and some consequences for quantum actualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ardenghi, Juan S.; Castagnino, M.; Campoamor-Stursberg, R.

    2009-10-15

    The nonrelativistic limit of the centrally extended Poincare group is considered and their consequences in the modal Hamiltonian interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed [O. Lombardi and M. Castagnino, Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys 39, 380 (2008); J. Phys, Conf. Ser. 128, 012014 (2008)]. Through the assumption that in quantum field theory the Casimir operators of the Poincare group actualize, the nonrelativistic limit of the latter group yields to the actualization of the Casimir operators of the Galilei group, which is in agreement with the actualization rule of previous versions of modal Hamiltonian interpretation [Ardenghi et al., Found. Phys. (submitted)].

  6. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the interceptor trench field study near the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1999-12-15

    The US Department of Energy proposes to construct a groundwater interceptor trench near the Weldon Spring Quarry at the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. The trench would be located near two palustrine wetland areas. Impacts to wetland hydrology and biotic communities are expected to be negligible. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

  7. Frequent short rest breaks from computer work: effects on productivity and well-being at two field sites.

    PubMed

    Henning, R A; Jacques, P; Kissel, G V; Sullivan, A B; Alteras-Webb, S M

    1997-01-01

    Computer operators at two work sites (n = 73, n = 19) were prompted to take three 30-s and one 3-min break from computer work each hour in addition to conventional rest breaks. Some operators were asked to perform stretching exercises during the short breaks. Mood state and musculoskeletal discomfort were assessed at each work site over a 2- or 3-week baseline period and a 4- or 6-week treatment period, respectively. Operator productivity measures were obtained from company records. Operators complied with about half of the added breaks but favoured 3-min breaks over 30-s breaks. No improvement in productivity or well-being was found at the larger work site. At the smaller work site, productivity, eye, leg and foot comfort all improved when the short breaks included stretching exercises. These results provide evidence that frequent short breaks from continuous computer-mediated work can benefit worker productivity and well-being when the breaks integrate with task demands. PMID:8995049

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL METHODS TESTING SITE: USERS' GUIDE (RE-ANNOUNCEMENT OF PB87-202412 - SEE NOTES FIELD FOR EXPLANATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Methods Testing Site (EMTS) Project is being conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency with the cooperation of the state of Georgia, the state of Tennessee, Hamilton County, Tennessee, and the city of Chattanooga. The concept is to establish one well-char...

  9. Delineation of Management Zones for Site Specific Management of Parasitic Nematodes Using Geostatistical Analysis of Measured Field Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delineation of management zones for site specific management of cotton-parasitic nematodes requires the study of their spatial and temporal variability. If the nematodes follow a spatial structure and this structure is correlated with the spatial variability of specific biotic or abiotic conditions ...

  10. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes.

  11. Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Kana; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image

  12. Age Offsets of the Matuyama-Brunhes Polarity Transition in Records From the Atlantic: Lock-in Depth Variations or Site Dependent Field Behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, B. M.; Acton, G.; Lund, S.; Okada, M.; Williams, T.

    2004-12-01

    A number of high -resolution Matuyama-Brunhes transitions have recently been obtained from deep-sea sediments in the Atlantic Ocean. Three of these transition records were obtained from sites on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge and the Bermuda Rise as part of depth transect drilled during ODP Leg 172. The polarity transition records from these sites are remarkably similar, both during the reversal and in excursions that occurred prior to the reversal. Previous work has shown that in this region initial magnetic susceptibility records provide a useful proxy for marine isotopic stages. However, using the shipboard susceptibility records as a correlation tool, it becomes apparent that while the transition records exhibit very similar features, these features are offset relative to the susceptibility records at ODP Sites 1060, 1061 and 1063. The distance between Sites 1060 and 1061 is insignificant on a geomagnetic scale, implying that the differences are not likely due to time transgressive field behavior. Instead, the offset of the magnetization record relative to the susceptibility record may result from a difference in the lock-in depths at these sites. A possible explanation is that the different water depths at the sites affect the amount of organic matter that is oxidized before reaching the sea-floor. This in turn would lead to different depths of the redox boundaries within the sediment column. If the remanence lock-in zone is related to processes associated with the redox boundary, the difference in water depths may explain the offsets. To test this hypothesis, we compare the other Matuyama-Brunhes records from the Atlantic with the positions of the reversal relative to the marine isotopic stages, including the record from Site 1083, which was recorded in anoxic sediments.

  13. Modeling of CBM production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer movement at a field CO{sub 2} sequestration site

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

    2012-07-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical

  14. Spatio-temporal variations in the structure of the attenuation field of the S-wave in the region of Nevada nuclear test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.; Sokolov, K. N.

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of the attenuation field of short-period shear waves in the region of Nevada nuclear test site (NNTS) are studied. The seismograms of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) and earthquakes recorded by three seismic stations in 1975-2012 at the epicentral distances of up to 1000 km are processed by the methods based on the analysis of the amplitude ratios of Sn to Pn and Lg to Pg waves, as well as the S-coda envelopes for close events. It is shown that the structure of the attenuation field in the Earth's crust and upper mantle in the NNTS region experienced significant temporal variations during the interval of nuclear operations. The strongest variations were associated with UNEs conducted in the Pahute Mesa area, which held about two-thirds of the most intense explosions. Our data indicate that temporal variations in the structure of the attenuation field are related to the migration of deep fluids. A comparison of the general characteristics of the attenuation field in the regions of the three large nuclear test sites is presented.

  15. Local site effects and dynamic soil behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afak, E.

    2001-01-01

    Amplitudes of seismic waves increase significantly as they pass through soft soil layers near the earth's surface. This phenomenon, commonly known as site amplification, is a major factor influencing the extent of damage on structures. It is crucial that site amplification is accounted for when designing structures on soft soils. The characteristics of site amplification at a given site can be estimated by analytical models, as well as field tests. Analytical models require as inputs the geometry of all soil layers from surface to bedrock, their dynamic properties (e.g. density, wave velocity, damping), and the incident bedrock motions. Field tests involve recording and analyzing the dynamic response of sites to artificial excitations, ambient forces, and actual earthquakes. The most reliable estimates of site amplification are obtained by analyzing the recorded motions of the site during strong earthquakes. This paper presents a review of the types and the generating mechanisms of site amplification, and the models and methods that are used to characterize them from earthquake records. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Fluid Geochemistry of the Capelinhos Vent Site. A Key to Understand the Lucky Strike Hydrothermal Vent Field (37°N, MAR).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.; Cannat, M.; Ceuleneer, G.; Castillo, A.; Menjot, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Lucky Strike hydrothermal field is situated at the mid-Atlantic ridge, south of the Azores, on top of a central volcano within the axial valley. The volcano is composed of a fossil lava lake surrounded by three volcanic cones. An Axial Magma Chamber (AMC) is reported 3.4km below the seafloor. The active venting sites are situated around the fossil lava lake and are directly linked to the heat supplied by the AMC. High temperature fluids from the Lucky Strike field were sampled in 2013, 2014 and 2015 in order to document the depth of the reaction zone, subsurface mixing, geographical control and magmatic degassing. A new active site named Capelinhos was discovered approximately 1.5km eastward from the lava lake, during exploration by ROV Victor6000 - MoMARsat cruise, 2013. It is composed of 10m-high chimneys discharging black smoker-type fluid. Fluid temperatures were 328°C in 2013 and decreased to 318°C in 2014 and 2015. Capelinhos fluids are Cl-depleted by 55% compared to seawater indicating phase separation at depth. In comparison, the other sites range from 6% enrichment (2608/Y3 site) to 22% depletion (Eiffel tower site). Si geothermobarometry of Y3 site estimates quartz equilibration at P=300 bars and T=360-380°C, coherent with Fe/Mn geothermometer (T=370±10°C). For Capelinhos, Fe/Mn suggests 398°C (±10°C) which is close to the critical point of seawater (P=300 bars and T=407°C). Other geothermobarometer uses Si/Cl vapor-like fluid to constrain depth of the top of reaction zone and predicts significant bias due to mixing along the up-flow zone. Application gives P=~370 bars, T=~435°C at Capelinhos and P=~390 bars, T=~440°C at Eiffel tower. This is further sustained by end-member 87Sr/86Sr=0.7038, which indicates little interaction of Capelinhos vent fluids with seawater-derived fluid, compared to other vapor-like sites with 87Sr/86Sr=0.7043. Because of its external location, Capelinhos site isn't influenced by the complex tectonic context of the

  17. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. I. TYPE Ib AND Ic SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Aldering, Greg; Arimoto, Nobuo; Pereira, Rui

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than {approx}25 M{sub Sun }, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  18. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Supernova Explosion Sites: Constraining the Mass and Metallicity of the Progenitors. I. Type Ib and Ic Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Doi, Mamoru; Aldering, Greg; Arimoto, Nobuo; Maeda, Keiichi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Pereira, Rui; Usuda, Tomonori; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than ~25 M ⊙, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  19. Microbial Diversity and Metal Speciation Changes in Mine Tailings Following Compost-Assisted Direct Planting: A Four-Year Superfund Site Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R. M.; Gil-Loaiza, J.; Honeker, L. K.; Hottenstein, J. D.; Valentin-Vargas, A.; Jennings, L. L.; Hammond, C.; Neilson, J. W.; Root, R. A.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    EPA estimates that future mine tailings remediation costs will exceed US $50 billion using present technologies based on constructing an inert or biological cap on the tailings. Both approaches require large amounts of capping materials that can be difficult and expensive to obtain especially for sites several thousand hectares in size. An alternative technology is direct planting into tailings. However, direct planting alone is not feasible for many legacy sites due to extreme acidity and high metal content which prevent plant germination and growth. Therefore the process must be "assisted" through the addition of amendments such as compost. Here we present results from the first four years of a field study at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site demonstrating the feasibility of compost-assisted direct planting. Parameters measured during the field study included: canopy cover, pH, nutrient content, plant metal uptake, metal(loid) speciation, mineral analysis, microbiome analysis, and plant root-metal-microbe interactions. Integrated analysis of these parameters suggests that even in this "worst-case scenario" mine tailings site (pH 2.5; As and Pb each exceeding 2 g kg-1), we have created a sustainable system. In this system, phyto-catalyzed stabilization of inorganic contaminants in the root zone is driven by plant root exudates and the associated rhizosphere microbial community. The results of this research will be put into context of a larger topic- that of ecological engineering of mine tailings sites - a technique being proposed to prevent creation of acidic conditions and metal(loid) mobilization in the first place.

  20. Microbial Diversity and Metal Speciation Changes in Mine Tailings Following Compost-Assisted Direct Planting: A Four-Year Superfund Site Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R. M.; Gil-Loaiza, J.; Honeker, L. K.; Hottenstein, J. D.; Valentin-Vargas, A.; Jennings, L. L.; Hammond, C.; Neilson, J. W.; Root, R. A.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    EPA estimates that future mine tailings remediation costs will exceed US $50 billion using present technologies based on constructing an inert or biological cap on the tailings. Both approaches require large amounts of capping materials that can be difficult and expensive to obtain especially for sites several thousand hectares in size. An alternative technology is direct planting into tailings. However, direct planting alone is not feasible for many legacy sites due to extreme acidity and high metal content which prevent plant germination and growth. Therefore the process must be "assisted" through the addition of amendments such as compost. Here we present results from the first four years of a field study at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site demonstrating the feasibility of compost-assisted direct planting. Parameters measured during the field study included: canopy cover, pH, nutrient content, plant metal uptake, metal(loid) speciation, mineral analysis, microbiome analysis, and plant root-metal-microbe interactions. Integrated analysis of these parameters suggests that even in this "worst-case scenario" mine tailings site (pH 2.5; As and Pb each exceeding 2 g kg-1), we have created a sustainable system. In this system, phyto-catalyzed stabilization of inorganic contaminants in the root zone is driven by plant root exudates and the associated rhizosphere microbial community. The results of this research will be put into context of a larger topic- that of ecological engineering of mine tailings sites - a technique being proposed to prevent creation of acidic conditions and metal(loid) mobilization in the first place.

  1. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Meteorological variables, surface reflectivity, surface and subsurface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J.; Paley, H. N.

    1977-01-01

    Data collected at the Finney County, Kansas test site as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment (JSME) are presented here, prior to analysis, to provide all JSME investigators with an immediate source of primary information. The ground-truth measurements were taken to verify and complement soil moisture data taken by microwave and infrared sensors during aircraft overflights. Measurements were made of meteorological variables (air speed, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall), surface reflectivity, and temperatures at and below the surface.

  2. Pilot-scale field tests for the methanotrophic technology cometabolic bioreactor demonstration at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Herbes, S.E.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes a demonstration of cometabolic technology for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated and aromatic solvents conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The technology demonstration is located at a seep from the K-1070-C/D Classified Burial Ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Funding for this demonstration is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program, Office of Technology Development.

  3. Isolating the actual signal of paleointensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J. M.; Moreno, E.; Bassinot, F.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Signals of relative and absolute paleointensity suffer inaccuracies and contaminations that must be considered to improve our knowledge of the field variations. Climatically related changes in rock magnetic parameters are frequently suspected of influencing the signal of relative paleointensity extrated from marine sediments. High resolution measurements of climatic and magnetic parameters have been performed on two cores from the eastern China Sea and the western Caroline Basin. On both cores, magnetic parameters show a strong imprint of climatic changes but the absence of relationship between the inclination and the bulk density indicates that the directional changes do not depend on lithology. All normalization parameters yielded similar estimates of relative paleointensity (RPI), but we have noticed the persistence of climatic components in the signal. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to different parameters related to climate, lithology and paleointensity has allowed to extract a "clean" magnetic signal that we refer as "principal component of paleointensity (PCP)" which is in better agreement with the Sint-2000 composite curve and provides a reliable record of relative paleointensity. The presence of climatic frequencies in RPIs most likely reflects the influence of lithology on the response of magnetization to field intensity. We suggest that PCA analysis can be very useful to approach these problems. Not only can the calculation separate overlapping climatic and magnetic signals, but it indicates what confidence should be given to the data. Incidentally, the present results emphasize the importance of carrying out detailed paleoclimatic analyses along with paleointensity studies. Many approaches have been proposed during the past 20 years for experiments of absolute paleointensity in order to reduce the duration of the experiments and increase the number of field determinations. However, this is frequently obtained to the detriment of the accuracy

  4. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the fields of geology, agriculture, forestry, and hydrology to selected test sites in Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary study of the ERTS-1 imagery coverage of Iran, commenced on October 26, 1972. All of the images were carefully examined, and a photomosaic covering approximately ninety-five per cent of the country was prepared. A number of images of selected areas were studied in detail. In the field of geology, a number of large scale faults were identified, which do not figure on geological maps. Furthermore, a preliminary study was carried out on the recent sediments, their possible sources, and origin. A limited number of geological work maps were prepared as well. In the fields of agriculture and forestry, studies based on color composite prints of certain areas were undertaken, with a purpose of identifying potential arable areas. Investigations in the field of water resources resulted in the discovery of a number of small lakes, and streams. Furthermore, fluctuations of the water level in some lakes were observed.

  5. New observations of infiltration through fractured alluvium in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site: A preliminary field investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.; Smith, D.K.; McKinnis, W.B.

    1994-02-01

    Regional tectonics coupled with the subsurface detonation of nuclear explosives has caused widespread fracturing of the alluvium of Yucca Flat. Fractures deeper than 30 meters have been observed in boreholes. Some of these fractures are large enough to capture significant amounts of runoff during storm events. Evidence of stream capture by fractures and observations of runoff flowing into open fractures give qualitative evidence of infiltration to depths greater than several meters and possibly to the saturated zone. Our field observations contradict the assumption that little infiltration occurs on Yucca Flat. The larger, hydrologically important fractures are associated with geologic faults or the regional stress field. Additional field studies are needed to investigate the impact of fractures on the transport of contaminants.

  6. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  7. Ultra-high field NMR studies of antibody binding and site-specific phosphorylation of {alpha}-synuclein

    SciTech Connect

    Sasakawa, Hiroaki |; Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Masuda, Masami |; Mori, Tetsuya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Iguchi, Takeshi; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kato, Koichi |

    2007-11-23

    Although biological importance of intrinsically disordered proteins is becoming recognized, NMR analyses of this class of proteins remain as tasks with more challenge because of poor chemical shift dispersion. It is expected that ultra-high field NMR spectroscopy offers improved resolution to cope with this difficulty. Here, we report an ultra-high field NMR study of {alpha}-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein identified as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Based on NMR spectral data collected at a 920 MHz proton frequency, we performed epitope mapping of an anti-{alpha}-synuclein monoclonal antibody, and furthermore, characterized conformational effects of phosphorylation at Ser129 of {alpha}-synuclein.

  8. Field study site selection, species abundance and monthly distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in the northern Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the ecology and behaviour of a target species is a prerequisite for the successful development of any vector control strategy. Before the implementation of any strategy it is essential to have comprehensive information on the bionomics of species in the targeted area. The aims of this study were to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of anopheline species in the northern Kruger National Park. In addition to this, the impact of weather conditions on an Anopheles arabiensis population were evaluated and a range of mosquito collection methods were assessed. Methods A survey of Anopheles species was made between July 2010 and December 2012. Mosquitoes were collected from five sites in the northern Kruger National Park, using carbon dioxide-baited traps, human landing and larval collections. Specimens were identified morphologically and polymerase chain reaction assays were subsequently used where appropriate. Results A total of 3,311 specimens belonging to nine different taxa was collected. Species collected were: Anopheles arabiensis (n = 1,352), Anopheles quadriannulatus (n = 870), Anopheles coustani (n = 395), Anopheles merus (n = 349), Anopheles pretoriensis (n = 35), Anopheles maculipalpis (n = 28), Anopheles rivulorum (n = 19), Anopheles squamosus (n = 3) and Anopheles rufipes (n = 2). Members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex were the most abundant and widely distributed, occurring across all collection sites. The highest number of mosquitoes was collected using CO2 baited net traps (58.2%) followed by human landing catches (24.8%). Larval collections (17%) provided an additional method to increase sample size. Mosquito sampling productivity was influenced by prevailing weather conditions and overall population densities fluctuated with seasons. Conclusion Several anopheline species occur in the northern Kruger National Park and their densities

  9. Evaluation of the Radiochemistry of Near-Field Water Samples at the Nevada Test Site Applied to the Definition of a Hydrologic Source Term

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K

    2002-07-05

    Effective management of available groundwater resources and strategies for remediation of water impacted by past nuclear testing practices depend on knowledge about the migration of radionuclides in groundwater away from the sites of the explosions. A primary concern is to assess the relative mobilities of the different radionuclide species found near sites of underground nuclear tests and to determine the concentration, extent, and speed of this movement. Ultimately the long term transport behavior of radionuclides with half-lives long enough that they will persist for decades, their interaction with groundwater, and the resulting flux of these contaminants is of paramount importance. As part of a comprehensive approach to these assessments, more than three decades of site-specific sites studies have been undertaken at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which have focused on the means responsible for the observed or suspected movement of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests (RNM, 1983). More recently regional and local models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport have been developed as part of a federal and state of Nevada program to assess the long-term effects of underground nuclear testing on human health and environment (e.g., U.S. DOE/NV, 1997a; Tompson et al., 1999; Pawloski et al., 2001). Necessary to these efforts is a reliable measure of the hydrologic source term which is defined as those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise transported by groundwater (Smith et al., 1995). Measurement of radionuclides in waters sampled near the sites of underground nuclear test provides arguably the best opportunity to bound the hydrologic source term. This empirical approach was recognized early and concentration data has been collected annually since mid-1970's. Initially three sites were studied at the NTS; over the years the program has been expanded to include more than fifteen study locations. As part of various field programs, Lawrence Livermore

  10. A rapid, controlled-environment seedling root screen for wheat correlates well with rooting depths at vegetative, but not reproductive, stages at two field sites

    PubMed Central

    Watt, M.; Moosavi, S.; Cunningham, S. C.; Kirkegaard, J. A.; Rebetzke, G. J.; Richards, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Root length and depth determine capture of water and nutrients by plants, and are targets for crop improvement. Here we assess a controlled-environment wheat seedling screen to determine speed, repeatability and relatedness to performance of young and adult plants in the field. Methods Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and diverse genotypes were grown in rolled, moist germination paper in growth cabinets, and primary root number and length were measured when leaf 1 or 2 were fully expanded. For comparison, plants were grown in the field and root systems were harvested at the two-leaf stage with either a shovel or a soil core. From about the four-leaf stage, roots were extracted with a steel coring tube only, placed directly over the plant and pushed to the required depth with a hydraulic ram attached to a tractor. Key Results In growth cabinets, repeatability was greatest (r = 0·8, P < 0·01) when the paper was maintained moist and seed weight, pathogens and germination times were controlled. Scanned total root length (slow) was strongly correlated (r = 0·7, P < 0·01) with length of the two longest seminal axile roots measured with a ruler (fast), such that 100–200 genotypes were measured per day. Correlation to field-grown roots at two sites at two leaves was positive and significant within the RILs and cultivars (r = 0·6, P = 0·01), and at one of the two sites at the five-leaf stage within the RILs (r = 0·8, P = 0·05). Measurements made in the field with a shovel or extracted soil cores were fast (5 min per core) and had significant positive correlations to scanner measurements after root washing and cleaning (>2 h per core). Field measurements at two- and five-leaf stages did not correlate with root depth at flowering. Conclusions The seedling screen was fast, repeatable and reliable for selecting lines with greater total root length in the young vegetative phase in the field. Lack of significant correlation with reproductive stage

  11. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.

  12. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two activemore » bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.« less

  13. Identification of Bacteria Synthesizing Ribosomal RNA in Response to Uranium Addition During Biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Site

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this study, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites. PMID:26382047

  14. Investigation of Aluminum Site Changes of Dehydrated Zeolite H-Beta during a Rehydration Process by High Field Solid State NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Suochang; Hu, Mary Y.; Bao, Xinhe; Peden, Charles HF; Hu, Jian Z.

    2015-01-22

    Aluminum site changes for dehydrated H-Beta zeolite during rehydration process are systematically investigated by ²⁷Al MAS and MQ MAS NMR at high magnetic fields up to 19.9 T. Benefiting from the high magnetic field, more detailed information is obtained from the considerably broadened and overlapped spectra of dehydrated H-beta zeolite. Dynamic changes of aluminum sites are demonstrated during rehydration process. In completely dehydrated H-Beta, invisible aluminum can reach 29%. The strength of quadrupole interactions for framework aluminum sites decreases gradually during water adsorption processes. The number of extra-framework aluminum (EFAL) species, i.e., penta- (34 ppm) and octa- (4 ppm) coordinated aluminum atoms rises initially with increasing water adsorption, and finally change into either tetra-coordinated framework or extra-framework aluminum in saturated water adsorption samples, with the remaining octa-coordinated aluminum lying at 0 and -4 ppm, respectively. Quantitative ²⁷Al MAS NMR analysis combined with ¹H MAS NMR indicates that some active EFAL species formed during calcination can reinsert into the framework during this hydration process. The assignment of aluminum at 0 ppm to EFAL cation and -4 ppm to framework aluminum is clarified for H-Beta zeolite.

  15. Genetic variability of spined soldier bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) sampled from distinct field sites and laboratory colonies in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), is an important biological control agent for agricultural and forest pests that preys on eggs and larvae of lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetic variability among field collected samples from Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, and Florida, ...

  16. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) study at the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), near the towns Rio Tinto and Nerva, Andalucia region, Spain.

  17. Early Field Experiences Offered to and Valued by Preservice Teachers at Sites of Excellence in Reading Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Misty; Keehn, Susan; Martinez, Miriam; Harmon, Janis

    2005-01-01

    The importance of a highly qualified teacher for student learning is undeniably the most important factor in political and research circles today. The question is not "do we need quality teachers?" but "how do we prepare quality teachers?" In this article, we report on the early field experiences offered to preservice teachers at 8 universities…

  18. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT--SITE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 70,000 lb steam/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and ...

  19. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITES L1-L7

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements to determine particulate emission rate and particle size distribution for seven institutional-type stoker-fired boilers firing bituminous coals. Operational data were recorded during the tests to provide information for evaluating bo...

  20. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE K

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 50,000 lb stream/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and...

  1. GROUND BEETLE OCCURRENCE IN ROTATED FIELDS OF BT CORN AND SOYBEAN IN THE SOUTH DAKOTA CORN ROOTWORM AREAWIDE SITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground beetles are important generalist predators in agricultural landscapes. During 2000-2001 we placed 2 transects of pitfall traps in each of 4 fields of rotated lepidopteran Bt corn and soybean. Sampling was conducted on a weekly basis and traps remained open for a 2-day period. In 2000, we c...

  2. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 90,000 lb/hr vibrating-grate-stoker boiler. The effect of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency was studied. Parameters included overfire air, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properties. Measurements inclu...

  3. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 200,000 lb/hr spreader stoker boiler. The effect of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency was studied. Parameters studied included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properti...

  4. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 182,5000 lb/hr spreader stoker boiler. The effect of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency was studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properties. Mea...

  5. Using remote sensing to characterize the influence of field-scale heterogeneity on in-site measurements of evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of field-scale evapotranspiration (ET) are critical to maximizing the efficient use of water for agricultural production which, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments, is the largest consumptive user of fresh water. Often, these estimates are derived using numerical or re...

  6. The synergistic use of models and observations: understanding the mechanisms behind observed biomass dynamics at 14 Amazonian field sites and the implications for future biomass change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, N. M.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. J.; Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Costa, M. H.; Phillips, O.; Andrade, A.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazonian rainforests play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling. The sensitivity of this system to natural and anthropogenic disturbances therefore has important implications for the global climate. Some global models have predicted large-scale forest dieback and the savannization of Amazonia over the next century [Meehl et al., 2007]. While several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of dynamic global vegetation models to changes in temperature, precipitation, and dry season length [e.g. Galbraith et al., 2010; Good et al., 2011], the ability of these models to accurately reproduce ecosystem dynamics of present-day transitional or low biomass tropical forests has not been demonstrated. A model-data intercomparison was conducted with four state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models to evaluate the ability of these models to accurately represent structure, function, and long-term biomass dynamics over a range of Amazonian ecosystems. Each modeling group conducted a series of simulations for 14 sites including mature forest, transitional forest, savannah, and agricultural/pasture sites. All models were run using standard physical parameters and the same initialization procedure. Model results were compared against forest inventory and dendrometer data in addition to flux tower measurements. While the models compared well against field observations for the mature forest sites, significant differences were observed between predicted and measured ecosystem structure and dynamics for the transitional forest and savannah sites. The length of the dry season and soil sand content were good predictors of model performance. In addition, for the big leaf models, model performance was highest for sites dominated by late successional trees and lowest for sites with predominantly early and mid-successional trees. This study provides insight into tropical forest function and sensitivity to environmental conditions that will aid in predictions of the

  7. Electrokinetic Ion Transport through Unsaturated Soil: 1) Theory, Model Development, and Testing 2) Application to a Heterogeneous Field Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Earl Douglas; Bowman, R. S.; Lindgren, E. R.

    2002-01-01

    An electromigration transport model for non-reactive ion transport in unsaturated soil was developed and tested against laboratory experiments. This model assumed the electric potential field was constant with respect to time, an assumption valid for highly buffered soil, or when the electrode electrolysis reactions are neutralized. The model also assumed constant moisture contents and temperature with respect to time, and that electroosmotic and hydraulic transport of water through the soil was negligible. A functional relationship between ionic mobility and the electrolyte concentration was estimated using the chemical activity coefficient. Tortuosity was calculated from a mathematical relationship fitted to the electrical conductivity of the bulk pore water and soil moisture data. The functional relationship between ionic mobility, pore-water concentration, and tortuosity as a function of moisture content allowed the model to predict ion transport in heterogeneous unsaturated soils. The model was tested against laboratory measurements assessing anionic electromigration as a function of moisture content. In the test cell, a strip of soil was spiked with red dye No 40 and monitored for a 24-h period while a 10-mA current was maintained between the electrodes. Electromigration velocities predicted by the electromigration transport model were in agreement with laboratory experimental results. Both laboratory-measured and model-predicted dye migration results indicated a maximum transport velocity at moisture contents less than saturation due to competing effects between current density and tortuosity as moisture content decreases. Results of a field demonstration of electrokinetic transport of acetate through an unsaturated heterogeneous soil are compared to numerical modeling predictions. The numerical model was based on the groundwater flow and transport codes MODFLOW and MT3D modified to account for electrically induced ion transport. The 6-month field

  8. Charge-regulation phase transition on surface lattices of titratable sites adjacent to electrolyte solutions: An analog of the Ising antiferromagnet in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Joel D.; Thurston, George M.

    2015-12-01

    We report a charge-patterning phase transition on two-dimensional square lattices of titratable sites, here regarded as protonation sites, placed in a low-dielectric medium just below the planar interface between this medium and a salt solution. We calculate the work-of-charging matrix of the lattice with use of a linear Debye-Hückel model, as input to a grand-canonical partition function for the distribution of occupancy patterns. For a large range of parameter values, this model exhibits an approximate inverse cubic power-law decrease of the voltage produced by an individual charge, as a function of its in-lattice separation from neighboring titratable sites. Thus, the charge coupling voltage biases the local probabilities of proton binding as a function of the occupancy of sites for many neighbors beyond the nearest ones. We find that even in the presence of these longer-range interactions, the site couplings give rise to a phase transition in which the site occupancies exhibit an alternating, checkerboard pattern that is an analog of antiferromagnetic ordering. The overall strength W of this canonical charge coupling voltage, per unit charge, is a function of the Debye length, the charge depth, the Bjerrum length, and the dielectric coefficients of the medium and the solvent. The alternating occupancy transition occurs above a curve of thermodynamic critical points in the (p H-p K ,W ) plane, the curve representing a charge-regulation analog of variation of the Néel temperature of an Ising antiferromagnet as a function of an applied, uniform magnetic field. The analog of a uniform magnetic field in the antiferromagnet problem is a combination of p H-p K and W , and 1 /W is the analog of the temperature in the antiferromagnet problem. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the occupancy patterns of the titratable sites, including interactions out to the 37th nearest-neighbor category (a distance of √{74 } lattice constants), first validating simulations

  9. Charge-regulation phase transition on surface lattices of titratable sites adjacent to electrolyte solutions: An analog of the Ising antiferromagnet in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Shore, Joel D; Thurston, George M

    2015-12-01

    We report a charge-patterning phase transition on two-dimensional square lattices of titratable sites, here regarded as protonation sites, placed in a low-dielectric medium just below the planar interface between this medium and a salt solution. We calculate the work-of-charging matrix of the lattice with use of a linear Debye-Hückel model, as input to a grand-canonical partition function for the distribution of occupancy patterns. For a large range of parameter values, this model exhibits an approximate inverse cubic power-law decrease of the voltage produced by an individual charge, as a function of its in-lattice separation from neighboring titratable sites. Thus, the charge coupling voltage biases the local probabilities of proton binding as a function of the occupancy of sites for many neighbors beyond the nearest ones. We find that even in the presence of these longer-range interactions, the site couplings give rise to a phase transition in which the site occupancies exhibit an alternating, checkerboard pattern that is an analog of antiferromagnetic ordering. The overall strength W of this canonical charge coupling voltage, per unit charge, is a function of the Debye length, the charge depth, the Bjerrum length, and the dielectric coefficients of the medium and the solvent. The alternating occupancy transition occurs above a curve of thermodynamic critical points in the (pH-pK,W) plane, the curve representing a charge-regulation analog of variation of the Néel temperature of an Ising antiferromagnet as a function of an applied, uniform magnetic field. The analog of a uniform magnetic field in the antiferromagnet problem is a combination of pH-pK and W, and 1/W is the analog of the temperature in the antiferromagnet problem. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the occupancy patterns of the titratable sites, including interactions out to the 37th nearest-neighbor category (a distance of √74 lattice constants), first validating simulations through

  10. Quantitative prediction of physical properties of imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids through determination of condensed phase site charges: a refined force field.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anirban; Balasubramanian, Sundaram

    2014-03-27

    Quantitative prediction of physical properties of room temperature ionic liquids through nonpolarizable force field based molecular dynamics simulations is a challenging task. The challenge lies in the fact that mean ion charges in the condensed phase can be less than unity due to polarization and charge transfer effects whose magnitude cannot be fully captured through quantum chemical calculations conducted in the gas phase. The present work employed the density-derived electrostatic and chemical (DDEC/c3) charge partitioning method to calculate site charges of ions using electronic charge densities obtained from periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations of their crystalline phases. The total ion charges obtained thus range between -0.6e for chloride and -0.8e for the PF6 ion. The mean value of the ion charges obtained from DFT calculations of an ionic liquid closely matches that obtained from the corresponding crystal thus confirming the suitability of using crystal site charges in simulations of liquids. These partial charges were deployed within the well-established force field developed by Lopes et al., and consequently, parameters of its nonbonded and torsional interactions were refined to ensure that they reproduced quantum potential energy scans for ion pairs in the gas phase. The refined force field was employed in simulations of seven ionic liquids with six different anions. Nearly quantitative agreement with experimental measurements was obtained for the density, surface tension, enthalpy of vaporization, and ion diffusion coefficients. PMID:24605817

  11. Characterization of the geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils on the Savannah River Site: Field sampling activities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    There are 36,000 acres of wetlands on the Savannah River Site (SRS) and an additional 5,000 acres of floodplain. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste sites at SRS have shown that some wetlands have been contaminated with pollutants resulting from SRS operations. In general, releases of contaminants to wetland areas have been indirect. These releases may have originated at disposal lagoons or waste facilities located in the vicinity of the wetland areas. Transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, soil erosion, sediment transport, and groundwater seepage into downgradient wetland areas are responsible for the indirect discharges to the wetland areas. The SRS determined that a database of background geochemical and physical properties for wetland soils on the SRS was needed to facilitate future remedial investigations, human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, and feasibility studies for the wetland areas. These data are needed for comparison to contaminant data collected from wetland soils that have been affected by contamination from SRS operations. This report describes the efforts associated with the collection of soil cores, preparation of a lithologic log for each core, and the processing and packaging of individual soil samples for shipment to analytical laboratory facilities.

  12. Installation-Restoration Program; preliminary assessment for the 165th Tactical Airlift Group and Savannah Permanent Field Training Site, Georgia Air National Guard, Savannah International Airport, Savannah, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Hazardous Materials Technical Center (HMTC) was retained in May 1987 to conduct the Installation-Restoration Program (IRP) Preliminary Assessment of the 165th Tactical Airlift Group (TAG) and the Savannah Permanent Field Training Site (PTFS) of the Georgia Air National Guard (ANG), Savannah International Airport, Savannah, Georgia (hereinafter referred to as the Base). The Preliminary Assessment included: an onsite Base visit, including interviews with 26 past and present base employees and conducted by HMTC personnel during 18-21 May 1987; the acquisition and analysis of pertinent information and records on the use of hazardous material and generation and disposal of hazardous waste at the Base; the acquisition and analysis of available geologic, hydrologic, meteorologic, and environmental data from pertinent Federal and State agencies; and the identification of sites on the Base which may be potentially contaminated with hazardous material/hazardous waste (HM/HW).

  13. Web and Web Services based tool that provides Subsets and Visualization of MODIS land products to facilitate land validation and field site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhana Vannan, S.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor data are highly useful for field research. The spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of MODIS products have made them an important data source for analyzing key science questions relating to Earth System processes at regional, continental, and global scales. MODIS data are particularly useful to validate and inter-compare ground measurements at various field sites such as flux tower locations. MODIS data are also useful in land validation and in understanding biogeochemical and ecological processes. However, MODIS data volume and the complexity in data format makes MODIS data less usable in some cases. To solve this usability issue, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has developed a system that prepares and distributes subsets of selected MODIS Land Products in a scale and format useful for field researchers. The MODIS subsets are provided for more than 1,000 sites across the globe. Most of the eddy covariance flux tower sites are included in the site list. The subsets are offered in tabular ASCII format and in GIS compatible GeoTIFF format. Time series plots and grid visualizations to help characterize field sites are also provided. The MODIS fixed site subsets and the various visualizations can be accessed from http://daac.ornl.gov/modisfixedsite In addition to offering subsets for fixed sites, the ORNL DAAC also offers the capability to create user-defined subsets for any location worldwide. The MODIS Global subsetting tool provides subsets from a single pixel up to 201 x 201 km for user-defined time range. Statistics, time series plots, stacked time series plots for inter-annual comparison and GIS compatible files for the customized subsets are also distributed through this tool. Users place an order for a MODIS subset online and an email is generated when the subset is created. To create subsets for any location around the globe use http

  14. Comparative Analysis of Infrequent-Restriction-Site PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Epidemiological Typing of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Riffard, Serge; Presti, François Lo; Vandenesch, François; Forey, Françoise; Reyrolle, Monique; Etienne, Jerome

    1998-01-01

    Two methods were compared for the analysis of 48 unrelated and epidemiologically related Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates. These are the infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR) assay with adapters designed for XbaI and PstI restriction sites and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis determined after DNA restriction with SfiI. Both methods demonstrated a high level of discrimination with a similar capacity for differentiating 23 of the 24 unrelated isolates. PFGE analysis and IRS-PCR assay were both able to identify epidemiologically related isolates of L. pneumophila from three outbreaks. Hence, IRS-PCR assay appears to be a reproducible (intergel reproducibility, 100%) and discriminative (discriminatory index, ≥0.996) tool for typing of Legionella. Compared to PFGE, however, IRS-PCR presented an advantage through ease of performance and with attributes of rapidity and sensitivity of target DNA. PMID:9431941

  15. Health assessment for Rockaway Borough Well Field National Priorities List (NPL) site, Borough of Rockaway, Morris County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980654115. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-17

    The Rockaway Borough Well Field is a National Priorities List site located in the Borough of Rockaway, Morris County, New Jersey. Because of yet unidentified source(s) of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in ground water, municipal wells of the Borough of Rockaway have been contaminated sometime prior to 1980, when well water was found to contain high concentrations of these volatile organic compounds. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to elevated concentrations of TCE and/or PCE may occur, be occurring, or have occurred via oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure to contaminated municipal drinking water (only in the unlikely event that breakthrough occurs) or private well water.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Uranium Accumulation on Sediments during Field-scale Biostimulation under Variable Bicarbonate Concentrations at the Rifle IFRC Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P. M.; Davis, J. A.; Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Singer, D. M.; Long, P.

    2011-12-01

    Bioremediation of uranium in subsurface environments is an approach that has been used at numerous field sites throughout the U.S in an attempt to lower dissolved U(VI) concentrations in groundwater. At the Rifle IFRC research site in Colorado, biostimulation of the native microbial population through acetate amendment for various periods of time has been tested in order to immobilize uranium through reduction U(VI) to U(IV). While this approach has successfully decreased U(VI) concentrations in the dissolved phase, often to levels below the EPA's maximum contaminant level of 0.13 μM, little work has examined the solid-phase accumulation of U during field-scale biostimulation. The lack of information on solid-phase U accumulation is due in large part to the difficulty of obtaining comparable pre- and post-biostimulation field sediment samples. In addition, the relatively low (<10 ppm) U concentrations present in most sediments preclude the use of spectroscopic techniques such as XAS for examining solid-phase U speciation. However, a recently developed technique of performing column experiments in situ has allowed us to overcome both of these problems, obtaining sediment samples which were exposed to the same biogeochemical conditions as subsurface sediments during the course of biostimulation. During the 2010 Rifle IFRC field experiment (dubbed "Super 8"), a number of in situ columns were deployed in various wells representing regions of the aquifer affected by acetate amendment (ambient bicarbonate) and concomitant acetate and bicarbonate amendment (elevated bicarbonate). Elevated levels of bicarbonate have been shown to cause desorption of U(VI) from the solid phase at the Rifle site under non-stimulated conditions, resulting in higher dissolved U(VI) concentrations in the aquifer. The Super 8 field experiment was designed in part to test the effect of elevated bicarbonate concentrations on U sequestration during biostimulation. Results from this experiment

  17. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  18. Distribution and geochemical characterization of coalbed gases at excavation fields at natural analogue site area Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Žigon, Stojan; Grassa, Fausto; Sedlar, Jerneja; Zadnik, Ivo; Zavšek, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional gas resources, including coal bed methane and shale gas, are a growing part of the global energy mix, which has changed the economic and strategic picture for gas consuming and producing countries, including the USA, China and Australia that, together are responsible for around half the currently recoverable unconventional gas resources. However, CBM production was often hindered by low permeability and mineralization in cleats and fractures, necessitating the development of cost effective horizontal drilling and completion techniques. Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at excavation fields in Velenje Basin started in year 2000, with the aim to obtain better insights into the origin of coalbed gases. Results from active excavation fields in the mining areas Pesje and Preloge in the year period 2014-2015 are presented in this study. Composition and isotopic composition of coalbed gases were determined with mass - spectrometric methods. The chemical (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen) and isotopic composition of carbon in methane and carbon dioxide in the Velenje Basin vary and depend on the composition of the source of coalbed gas before excavation, advancement of the working face, depth of the longwall face, pre-mining activity and newly mined activity. The basic gas components determined in excavation fields are carbon dioxide and methane. Knowledge of the stable isotope geochemistry of coal bed and shale gas and the related production water is essential to determine not only gas origins but also the dominant methanogenic pathway in the case of microbial gas. Concentrations of methane at active excavation fields are changing from 1.8 to 63.9 %, concentrations of carbon dioxide are changing from 36.1 to 98.2% and CDMI (Carbon Dioxide Methane Index) index from 0.2 to 100 %. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide is changing from -11.0 to -1.9‰ , isotopic composition of methane from -71.8 to -43.3‰ , isotopic composition of

  19. Predicting Scenarios for Successful Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Malaria Vectors from Their Resting Sites to Aquatic Habitats; Description and Simulation Analysis of a Field-Parameterizable Model

    PubMed Central

    Kiware, Samson S.; Corliss, George; Merrill, Stephen; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Devine, Gregor; Majambere, Silas; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF) can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis - malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1) partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2) even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events. Methods and Findings Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats (Clx) that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux) for only one week (Clx→1, where Ux = 7 days). To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the product of

  20. CO2 leakage impacts on shallow groundwater. Field-scale reactive-transport simulations informed by observations at a natural analog site

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Elizabeth H.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J. William; Pawar, Rajesh; Guthrie, George D.; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna

    2013-03-01

    It is challenging to predict the degree to which shallow groundwater might be affected by leaks from a CO2 sequestration reservoir, particularly over long time scales and large spatial scales. In this study observations at a CO2 enriched shallow aquifer natural analog were used to develop a predictive model which is then used to simulate leakage scenarios. This natural analog provides the opportunity to make direct field observations of groundwater chemistry in the presence of elevated CO2, to collect aquifer samples and expose them to CO2 under controlled conditions in the laboratory, and to test the ability of multiphase reactive transport models to reproduce measured geochemical trends at the field-scale. The field observations suggest that brackish water entrained with the upwelling CO2 are a more significant source of trace metals than in situ mobilization of metals due to exposure to CO2. The study focuses on a single trace metal of concern at this site: U. Experimental results indicate that cation exchange/adsorption and dissolution/precipitation of calcite containing trace amounts of U are important reactions controlling U in groundwater at this site, and that the amount of U associated with calcite is fairly well constrained. Simulations incorporating these results into a 3-D multi-phase reactive transport model are able to reproduce the measured ranges and trends between pH, pCO2, Ca, total C, U and Cl-at the field site. Although the true fluxes at the natural analog site are unknown, the cumulative CO2 flux inferred from these simulations are approximately equivalent to 37.8E-3 MT, approximately corresponding to a .001% leak rate for injection at a large (750 MW) power plant. The leakage scenario simulations suggest that if the leak only persists for a short time the volume of aquifer contaminated by CO2-induced mobilization of U will be

  1. Binding Site Alteration Is Responsible for Field-Isolated Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2A Insecticidal Proteins in Two Helicoverpa Species

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Mahon, Rod J.; Downes, Sharon; James, William; Bautsoens, Nadine; Van Rie, Jeroen; Ferré, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolution of resistance by target pests is the main threat to the long-term efficacy of crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins. Cry2 proteins play a pivotal role in current Bt spray formulations and transgenic crops and they complement Cry1A proteins because of their different mode of action. Their presence is critical in the control of those lepidopteran species, such as Helicoverpa spp., which are not highly susceptible to Cry1A proteins. In Australia, a transgenic variety of cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II) comprises at least 80% of the total cotton area. Prior to the widespread adoption of Bollgard II, the frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab in field populations of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera was significantly higher than anticipated. Colonies established from survivors of F2 screens against Cry2Ab are highly resistant to this toxin, but susceptible to Cry1Ac. Methodology/Principal Findings Bioassays performed with surface-treated artificial diet on neonates of H. armigera and H. punctigera showed that Cry2Ab resistant insects were cross-resistant to Cry2Ae while susceptible to Cry1Ab. Binding analyses with 125I-labeled Cry2Ab were performed with brush border membrane vesicles from midguts of Cry2Ab susceptible and resistant insects. The results of the binding analyses correlated with bioassay data and demonstrated that resistant insects exhibited greatly reduced binding of Cry2Ab toxin to midgut receptors, whereas no change in 125I-labeled-Cry1Ac binding was detected. As previously demonstrated for H. armigera, Cry2Ab binding sites in H. punctigera were shown to be shared by Cry2Ae, which explains why an alteration of the shared binding site would lead to cross-resistance between the two Cry2A toxins. Conclusion/Significance This is the first time that a mechanism of resistance to the Cry2 class of insecticidal proteins has been reported. Because we found the same

  2. CO2 leakage impacts on shallow groundwater. Field-scale reactive-transport simulations informed by observations at a natural analog site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keating, Elizabeth H.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J. William; Pawar, Rajesh; Guthrie, George D.; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna

    2013-03-01

    It is challenging to predict the degree to which shallow groundwater might be affected by leaks from a CO2 sequestration reservoir, particularly over long time scales and large spatial scales. In this study observations at a CO2 enriched shallow aquifer natural analog were used to develop a predictive model which is then used to simulate leakage scenarios. This natural analog provides the opportunity to make direct field observations of groundwater chemistry in the presence of elevated CO2, to collect aquifer samples and expose them to CO2 under controlled conditions in the laboratory, and to test the ability of multiphase reactivemore » transport models to reproduce measured geochemical trends at the field-scale. The field observations suggest that brackish water entrained with the upwelling CO2 are a more significant source of trace metals than in situ mobilization of metals due to exposure to CO2. The study focuses on a single trace metal of concern at this site: U. Experimental results indicate that cation exchange/adsorption and dissolution/precipitation of calcite containing trace amounts of U are important reactions controlling U in groundwater at this site, and that the amount of U associated with calcite is fairly well constrained. Simulations incorporating these results into a 3-D multi-phase reactive transport model are able to reproduce the measured ranges and trends between pH, pCO2, Ca, total C, U and Cl-at the field site. Although the true fluxes at the natural analog site are unknown, the cumulative CO2 flux inferred from these simulations are approximately equivalent to 37.8E-3 MT, approximately corresponding to a .001% leak rate for injection at a large (750 MW) power plant. The leakage scenario simulations suggest that if the leak only persists for a short time the volume of aquifer contaminated by CO2-induced mobilization of U will be relatively small, yet persistent over 100 a.« less

  3. mHealth Series: mHealth project in Zhao County, rural China – Description of objectives, field site and methods

    PubMed Central

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Li; Majeed, Azeem; Rudan, Igor; Zhang, Yanfeng; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background We set up a collaboration between researchers in China and the UK that aimed to explore the use of mHealth in China. This is the first paper in a series of papers on a large mHealth project part of this collaboration. This paper included the aims and objectives of the mHealth project, our field site, and the detailed methods of two studies. Field site The field site for this mHealth project was Zhao County, which lies 280 km south of Beijing in Hebei Province, China. Methods We described the methodology of two studies: (i) a mixed methods study exploring factors influencing sample size calculations for mHealth–based health surveys and (ii) a cross–over study determining validity of an mHealth text messaging data collection tool. The first study used mixed methods, both quantitative and qualitative, including: (i) two surveys with caregivers of young children, (ii) interviews with caregivers, village doctors and participants of the cross–over study, and (iii) researchers’ views. We combined data from caregivers, village doctors and researchers to provide an in–depth understanding of factors influencing sample size calculations for mHealth–based health surveys. The second study, a cross–over study, used a randomised cross–over study design to compare the traditional face–to–face survey method to the new text messaging survey method. We assessed data equivalence (intrarater agreement), the amount of information in responses, reasons for giving different responses, the response rate, characteristics of non–responders, and the error rate. Conclusions This paper described the objectives, field site and methods of a large mHealth project part of a collaboration between researchers in China and the UK. The mixed methods study evaluating factors that influence sample size calculations could help future studies with estimating reliable sample sizes. The cross–over study comparing face–to–face and text message survey data collection

  4. Design and field-scale implementation of an "on site" bioremediation treatment in PAH-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, A I; Lores, I; Sotres, A; Mendez-Garcia, C; Fernandez-Velarde, C; Santos, J A; Gallego, J L R; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    An "on site" bioremediation program was designed and implemented in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially naphthalene. We began by characterizing the soil's physical and chemical properties. A microbiological screening corroborated the presence of microorganisms capable of metabolizing PAHs. We then analyzed the viability of bioremediation by developing laboratory microcosms and pilot scale studies, to optimize the costs and time associated with remediation. The treatment assays were based on different types of biostimulants, such as a slow or fast-release fertilizer, combined with commercial surfactants. Once the feasibility of the biostimulation was confirmed, a real-scale bioremediation program was undertaken in 900 m(3) of contaminated soil. The three-step design reduced PAH contamination by 94.4% at the end of treatment (161 days). The decrease in pollutants was concomitant with the selection of autochthonous bacteria capable of degrading PAHs, with Bacillus and Pseudomonas the most abundant genera. PMID:23867700

  5. Field test of a multi-frequency electromagnetic induction sensor for soil moisture monitoring in southern Italy test sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamita, G.; Perrone, A.; Brocca, L.; Onorati, B.; Manfreda, S.

    2015-10-01

    Soil moisture is a variable of paramount importance for a number of natural processes and requires the capacity to be routinely measured at different spatial and temporal scales (e.g., hillslope and/or small catchment scale). The electromagnetic induction (EMI) method is one of the geophysical techniques potentially useful in this regard. Indeed, it does not require contact with the ground, it allows a relatively fast survey of hillslope, it gives information related to soil depth greater than few centimetres and it can also be used in wooded areas. In this study, apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil moisture (SM) measurements were jointly carried out by using a multi-frequency EMI sensor (GEM-300) and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probes, respectively. The aim was to retrieve SM variations at the hillslope scale over four sites, characterized by different land-soil units, located in a small mountainous catchment in southern Italy. Repeated measurements of ECa carried out over a fixed point showed that the signal variability of the GEM-300 sensor (Std. Err. ∼[0.02-0.1 mS/m]) was negligible. The correlation estimated between point ECa and SM, measured with both portable and buried TDR probes, varied between 0.24 and 0.58, depending on the site considered. In order to reduce the effect of small-scale variability, a spatial smoothing filter was applied which allowed the estimation of linear relationships with higher coefficient of correlation (r ∼ 0.46-0.8). The accuracy obtained in the estimation of the temporal trend of the soil moisture spatial averages was in the range ∼4.5-7.8% v/v and up to the ∼70% of the point soil moisture variance was explained by the ECa signal. The obtained results highlighted the potential of EMI to provide, in a short time, sufficiently accurate estimate of soil moisture over large areas that are highly needed for hydrological and remote sensing applications.

  6. Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (Campi Flegrei, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.

  7. Solvent dependence of Stokes shift for organic solute-solvent systems: A comparative study by spectroscopy and reference interaction-site model-self-consistent-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsura; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Norio; Hirata, Fumio

    2013-09-01

    The Stokes shift magnitudes for coumarin 153 (C153) in 13 organic solvents with various polarities have been determined by means of steady-state spectroscopy and reference interaction-site model-self-consistent-field (RISM-SCF) theory. RISM-SCF calculations have reproduced experimental results fairly well, including individual solvent characteristics. It is empirically known that in some solvents, larger Stokes shift magnitudes are detected than anticipated on the basis of the solvent relative permittivity, ɛr. In practice, 1,4-dioxane (ɛr = 2.21) provides almost identical Stokes shift magnitudes to that of tetrahydrofuran (THF, ɛr = 7.58), for C153 and other typical organic solutes. In this work, RISM-SCF theory has been used to estimate the energetics of C153-solvent systems involved in the absorption and fluorescence processes. The Stokes shift magnitudes estimated by RISM-SCF theory are ˜5 kJ mol-1 (400 cm-1) less than those determined by spectroscopy; however, the results obtained are still adequate for dipole moment comparisons, in a qualitative sense. We have also calculated the solute-solvent site-site radial distributions by this theory. It is shown that solvation structures with respect to the C-O-C framework, which is common to dioxane and THF, in the near vicinity (˜0.4 nm) of specific solute sites can largely account for their similar Stokes shift magnitudes. In previous works, such solute-solvent short-range interactions have been explained in terms of the higher-order multipole moments of the solvents. Our present study shows that along with the short-range interactions that contribute most significantly to the energetics, long-range electrostatic interactions are also important. Such long-range interactions are effective up to 2 nm from the solute site, as in the case of a typical polar solvent, acetonitrile.

  8. Geophysical investigation of the pressure field produced by water guns at a pond site in La Crosse, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Ryan F.; Morrow, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The July 2013 study consisted of three scenarios: fish behavior, single gun assessment, and experimental barrier evaluation. The fish behavior scenario simulated the pond conditions from previous studies. Two 80-in3 water guns were fired in the south end of the testing pond. Pressures essentially doubled from the testing of the single 80-in3 water gun. The single gun assessment scenario sought to replicate the setup of the 80-in3 scenario in September 2012, but with additional sensors to better define the pressure field. The 5-lb/in2 target pressure field continued to show a radius ranging from 40 to 45 feet, dependent on the pressure of the input air. The final scenario, the experimental barrier evaluation, showed that a two-dimensional continuous plane of 5 lb/in2 can be created between two 80-in3 water guns to a separation of 99 feet and a depth of 6.5 feet with 1,500 lb/in2 of input air.

  9. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1990-05-01

    Work in nuclear energy research and development in what has become the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation began in 1946. During the evolution of these operations, small test and demonstration reactors and critical assemblies were operated, reactor fuel elements were fabricated and used reactor fuel elements were disassembled and declad. These projects have been completed and terminated over the past 30 years. Most of this work was performed at the Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL) and is described in detail in Reference 18. No work with nuclear materials has been conducted since 1987, and the only ongoing work during 1989 was the cleanup of the Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) and continuing decontamination of the remaining nuclear facilities. In October 1989, the NRC Special Nuclear Materials License was amended to permit only a minor amount of nuclear material for research purposes. Since then, the license has been further amended to permit only decommissioning operations. These operations have been conducted under State and Federal licenses and under contract to DOE and its predecessors at three main locations. identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL). De Soto (DS), and Canoga (CA).

  10. The Earth's magnetic field in Italy during the Neolithic period: New data from the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Ferrara, Enzo; Camps, Pierre; Conati Barbaro, Cecilia; Spatafora, Simone; Carvallo, Claire; Poidras, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    We present new, full geomagnetic field vector results from three Neolithic ovens discovered at the archaeological site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy). The discovered structures are a rare example of very well preserved underground ovens from the Early Neolithic period. Standard thermal demagnetization procedures were used to isolate the direction of the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization acquired by the baked clay during the ovens' last firing. The corresponding archaeointensities were determined by the multi-specimen procedure (MSP-DSC) and show a clear intensity low during the Neolithic period. Both directional and intensity results are of high quality, offering the first contribution of full geomagnetic field vector data for this period in Italy. The new data are compared with other contemporaneous data from Europe and with global geomagnetic field models. Independent archaeomagnetic dating of the three ovens was also performed by means of the SCHA.DIF.14k model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with available radiocarbon dates and confirm that all ovens belong to the Neolithic. These new data importantly enrich our knowledge of the geomagnetic field during the Neolithic period that is poorly documented by data, not only in Italy but also in the whole of Europe and show that archaeomagnetic dating can provide precise results even for prehistoric periods.

  11. Relationship of ground-level aerosol concentration and atmospheric electric field at three observation sites in the Arctic, Antarctic and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, Marek; Odzimek, Anna; Neska, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol number concentrations in the particle size range from ~ 10 nm to 1 μm and vertical electric field strength in the surface layer was measured between September 2012 and December 2013 at three observation sites: mid-latitude station Swider, Poland, and, for the first time, in Hornsund in the Arctic, Spitsbergen, and the Antarctic Arctowski station in the South Shetland Islands. The measurements of aerosol concentrations have been performed simultaneously with measurements of the electric field with the aim to assess the local effect of aerosol on the electric field Ez near the ground at the three stations which at present form a network of atmospheric electricity observatories. Measurements have been made regardless of weather conditions at Swider and Arctowski station and mostly on fair-weather days at Hornsund station. The monthly mean particle number concentrations varied between 580 and 2100 particles cm- 3 at Arctowski, between 90 and 1270 particles cm- 3 in Hornsund, and between 6700 and 14,000 particles cm- 3 in the middle latitude station Swider. Average diurnal variations of the ground-level electric field Ez and particle number concentrations in fair-weather conditions were independent of each other for Arctowski and Hornsund stations. At Swider station the diurnal variation is usually characterized by an increase of aerosol concentration in the evening which results in the increased electric field. The assumption of neglecting the influence of varying aerosol concentration on the variation of the electric field in the polar regions, often adopted in studies, is confirmed here by the observations at Arctowski and Hornsund. The results of aerosol observations are also compared with modelled aerosol concentrations for global atmospheric electric circuit models.

  12. Modifications to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum by Hedgerows - Observations from a field site in Northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    UK farming practices have changed significantly over the past 100 years. This is evident in arable fields, where the use of larger machinery has led to the removal of hedgerows. In the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK this has led to a doubling in field size since 1892. The national-wide change is responsible for longer slope lengths, increased runoff velocities and greater potential for connectivity, which may be responsible for an increase in flood risk at the catchment scale. However there is a lack of physical evidence to support this theory. Hedgerows are a widespread, man-made boundary feature in the rural UK landscape. They play an important ecological role in providing shelter, changing the local climate, reducing erosion and have a strong influence on local soil properties. Their impact on hydrology has not been widely studied but it is hypothesised that their presence could alter soil moisture levels and the soil structure, therefore affecting runoff. This paper presents observations of a hedgerow on the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum, through 15 months field monitoring conducted in the River Skell catchment. Firstly, to assess soil moisture levels TDR probes were installed at different depths and distances from the hedgerow. To assess the soil quality and therefore its infiltration capacity, soil cores were collected to determine soil horizons and root density. Also, laboratory tests were undertaken to determine the soil type and the porosity. Secondly, to assess the physical impact of the hedgerow plant on the partitioning of rainfall, gauges were installed to capture the spatial distribution of rainfall, along a transect perpendicular to the hedgerow, as well as stemflow. Throughfall gauges were also installed within the hedgerow and leaf area index calculated. Thirdly, to assess the impact of the hedgerow on the micro-climate, temperature sensors and four leaf wetness sensors were installed to determine evapotranspiration and interception

  13. Field validation of GORE-SORBER{sup SM} Screening Surveys at sites containing high molecular weight petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, M.B.; Wrigley, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this survey was to demonstrate the applicability of GORE-SORBER{reg_sign} Screening Surveys (GSSS) in delineating the relative subsurface distribution of low volatility, high molecular weight, organic chemical contaminants (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) often associated with town gas manufacturing facilities. The GORE-SORBER Screening Survey (GSSS) is a comprehensive service offered worldwide by W.L. Gore and Associates of Elkton, MD. This includes a unique sensing element, the GORE-SORBER Module, analysis via GC/MS and a final report with results presented in both in tabular format and as color contours overlaid on CAD maps of the site. The GORE-SORBER Module is a cord-like, chemically inert GORE-TEX{reg_sign} membrane container which houses smaller GORE-TEX tubes filled with special sorbent material. The modules are manually inserted directly into shallow soil or ground water where hydrocarbon vapors partition directly across the membrane and are captured on the sorbents.

  14. Expectations in the field of the internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature.

    PubMed

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-03-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users' online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  15. Expectations in the field of the Internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature

    PubMed Central

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users’ online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  16. A ligand field chemistry of oxygen generation by the oxygen-evolving complex and synthetic active sites