Science.gov

Sample records for actual field situations

  1. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  2. [Contradiction and intention of actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients].

    PubMed

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Actual Situation and Statistical Observation on Home Custody of Mental Patients (1918) by Kure and Kashida has diverse content but contains many contradictions. This book is a record of investigations performed by 15 psychiatrists regarding home custody of mental patients in 15 prefectures between 1910 and 1916. The book is written in archaic Japanese and contains a mixture of old Kanji characters and Katakana, so few people have read the entire book in recent years. We thoroughly read the book over 2 years, and presented the results of our investigation and analysis. The contents were initially published in Tokyo Journal of Medical Sciences as a series of 4 articles, and published as a book in 1918. The Department of the Interior distributed 100 copies of the book to relevant personnel. Until its dissolution in 1947, the Department of the Interior included the Police Department and had a great deal of authority. The Health and Welfare Ministry became independent from the Department of the Interior in 1938. Therefore, mental institutions were under the supervision of the police force for many years. At the time, an important task for police officers was to search for infectious disease patients and to seclude and restrain them. Thus, home custody for mental patients was also supervised under the direction of the Police Department. This book is a record of an external investigation performed by psychiatrists on home custody supervised by the police. When investigating the conditions, one of the psychiatrists obtained a copy of "Documents for mental patients under confinement" at the local police station. The contents of these documents included records of hearings by the police, as well as applications for confinement submitted by family members, as well as detailed specifications and drawings of the confinement room. With a local photographer, they traveled deep into the mountains to investigate the conditions under which mental patients were living. The book

  3. A Study on the Actual Failure Situation of XLPE Cable and the Order of Priority of Degradation Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Toshinao; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuki, Hisao; Morikawa, Masayuki

    We analyzed the statics of dielectric breakdown failures caused by water tree degradation in 6 kV XLPE cables using the Hazard Analysis. The data used in this report are actual situation of XLPE cables. The data are classified by conductor size. The failure rates were calculated, and are different according to the conductor size. Furthermore, the failure rates were calculated based on the information of conductor size, cable length and cable age in this report, resulting that the order of the priority of degradation diagnosis can be made quantitatively.

  4. Optimisation of rheumatology assessments - the actual situation in axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Kiltz, U; Baraliakos, X; van der Heijde, D

    2014-01-01

    The spondyloarthritides (SpA) are currently differentiated into axial and peripheral SpA. Patients with axial SpA (axSpA) may be further classified into the classical form ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). The SpA are genetically linked, and the subtypes including psoriatic arthritis (PsA) share characteristic clinical symptoms such as inflammatory back pain (IBP) and enthesitis. IMP can be due to sacroiliitis and spondylitis, enthesitis may occur with or without arthritis, and anterior uveitis, as well as other extraarticular manifestations such as psoriasis and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to clinical findings, imaging, mainly conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory results such as HLA B27 and CRP are important tools for classification and diagnosis of SpA. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS), an international group of experts in the field of SpA since 1995, has published on assessments and outcome parameters in SpA. The publication of classification criteria for axSpA has now largely replaced the 1984 criteria for AS. However, the established cut-off between AS and nr-axSpA, 'definite' structural changes in the sacroiliac joints, has been recently debated because of limited reliability. Since imaging plays an important role in all criteria sets, the ASAS group has recently published definitions for inflammatory changes in the SIJ and the spine. The most important domains in AS are disease activity, function, spinal mobility, structural damage, and quality of life, some of which are discussed in this manuscript. For axSpA there are two major tools to assess disease activity, the BASDAI and the ASDAS, one for function, the BASFI, and several mobility measures including the BASMI. The AS Health Index (AS-HI) is introduced elsewhere in this supplement.

  5. Forum: What Has Actually Changed in Physics Departments in the Situation for Women, Graduate Students and Other People?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Ivie, Rachel; Campbell, David; Murnane, Margaret; Kirby, Kate; Catlla, Anne

    2006-03-01

    The decade of the 90's was a period of intense scrutiny of climate issues in physics departments, e.g. the status of women, the job situation for new Ph.D.'s and postdocs, and the preparation of physicists for careers inside and outside of physics. There were many conference sessions on these topics, and both APS members and leadership instigated important efforts to focus on specific areas. These efforts included the program of visiting committees to departments to examine the situation for women by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, the AIP's various studies of a statistical nature, and the creation by the APS of a Committee on Careers and the Forum on Graduate Student Affairs, as well as the recent APS-AAPT task force on graduate education. This forum patterned after similar sessions 10 years ago - will examine how physics departments have changed as a result of such efforts. It will begin with short (12-minute) talks by a panel of experts to describe what has happened in key areas. The greater part of the session will be a period of observations, questions, and discussion from the audience and the panel together. The purpose is to have an interchange on these interrelated topics from which we can all learn. THE TOPICS TO BE INTRODUCED IN THE SHORT TALKS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SESSION ARE: 1) changes in graduate enrollment, composition, and subsequent jobs (Patrick Mulvey); 2) women in physics and astronomy departments 2005 (Rachel Ivie); 3) changes in graduate curricula and environment (David Campbell); 4) CSWP site visits to physics departments what’s been accomplished and learned (Margaret Murnane); 5) survey of ethical issues in physics departments and the physics profession: results and reactions (Kate Kirby); and (6) physics departments from the point of view of younger physicists (Anne Catlla). The bulk of the session will be a public forum, on these and related issues, among the audience and the panel.

  6. Comprehensive Evaluation of Attitude and Orbit Estimation Using Actual Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie K.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2000-01-01

    A single, augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit has been developed and successfully tested with real magnetometer and gyro data only. Because the earth magnetic field is a function of time and position, and because time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both orbit and attitude errors. Thus, conceivably these differences could be used to estimate both orbit and attitude; an observability study validated this assumption. The results of testing the EKF with actual magnetometer and gyro data, from four satellites supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center, are presented and evaluated. They confirm the assumption that a single EKF can estimate both attitude and orbit when using gyros and magnetometers only.

  7. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  8. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work.

  9. Using MODIS Thermal Data for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration From Irrigated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Budde, M.; Verdin, J. P.

    2006-12-01

    Accurate crop performance monitoring and production estimation are critical for timely assessment of the food balance of several countries in the world. Recently, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring crop performance and to some extent relative production using satellite derived data and simulation models in Africa, Central America and Afghanistan where ground-based monitoring is limited due to a scarcity of weather stations. The commonly used crop monitoring models use a crop water balance algorithm with inputs from satellite-derived rainfall. While these models provide useful monitoring for rain-fed agriculture, they are ineffective for irrigated areas. This study has focused on Afghanistan where over 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from irrigated agriculture. We implemented a simplified energy balance approach to monitor and assess the performance of irrigated agriculture in Afghanistan using the combination of 1-km thermal data and 250-m NDVI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Up to 19 cloud free thermal and NDVI images were used for each year to estimate seasonal actual evapotranspiration (AET) for two major irrigation river basins (Kabul and Helmand) over 6 years (2000- 2005). Seasonal AET estimates were used as relative indicators of year-to-year production magnitude differences. The temporal water-use pattern of the different irrigated basins was indicative of the cropping patterns specific to the region. The results were comparable to field reports and watershed-wide crop water balance based estimates in that the 2003 seasonal AET was the highest of all six years. The advantage of this method over crop water balance methods is that the energy balance approach also helps identify spatial extents of irrigated fields and their spatial variability as opposed to a lumped watershed-wide assessment that can be obtained from large-scale water-balance models.

  10. Framework for Rapid Situational Awareness in the Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    approach to user-centered design. London: Taylor & Francis . ESRI. (2008). Public safety and homeland security situational awareness (ESRI White... Bacon . McCloskey, M. J., Behymer, K. J., & Papautsky, E. L. (2010). A developmental model of cross- cultural competence at the tactical level

  11. Candidate General Ontologies for Situating Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Peter

    Ontology is traditionally an a priori discipline purveying its categories and principles independently of mere facts, but this arrogance of philosophers has led them into latent or patent incompatibility with good science and has landed them with philosophical aporiai such as the mind-body problem and the universals dispute. So while maintaining the abstractness and systematic universality of ontology it pays to craft one's categories with an eye to the best empirical science, while not necessarily trying to read the ontology off that science. I present desiderata for a systematic ontology and give several reasons why one cannot use physical theory alone as the source of one's a posteriori ontology. With this in mind I survey six ontological theories as possible frameworks for QFT, four briefly, two at greater length. The first is the traditional substanceattribute metaphysic, which is clearly obsolete, and on which I expend little time. The second is its modern logico-linguistic replacement, the ontology of individuals and sets touted as semantic values in logical semantics. This too falls by the wayside for several reasons. A third is the closely related ontology or ontologies of facts, against which I argue on general grounds. A fourth is Whiteheadian process ontology, which is an improvement over the previous three but still leaves several questions unsatisfactorily answered. The most flexible and promising to date is the ontology of tropes and trope bundles, which I have discussed in several places. After expounding this I reject it not because it is false but because it is neither broad nor deep enough. As a final, sixth alternative, I present an ontology of invariant factors inspired in part by Whitehead and in part by remarks of Max Planck, and offer it as a promising future abstract framework within which to situate the physics of QFT.

  12. Involved field radiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma: The actual dose to breasts in close proximity

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaja, Bouthaina; Wang Zhonglo; Stovall, Marilyn; Baker, Jamie S.; Smith, Susan A.; Khan, Meena; Ballas, Leslie; Salehpour, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the risk of late toxicities in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) (HL), involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) has largely replaced the extended fields. To determine the out-of-field dose delivered from a typical IFRT to surrounding critical structures, we measured the dose at various points in an anthropomorphic phantom. The phantom is divided into 1-inch-thick slices with the ability to insert TLDs at 3-cm intervals grid spacing. Two treatment fields were designed, and a total of 45 TLDs were placed (equally spaced) at the margin of the each of the 2 radiation fields. After performing a computed tomography simulation, 2 treatment plans targeting the mediastinum, a typical treatment field in patients with early stage HL, were generated. A total dose of 3060 cGy was delivered to the gross tumor volume for each field consecutively. The highest measured dose detected at 1 cm from the field edge in the planning target volume was 496 cGy, equivalent to 16% of the isocentric dose. The dose dropped significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. It ranged from 1.1-3.9% of the isocentric dose at a distance of 3.2-4 cm to <1.6% at a distance of >6 cm. Although the computer treatment planning system (CTPS) frequently underestimated the dose delivered, the difference in dose between measured and generated by CTPS was <2.5% in 90 positions measured. The collateral dose of radiation to breasts from IFRT is minimal. The out-of-field dose, although mildly underestimated by CTPS, becomes insignificant at >3 cm from the field edge of the radiation field.

  13. Making the Difference for Teachers: The Field Experience in Actual Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slick, Gloria Appelt, Ed.

    This is the third in a series of four books presenting a variety of field experience program models and philosophies that drive the programs provided to preservice teachers during their undergraduate teacher preparation. This publication explores the internal workings of the relationships and events that have an impact on all the persons involved…

  14. An Actual Design of AC Filter for Static Var Compensator and Verification Results from the Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Yuji; Takasaki, Shinji; Irokawa, Shoichi; Takeda, Hideo; Takagi, Kikuo; Noro, Yasuhiro; Ametani, Akihiro

    AC filter design method for SVC and HVDC is commonly known in the relevant CIGRE technical brochure and IEC technical report. However the conventional method requires many iterative calculations of the harmonic voltages and currents until the calculation results become within the regulation levels by changing filter parameters based on the experience. In this respect, a new improved design method is proposed, which enables efficient evaluation on the complex impedance plane to confirm as to whether the proposed filter impedance is in the permissible range. In an actual project of Okuura SVC of Kyusyu Electric Power Co., Inc., the new method was applied to the AC filter design. This paper describes on the actual procedure of the AC filter design with the new method, the actual references of the harmonic performance calculation, and the field test measurement results on Okuura SVC. The calculation results and the filed measurement results are consistent with each other, thus the validity of the new design method is verified on its accuracy and effectiveness.

  15. Comparison of first-order-decay modeled and actual field measured municipal solid waste landfill methane data.

    PubMed

    Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R; Niskanen, Antti

    2013-12-01

    The first-order decay (FOD) model is widely used to estimate landfill gas generation for emissions inventories, life cycle assessments, and regulation. The FOD model has inherent uncertainty due to underlying uncertainty in model parameters and a lack of opportunities to validate it with complete field-scale landfill data sets. The objectives of this paper were to estimate methane generation, fugitive methane emissions, and aggregated collection efficiency for landfills through a mass balance approach using the FOD model for gas generation coupled with literature values for cover-specific collection efficiency and methane oxidation. This study is unique and valuable because actual field data were used in comparison with modeled data. The magnitude and variation of emissions were estimated for three landfills using site-specific model parameters and gas collection data, and compared to vertical radial plume mapping emissions measurements. For the three landfills, the modeling approach slightly under-predicted measured emissions and over-estimated aggregated collection efficiency, but the two approaches yielded statistically equivalent uncertainties expressed as coefficients of variation. Sources of uncertainty include challenges in large-scale field measurement of emissions and spatial and temporal fluctuations in methane flow balance components (generated, collected, oxidized, and emitted methane). Additional publication of sets of field-scale measurement data and methane flow balance components will reduce the uncertainty in future estimates of fugitive emissions.

  16. Current and next-generation bluetongue vaccines: Requirements, strategies, and prospects for different field situations.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Femke; van Rijn, Piet A

    2017-03-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes the hemorrhagic disease bluetongue (BT) in ruminants. The best way to control outbreaks is vaccination. Currently, conventionally modified-live and inactivated vaccines are commercially available, which have been successfully used to control BT, but nonetheless have their specific shortcomings. Therefore, there is a need for improved BT vaccines. The ideal BT vaccine is efficacious, safe, affordable, protective against multiple serotypes and enables the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Different field situations require specific vaccine profiles. Single serotype outbreaks in former BT-free areas need rapid onset of protection against viremia of the respective serotype. In contrary, endemic multiple serotype situations require long-lasting protection against all circulating serotypes. The ideal BT vaccine for all field situations does not exist and balancing between vaccine properties is needed. Many new vaccines candidates, ranging from non-replicating subunits to replicating next-generation reverse genetics based vaccines, have been developed. Some have been tested extensively in large numbers of ruminants, whereas others were developed recently and have only been tested in vitro and in mice models. Most vaccine candidates are promising, but have their specific shortcomings and advantages. In this review, current and next-generation BT vaccines are discussed in the light of prerequisites for different field situations.

  17. The theoretical, discrete, and actual response of the Barnes objective analysis scheme for one- and two-dimensional fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauley, Patricia M.; Wu, Xiaohua

    1990-01-01

    The response of the Barnes objective analysis scheme is studied as a function of wavenumber or wavelength. The first- and second-pass theoretical response functions for continuous two-dimensional fields are derived using Fourier transforms. The results are compared with Barnes' (1973) responses for one-dimensional waves. The continuous theoretical response for one- and two-dimensional waves is compared with the response for discrete applications using uniformly spaced observations for the case where interpolation points and observation points are coincident and for the case where interpolation points are midway between observation points. The actual response of an idealized discrete application of the Barnes scheme is examined, confirming the results of the analysis of the discrete theoretical response.

  18. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards.

  19. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  20. A coupled remote sensing and simplified surface energy balance approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration from irrigated fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Budde, M.; Verdin, J.P.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate crop performance monitoring and production estimation are critical for timely assessment of the food balance of several countries in the world. Since 2001, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring crop performance and relative production using satellite-derived data and simulation models in Africa, Central America, and Afghanistan where ground-based monitoring is limited because of a scarcity of weather stations. The commonly used crop monitoring models are based on a crop water-balance algorithm with inputs from satellite-derived rainfall estimates. These models are useful to monitor rainfed agriculture, but they are ineffective for irrigated areas. This study focused on Afghanistan, where over 80 percent of agricultural production comes from irrigated lands. We developed and implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to monitor and assess the performance of irrigated agriculture in Afghanistan using a combination of 1-km thermal data and 250m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, both from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. We estimated seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over a period of six years (2000-2005) for two major irrigated river basins in Afghanistan, the Kabul and the Helmand, by analyzing up to 19 cloud-free thermal and NDVI images from each year. These seasonal ETa estimates were used as relative indicators of year-to-year production magnitude differences. The temporal water-use pattern of the two irrigated basins was indicative of the cropping patterns specific to each region. Our results were comparable to field reports and to estimates based on watershed-wide crop water-balance model results. For example, both methods found that the 2003 seasonal ETa was the highest of all six years. The method also captured water management scenarios where a unique year-to-year variability was identified in addition to water-use differences between

  1. A Coupled Remote Sensing and Simplified Surface Energy Balance Approach to Estimate Actual Evapotranspiration from Irrigated Fields

    PubMed Central

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Budde, Michael; Verdin, James P.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate crop performance monitoring and production estimation are critical for timely assessment of the food balance of several countries in the world. Since 2001, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring crop performance and relative production using satellite-derived data and simulation models in Africa, Central America, and Afghanistan where ground-based monitoring is limited because of a scarcity of weather stations. The commonly used crop monitoring models are based on a crop water-balance algorithm with inputs from satellite-derived rainfall estimates. These models are useful to monitor rainfed agriculture, but they are ineffective for irrigated areas. This study focused on Afghanistan, where over 80 percent of agricultural production comes from irrigated lands. We developed and implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to monitor and assess the performance of irrigated agriculture in Afghanistan using a combination of 1-km thermal data and 250-m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, both from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. We estimated seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over a period of six years (2000-2005) for two major irrigated river basins in Afghanistan, the Kabul and the Helmand, by analyzing up to 19 cloud-free thermal and NDVI images from each year. These seasonal ETa estimates were used as relative indicators of year-to-year production magnitude differences. The temporal water-use pattern of the two irrigated basins was indicative of the cropping patterns specific to each region. Our results were comparable to field reports and to estimates based on watershed-wide crop water-balance model results. For example, both methods found that the 2003 seasonal ETa was the highest of all six years. The method also captured water management scenarios where a unique year-to-year variability was identified in addition to water-use differences between

  2. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  3. Testing an Energy Balance Model for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Data. [Hannover, West Germany barley and wheat fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.

  4. [Status and actualization of tasks to improve the scientific-methodological and regulatory frameworks in the field of human ecology and environmental health].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Sinitsyna, O O

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary factors that affect the health of the population have been analyzed. There was shown the growing activity of chemical pollution of the environment. Therefore, in order to prevent the growth of negative health and environment consequences caused by increased levels of exposure to chemicals preventive potential for solutions of this complex problem and all strenuous efforts to assist possibly of the sound management of the chemicals should be enhanced. Problematic issues of harmonization of the Russian normative and guidance documents have been actualized. Perspective directions of science development in the field of human ecology and environmental health are suggested.

  5. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  6. Human-robot interaction modeling and simulation of supervisory control and situational awareness during field experimentation with military manned and unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tony; Metcalfe, Jason; Brewster, Benjamin; Manteuffel, Christopher; Jaswa, Matthew; Tierney, Terrance

    2010-04-01

    The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.

  7. Situated Learning in the Mobile Age: Mobile Devices on a Field Trip to the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Vanessa D. I.; Gemballa, Sven; Jarodzka, Halszka; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on learning about fish biodiversity via mobile devices in a situated learning scenario. Mobile devices do not only facilitate relating the presented information to the real world in a direct way; they also allow the provision of dynamic representations on demand. This study asks whether mobile devices are suited to support…

  8. Focusing, Situating, and Grounding Micro-Level Evaluation Field Experiences: An Instructional Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Woodard, Thelma; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Kaesbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Evaluator training field experiences seek to reinforce applicable content knowledge and promote applied skills. For students, even a small-scale field experience focusing on limited components of a larger evaluation process can seem particularly challenging. Students often do not recognize the relevance of established evaluation resources capable…

  9. FDTD assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from WiFi and bluetooth devices in some operating situations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M; Martín, A; Sanchis, A; Villar, R

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the numerical dosimetry in human exposure to the electromagnetic fields from antennas of wireless devices, such as those of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access points or phone and computer peripherals with Bluetooth antennas, is analyzed with the objective of assessing guidelines compliance. Several geometrical configurations are considered to simulate possible exposure situations of a person to the fields from WLAN or Bluetooth antennas operating at 2400 MHz. The exposure to radiation from two sources of different frequencies when using a 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone connected via Bluetooth with a hands-free car kit is also considered. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate electric and magnetic field values in the vicinity of the antennas and specific absorption rates (SAR) in a high-resolution model of the human head and torso, to be compared with the limits from the guidelines (reference levels and basic restrictions, respectively). Results show that the exposure levels in worst-case situations studied are lower than those obtained when analyzing the exposure to mobile phones, as could be expected because of the low power of the signals and the distance between the human and the antennas, with both field and SAR values being far below the limits established by the guidelines, even when considering the combined exposure to both a GSM and a Bluetooth antenna.

  10. Effect of soil type patterns on the variability of bare soil evaporation within a field: comparison of eddy covariance measurements with potential and actual evaporation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderborght, J.; Graf, A.; Steenpass, C.; Scharnagl, B.; Prolingheuer, N.; Herbst, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-12-01

    Bare soil evaporation was measured with the eddy-covariance method at the Selhausen field site. The site has a distinct gradient in soil texture with a considerably higher stone content at the upper part of the field. Because of this gradient, a spatial variation in evaporation fluxes in the field is expected. Because of the higher stone content at the upper part of the field, it is expected that the water that is stored in the soil surface layer and can be evaporated at a maximal evaporation rate, which is determined by the energy that is available for evaporation, is considerable smaller in the upper than in the lower part of the field. We investigated whether this hypothesis is supported by eddy covariance (EC) measurements of the evaporation fluxes at the field site. The EC measurements were combined with a footprint model that predicts the location of the soil surface that contributes to the measured evaporation flux. In this way, evaporation measurements of the two parts of the field site could be distinguished. However, since only one EC station was available, simultaneous evaporation measurements for the two field parts were not available. As a consequence, the datasets of measurements had to be interpreted and put into context of the meteorological and soil hydrological conditions. The potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the FAO method (Allen et al., 1998) to represent the meteorological conditions whereas a simple soil evaporation model (Boesten and Stroosnijder, 1986) was used to represent the influence of the precipitation and soil hydrological conditions on the actual evaporation rate. Since different soil parameters were required to describe the evaporation measurements for the upper and lower part of the plot, our starting hypothesis that more water is evaporated in the lower part of the field could be confirmed. Allen, R. G., L. S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith (1998), Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water

  11. From a word to a world: the current situation in the interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Using a carefully designed search query, we describe the field of synthetic biology in terms of leading countries, organizations and funding sources. Besides articles we also paid some attention to patents. The USA is the leading country in this field, followed by China. There is a clear exponential growth in the field of synthetic biology over the latest 14 years. Keywords were analyzed using the notion of year-based h-indices, core gap and relative core gap. We conclude that the term “synthetic biology” hides a large world ready to be explored by interdisciplinary research. PMID:25650074

  12. PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS FOR A FIELD DISCHARGE SITUATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was performed which compared predicted and measured concentrations of chemicals in receiving water organisms from three sampling locations on Five Mile Creek, Birmingham, Al. Two point source discharges, both from coke manufacturing facilities, were included in the ...

  13. A Field Application of Situational Leadership: A Critique of The Boy Scouts of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Sanford B.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the 1972 revisions in the internal organizational policies of the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America. Contends that investigation in a field setting demonstrates the continuation of a basic flaw in the scouting leadership system. (MH)

  14. Investigating short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields on reproductive capacity of invertebrates in the field situation.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Bolte, John F B; Evans, Tracy R; Tamis, Wil L M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are exposed to electromagnetic fields from the introduction of wireless networks that send information all over the world. In this study we examined the impact of exposure to the fields from mobile phone base stations (GSM 900 MHz) on the reproductive capacity of small, virgin, invertebrates. A field experiment was performed exposing four different invertebrate species at different distances from a radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) transmitter for a 48-h period. The control groups were isolated from EMF exposure by use of Faraday cages. The response variables as measured in the laboratory were fecundity and number of offspring. Results showed that distance was not an adequate proxy to explain dose-response regressions. No significant impact of the exposure matrices, measures of central tendency and temporal variability of EMF, on reproductive endpoints was found. Finding no impact on reproductive capacity does not fully exclude the existence of EMF impact, since mechanistically models hypothesizing non-thermal-induced biological effects from RF exposure are still to be developed. The exposure to RF EMF is ubiquitous and is still increasing rapidly over large areas. We plea for more attention toward the possible impacts of EMF on biodiversity.

  15. Situated University, Situated Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  16. Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Ernst, Michael; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles (medilogic® insoles) when measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field situations. Various weights were applied to and removed from the insoles in static mechanical tests. The force values measured simultaneously by the insoles and force plates were compared for 15 subjects simulating work activities. Reliability testing during the static mechanical tests yielded an average interclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Static loads led to a creeping pattern of the output force signal. An individual load response could be observed for each insole. The average root mean square error between the insoles and force plates ranged from 6.6% to 17.7% in standing, walking, lifting and catching trials and was 142.3% in kneeling trials. The results show that the use of insoles may be an acceptable method for measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field studies, except for kneeling positions.

  17. Description of wind field dynamic patterns in a valley and their relation to mesoscale and synoptic-scale meterological situations

    SciTech Connect

    Guardans, R.; Palomino, I.

    1995-01-01

    A large set of hourly meterological data from seven towers deployed in Montesina Valley (Cordoba, Spain) is studied in relation to the prevailing synoptic situation. The complete collection of daily synoptic maps for 1985-90 has been classified in seven basic weather patterns. First-order transition probabilities and weather pattern persistences have been calculated for each of the patterns. The behavior of the local valley wind field is described as a function of the synoptic patterns. The work reported here, based on observations of the characteristic time and space patterns of flow in the valley under different synoptic conditions, has made it possible to obtain a set of empirical rules and regression functions to produce forecasts of the local wind field as a function of the synoptic situation and the hour of the day to be used in the emergency plans. The result of this work is currently being implemented in an atmospheric dispersion module of an expert system that will be used as a tool to predict the evolution of accidental and routine hazardous emissions to the atmosphere in complex terrain such as valleys and coastal areas.

  18. Estimation of Actual Crop ET of Paddy Using the Energy Balance Model SMARET and Validation with Field Water Balance Measurements and a Crop Growth Model (ORYZA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallasamy, N. D.; Muraleedharan, B. V.; Kathirvel, K.; Narasimhan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable management of water resources requires reliable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) at fine spatial and temporal resolution. This is significant in the case of rice based irrigation systems, one of the major consumers of surface water resources and where ET forms a major component of water consumption. However huge tradeoff in the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite images coupled with lack of adequate number of cloud free images within a growing season act as major constraints in deriving ET at fine spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing based energy balance models. The scale at which ET is determined is decided by the spatial and temporal scale of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which form inputs to energy balance models. In this context, the current study employed disaggregation algorithms (NL-DisTrad and DisNDVI) to generate time series of LST and NDVI images at fine resolution. The disaggregation algorithms aimed at generating LST and NDVI at finer scale by integrating temporal information from concurrent coarse resolution data and spatial information from a single fine resolution image. The temporal frequency of the disaggregated images is further improved by employing composite images of NDVI and LST in the spatio-temporal disaggregation method. The study further employed half-hourly incoming surface insolation and outgoing long wave radiation obtained from the Indian geostationary satellite (Kalpana-1) to convert the instantaneous ET into daily ET and subsequently to the seasonal ET, thereby improving the accuracy of ET estimates. The estimates of ET were validated with field based water balance measurements carried out in Gadana, a subbasin predominated by rice paddy fields, located in Tamil Nadu, India.

  19. Evaluation of the hearing protector in a real work situation using the field-microphone-in-real-ear method.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Clayton Henrique; Longo, Isadora Altero; Moreira, Renata Rodrigues; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of the attenuation of a hearing protector (HP) in a real work situation using the field-microphone-in-real-ear method (f-MIRE). Methods Eighteen individuals of both genders (mean age of 47.17±8 years) participated in this study. In the workplace, the personal attenuation level of the HP was assessed using the f-MIRE method, followed by orientation about the importance of using the HP, cleaning and storing the device, and training for effective placement. Results The analyses showed a significant statistic attenuation for all of the collected data (total noise, by frequency band and dose) when the noise levels in the lapel microphone and the probe microphone were compared. In the comparison of the attenuation values provided by the manufacturer and those found in this study, we observed higher values for the manufacturer in all frequency bands. No difference was observed for the noise levels in the different activities and times evaluated. Conclusion The findings of this study enabled us to know the personal level of attenuation of the HP during a real work situation, which was within the limits of tolerance. It was also possible to collect information about the environmental noise to which these workers are exposed. We noticed situations where this level exceeded the safety values, and therefore it is recommended the use of the HP. It is important that more studies are conducted using the f-MIRE method, because it may be an ally to assess the effectiveness of the HP attenuation in the workplace.

  20. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-01-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Practitioner points Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations. Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations. PMID:26028823

  1. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels.

    PubMed

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-06-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations.

  2. SITUATIONAL VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, R. M.

    IT IS GENERALLY ADMITTED THAT THE VOCABULARY OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS MORE EASILY LEARNED IF IT IS ORGANIZED IN COHERENT SEMANTIC GROUPS AROUND "SITUATIONS" OR "CENTERS OF INTEREST." WHAT IS NEEDED IS A LOGICAL AND NON-ARBITRARY TAXONOMY OF SITUATIONS. WE DISTINGUISH, FIRST, OPEN AND CLOSED SITUATIONS. CLOSED SITUATIONS (FOR EXAMPLE, DAYS OF THE…

  3. Development of an Evaluation System for Vertical Vibration of Railway Vehicles with Field-Portable Actuators (2nd Report, Excitation Tests of an Actual Commuter Vehicle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigami, Tadao; Tomioka, Takahiro

    Bending vibration characteristics of railway vehicles have been investigated in general under excitation tests, in which a carbody was directly excited by a shaker. It is however very difficult with their results to evaluate the ride quality of passengers under conditions that the vehicle runs on a certain track. The authors are therefore developing an evaluation system for vertical vibration of railway vehicles. This system consists of an excitation system equipped with linear actuators, the elastic supporting device installed between wheels and rails, and analytical techniques to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) and the ride quality level (LT) which feature the ride quality. In this paper, we describe the excitation tests performed using an actual commuter car and the estimated PSD and LT are compared with what substantially measured under the running conditions.

  4. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  5. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for the electric pedal support system. Two groups were compared: elderly cyclists (65 years of age and older) and a reference group of cyclists in middle adulthood (between 30 and 45 years of age). Participants rode a fixed route with a length of approximately 3.5 km on both bicycles in counterbalanced order. The route consisted of secluded bicycle paths and roads in a residential area where cyclist have to share the road with motorized traffic. The straight sections on secluded bicycle paths were classified as simple traffic situations and the intersections in the residential area where participants had to turn left, as complex traffic situations. Speed and mental workload were measured. For the assessment of mental workload the peripheral detection task (PDT) was applied. In simple traffic situations the elderly cyclists rode an average 3.6 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. However, in complex traffic situations they rode an average only 1.7 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. Except for the fact that the cyclists in middle adulthood rode an average approximately 2.6 km/h faster on both bicycle types and in both traffic conditions, their speed patterns were very similar. The speed of the elderly cyclists on an e-bike was approximately the speed of the cyclists in middle adulthood on a conventional bicycle. For the elderly cyclist and the cyclists in middle adulthood, mental workload did not differ between bicycle type. For both groups, the mental workload was higher in complex traffic situations than in simple traffic situations. Mental workload of the elderly cyclists was somewhat higher than the mental workload of the

  6. Actual extension of sinkholes: Considerations about geophysical, geomorphological, and field inspection techniques in urban planning projects in the Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Pocoví Juan, A.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Ansón-López, D.; Gil-Garbi, H.

    2013-05-01

    Aerial photographs, historical cartographies, and field inspection are useful tools in urban planning design on mantled karst because they permit a wide time interval to be analyzed. In the case of Zaragoza city, several works have confirmed the interest of these approaches in configuring the urban planning code and therefore represent a promising technique. Nevertheless, some caveats should be taken into account when using this kind of information. A detailed analysis is presented comparing (in a case study from the surroundings of Zaragoza) geomorphological, historical analysis, and field inspection with geophysical data. Field inspection in a noncultivated area permits the constraint of the presence of karst indicators below the geomorphological resolution of aerial photographs and shows results consistent with geophysical surveys. The studied case shows an inner zone coinciding with the sinkhole mapped from aerial photographs that correlates with changes in the position of the substratum and changes in thickness of alluvial sediments. The integrated analysis permits us to define an external subsidence ring around the geomorphological sinkhole whose surface is twice the size of the inner zone. This outer ring is indicated by geometrical changes in GPR profiles, increases of thickness of the conductive shallower unit toward the collapse, and small collapses on marginal cracks. These results support the higher extension of karst hazards linked to sinkholes with respect to their geomorphological expression and the needed detailed analysis to constrain the real sinkhole size or the use of security radii surrounding this surficial evidence when geomorphological data is used for the hazard analyses or the urban planning at karstic zones.

  7. Orthopaedic management in a mega mass casualty situation. The Israel Defence Forces Field Hospital in Haiti following the January 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Lebel, Ehud; Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Benedict, Shaike; Gill, Amit; Lee, Evgeny; Pirotsky, Anatoly; Shirov, Taras; Blumberg, Nehemia

    2011-10-01

    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) established a field hospital in Port au Prince. The hospital started operating 89 h after the earthquake. We describe the experience of the orthopaedic department in a field hospital operating in an extreme mass casualty situation. The hospital contained 4 operating table and 72 hospitalization beds. The orthopaedic department included 8 orthopaedic surgeons and 3 residents. 1111 patients were treated in the hospital, 1041 of them had adequate records for inclusion. 684 patients were admitted due to trauma with a total of 841 injuries. 320 patients sustained 360 fractures, 18 had joint dislocations and 22 patients were admitted after amputations. 207 patients suffered 315 soft tissue injuries. 221 patients were operated on under general or regional anaesthesia. External fixation was used for stabilization of 48 adult femoral shaft fractures, 24 open tibial fractures and 1 open humeral fracture. All none femoral closed fractures were treated non-operatively. 18 joint reductions and 23 amputations were performed. Appropriate planning, training, operational versatility, and adjustment of therapeutic guidelines according to a constantly changing situation, enabled us to deliver optimal care to the maximal number of patients, in an overwhelming mass trauma situation.

  8. A polarizing situation: Taking an in-plane perspective for next-generation near-field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, P. James; Bao, Wei; Borys, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    By enabling the probing of light-matter interactions at the functionally relevant length scales of most materials, near-field optical imaging and spectroscopy accesses information that is unobtainable with other methods. The advent of apertureless techniques, which exploit the ultralocalized and enhanced near-fields created by sharp metallic tips or plasmonic nanoparticles, has resulted in rapid adoption of near-field approaches for studying novel materials and phenomena, with spatial resolution approaching sub-molecular levels. However, these approaches are generally limited by the dominant out-of-plane polarization response of apertureless tips, restricting the exploration and discovery of many material properties. This has led to recent design and fabrication breakthroughs in near-field tips engineered specifically for enhancing in-plane interactions with near-field light components. This mini-review provides a perspective on recent progress and emerging directions aimed at utilizing and controlling in-plane optical polarization, highlighting key application spaces where in-plane near-field tip responses have enabled recent advancements in the understanding and development of new nanostructured materials and devices.

  9. Personal Experience with the PVHD and Opinion of Situations in Which a Wide Field of View (FOV) PVHD Might Be Helpful

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnaughton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    Personal experience with the PVHD indicates that it should have great promise in easing cockpit workload, improving situational awareness, and reducing spatial disorientation. It should not be assumed that the PVHD will automatically cue the pilot to his attitude without some training or exposure. Some measure of attention needs to be devoted to attitude although this can easily be accomplished by the peripheral visual fields without tying up central vision. The PVHD would appear useful in any aircraft that flies in spatially disorienting/misorienting conditions, such as night, weather, or formation. It would appear to be particularly useful in aircraft, that by their design, are especially disorienting in such circumstances.

  10. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities.

    PubMed

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual's perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual's overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators' alertness and job-performance.

  11. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  12. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  14. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  15. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  16. [Situational awareness: oversimplification of reality].

    PubMed

    Hamming, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Situational awareness appears to be an attractive term to describe attentiveness when performing complex tasks in an operating theatre, as its meaning seems clear and it is considered useful. It is embraced for describing human behaviour in the aftermath of incidents and appears to provide a clear explanation of what went wrong. But it actually describes a wide range of aspects of human behaviour and therefore comprises a risk of oversimplification. As a consequence, hasty and unwarranted conclusions may be drawn about a complex situation, especially where its outcome is known, leading to hindsight bias. To understand what happened, it is necessary to reconstruct the entire situation as it evolved at the time, considering all the activities, people, circumstances and equipment involved. People are always part of a system, so the proposed monitoring devices will be of only limited use in preventing adverse events.

  17. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  18. The Situation Awareness Weighted Network (SAWN) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    under threat or facing a crisis, perceived or actual [Berger & Calabrese 1975, Afifi & Weiner 2002]. Overall, the research indicates that in...Tenney, Y.J., Pew, R.W. (1995) “Situation awareness and the cognitive management of complex systems”, Human Factors 37: 85–104. Afifi , W.A., Weiner

  19. Situations That Lead to Disqualification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelas, Janet Beavin

    1983-01-01

    Tested, in five hypothetical paper-and-pencil experiments, subjects' use of disqualification (ambiguous, indirect, or evasive massages). Concluded that a disqualification is not a failed communication, but rather a reasonable response to an impossible situation, one that permits the communicator to leave the field gracefully. (PD)

  20. Sizing Up the Situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  1. Actualities and Perspectives in Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Iencean, SM; Brehar, FM

    2008-01-01

    In the field of neurosurgery, like in other surgical specialties, the last decades have brought major achievements. The series of revolutionary discoveries has started during the last century in the fifties, with stereotactic radiosurgery, then continued with the implementation of operative microscope (during the seventies), the endovascular embolisation in the nineties and finally with the major improvement in robotic neurosurgery and molecular neurosurgery at the beginning of this century. The major innovation has been brought not only in the field of therapeutical measures but also in the field of neuro– imaging. Thus, the modern MRI with more than 3 Tesla, can reveal to the neurosurgeon the most intimate structures of the nervous system. Several important areas in neurosurgery like: vascular neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery and brain tumors pathology, benefit from the modern technology and from the latest discoveries from genetic and molecular biology. In conclusion, summarizing the discoveries of the last decade, we emphasize that the related areas like genetics, molecular biology, computer technology become more and more important in the future progress of the neurosurgery. PMID:20108475

  2. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  3. Situating Ontario's Colleges between the American and European Models for Providing Opportunity for the Attainment of Baccalaureate Degrees in Applied Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnik, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    During the last third of the twentieth century, college sectors in many countries took on the role of expanding opportunities for baccalaureate degree attainment in applied fields of study. In many European countries, colleges came to constitute a parallel higher education sector that offered degree programs of an applied nature in contrast to the…

  4. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  5. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302... operations shall be minimized. (b) Operating management shall weigh actual and potential risks against...

  6. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302... operations shall be minimized. (b) Operating management shall weigh actual and potential risks against...

  7. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302... operations shall be minimized. (b) Operating management shall weigh actual and potential risks against...

  8. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302... operations shall be minimized. (b) Operating management shall weigh actual and potential risks against...

  9. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  10. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  11. [The electromagnetic fields of cellular phones and the health of children and of teenagers (the situation requiring to take an urgent measure)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of cellular phones (CP) on the health of children and teenagers is considered in this article. The results of the researchs indicate the increased sensitivity of the children and of the teenagers to this kind of radiation. Direct indicators of electromagnetic influence can be infringement of sleep, decrease of the memory, fatigue, breach of a blood-brain barrier permeability, changes in nervous cells of a brain. As the remote consequences the development of tumors of a brain and acoustic nerve are predicted. However all these results require the realization of independent repeated researches. WHO (World Health Organization) recommends to use "Precautionary principle" with the purposes of decreasing of the risk. Russian National Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection recommended to limit the use of CP by children and teenagers under 16 years old (2002, February 2004). The corresponding recommendations were included into SunPin H2.1.8/2.2.4.1190-03/(2003).

  12. Basis for a Waste Management Public Communication Policy: Actual Situation Analysis and Implementation of Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Jolivet, L. A.; Maset, E. R.

    2002-02-28

    Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This project had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public's opinion with a positive real outlook.

  13. The Rhetorical Situation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garret, Mary; Xiao, Xiaosui

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and redefines a concept known as the "rhetorical situation" through an examination of the political discourse of China during the 19th-century Opium Wars. Arrives at three alterations to the "rhetorical situation" concerning the role of the audience, the role of the culture's discourse tradition, and the interactive and…

  14. About Stressful Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your pet, taking a walk, listening to music, or playing your guitar. Stressful situations can test our strength, for sure. Whatever you're facing, it can help to think through the situation, accept the emotions you feel, and keep a positive attitude. Focus ...

  15. Updating Situation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Madden, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how situation models are updated during text comprehension. If comprehenders keep track of the evolving situation, they should update their models such that the most current information, the here and now, is more available than outdated information. Contrary to this updating hypothesis, E. J. O'Brien, M. L. Rizzella, J. E.…

  16. [How to become a trauma surgeon: analysis of the current situation and concepts for career development in the new common field of orthopaedics and trauma surgery--part I].

    PubMed

    Mittlmeier, T; Bonnaire, F; Grützner, P A; Lill, H; Matthes, G; Prokop, A; Seifert, J; Voigt, C; Walcher, F; Wölfl, C; Siebert, H

    2010-06-01

    The lack of clinical residents especially in the surgical domains, including orthopaedics and trauma surgery, is not only omnipresent but also a topic of lively discussions. This lack originates from sociopolitical and healthcare policy issues as well as from a loss of attractiveness of all surgical disciplines. The loss is caused by the high workload and disadvantageous working hours especially in those disciplines with a high rate of emergencies, e.g. trauma surgery. Moreover, it is caused by the poorly structured and unpredictable period of residency. In order to anticipate the bottleneck in supply due to the lack of trainees, a number of structural and contextual measures have to be taken to improve both undergraduate und postgraduate surgical training. Due to the numerous facets of the topic the first part of this analysis refers to the period until the trainee decides on the field of training.A basic insight into the field of orthopaedics and trauma surgery can already be offered far before the period of medical studies itself. During undergraduate medical education the existing structures should be modified, the characteristics of the discipline should be emphasized and the charm of combining theory and practical skills should be highlighted in order to enhance student's perception of the discipline. This might begin during preclinical training and should be continued throughout clinical training and elective courses (basic wound care, TEAM approach, AO course for students and seminars for M.D. candidates). Contextual and structural improvements of the practical year are indispensable to arouse students' interest in our discipline. These options conjoined with the actual offers for students provided by our scientific society, such as guided tours during the annual congress, travelling grants and the recently inaugurated summer school, might provide the basis for clearly structured information and offer a distinct stimulus to apply for residency in our field.

  17. Designing and Using Virtual Field Environments to Enhance and Extend Field Experience in Professional Development Programs in Geology for K-12 Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granshaw, Frank Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly used to acquaint geoscience novices with some of the observation, data gathering, and problem solving done in actual field situations by geoscientists. VR environments in a variety of forms are used to prepare students for doing geologic fieldwork, as well as to provide proxies for such experience when…

  18. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  19. Situated Literacies at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Gathered data about work practices related to three motels and two eco-tourism sites. Findings suggest that actual workplace practices involve socially constructed literacies depending on the user's ability to make judgments on using the text or obtaining information from the text. (SLD)

  20. A field comparison of nested grid and trapping web density estimators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jett, D.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of capture-recapture estimators in any field study will depend largely on underlying model assumptions and on how closely these assumptions approximate the actual field situation. Evaluation of estimator performance under real-world field conditions is often a difficult matter, although several approaches are possible. Perhaps the best approach involves use of the estimation method on a population with known parameters.

  1. Personalizing situation awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Linn Marks; Powell, James E; Roman, Jorge R; Martinez, Mark L B; Mane, Ketan K

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  2. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  3. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  4. Situational Variation in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1981-01-01

    Presents data which shows, in a systematic and objective way, how the same speaker can express the same meaning in a variety of ways depending upon the social situation. Such data offer the teacher of English a basis for discussing some of the linguistic features involved in this variation. (Author/PJM)

  5. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions.

  6. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  7. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  8. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  9. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  10. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  11. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  12. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  13. Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

  14. Stones in special situations.

    PubMed

    Duvdevani, Mordechai; Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Bensalah, Karim; Peyronnet, Benoit; Krambeck, Amy; Khadji, Sanjay; Muslumanuglu, Ahmet; Leavitt, David; Divers, Jude; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur; Fox, Janelle; Ost, Michael; Gross, Andreas J; Razvi, Hassan

    2017-03-07

    There are several special situations in which urinary lithiasis presents management challenges to the urologist. An in-depth knowledge of the pathophysiology, unique anatomy, and treatment options is crucial in order to maintain good health in these patients. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the management of the following scenarios: bladder stones, stones in bowel disease, during pregnancy, in association with renal anomalies, with skeletal deformities, in urinary diversions, and in children.

  15. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  16. How appropriate is the Thiem equation for describing groundwater flow to actual wells?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tügel, Franziska; Houben, Georg J.; Graf, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The Thiem equation of radial groundwater flow to a well is more than 100 years old and is still commonly used. Here, deviations caused by some of its simplifications are quantified by comparing the analytical to a numerical model that allows the implementation of more complex geometries. The assumption of horizontal flow in the Thiem equation, which necessitates uniform inflow over the entire screen length of the fully penetrating well, was found to cause deviations from actual pumping wells where the pump is placed above the screen, resulting in non-uniform inflow and additional drawdown. The same applies to partially penetrating wells, where inflow peaks and additional drawdown occur, especially when the well is screened in the lower part of the aquifer. The use of the Thiem equation in the near-field of a well should thus be restricted to situations where the screen inflow is relatively uniformly distributed, e.g. when it covers large portions of the aquifer thickness. The presence of a gravel pack and a background gradient, on the other hand, are of limited importance.

  17. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  18. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  19. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  20. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  1. Cross-Situational Word Learning in the Right Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Upon hearing a novel word, language learners must identify its correct meaning from a diverse set of situationally relevant options. Such referential ambiguity could be reduced through "repetitive" exposure to the novel word across diverging learning situations, a learning mechanism referred to as "cross-situational learning."…

  2. Situational simulations in interactive video

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Advanced Training Technologies section is using situational simulations in several Interactive Video training courses. Two applications of situational simulations will be discussed. In the first, used in the Hanford General Employee Training course, the student evaluates employee's actions in simulations of possible workplace situations. In the second, used in the Criticality Safety course, students must follow well-defined procedures to complete tasks. Design and incorporation of situational simulations will be discussed. 3 refs.

  3. Situational Awareness in Complex Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-31

    control of atentional focus). An example of an explicit performance measure to assess situation awareness is Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique ... techniques , training and selection, team behavior, and designs that enhance human capabilities. The conference produced some notable agreements: first...Aircraft Division Report. Hawthorne, CA. Endsley, M. R., (1988). Situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT). Paper presented at the National

  4. Leadership: Dispositional and Situational. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Situations, Traits , Contexts, Multiple levels of analysis, Managerial practice, (over) 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and ’dentify by...block number) For over four decades, leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics...leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics (contexts), or some combination of

  5. Instructional Design for Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the design of situated learning and the ecological psychology of situated cognition. Topics addressed include the teacher's role; teacher training; anchored instruction; transfer skills; the meaning of learning; apprenticeships; and the Jasper Series, a macrocontext designed to investigate the issues of situated learning. (46 references)…

  6. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  12. Situational Lightning Climatologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. It was believed there were two flow systems, but it has been discovered that actually there are seven distinct flow regimes. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has recalculated the lightning climatologies for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and the eight airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) County Warning Area (CWA) using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The software determines the location of each CG lightning strike with 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-nmi (.9.3-, 18.5-, 37-, 55.6-km) radii from each airfield. Each CG lightning strike is binned at 1-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals at each specified radius. The software merges the CG lightning strike time intervals and distance with each wind flow regime and creates probability statistics for each time interval, radii, and flow regime, and stratifies them by month and warm season. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the new data.

  13. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements.

  14. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  15. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  16. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  17. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  18. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  19. The Reality of Unreal Situations: Caveats and Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Christie, Christina A.; Greene, Jennifer C.; Henry, Gary T.; Donaldson, Stewart I.; King, Jean A.

    2005-01-01

    The editors give each of the theorists a chance to respond to questions posed about the context of the situation in relation to their own experience in the field, exploring how the exercise had an impact on their evaluation designs.

  20. Situation resolution with context-sensitive fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobson, Gabriel; Buford, John; Lewis, Lundy

    2009-05-01

    Context plays a significant role in situation resolution by intelligent agents (human or machine) by affecting how the situations are recognized, interpreted, acted upon or predicted. Many definitions and formalisms for the notion of context have emerged in various research fields including psychology, economics and computer science (computational linguistics, data management, control theory, artificial intelligence and others). In this paper we examine the role of context in situation management, particularly how to resolve situations that are described by using fuzzy (inexact) relations among their components. We propose a language for describing context sensitive inexact constraints and an algorithm for interpreting relations using inexact (fuzzy) computations.

  1. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.

    1999-01-01

    During the first year of this project, a taxonomy of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) was applied to the advanced commercial aircraft by categorizing actual modes of McDonald Douglas MD-11 autoflight system operation in terms of the taxonomy. As well, high LOAs included in the taxonomy (e.g., supervisory control) were modeled in the context of MD-11 autoflight systems through development of a virtual flight simulator. The flight simulator was an integration of a re-configurable simulator developed by the Georgia Institute Technology and new software prototypes of autoflight system modules found in the MD-11 cockpit. In addition to this work, a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) was developed for application to commercial piloting tasks. A software package was developed to deliver the SAGAT and was integrated with the virtual flight simulator.

  2. Adaptive Control: Actual Status and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, I. D.

    1985-01-01

    Important progress in research and application of Adaptive Control Systems has been achieved in the last ten years. The techniques which are currently used in applications will be reviewed. Theoretical aspects currently under investigation and which are related to the application of adaptive control techniques in various fields will be briefly discussed. Applications in various areas will be briefly reviewed. The use of adaptive techniques for vibrations monitoring and active vibration control will be emphasized.

  3. [Creatinine and calcium in urine and blood after brief exposure to magnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F; Mannsåker, T; Løvlie, R

    1999-02-10

    In this experimental study, 35 males were exposed to artificial magnetic fields. The fields were produced by a set of Helmholz coils internally isolated by a Faraday cage which effectively eliminated electrical fields. Each participant stayed inside the coils for 40 minutes on two occasions with an interval of seven days, but was actually only once exposed to a static magnetic field (9.6 mT) and oscillating magnetic fields of variable frequency and strength. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exposure, and before and after non-exposure. Analysis detected significant changes in serum creatinine level after exposure (p < 0.0001). The changes in serum creatinine level in the nonexposed situation were significantly smaller than the changes found in the exposed situation (p < 0.0001). The changes i urine creatinine after 40 minutes of exposure was also found to be significant (p < 0.01). Exposure to magnetic fields may induce biological reactions.

  4. Situated Cognition: Describing the Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    This paper presents an overview of the theory of situated cognition by providing its origin, a listing of its main principles and then discussing in detail the principles of, authentic learning environments, legitimate peripheral participation, and assessment. It also provides two examples of the application of situated cognition principles. The…

  5. Telephone Evaluations of Critical Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alson, Jo; Cesnik, Bernard I.

    Everytime an emergency telephone rings, the telephone worker may be faced with a life-threatening situation. An important decision facing the worker is whether to handle any given crisis call over the telephone, or to opt for a face-to-face contact. An inaccurate assessment or evaluation of a high-risk situation could contribute to serious…

  6. Actual Romanian research in post-newtonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioc, V.; Stavinschi, M.

    2007-05-01

    We survey the recent Romanian results in the study of the two-body problem in post-Newtonian fields. Such a field is characterized, in general, by a potential of the form U(q)=|q|^{-1}+ something (small, but not compulsorily). We distinguish some classes of post-Newtonian models: relativistic (Schwarzschild, Fock, Einstein PN, Reissner-Nordström, Schwarzschild - de Sitter, etc.) and nonrelativistic (Manev, Mücket-Treder, Seeliger, gravito-elastic, etc.). Generalized models (the zonal-satellite problem, quasihomogeneous fields), as well as special cases (anisotropic Manev-type and Schwarzschild-type models, Popovici or Popovici-Manev photogravitational problem), were also tackled. The methods used in such studies are various: analytical (using mainly the theory of perturbations, but also other theories: functions of complex variable, variational calculus, etc.), geometric (qualitative approach of the theory of dynamical systems), and numerical (especially using the Poincaré-section technique). The areas of interest and the general results obtained focus on: exact or approximate analytical solutions; characteristics of local flows (especially at limit situations: collision and escape); quasiperiodic and periodic orbits; equilibria; symmetries; chaoticity; geometric description of the global flow (and physical interpretation of the phase-space structure). We emphasize some special features, which cannot be met within the Newtonian framework: black-hole effect, oscillatory collisions, radial librations, bounded orbits for nonnegative energy, existence of unstable circular motion (or unstable rest), symmetric periodic orbits within anisotropic models, etc.

  7. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  8. The Concept of Situation in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cool, Colleen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the concept of situation in information science. Highlights include situation, context, and interaction with information; cognitive sociology and social interaction theory; situated action; the theory of situation awareness; person-in-situation model; and situation environments. (Contains 126…

  9. Objective Situation Awareness Measurement Based on Performance Self-Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale and a situation awareness measurement tool. The situation awareness tool uses a comparison of the crew's self-evaluation of performance against actual performance in order to determine what information the crew attended to during the performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The situation assessment data are reported here. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective. It was used to evaluate situation awareness on a tank reconnaissance task, a tactical navigation task, and a stylized task used to evaluated handling qualities. Using the self-evaluation metric, it was possible to evaluate situation awareness, without exact knowledge the relevant information in some cases and to identify information to which the crew attended or failed to attend in others.

  10. Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The chronic "unloading" of the neuromuscular system during spaceflight has detrimental functional and morphological effects. Changes in the metabolic and mechanical properties of the musculature can be attributed largely to the loss of muscle protein and the alteration in the relative proportion of the proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in the muscles that have an antigravity function under normal loading conditions. These adaptations could result in decrements in the performance of routine or specialized motor tasks, both of which may be critical for survival in an altered gravitational field, i.e., during spaceflight and during return to 1 G. For example, the loss in extensor muscle mass requires a higher percentage of recruitment of the motor pools for any specific motor task. Thus, a faster rate of fatigue will occur in the activated muscles. These consequences emphasize the importance of developing techniques for minimizing muscle loss during spaceflight, at least in preparation for the return to 1 G after spaceflight. New insights into the complexity and the interactive elements that contribute to the neuromuscular adaptations to space have been gained from studies of the role of exercise and/or growth factors as countermeasures of atrophy. The present chapter illustrates the inevitable interactive effects of neural and muscular systems in adapting to space. It also describes the considerable progress that has been made toward the goal of minimizing the functional impact of the stimuli that induce the neuromuscular adaptations to space.

  11. [Actual situation and social prognosis of women seeking psychiatric care at the emergency hostel of Tokyo Metropolitan Women's Counseling Center].

    PubMed

    Kamo, Toshiko; Ujiie, Yuri; Tamura, Atsuko

    2002-01-01

    The emergency hostel of Tokyo Metropolitan Women's Counseling Center, established in 1957, provides protection and care for about 600 Japanese or foreign women per year. The women housed there need social support for various reasons such as prostitution, poverty, somatic or mental diseases, or domestic violence (DV). We investigated the sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses and social prognoses of 2667 women who consulted the psychiatric clinic in the emergency hostel between 1961 and 1997. Seventy-four women consulted the psychiatric clinic per year, on average. Most were aged between 20 and 49. During the study period, there was a gradual decline in the number referred through the prostitution prevention law. Psychiatric diagnoses at the first visit varied widely. Annual comparison showed a gradual decrease in schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness, but an increase in substance abuse, psychogenic reaction, and personality disorder. Sociodemographically, most subjects appeared to have been children from underprivileged backgrounds. The social prognoses of 930 cases judged in March 1998 were good in 25%, moderate in 23% and poor in 48%. The poor prognosis group contained significantly more women with schizophrenia and personality disorder than the other two groups. The poor prognosis group tended to include more cases of substance abuse, while the good prognosis group contained more cases of depression and mental retardation. Women in the DV group tended to have more children than those in the non-DV group, and to have a higher prevalence of psychogenic reaction and a lower prevalence of schizophrenia. The DV group also tended to include more subjects with a moderate social prognosis and fewer subjects with a poor social prognosis. Specialized treatment should be provided for women after emergency admission to the hostel and this treatment needs to be aimed at improving social adaptation of the hostel residents, especially those with schizophrenia, personality disorders and substance abuse. Victims of DV should receive more conscious attention. In particular, prevention of mental disorders should be aimed not only at the residents but also their children.

  12. Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary formations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Rumiko; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of on-road and in-vehicle NO and NO2 levels, particle number concentrations (PNCs), and particles size distributions were performed while driving using a test vehicle equipped with real-time sensors. The results obtained on regional roads showed that heavy-duty vehicles in traffic seem to have a major impact on on-road air quality. Measurements on highways that included a 10km tunnel and a 2km uphill section of road indicated that sub-50nm particles have different features from the other species because of their higher volatility. The other species showed quite high on-road concentrations in the tunnel. In-vehicle conditions were made similar to the on-road ones by setting the air conditioning (AC) mode to the fresh air mode. The in-vehicle NO2 concentration in the tunnel was over 0.50ppmV, which is almost five times higher than the 1-hour ambient air quality standard proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In sections other than the tunnel, the in-vehicle NO2 concentration was almost the same as the 1-hour WHO standard. Higher on-road NO2/NOx ratios than those of exhaust gases and different behavior of sub-50nm particles from other species suggested that NO2 and sub-50nm particles were mainly due to secondary products formed by atmospheric reactions.

  13. Incorporating time and spatial-temporal reasoning into situation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobson, Gabriel

    2010-04-01

    Spatio-temporal reasoning plays a significant role in situation management that is performed by intelligent agents (human or machine) by affecting how the situations are recognized, interpreted, acted upon or predicted. Many definitions and formalisms for the notion of spatio-temporal reasoning have emerged in various research fields including psychology, economics and computer science (computational linguistics, data management, control theory, artificial intelligence and others). In this paper we examine the role of spatio-temporal reasoning in situation management, particularly how to resolve situations that are described by using spatio-temporal relations among events and situations. We discuss a model for describing context sensitive temporal relations and show have the model can be extended for spatial relations.

  14. Actual development of the chenier coast of suriname (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustinus, Pieter G. E. F.

    1980-04-01

    The Holocene coastal plain of Suriname is a chenier plain. Its actual sedimentological development has been studied during three field-work periods (1966, 1967/1968, 1972). Clay is the predominant sediment in this low- to medium-energy environment. It accumulates in extensive shoreface-attached mudflats (sometimes considered as giant mudwaves), which migrate continuously to the west due to deposition of slingmud at their west side and simultaneous erosion of the east side. In between the mudflats cheniers may develop. Thin-section analysis of the clay deposits revealed that they are built up of an alternation of thick clayey laminae and thin laminae of silt and fine sand. The clayey laminae chiefly show a unistrial plasmic fabric. Disturbaces in the upper zone are caused by bioturbation. Two types of cheniers can be distinguished. One type contains fine sand which has been winnowed out of the pelite deposits. Since this sand is brought from the shelf the chenier formation begins at approximately mean low-water level. Longshore bars are formed and these are driven shoreward by wave action. The other type is built up of medium to coarse sand supplied by a local river. It is transported westward by beachdrift in a narrow zone around the mean high-water line. These cheniers develop therefore at or just above the mean high-tide level. The sedimentary structures of both types of cheniers have many characteristics in common. However, each type also has its own distinct features.

  15. Remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration: implications for groundwater management in Botswana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, W. J.; Meijerink, A. M. J.

    In order to determine evapotranspiration losses from the groundwater of an aquifer in Botswana during the dry season, the multi-step Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was applied using sequential Landsat TM and NOAA-AVHRR data. During satellite overpasses, continuous data on surface temperatures and soil moisture were available from a meteorological tower and field observations for calibration and partial validation of the results. The SEBAL method yielded high actual evapotranspiration (E a) rates (1.5 - 3 mm/d), if relatively dense savannah vegetation was present, even when the water-table was over 30 m deep, as is the case in the upper part of the aquifer. No relationship between Ea and depth to water-table was found, except in the valleys, where riverine forests are fed by a system of discharging groundwater flow. The patterns on a vegetation map, based on a supervised classification using TM data, including thermal bands, showed similarity with the E a patterns. The spatial distributions of vegetation types and of E a have been interpreted as important uptake of water by deep roots; this is supported by increasing evidence from other parts of the world. Sap flow was measured in tall bushes near the tower site. The upper part (2 m) of the soil was dry. The results have implications for the groundwater recharge mechanism and the management of groundwater. Further validation studies have been initiated.

  16. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  17. 43 CFR 1610.4-4 - Analysis of the management situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-4 Analysis of the management situation. The Field...

  18. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  19. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  20. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  1. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  2. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  3. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  4. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  5. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  6. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  7. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  8. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  9. Langage et situations de communication (Language and Communication Situations)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francois, Frederic

    1977-01-01

    The introductory article in an issue devoted to language and communication situations. This topic is treated for the following reasons: linguistic competence means communicative competence; structure and external communication conditions have equal real value; and dichotomies are operative in different types of communication. (Text is in French.)…

  10. 43 CFR 1610.4-4 - Analysis of the management situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Analysis of the management situation. 1610..., BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-4 Analysis of the management situation. The Field Manager.... The analysis of the management situation shall provide, consistent with multiple use principles,...

  11. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  12. Remote Sensing of Actual Evapotranspiration at Basin Scale in the Northern Tibetan Plateau Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lei; Zou, Mijun; Ma, Yaoming; Su, Zhongbo; Ma, Weiqiang; Hu, Yuanyuan; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin

    2016-08-01

    Evapotranspiration(ET), as one of the most uncertain components of the water cycle, was derived in the Nagqu river basin of the northern Tibetan Plateau based on multi-sensor remote sensing data and field observations under clear-sky condition. Improved land surface albedo, improved downward shortwave radiation flux and reconstructed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were coupled into the topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model to estimate actual ET. The model-estimated results were compared with those determined by the combinatory method which were treated as actual ET. The results indicated that the model-estimated ET agreed well with actual ET with correlation coefficient, mean bias error and root mean square error of 0.836, 0.087 and 0.140 respectively.

  13. Impingement effect of service module reaction control system engine plumes. Results of service module reaction control system plume model force field application to an inflight Skylab mission proximity operation situation with the inflight Skylab response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobb, J. D., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Plume impingement effects of the service module reaction control system thruster firings were studied to determine if previous flight experience would support the current plume impingement model for the orbiter reaction control system engines. The orbiter reaction control system is used for rotational and translational maneuvers such as those required during rendezvous, braking, docking, and station keeping. Therefore, an understanding of the characteristics and effects of the plume force fields generated by the reaction control system thruster firings were examined to develop the procedures for orbiter/payload proximity operations.

  14. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  15. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  16. The Language Situation in Macao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  17. Literature Survey and Situation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-28

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Bernard Moulin et Associes Inc,91 rue Lockwell Quebec,Quebec QC GJR IV6, Canada, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...Situation Analysis by Dr. Bernard Moulin, Dr. Mohamad Allouche, Dr. Hengameh Irandoust Bernard Moulin et Associes Inc. 91 rue Lockwell Quebec Quebec

  18. The Language Situation in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Kristine; Weber, Jean Jacques

    2008-01-01

    This monograph describes the overall language situation in Luxembourg, a highly multilingual country in Western Europe, from a language policy and planning perspective. The first part discusses the social and historical contexts, including major societal changes and uncertainties about the future, which are bound up with Europeanisation and the…

  19. The Language Situation in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura Garcia; Moore, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This monograph will cover the language situation in Mexico; a linguistically very complex country with 62 recognised indigenous languages, the "de facto" official language, Spanish, and some immigrant languages of lesser importance. Throughout the monograph, we will concentrate on three distinct challenges which we consider relevant for…

  20. Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

  1. Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Method Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2–5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Results Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Conclusion Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. PMID:27633419

  2. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

  3. The effects of misclassification of the actual cause of death in competing risks analysis.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, N

    1996-07-30

    The problem of competing risks analysis arises often in public health, demography, actuarial science, industrial reliability applications, and experiments in medical therapeutics. In the classical competing risks scenario one models the risks with a vector (T = (T1, ..., Tk) of non-negative random variables that represents the potential times to death of k risks. One cannot see T directly but sees instead Y = min (T1, ..., Tk) and the actual cause of death. The major difficulty with this analysis is the requirement for the expert to specify the single cause of death that, in fact, may not be the actual cause. This paper addresses competing risks analysis for the situations where one observes Y and the set of several possible causes of death specified by the expert. Many times there are several causes that act together and realistically it is impossible for the expert to assign a death to a single cause. In particular, I provide a likelihood for parametric competing risks analysis when the actual cause of death is possibly misclassified. The data include time to death, Y, and a set of possible causes of death. If misclassification probabilities are unknown, I propose a Baysian analysis based on a prior distribution for the parameters of interest and for the misclassification probabilities.

  4. Electrodermal responses to implied versus actual violence on television.

    PubMed

    Kalamas, A D; Gruber, M L

    1998-01-01

    The electrodermal response (EDR) of children watching a violent show was measured. Particular attention was paid to the type of violence (actual or implied) that prompted an EDR. In addition, the impact of the auditory component (sounds associated with violence) of the show was evaluated. Implied violent stimuli, such as the villain's face, elicited the strongest EDR. The elements that elicited the weakest responses were the actual violent stimuli, such as stabbing. The background noise and voices of the sound track enhanced the total number of EDRs. The results suggest that implied violence may elicit more fear (as measured by EDRs) than actual violence does and that sounds alone contribute significantly to the emotional response to television violence. One should not, therefore, categorically assume that a show with mostly actual violence evokes less fear than one with mostly implied violence.

  5. 40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual Negative 4'x5') STAR PLAN, COURTYARD FACADE PROFILE AND DEFENSIVE LINKS - Castillo de San Marcos, 1 Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL

  6. Actuarial and actual analysis of surgical results: empirical validation.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, G L; Anderson, R P; Starr, A

    2001-06-01

    This report validates the use of the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method of computing survival curves by comparing 12-year estimates published in 1978 with current assessments. It also contrasts cumulative incidence curves, referred to as "actual" analysis in the cardiac-related literature with Kaplan-Meier curves for thromboembolism and demonstrates that with the former estimate the percentage of events that will actually occur.

  7. [The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Zalutskiĭ, I V; Averkin, Iu I; Artemova, N A; Mashevskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus over a 36-year period has been evaluated. An increase in the age-specific and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates is a clear indicator of an actual rise in morbidity. It is unrelated to aging and most probably depends on a number of environmental factors. Due to the similarity of the incidence patterns for a number of sites, it was suggested that a single or several factors might be responsible for neoplastic development. Distinct changes in malignant tumor incidence made it correlated with certain environmental changes and new approaches to primary tumor prevention were developed.

  8. Carrier statistics in graphene at high electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    The saturated velocity of a semiconductor is an important measure of performance. Graphene has been of interest for many applications due to its apparently high value of the saturated velocity. Recent experiments have suggested that this value is very density dependent and can even exceed the band limiting Fermi velocity. On the other hand, recent calculations have shown that the saturated velocity is largely independent of the carrier density. Here, we show that the carrier heating, due to high electric fields, can change the carrier statistics. This, and the fact that minority carriers can significantly impact the conductance may lead to erroneous conclusions about the actual total carrier density in the experimental situation.

  9. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  10. Toward Self-Referential Autonomous Learning of Object and Situation Models.

    PubMed

    Damerow, Florian; Knoblauch, Andreas; Körner, Ursula; Eggert, Julian; Körner, Edgar

    Most current approaches to scene understanding lack the capability to adapt object and situation models to behavioral needs not anticipated by the human system designer. Here, we give a detailed description of a system architecture for self-referential autonomous learning which enables the refinement of object and situation models during operation in order to optimize behavior. This includes structural learning of hierarchical models for situations and behaviors that is triggered by a mismatch between expected and actual action outcome. Besides proposing architectural concepts, we also describe a first implementation of our system within a simulated traffic scenario to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  11. Towards an Operational Monitoring of Actual Evapotranspiration With Modis Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, W.; Gieske, A.; Bastiaanssen, W.; Holtslag, B.; Wolski, P.; Arneth, A.; Wohland, P.

    2002-12-01

    as daily rates of ET. They are compared with ground-based energy flux measurements using a meteorological flux tower, situated at a homogeneous site in the savannah. The model returns estimates of sensible and soil heat fluxes that agree well with the tower measurements, but net radiation and latent heat flux show deviations. The net radiation is slightly low and mostly due to differences between modeled and actual albedo. Latent heat fluxes are overestimated by about 35 Wm-2, if compared to the eddy measurements. However, if the energy closure gap is due entirely to errors in the towers latent heat fluxes, which is done in the remote sensing approach, they are underestimated by about 30 Wm-2. In other words, further improvement of the model is hampered by possible errors in the validation data. Using this model output, a regional estimate of daily ET can be retrieved, assuming a constant daytime evaporative fraction. Typical values that emerge are 6 mm for the swamps, 2 for the grasslands and 1 mm for the savannah.

  12. IMAGE: Simulation for Understanding Complex Situations and Increasing Future Force Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    IMAGE: SIMULATION FOR UNDERSTANDING COMPLEX SITUATIONS AND INCREASING FUTURE FORCE AGILITY Michel Lizotte, François Bernier, Marielle Mokhtari...ism exploiting this common vocabulary. Supporting a team sharing ideas also means handling ownership of comprehension models and allowing a user to...simulation models are closely related. Any meaning - ful simulation object actually implements a Representa- tion concept. Some comprehension model

  13. A Situated Approach to VET Students' Reflection Processes across Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the intersection between institutional requirements for reflection and students' actual reflection initiatives in the social and health care education programmes. A situated perspective makes it possible to illuminate individuals' commitment, curiosity and uncertainty as bases for understanding…

  14. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  15. EOS situational data shared service mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, L.; Xu, Q.; Lan, C. Z.; Shi, Q. S.; Lu, W. J.; Wu, W. Q.

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of aerospace and remote sensing technology, various high-resolution Earth Observation Systems (EOS) are widely used in economic, social, military and other fields and playing an increasingly prominent role in the construction of Digital Earth and national strategic planning. The normal operation of the system is the premise of high quality data acquisition. Compared with the ground observation mode, EOS itself and the surrounding environment are more complex, and its operation control mainly depends on all kinds of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data acquisition and analysis. SSA data has more extensive sources, larger volume, stronger time-effectiveness and more complicated structure than traditional geographical spatial data. For effective data sharing and utilization, combined with the analysis of data types and structures, a SSA data sharing identity language SSDSML is designed based on the extensible mark-up language XML, which realizes a comprehensive description of satellites and their attributes, space environment, ground stations, etc. Then EOS situational data shared service mechanism is established and provides a powerful data support for the normal operation of the system.

  16. Situational Reinforcement: The New Old Way to Learn Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucelli, Gerald J.

    1977-01-01

    Situational Reinforcement, a teaching methodology developed out of the cognitive-field theory of learning, is described. It combines many techniques and methods developed over the years. This discussion of it considers common learning problems: (1) boredom, apathy and passivity on the part of the student, (2) the teacher's preoccupation with…

  17. Dispositional optimism and self-assessed situation awareness in a Norwegian military training exercise.

    PubMed

    Eid, Jarle; Matthews, Michael D; Meland, Nils Tore; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge

    2005-06-01

    The current study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and situation awareness. A sample of 77 Royal Norwegian Naval Academy and 57 Royal Norwegian Army Academy cadets were administered the Life Orientation Test prior to participating in a field-training exercise involving a series of challenging missions. Following an infantry mission component of the exercise, situation awareness was measured using the Mission Awareness Rating Scale (MARS), a self-assessment tool. The analysis indicated that dispositional optimism correlated negatively with situation awareness under these conditions. The role of intrapersonal variables in mediating situation awareness and decision-making in stressful situations is discussed.

  18. Situating vision in the world.

    PubMed

    Pylyshyn

    2000-05-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in what has been called 'situated cognition', which has included claims that certain forms of representation are inadequate for modeling active organisms or agents such as humans and robots. In this article, I suggest that a weakness in classical theories of visual representation is the way in which representations connect with the real world, which may account for many of the concerns expressed by the situated cognition community. Specifically, I claim that what current theories lack is any provision for a certain form of direct, preconceptual connection between objects in the visual world (visual objects or proto-objects) and their representations in the visual system. This type of connection is akin to what philosophers and semanticists have referred to as an 'indexical' or 'demonstrative' reference and what some cognitive scientists have referred to as 'deictic pointers'. I explain why such a mechanism is needed and suggest that many workers have, in fact, been studying precisely this under the term 'visual index'. The visual index hypothesis is illustrated with the results of some relevant experiments, including multiple object tracking, visual routines and subset-selected visual searches. Indexing theory provides a synthesis that has profound implications for explaining a wide range of psychophysical findings, certain results in infant cognitive development and also some ancient problems in the philosophy of mind.

  19. Actual Problems in Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, International Conference Cluj/Napoca, Romania, May 25-27, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Érdi, B.; Szenkovits, F.

    2007-05-01

    . Stability and instability were also subjects of discussions. Almost all of the communications held on this topic dealt with exoplanetary systems. But other specific astronomical fields, such as the Solar System or clusters of galaxies were presented too. Special problems of celestial mechanics were also discussed. We can mention the elliptic restricted three-body problem, photogravitational models, the Hénon-Heiles' model, Maxwell's model for planetary rings, behaviour in the transitory regime, etc. Space dynamics was represented by contributions concerning fly-by trajectories, or EPIRB distress signal via satellite. Finally, numerical techniques and simulations, useful for the investigation of various abstract models and actual problems of celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy, also occupied a place in the discussions. In conclusion, the meeting tried to find a common way for the classical mechanics (quantitative, and based on real astronomical situations and models) and the 'abstract' one (qualitative, using geometric tools of the theory of dynamical systems, and often tackling less realistic models, however aimed at the global understanding of astronomical problems). The lectures, talks and (especially) the discussions established the bases for an enlarged international cooperation within the framework of this branch of Astronomy. This volume contains 24 contributions presented at the conference.

  20. Urban malaria control situation and environmental issues, Madras City, India.

    PubMed

    Hyma, B; Ramesh, A; Chakrapani, K P

    1983-01-01

    Madras was one of 22 urban places in India where centrally sponsored urban malaria control schemes were introduced in 1971-1972. Yet since 1970, malaria cases have actually registered a significant increase in Madras. This paper deals with some critical environmental issues facing malaria control schemes. The overall spatial trends and patterns of malaria incidence are illustrated through maps for the years 1975-1981. Areas of high incidence are shown in the northern part of the city which is also traditionally an endemic area. The City Corporation has identified 17 high risk divisions accounting for 75% of the total registered cases in the city. High risk areas were found to be related to environmentally deteriorating areas such as high density, older, residential areas, slums and squatter settled areas along stretches of two rivers and a canal which traverse the city, and the low-lying poorly drained areas scattered over many parts of the city. The typical breeding grounds and sources of major vectors (anophelines and culicines) are presented. A relationship exists between the density of breeding sources (of Anopheles stephensi), such as private and public wells (in use and in disuse), overhead tanks and cisterns, and malaria cases. Field observations were made in detail in four selected high risk areas. Each area presents different environmental, epidemiological and human (social) factors in understanding malaria resurgence situation and demand different types of control measures. The problems of implementation of urban control schemes are found to be political, administrative, economic, social as well as environmental in nature. The persistence of malaria problems in the city has been attributed to slackening of malaria eradication measures, rapid urban growth and deteriorating environmental conditions with sewage, drainage and sanitation programmes lagging far behind the plans. The advantages and drawbacks of various antimalaria (mostly larval) measures in

  1. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  2. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  3. William Brennan and the Failed "Theory" of Actual Malice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Donald M.

    This paper contains an analysis of Justice William Brennan's Supreme Court opinions concerning cases on freedom of expression and his interpretations of Alexander Meiklejohn's theory of actual malice in cases of libel. Particular attention is paid to Brennan's landmark contribution to the law of libel, his opinion in "New York Times v.…

  4. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  5. Venture actualization in nursing. An analysis of innovation.

    PubMed

    Neidlinger, S H; Bartleson, B J; Drews, N; Hukari, D

    1992-01-01

    From innovations shared by nurse executives and nurse intrapreneurs in acute care hospitals, The Venture Actualization in Nursing Model emerged. Derived from a nursing perspective, this model captures the steps of the nurse innovation process, linking the nurse executive and nurse intrapreneur role components to the process that leads to venture success.

  6. Comparison of Actual Surgical Outcomes and 3D Surgical Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Scott; Cevidanes, Lucia; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The advent of imaging software programs have proved to be useful for diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measurement, but precision of 3D surgical simulation still needs to be tested. This study was conducted to determine if the virtual surgery performed on 3D models constructed from Cone-beam CT (CBCT) can correctly simulate the actual surgical outcome and to validate the ability of this emerging technology to recreate the orthognathic surgery hard tissue movements in 3 translational and 3 rotational planes of space. Methods Construction of pre- and post-surgery 3D models from CBCTs of 14 patients who had combined maxillary advancement and mandibular setback surgery and 6 patients who had one-piece maxillary advancement surgery was performed. The post-surgery and virtually simulated surgery 3D models were registered at the cranial base to quantify differences between simulated and actual surgery models. Hotelling T-test were used to assess the differences between simulated and actual surgical outcomes. Results For all anatomic regions of interest, there was no statistically significant difference between the simulated and the actual surgical models. The right lateral ramus was the only region that showed a statistically significant, but small difference when comparing two- and one-jaw surgeries. Conclusions Virtual surgical methods were reliably reproduced, oral surgery residents could benefit from virtual surgical training, and computer simulation has the potential to increase predictability in the operating room. PMID:20591553

  7. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  8. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  9. Computer/PERT technique monitors actual versus allocated costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houry, E.; Walker, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    A computer method measures the users performance in cost-type contracts utilizing the existing nasa program evaluation review technique without imposing any additional reporting requirements. progress is measured by comparing actual costs with a value of work performed in a specific period.

  10. Student Exposure to Actual Patients in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…

  11. Fair Equality of Opportunity in Our Actual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Fair equality of opportunity, a principle that governs the competition for desirable jobs, can seem irrelevant in our actual world, for two reasons. First, parents have broad liberty to raise their children as they see fit, which seems to undermine the fair equality of opportunity-based commitment to eliminating the effects of social circumstances…

  12. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  13. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  14. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  15. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  16. The refugee situation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D

    1985-01-01

    This statement by Dennis Gallagher, Director of the Refugee Policy Group, discusses the refugee situation in Thailand. Laotians have been entering Thailand in increasing numbers; some 86,000 Laotians are now in Thailand whereas there were 67,000 in November, 1983. The time is well past for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Thai government to initiate screening for new arrivals from Laos to determine whether or not they are refugees. The question needs to be examined as to what national interest and humanitarian obligation Thailand has to afford safe havens for refugees and others from Indochina. While the Thai government does not want the Khmer resistance to be crippled, it also must be concerned that providing the resistance with a base of operations of Thai territory could invite attack by the Vietnamese. Refugee resettlement alone has not and cannot resolve the refugee problem in Thailand; a more comprehensive approach is required. In areas where there is a substantial number of Indochinese who are unlikely to be resettled, projects need to be developed and funded that contribute to a more productive life for them and, preferably, for the broader region in which they reside. It is important that modification of policies occur within a comprehensive framework rather than on a piecemeal basis. Encouraging the Thais to accept supporting self-reliance projects will not happen if commitments to resettlement are not sustained. That the refugee situation in Thailand is complex and is constantly evolving argues for policies that permit more options for addressing it.

  17. The Zaire situation analysis study.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    This article reports the findings of a July 1991 situation analysis of 108 family planning service delivery points (SDPs) in Zaire, a study conducted by the Zaire Projet des Services des Naissances Desirables (PSND) and the Population Council's Africa OR/TA Project. 56 of the SDPs were administered by PSND, a government agency, 38 by SANRU, a Christian health organization, and 14 by ASBEF, an IPPF affiliate. Through interviews and observation, research teams gathered information from providers and clients on the quality of care and on the availability and functioning of 7 family planning subsystems. The study uncovered a very low level of family planning activity at SDPs. The median monthly number of new and continuing clients seen at an SDP was only 7.5 (less than 1 client for every 2 working days of the month). The median number ranged from a high of 16.4 at PSND clinics to a low of 2.7 at SANRU clinics. Furthermore, an analysis of the number of clients visiting SDPs over a 3-month period revealed that very few SDPs serve the bulk of these clients. The study also found that many SDPs lack the necessary equipment for providing quality family planning services, and that 37% of all SDPs had not received supervisory visits over a 6-month period. PSND will use the findings of the situation analysis to redesign and improve the national family planning program, once political conditions allow it. In order to upgrade the system, PSND will have to address the need for basic clinic equipment, improve the contraceptive logistics system, and institute regular clinic supervision routines.

  18. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software…

  19. Definition of the Situation and Observer Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolman, Anita Sue

    An experiment is reported in which an attempt was made to bias college students' observations of a videotape of children at play. The study is framed in terms of W.I. Thomas' ideas concerning the definition of the situation. Observer bias is an instance when a definition of a situation is based primarily on subjective situational factors. Reliance…

  20. Managing Situation Awareness on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Connell, Linda (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Awareness is required of the plane, the path and the people, both now and in the future. The steps to situation awareness are to monitor and evaluate the current situation. Anticipate the future to stay ahead of the airplane and consider contingencies, having a plan for 'what if situations. Continually update and modify the plan and share it with all crew members.

  1. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation: Empirical Assessment of Levels of Automation in the Commercial Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report has been prepared to closeout a NASA grant to Mississippi State University (MSU) for research into situation awareness (SA) and automation in the advanced commercial aircraft cockpit. The grant was divided into two obligations including $60,000 for the period from May 11, 2000 to December 25, 2000. The information presented in this report summarizes work completed through this obligation. It also details work to be completed with the balance of the current obligation and unobligated funds amounting to $50,043, which are to be granted to North Carolina State University for completion of the research project from July 31, 2000 to May 10, 2001. This research was to involve investigation of a broad spectrum of degrees of automation of complex systems on human-machine performance and SA. The work was to empirically assess the effect of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) described in a taxonomy developed by Endsley & Kaber (1999) on naive and experienced subject performance and SA in simulated flight tasks. The study was to be conducted in the context of a realistic simulation of aircraft flight control. The objective of this work was to identify LOAs that effectively integrate humans and machines under normal operating conditions and failure modes. In general, the work was to provide insight into the design of automation in the commercial aircraft cockpit. Both laboratory and field investigations were to be conducted. At this point in time, a high-fidelity flight simulator of the McDonald Douglas (MD) 11 aircraft has been completed. The simulator integrates a reconfigurable flight simulator developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology and stand-alone simulations of MD-11 autoflight systems developed at MSU. Use of the simulator has been integrated into a study plan for the laboratory research and it is expected that the simulator will also be used in the field study with actual commercial pilots. In addition to the flight simulator, an electronic

  3. A seamless ubiquitous emergency medical service for crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing

    2016-04-01

    In crisis situations, a seamless ubiquitous communication is necessary to provide emergency medical service to save people's lives. An excellent prehospital emergency medicine provides immediate medical care to increase the survival rate of patients. On their way to the hospital, ambulance personnel must transmit real-time and uninterrupted patient information to the hospital to apprise the physician of the situation and provide options to the ambulance personnel. In emergency and crisis situations, many communication channels can be unserviceable because of damage to equipment or loss of power. Thus, data transmission over wireless communication to achieve uninterrupted network services is a major obstacle. This study proposes a mobile middleware for cognitive radio (CR) for improving the wireless communication link. CRs can sense their operating environment and optimize the spectrum usage so that the mobile middleware can integrate the existing wireless communication systems with a seamless communication service in heterogeneous network environments. Eventually, the proposed seamless mobile communication middleware was ported into an embedded system, which is compatible with the actual network environment without the need for changing the original system architecture.

  4. Visual attention during virtual social situations depends on social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Theories of anxiety propose that people with phobias involuntarily allocate their attention first toward threatening stimuli and then away from these stimuli. Therefore, the current study assessed attention toward and away of social cues in virtual fear-relevant situations. More specifically, open visual attention was assessed by means of electroocculogram (EOG)-based eye-tracking combined with head-tracking. Participants viewed virtual persons with different facial expressions (happy or angry) in a free-viewing virtual elevator situation. Twenty-six students participated in the study. Actual anxiety was induced to half of them by announcing that they had to give a talk after leaving the virtual elevator. Habitual social anxiety was assessed by questionnaires. Results indicate that participants initially attended more to happy than to angry virtual persons, and participants who expected to give a talk afterwards were especially likely to sustain attending to the happy virtual persons and avoiding the angry persons. Correlation analyses revealed that higher social anxiety was positively related to initial avoidance of happy and angry virtual persons. Thus, higher socially anxious participants seem to initially avoid emotional facial expressions. These results confirm the assumption that faces are especially meaningful for socially anxious people but contradict findings of an open initial hypervigilance toward threatening stimuli. The results indicate that virtual social situations are especially suitable to measure overt attention in an ecologically valid environment.

  5. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons

    PubMed Central

    Rauthmann, John F.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2016-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks. PMID:26779068

  6. Throwing Patterns Used by Collegiate Baseball Players in Actual Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David D.; Burton, Allen W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the form of 3,684 throws made by 100 collegiate baseball players in relation to position, distance, and active and inactive situations. Videotapes of all throws for 94 half innings showed that interrater reliability of task, environment, and performance measures were all acceptable to excellent, indicating that qualitative aspects of…

  7. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    PubMed

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  8. Responding To and Recovering From an Active Shooter Incident That Turns Into a Hostage Situation. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 2, Issue 6, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an active shooter situation that escalated to a hostage situation that required multiple law enforcement agencies and other first responders and agencies to coordinate response and recovery…

  9. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  10. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  11. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  13. Oxygen consumption of zooplankton as affected by laboratory and field Cadmium exposures. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Kettle, W.D.; deNoyelles, F. Jr.; Lei, C.H.

    1980-10-01

    Virtually none of the many studies of the responses of aquatic organisms to heavy metals has involved organism response to heavy metals under natural, whole system exposure. The ability of laboratory studies to simulate and predict actual field conditions and responses remains questionable. The effects of cadmium exposure on zooplankton has been measured in laboratory studies and in enclosures placed in the field. However, studies involving zooplankton subjected to field exposure of cadmium are lacking. The objectives of this experiment were to measure oxygen consumption, survivorship, and reproduction of Daphnia pulex and Simocephalus serrulatus in response to low level cadmium exposure, in both laboratory and field situations. This design makes possible the comparisons of 1) laboratory and field exposures, and 2) responses of 2 common freshwater zooplankton species.

  14. Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010) and is consistent with the new National Space Policy. US Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM’s) sharing of SSA services consists of basic services (Two-Line Elements, decay data and satellite catalog details) available on www.space-track.org and advanced services (conjunction assessment, launch support, etc) available with a signed agreement. USSTRATCOM has requested USG permission to enter into international agreements to enable SSA data exchange with our foreign partners. USSTRATCOM recently authorized Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) to share Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs) with satellite owner/operators whose satellites have been identified as closely approaching another space object. CSMs contain vector and covariance data computed using Special Perturbations theory. To facilitate the utility of the CSMs, USSTRATCOM has and is hosting CSM Workshops to ensure satellite operators fully understand the data contained in the CSM in order to provide an informed recommendation to their leadership. As JFCC SPACE matures its ability to accept ephemeris data from a satellite operator, it will be necessary to automatically transfer that data from one security level to another. USSTRATCOM and Air Force Space Command are coordinating the integration of a cross domain solution that will allow JFCC SPACE to do just that. Finally, USSTRATCOM is also working with commercial and governmental organizations to develop an internationally-accepted conjunction assessment message. The United States Government (USG), specifically the

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Learning to Teach Secondary Mathematics: A Situative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peressini, Dominic; Borko, Hilda; Romagnano, Lew; Knuth, Eric; Willis, Christine

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers for discussion and critique a conceptual framework that applies a situative perspective on learning to the study of learning to teach mathematics. From this perspective, such learning occurs in many different situations--mathematics and teacher preparation courses, pre-service field experiences, and schools of employment. By…

  16. Field theories without a holographic dual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2016-12-01

    In applying the gauge-gravity duality to the quark-gluon plasma, one models the plasma using a particular kind of field theory with specified values of the temperature, magnetic field, and so forth. One then assumes that the bulk, an asymptotically AdS black hole spacetime with properties chosen to match those of the boundary field theory, can be embedded in string theory. But this is not always the case: there are field theories with no bulk dual. The question is whether these theories might include those used to study the actual plasmas produced at such facilities as the RHIC experiment or the relevant experiments at the LHC. We argue that, provided that due care is taken to include the effects of the angular momentum associated with the magnetic fields experienced by the plasmas produced by peripheral collisions, the existence of the dual can be established for the RHIC plasmas. In the case of the LHC plasmas, the situation is much more doubtful.

  17. US Space Situational Awareness activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Stephen, , Col; Hand, Kelly; Smith, Bradley, , Col

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  18. Diving accident management, with special emphasis on the situation in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Taher, A

    1999-01-01

    Accident management is a concept commonly misunderstood, frequently confused with accident treatment. The situation in the Sinai and the Red Sea makes a broad definition of the term "management" necessary. Management encompasses the whole spectrum: from recognition of the need for a hyperbaric facility, establishing one, education of dive center management, instructors, boat skippers and deck hands, to actual contingency plans set according to the different geographical sites. The essential elements of communication, oxygen first aid, transportation, and actual recompression therapy or other treatments and follow-up must be included. Furthermore, a link to the international organisations involved with diving accident management is an essential and desired backup.

  19. [Actual antimicrobial chemotherapy prescription in infant and child].

    PubMed

    Bourrillon, A; Benoist, G; Cohen, R; Bingen, E

    2007-07-01

    Antimicrobial chemotherapy prescription should take into account the following items: 1) accurate diagnosis (most often clinical) and definition criteria of infectious diseases; 2) treatment justification; 3) confirmation of a bacterial etiology (now facilitated in some clinical situations by broadly available easy-to-use rapid diagnosis tests); 4 evidence-based antimicrobial choices; 5) modalities of prescriptions guided by official authorities (guidelines from French agency of medicinal products).

  20. [THE ACTUAL APPROACHES TO PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN TH FIELD OF PRODUCTION GROWTH MEDIUM].

    PubMed

    Shepelin, A P; Domotenko, L V; Diatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-06-01

    The import substitution becomes one of strategic tasks of Russian economy as a result of imposition of economic sanctions on part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other states. The development of structure and technology of production of national import substituted growth mediums permits satisfying needs of laboratory service of Russia inactive storage and to secure appropriate response to occurring challenges and new biological menaces and support bio-security of state at proper level. The presented data concerning substantiation of nomenclature of growth mediums and transport system permit satisfying in fullness the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in growth mediums of national production and to give up of import deliveries without decreasing of quality of microbiological studies.

  1. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  2. Grounding explanations in evolving, diagnostic situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannesen, Leila J.; Cook, Richard I.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Certain fields of practice involve the management and control of complex dynamic systems. These include flight deck operations in commercial aviation, control of space systems, anesthetic management during surgery or chemical or nuclear process control. Fault diagnosis of these dynamic systems generally must occur with the monitored process on-line and in conjunction with maintaining system integrity.This research seeks to understand in more detail what it means for an intelligent system to function cooperatively, or as a 'team player' in complex, dynamic environments. The approach taken was to study human practitioners engaged in the management of a complex, dynamic process: anesthesiologists during neurosurgical operations. The investigation focused on understanding how team members cooperate in management and fault diagnosis and comparing this interaction to the situation with an Artificial Intelligence(AI) system that provides diagnoses and explanations. Of particular concern was to study the ways in which practitioners support one another in keeping aware of relevant information concerning the state of the monitored process and of the problem solving process.

  3. International Collaboration in Space Weather Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, David; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Danskin, Donald

    Space weather is a global phenomena so interntional collaboration is necessary to maintain awareness of potentially dangerous conditions. The Regional Warning Centres (RWCs) of the International Space Environment Service were set up during the International Geophysical Year to alert the scientific community to conditions requiring special measurements. The information sharing continues to this day with URSIGRAM messages exchanged between RWCs to help them produce space weather forecasts. Venturing into space, especially with manned missions, created a need to know about the space environment and particularly radiation dangers to man in space. Responding to this need led to the creation of a network of stations around the world to provide continuous monitoring of solar activity. Solar wind monitoring is now provided by the ACE satellite, operated by one country, but involving international collaborators to bring the information down in real time. Disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field are monitored by many magnetic observatories that are collaborating through INTERMAGNET to provide reliable data. Space weather produces effects on the ionosphere that can interfere with a variety of systems: the International GNSS Service provides information about effects on positioning systems, and the International Space Environment Service is providing information about iono-spheric absorption, particularly for trans-polar airline operations. The increasing availability of internet access, even at remote locations, is making it easier to obtain the raw information. The challenge now is how to integrate that information to provide effective international situational awareness of space weather.

  4. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention.

  5. Blind Field Test Evaluation of Raman Spectroscopy as a Forensic Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D. ); Vucelick, Mark E.; Lee, Richard N. ); Wright, Bob W. )

    2001-12-01

    Analytical instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy has advanced rapidly in recent years to the point where commercial field-portable instruments are available. Raman analysis with portable instrumentation is a new capability that can provide emergency response teams with on-site evaluation of hazardous materials. Before Raman analysis is accepted and implemented in the field, realistic studies applied to unknown samples need to be performed to define the reliability of this technique. Studies described herein provide a rigorous blind field test that utilizes 2 instruments and 2 operators to analyze a matrix that consists of 58 unknown samples. Samples were searched against a custom hazardous materials reference library[Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) Spectral Library Database]. Experimental design included a number of intentionally difficult situations including binary solvent mixtures and a variety of compounds that yield medium quality spectra that were not contained in the HMRU library. Results showed that over 97% of the samples were correctly identified with no occurrences of false positive identifications (compounds that were not in the library were never identified as library constituents). Statistical analysis indicated equivalent performance for both the operators and instruments. These results indicate a high level of performance that should extrapolate to actual field situations. Implementation of Raman techniques to emergency field situations should proceed with a corresponding level of confidence.

  6. Research of Network Security Situational Assessment Quantization Based on Mobile Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Su, Lang; Mingxuan, Li

    As the security situational assessment widely applying to the computer network field, scholars have designed and implemented a large number of network security situational assessment methods. However, most works are based on local area network and single host, which is hardly to meet the demand of large-scale network security assessment. In this paper, we based on quantitative hierarchical network security situational assessment model, introduced the mobile agent technology, designed the distributed computing for large-scale network and evaluated the whole network security situation for future prediction.

  7. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour.

  8. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  9. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  10. Cognitive and Situational Precipitants of Cancer Patients’ Loneliness: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rebecca N.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Abonour, Rafat; Robertson, Michael J.; Champion, Victoria L.; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To identify situations and thoughts that may precipitate or protect against cancer patients’ loneliness. Research Approach Qualitative. Setting University outpatient oncology center. Participants Purposive sample of 15 patients (47% female) undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Methodologic Approach Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Theoretical thematic analysis was used to analyze interview data. Findings Factors that appeared to precipitate loneliness included several situations (e.g., physical isolation, social constraints such as criticism) as well as thoughts (e.g., unmet expectations for visits or questions about their health, beliefs that others do not understand their cancer experience). Factors that appeared to protect against loneliness included several situations (e.g., social support, maintaining a normal routine) as well as thoughts (e.g., beliefs that time alone is desirable and others’ discomfort with cancer-related discussions is normative). Certain social situations were loneliness-inducing for some patients and not others, suggesting that patients’ thoughts about their situations, rather than the situations themselves, have the greatest impact on their loneliness. Conclusions The current study fills gaps in loneliness theory by identifying cancer-related situations and thoughts that patients associate with their loneliness. Consistent with theory, patients reported feeling lonely when they had negative thoughts about their social situations. Interpretation Findings inform nursing assessment and intervention strategies to incorporate into care plans. For instance, when conducting assessments, nurses should be more attentive to patients’ satisfaction with their social environment than actual characteristics of the environment. Normalizing patients’ experiences and encouraging positive thoughts about others’ behavior may reduce patients’ loneliness

  11. The silence of the library: environment, situational norm, and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the idea that situational norms are mentally represented as associations between environments and normative behavior, it was proposed that an environment can automatically direct normative behavior. More specifically, when situational norms are well-established (e.g., when entering the library, one should be silent), an environment is capable of automatically activating mental representations of normative behavior and the behavior itself. In these experiments, participants were exposed to pictures of environments, and effects on accessibility of representations of normative behavior and on actual behavior were assessed. Results indicated that representations of behavior and actual behavior itself are activated automatically when (a) goals to visit the environment are active and (b) strong associations between environment and normative behavior are established.

  12. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  13. The dynamic role of root-water uptake in coupling potential to actual transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Katul, Gabriel

    The relationship between actual ( Eact) and potential ( Ep) transpiration above a grass-covered forest clearing was investigated numerically and experimentally from simultaneous measurements of soil moisture content profiles, mean meteorological conditions, turbulent heat and water vapor fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer, and soil hydraulic properties for two drying periods. The relationship between Eact/ Ep was found to be approximately constant and insensitive to variability in near-surface soil moisture content. To explore this near-constant Eact/ Ep, a model that relates potential and actual transpiration and accounts for root-uptake efficiency, potential transpiration rate, and root-density distribution was proposed and field-tested. The total amount of water consumed by the root system was integrated and compared with eddy-correlation latent heat flux measurements (field scale) and total water storage changes (local scale). Model calculations suggested that the deeper and more efficient roots are primarily responsible for the total water loss within the root zone when the near-surface soil layer approaches their wilting point.

  14. Actual ratio of triacylglycerol positional isomers in milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Kojima, Koichi; Kuroda, Ikuma; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi; Ishida, Hiroki; Wada, Shun

    2012-01-01

    Actual ratios of triacylglycerol (TAG) positional isomers in human, rat, and cow milk fat and cow, buffalo, goat, and sheep cheese fat were analyzed using HPLC-UV-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS system equipped with an octacosyl silylation column or polymeric ODS column. We substituted cheese fats for milk fats in parts of our study because milks from ruminants, with the exception of cows, are difficult to get in Japan. The actual ratio of β-PPC (the TAG consisting of two palmitic acids (P) and one capric acid (C), with the palmitic acid located at the β position) and β-PCP in human milk was different from those in ruminants, with more than half of the medium-chain fatty acids located at the β position even though other fats possessed it mainly at the α position. Palmitic acid was mainly located at the β position for human milk and rat milk; however, the location in ruminant cheese fat was mainly at the α position. The location of fatty acids is thought to be very important for infant nutrition. Particularly, the location of palmitic acid in case of human milk and of medium-chain fatty acids in case of ruminant milk was very characteristic and is considered to be very important to the fatty acids in milk fat.

  15. Actual and actuarial probabilities of competing risks: apples and lemons.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, Gary L; Jin, Ruyun; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2007-05-01

    The probability of a type of failure that is not inevitable, but can be precluded by other events such as death, is given by the cumulative incidence function. In cardiac research articles, it has become known as the actual probability, in contrast to the actuarial methods of estimation, usually implemented by the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimate. Unlike cumulative incidence, KM attempts to predict what the latent failure probability would be if death were eliminated. To do this, the KM method assumes that the risk of dying and the risk of failure are independent. But this assumption is not true for many cardiac applications in which the risks of failure and death are negatively correlated (ie, patients with a higher risk of dying have a lower risk of failure, and patients with a lower risk of death have a higher risk of failure, which is a condition called informative censoring). Recent editorials in two cardiac journals have promoted the use of the KM method (actuarial estimate) for competing risk events (specifically for heart valve performance) and criticized the use of the cumulative incidence (actual) estimates. This report has two aims: to explain the difference between these two estimates and to show why the KM is generally not appropriate. In the process we will rely on alternative representations of the KM estimator (using redistribution to the right and inverse probability weighting) to explain the difference between the two estimates and to show how it may be possible to adjust KM to overcome the informative censoring.

  16. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  17. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  18. Is the earth's dipole actually inclined with respect to the rotation axis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.; Saito, T.

    1990-01-01

    Planetary exploration by deep space probes in recent years has shown that the dipole moment of some magnetized planets has a surprisingly large inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. Applying the method developed for the source surface magnetic field of the sun (a spherical surface of 2.5 solar radii), it is suggested that the main dipole of the earth and the magnetized planets may actually be axial (the magnetic moment being parallel or antiparallel to the rotation axis), and that two or three smaller dipoles near the core surface could be responsible for the apparent inclination of the main dipole. In formulating a dynamo theory of the planetary magnetic field, such a possibility should be considered, as well as the inclined dipole case.

  19. Interpretation of planetary radar observations - The relationship between actual and inferred slope distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the distribution of surface slopes of a variety of terrestrial surfaces by field measurement, representing surfaces formed by a wide range of processes, and compared the results to planetary radar data. Slope distributions of the measured surfaces differed considerably from the distributions assumed by accepted models of radar scattering. We also used Hagfors' model of radar scattering to predict the return that would be expected from surfaces where two discrete surface types were present within the radar field of view and found that the shapes of the resulting slope distributions differed from those predicted by the Hagfors model for homogeneous surfaces. Together, these results suggest that current methods of determining surface roughness from radar may significantly underestimate the roughness of planetary surfaces and that the derived rms slope can best be used as a qualitative guide to the physical interpretation of actual surface properties.

  20. A Practical Management Model for Difficult Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the student activities administrator's role in solving substantial problems on the job looks at typical difficult situations and offers models for dealing with them. Each model consists of five practical steps for problem resolution. Situations addressed include emergencies, motivational crises, and externally imposed…

  1. 14 CFR 99.5 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency situations. 99.5 Section 99.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.5 Emergency situations. In...

  2. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  3. Artificial Experience: Situation Awareness Training in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Janine E.

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-experimental research study developed and tested an education process to reduce and trap medication errors. The study was framed by Endsley's (1995a) model of situation awareness in dynamic decision making. Situation awareness improvement strategies were practiced during high-fidelity clinical simulations. Harmful medication errors occur…

  4. 36 CFR 218.21 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under... as defined in this section. (b) Emergency situation definition. A situation on National Forest System... following: Relief from hazards threatening human health and safety; mitigation of threats to...

  5. 29 CFR 785.31 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Training Programs § 785.31 Special situations. There are some special situations where the time spent in attending lectures, training sessions and courses of instruction is not regarded as hours worked....

  6. 29 CFR 785.31 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Training Programs § 785.31 Special situations. There are some special situations where the time spent in attending lectures, training sessions and courses of instruction is not regarded as hours worked....

  7. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  8. Problem Situation Catalog for Senior NCOs,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    approaches they had studied--client-centered counseling, reality therapy , and Gestalt therapy . In the process, they reviewed several case studies and...selects an NCO training program that is performance- oriented. For example, practice NCOs in real problem situations involving leadership...program, he will involve all NCOs informally in identifying problem situations and as instructors. Focus on skill awareness and acquisition; practice

  9. Audience and Situational Context in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTourneau, Mark S.

    Audience and situational context, the latter defined as a pairing of time and place coordinates, have passed through stages of union, separation, and identification in the history of rhetoric. From Aristotle through Cicero and Quintilian to Hugh Blair and George Campbell, audience was a synecdoche for the situations of utterance that defined…

  10. 32 CFR 716.3 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special situations. 716.3 Section 716.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.3 Special situations. (a) Service without pay. Any...

  11. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest…

  12. Model-based Training of Situated Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Tariq M.; Brown, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Addresses areas of situated knowledge (metacognitive skills and affective skills) that have been ignored in intelligent computer-aided learning systems. Focuses on model-based reasoning, including contextualized and decontextualized knowledge, and examines an instructional method that supports situated knowledge by providing opportunities for…

  13. Current situation of hospital-based endocrinology and clinical nutrition in Spain.

    PubMed

    Angeles Gálvez Moreno, M

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Healthcare Commission of Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition did a survey in order to know the actual situation of endocrinology and clinical nutrition healthcare in Public Sanitary Systems in Spain. The survey has been more extensive than the last and it has taken up number and geographical distribution of specialists in Spain in addition to data about clinical assistance. The mean of public hospitals with endocrinologist participation has been 50%.

  14. Situations matter: teaching the Lewinian link between social psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Dana S

    2011-11-01

    A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes of behavior and concomitant interpretation of social problems. Teachers can explore reasons why, despite the fields' having a shared theoretical perspective and topics of common interest (e.g., attitudes, prejudice, discrimination), little scholarly intradisciplinary contact currently occurs between them.

  15. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7–9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIMCT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  16. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7-9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIM-CT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  17. [Social-sanitary situation in Marañón's work in the context of the fight against infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Vega, Antonio López

    2011-01-01

    Gregorio Marañón y Posadillo (1887-1960), played a leading role in the birth of endocrinology in Spain as is well known. However, his medical work included other important and significant fields. Thus, it was especially in the 1910s and 1920s, when Marañón dealt with the social-sanitary situation in madrid probably due to his professional attachment to the treatment of several infectious diseases and epidemic outbreaks. Actually, since 1911 onwards, he was in charge of the wards of infectious diseases in the Hospital General de Madrid where he had the opportunity of treating an important number of patients suffering from this type of pathology and, as a consequence, in the following years he published several articles in medical journals and presented in the Royal Academy of Medicine in Spain, some reports on infectious diseases and the Spanish health and social conditions at the time. This paper try to analyze this field of Marañón's social and scientific activity.

  18. Classical swine fever in Europe--the current situation.

    PubMed

    Postel, Alexander; Moennig, Volker; Becher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is considered to be one of the most important viral diseases in pigs worldwide. In many parts of the world great efforts are being undertaken to reduce economic losses caused by CSF or to eradicate the disease. Among the member states of the European Union (EU) a harmonized strategy for diagnosis, control and eradication of CSF is applied. Success of the common strategy is documented by the decreasing number of outbreaks during the last decade. The present article summarizes the recent situation concerning CSF in Europe with special focus on the situation in the EU member states. In particular, outbreaks in domestic pigs and wild boar, the identified virus isolates, and eradication and monitoring programs actually performed in the EU are described. Despite achieved progress towards eradication, CSF remains a continuous threat to the European pig and wild boar population. After introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) into the domestic pig population rapid spread as a consequence of high frequency of animal movements and intensive trade within Europe can be suspected. Platforms like the CSF sequence database and the CSF in wild boar surveillance database have been implemented as tools to easily exchange information concerning CSF. The improved availability of data about circulating CSFV isolates will help to elucidate possible sources of virus introduction and to better understand routes of virus transmission.

  19. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  20. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  1. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  2. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  3. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus.

  4. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  6. [Actuality of Wallon's emotional model: toward a "body-psychosocial" model of emotions].

    PubMed

    Santiago Delefosse, M

    2000-01-01

    Author focuses on qualitative approach of emotions with their human function. She postulates that emotions would be one of the way of the mind's body-inscription. A short presentation of the actual discussion, within psychoneurology and cognitive psychology, shows the lack of a developmental perspective. From the Wallon's emotions theory, the author presents a model that allows to go beyond this limit and to redefine the primary function of emotions: the "body-psycho-social Wallon's model" of emotions. Wallon's emotional model focuses on the interaction between body-image and psycho-social construction. This model: a) fixes the emotions into automatisms, but these automatisms are already in link with the social world (through the sense of the mother's language), b) establishes the integrative function of antagonisms (between mind and automatisms, between emotions and mind, between emotions and automatisms). This model shows that emotion's function cannot be reduce to the adaptative response to an unpredictable situation (cognitive or motor). The initial function of emotions concerns the communication system, or better, the first function of emotions is a search for action on family circle, by means of mimicry with ambient and emotional contagion. This emotional system is completely dependent (addicted) on the environment. It gives a "tool" to put in coordination with its environment: a) it favours the setting up of an instant empathy within infant and family circle, b) it makes easier the mind and motor accommodation, c) it put in the necessary plasticity for the emergence of the consciousness.

  7. Optimal maintenance and consolidation therapy for multiple myeloma in actual clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Sup; Min, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant plasma cell-originating cancer. Although its treatment outcomes have improved with the use of glucocorticoids, alkylating drugs, and novel agents, including proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide), relapse remains a serious problem. Strategies to improve outcomes following autologous stem cell transplantation and frontline treatments in non-transplant patients include consolidation to intensify therapy and improve the depth of response and maintenance therapy to achieve long-term disease control. Many clinical trials have reported increased progression-free and overall survival rates after consolidation and maintenance therapy. The role of consolidation/maintenance therapy has been assessed in patients eligible and ineligible for transplantation and is a valuable option in clinical trial settings. However, the decision to use consolidation and/or maintenance therapy needs to be guided by the individual patient situation in actual clinical practice. This review analyzes the currently available evidence from several reported clinical trials to determine the optimal consolidation and maintenance therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27604793

  8. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  9. 48 CFR 805.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Special situations. (a) A contracting officer may procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated... procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated in the local area or in professional journals...

  10. 48 CFR 805.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Special situations. (a) A contracting officer may procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated... procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated in the local area or in professional journals...

  11. 48 CFR 805.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Special situations. (a) A contracting officer may procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated... procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated in the local area or in professional journals...

  12. 48 CFR 805.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Special situations. (a) A contracting officer may procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated... procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated in the local area or in professional journals...

  13. 48 CFR 805.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Special situations. (a) A contracting officer may procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated... procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated in the local area or in professional journals...

  14. A streamlined software environment for situated skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

  15. Image processing technology for enhanced situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, S. F.; Smith, M. I.; Hickman, D.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the integration of a number of advanced image and data processing technologies in support of the development of next-generation Situational Awareness systems for counter-terrorism and crime fighting applications. In particular, the paper discusses the European Union Framework 7 'SAMURAI' project, which is investigating novel approaches to interactive Situational Awareness using cooperative networks of heterogeneous imaging sensors. Specific focus is given to novel Data Fusion aspects of the research which aim to improve system performance through intelligently fusing both image data and non image data sources, resolving human-machine conflicts, and refining the Situational Awareness picture. In addition, the paper highlights some recent advances in supporting image processing technologies. Finally, future trends in image-based Situational Awareness are identified, such as Post-Event Analysis (also known as 'Back-Tracking'), and the associated technical challenges are discussed.

  16. Bulgaria in the Current Geopolitical Situation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    region, United Europe , Russia, the United State and the Balkans. This paper will define the place of Bulgaria in the current geopolitical situation...United Europe , Russia, the United State and the Balkans. This paper will define the place of Bulgaria in the current geopolitical situation...resources that shape its destiny. P4F5 Geopolitical literacy on Bulgarian intellectual elite is crucial in the formulation of right foreign policy goals

  17. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  18. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  19. Condensation heat transfer of actual flue gas on horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Itoh, Tugue; Yagi, Kiyoyuki

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the boiler efficiency, latent heat recovery from an exhaust flue gas is a very important concept. Condensation heat transfer on horizontal stainless steel tubes was investigated experimentally using an actual flue gas from a natural gas boiler. The experiment was conducted at different air ratios and steam mass concentrations of the flue gas, and in a wide range of tube wall temperature. The condensation pattern was similar to the dropwise condensation near the dew point. As the wall temperature was decreased, the wall region covered with a thin liquid film increased. The heat and mass transfer behavior were well predicted with the simple analogy correlation in the high wall temperature region. But in the low wall temperature region, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. At a high steam mass concentration artificially generated with steam injection, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. The analogy correlation using the modified Sherwood number taking account of the mass absorption effect was proposed. The modified correlation gave a good prediction of the heat flux at the high steam mass concentration.

  20. A taxometric analysis of actual Internet sports gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2011-03-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a cohort of 48,114 people using an Internet service to gamble on sporting events. We applied two taxometric procedures (i.e., MAMBAC and MAXCOV) to three indicators of betting behavior: total money lost, total number of bets, and total money wagered. The results fail to provide support for the view that the most involved Internet sports gamblers include a distinct category of gamblers. More research is necessary to clarify the similar features of recreational and extreme gamblers and the dimensions that scientists can use to measure these behaviors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for clinical, research, and public policy activities.

  1. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  2. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom.

  3. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy.

  4. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  5. Virtual reality as telemedicine tool: technology, ergonomics and actual applications.

    PubMed

    Riva, G; Gamberini, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the state of the art in telemedicine applications of virtual environments (VEs) and related technologies for health care. The possible use of VEs as telemedicine tool has attracted much interest in medicine. Actually this technology is commonly used in remote or augmented surgery, and surgical training, which are critically dependent upon eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use VEs in anatomic learning and for the assessment and rehabilitation in neuro-psychology. To date, such applications have improved the quality of health care, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. Tools that respond to the needs of present VE systems are being refined or developed. However, the possible use of VEs in telemedicine is not linked to the solution of technical problems only. In fact telemedicine is not simply a technology but a complex process whose successful exploitation needs significant attention to ergonomics, human factors and organizational changes in the structure of the relevant health service.

  6. The primary test of measuremental system for the actual emittance of relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Fu; Tai-bin Du; Xin Chen

    1995-12-31

    Recent, a new measuremental system has been established basically in Tsinghua University PRA. This system is able to measure the lower emittance of the electron beams from the RF accelerators for the FEL. It consists of a scanning magnetic field, a slit, a fluorescent screen, and a TV camera, an image processing system, a CAD 386 computer. Using it an actual phase diagram is obtained for 4-10 Mev electron beams, The principle and structure of the facility were reported in the Proceeding of the 15th FEL Conference. This paper describes the performance of the main components and the results of first measurement for the electron gun and 4Mev standing wave LINAC, Some new suggests are related too.

  7. Enforcement of speed limits--actual policy and drivers' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Finn; Pedersen, Hassa

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the penalty rules and examines drivers' perceptions of enforcement of speed limits. The survey was carried out using a sample of 204 Norwegian drivers, answering questions in a setting closely associated with their driving situation. For minor speeding offences drivers overestimated on average their fines. For serious speeding offences drivers significantly underestimated how many kilometers per hour they could exceed the speed limits before losing their driving license. They also overestimated the probability of being caught speeding. This resulted in a perceived expected penalty twice the real one. The paper also examines the relationship between different driver characteristics and their knowledge of the enforcement policy for speeding. Older drivers had less knowledge about the threshold level for serious speeding but more knowledge about the detection rate than younger drivers do. Experienced drivers had more knowledge about the threshold level for serious speeding than inexperienced drivers. The number of times drivers were stopped due to speeding offences increased their knowledge of fines for minor speeding.

  8. Sensor and information fusion for improved hostile fire situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.; Ludwig, William D.

    2010-04-01

    A research-oriented Army Technology Objective (ATO) named Sensor and Information Fusion for Improved Hostile Fire Situational Awareness uniquely focuses on the underpinning technologies to detect and defeat any hostile threat; before, during, and after its occurrence. This is a joint effort led by the Army Research Laboratory, with the Armaments and the Communications and Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Centers (CERDEC and ARDEC) partners. It addresses distributed sensor fusion and collaborative situational awareness enhancements, focusing on the underpinning technologies to detect/identify potential hostile shooters prior to firing a shot and to detect/classify/locate the firing point of hostile small arms, mortars, rockets, RPGs, and missiles after the first shot. A field experiment conducted addressed not only diverse modality sensor performance and sensor fusion benefits, but gathered useful data to develop and demonstrate the ad hoc networking and dissemination of relevant data and actionable intelligence. Represented at this field experiment were various sensor platforms such as UGS, soldier-worn, manned ground vehicles, UGVs, UAVs, and helicopters. This ATO continues to evaluate applicable technologies to include retro-reflection, UV, IR, visible, glint, LADAR, radar, acoustic, seismic, E-field, narrow-band emission and image processing techniques to detect the threats with very high confidence. Networked fusion of multi-modal data will reduce false alarms and improve actionable intelligence by distributing grid coordinates, detection report features, and imagery of threats.

  9. The moreau-evans hydrodynamic model applied to actual hall-héroult cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, René J.; Ziegler, Donald

    1988-10-01

    An extension of the Moreau-Evans[1] model for Hall-Héroult cells hydrodynamics is presented. Numerical techniques are used to solve the Moreau-Evans model equations with realistic electromagnetic force fields; the predicted results are compared with those of another model which is the property of Kaiser Aluminum Company and whose results are considered as in fairly good agreement with available measurements (velocity in aluminum, for instance). The main input in this hydrodynamic model, i.e., the electromagnetic force field throughout the two liquids, was previously computed. For a given cell design these data were calculated using the electromagnetic program of Lympany and Evans.[2] For actual cells the forces were deduced from measurements of the magnetic field provided by Kaiser Aluminum Company. As expected, the cryolite flow is found to be governed by the large channels, and to be strongly dependent on the presence of such a channel between the two files of anodes. The use of numerical solution has made possible the analysis of new effects as the interfacial drag and the influence of small channels between anode blocks.

  10. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  11. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  12. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar.

    PubMed

    Tyack, Peter L; Zimmer, Walter M X; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L; Claridge, Diane E; Durban, John W; Clark, Christopher W; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L

    2011-03-14

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2-3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2-3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  13. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  14. The situation of women in physics in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulache, Rosalie Laure; Kom, Guillaume; Siebatcheu, Beatrice Couonang; Onana, Marthe Boyomo

    2013-03-01

    The progress of women in science has been widely discussed in recent years. Women have made great progress in the social sciences, but they lag in the field of physics. A survey of the situation of women in physics in Cameroon over the last three years shows some improvement and some areas of stagnation. For example, the statistics show an increase of women teaching physics in secondary school and a slight improvement in the numbers of women studying physics at the university level, but stagnation in the number of women lecturers in physics.

  15. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    DOE PAGES

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2013-03-04

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefitmore » for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.« less

  16. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2013-03-04

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  17. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  18. Relationship between Burnout Syndrome Symptoms and Self-Actualization Scores in Critical-Care Nurses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    opportunities, satisfactory supervision, and self-actualization. One study indicated that nursing education promotes self-actualization at least to... nursing education achieved in burnout syndrome symptoms? 8. Is there a difference by level of nursing education achieved in self-actualization...level of nursing education achieved in the burnout scores or the self-actualization scores. The exception was that the associate degree nurses scored

  19. Implementing RFID technology in a novel triage system during a simulated mass casualty situation.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Jorma; Simons, Tomi; Kuronen, Pentti; Tammela, Juha; Jalasvirta, Pertti; Nurmi, Jouni; Harkke, Ville; Castrén, Maaret

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the applicability of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and commercial cellular networks to provide an online triage system for handling mass casualty situations. This was tested by a using a pilot system for a simulated mass casualty situation during a military field exercise. The system proved to be usable. Compared to the currently used system, it also dramatically improves the general view of mass casualty situations and enhances medical emergency readiness in a military medical setting. The system can also be adapted without any difficulties by the civilian sector for the management of mass casualty disasters.

  20. Advancing Space Situational Awareness through International Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, Terrance

    2012-07-01

    The growing interest in Space Situational Awareness and the recognized need for global coordination has led to the involvement of numerous international activities to increase awareness and foster cooperation. These activities are serving to prioritize and to coordinate our efforts and helping to establish a stronger, global Space Situational Awareness enterprise. This coordination is important for our data infrastructure, research developments, and the provision of operational services. Among the organizations that are contributing to this global coordination are: the International Space Environment Service, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites, and the International Committee on GNSS. In this presentation, the contributions of these various organizations to coordinating our Space Situational Awareness efforts will be described, with an emphasis on space weather.

  1. Does equilibrium passive sampling reflect actual in situ bioaccumulation of PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in aquatic worms?

    PubMed

    Muijs, Barry; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2012-01-17

    Over the past couple of years, several analytical methods have been developed for assessing the bioavailability of environmental contaminants in sediments and soils. Comparison studies suggest that equilibrium passive sampling methods generally provide the better estimates of internal concentrations in organisms and thus of subsequent risks. However, field studies to validate the potential of passive sampling to predict actual in situ bioaccumulation are scarce and limited information only exists on selected, individual compounds. The present study investigated whether bioaccumulation of PAH and complex petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in field-exposed aquatic worms could be predicted properly with passive samplers. To this end, in situ bioaccumulation in aquatic worms at 6 PAH-contaminated locations and 8 petroleum hydrocarbon (oil)-contaminated locations was compared with the results of in situ solid phase micro extraction (SPME) applications. For the oil-contaminated sediments, bioaccumulation was also assessed in the lab with polyoxymethylene solid phase extraction (POM-SPE). Actual PAH bioaccumulation was generally predicted within a factor of 4 with in situ SPME, using temperature-adjusted SPME fiber-water partition coefficients and lab-derived bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for the worm species used, demonstrating the method's potential under field conditions. In situ SPME appeared to be less suitable for predicting bioaccumulation of oil however, in contrast to POM-SPE in the lab, which assessed in situ oil bioaccumulation within a factor of 3, while also closely reflecting the actual distribution of oil boiling point fractions (the hydrocarbon block profile) as accumulated by the worms. All in all, the results indicated that (specific) equilibrium passive samplers, either applied in the field or the lab, have great potential for assessing bioaccumulation of environmental contaminant mixtures from field-contaminated sediments.

  2. [Situation of supply and boom of PET imaging: what is the future for technetium-99m in nuclear medicine?].

    PubMed

    Maia, S; Ayachi Hatit, N; Paycha, F

    2011-05-01

    Molecular imaging has shown its interest in the diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer. This imaging modality can detect non-invasively early molecular changes specific to these diseases. Its expansion includes two aspects linked firstly with the advanced techniques of imaging modalities and secondly with the development of tracers as radio pharmaceuticals for imaging new molecular targets. Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), because of its physical characteristics, its widespread availability and low cost, is the most used radionuclide in molecular imaging with the technique of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nevertheless, the current difficulty concerning the supply and the great interest of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the "competitor" imaging modality-using molecules labelled with fluorine-18 ((18)F), legitimates the question about the future of (99m)Tc, its supremacy and the emergence of new tracer labelled with (99m)Tc. Focusing on the actual and future supply situation, the place of SPECT imaging in nuclear medicine, as well as the development of new molecules labelled with (99m)Tc is necessary to show that this radionuclide will remain essential for the speciality in the next years.

  3. 25 CFR 39.201 - Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations... Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations? ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations either at the local school level or in the aggregate nationally. ISEF is...

  4. 25 CFR 39.101 - Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? 39... SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula § 39.101 Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? No. ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations...

  5. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students one and four weeks following their group experience. It also studied the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization during a marathon. Generally, the group experience did increase self-actualization and the…

  6. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program. 400.51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History...

  7. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program. 400.51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History...

  8. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of actual production history program. 400.51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History...

  9. On the downscaling of actual evapotranspiration maps based on combination of MODIS and landsat-based actual evapotranspiration estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

     Downscaling is one of the important ways of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the output regression with intercept method and developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) maps to the Landsat-scale monthly AET maps for the Colorado River Basin for 2010. We used the 8-day MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) and 328 cloud-free Landsat images for computing AET maps and downscaling. The regression with intercept method does have limitations in downscaling if the slope and intercept are computed over a large area. A good agreement was obtained between downscaled monthly AET using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean bias ranged from −16 mm (underestimation) to 22 mm (overestimation) per month, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.52 to 0.88. Some discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly AET at two flux sites were found to be due to the prevailing flux footprint. A reasonable comparison was also obtained between downscaled monthly AET using LinZI method and the gridded FLUXNET dataset. The downscaled monthly AET nicely captured the temporal variation in sampled land cover classes. The proposed LinZI method can be used at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  10. Computer Based Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth F.; Hosticka, Alice; Schriver, Martha; Bedell, Jackie

    This paper discusses computer based virtual field trips that use technologies commonly found in public schools in the United States. The discussion focuses on the advantages of both using and creating these field trips for an instructional situation. A virtual field trip to Cumberland Island National Seashore, St. Marys, Georgia is used as a point…

  11. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  12. [Labor monitoring in high-risk situations].

    PubMed

    Houfflin-Debarge, V; Closset, E; Deruelle, P

    2008-02-01

    Intrapartum asphyxia is increased in several situations such as intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor, postdate pregnancy or maternal diabetes. In all these cases, fetal heart rate monitoring should be preferred to intermittent auscultation. Fetal scalp blood pH or lactates can be used to identify fetuses at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. However, fetal scalp blood sampling should not delay delivery in case of severe abnormal fetal heart rate as fetal asphyxia could occur rapidly in theses high-risk pregnancies. Data is insufficient to recommend fetal pulse oximetry or ECG analysis. Research should be undertaken to evaluate their performance in these situations.

  13. Situation report for petroleum exporting countries

    SciTech Connect

    Hermelee, A.; D'Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Smith, T.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report incorporates the contents of fifteen individual situation reports for major petroleum exporting countries that were prepared from the Office of Energy Emergency Management Information System. The situation reports give a synopsis of political, economic, and petroleum industry data for each oil exporting country and are designed to provide up-to-date information enabling the EEMIS Project Office to react in a timely manner to late-breaking events. The report gives a brief overview of crude oil production for the major oil producing regions of the world and identifies crude flows from the major oil producing to consuming regions - Western Europe, United States, and Japan.

  14. Psychiatric consultation in problem employee situations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on psychiatric consultation in "problem employee situations," a broad term that refers to any situation in which there is conflict between an employee and the employer or coworkers. It summarizes key principles and observations that are common to psychiatric consultations in the workplace and then offers case examples that are representative of such consultations and highlights those principles. Although the focus is on psychiatric consultation to employers, an employee may seek consultation himself or herself, especially when prospects for adversarial proceedings arise. The principles described here apply in both sets of circumstances.

  15. Person/Situation Selection Research: The Problem of Identifying Salient Situational Dimensions. Research Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin

    The study was concerned with the persistent problem in conducting person/situation research--the identification of relevant dimensions or features of the situation. Since the usual strategy for discovering relevant perceptual dimension of organizational life is to ask organizational employees to respond to a set of predetermined questions, this…

  16. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Serfass, David G.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed. PMID:26566125

  17. Situational Awareness in Aerospace Operations (La Perception de la Situation au cours des Operations Aeriennes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    dane Is pries do conscience do In situation 2.1 Facteurs impliquds dana twriestatlon npatiale LA tiche do pilotage neat pas uno situation naturelle ...domouverimntit fixil pikr un bracelet bur Ie pal gna! droit 04npflotos a dtd utilsia. Ce capteur comptabil ice lea d~placernentm A partir d~une

  18. Individual and Situational Influences on Men's Responses to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Tim; Yeater, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed multilevel modeling to evaluate individual and situational influences on men's responses to hypothetical dating and social situations. Three hundred and fifty college men completed measures assessing their propensity for sexual aggression and provided written responses to 10 written vignettes, each of which was followed by four…

  19. An Assessment of ELINT Exploitation for Situational Awareness Visualisations on Operator Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Exploitation for Situational Awareness (ELEXSA) task within Thales Australia’s operational situational awareness tool Llama -Cheetah. This document... Llama : (1) increases operator survivability; (2) shortens mission duration; and (3) reduces the time helicopter spends vulnerable to detection...compared to Standard Llama . Analysis of anecdotal reports showed that operators using ELEXSA Enhanced Llama had lower workload and stress levels and more

  20. Examining near-source effects in the far field

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Bos, R.J.; Dey, T.N.; Jones, E.M.; Kamm, J.R.; Taylor, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    A fundamental objective of the S-6 (physical basis for discrimination) sub-task of the CTBT R&D Seismic Monitoring Program at Los Alamos is to analyze the sensitivity of the regional signal to source configuration, material properties, geologic layering and structure, along with complications along the path of the signal. Our approach is to combine the results of conventional analysis of field data from explosions and earthquakes with results of numerical models of actual and idealized situations. Existing first-principles, finite difference codes allow us to examine source effects in the non-linear regime; linking the results of these near-source calculations to finite difference, anelastic wave propagation codes allows us to examine the effect of various source region and propagation path characteristics on signals observed at regional distances. An investigation of discriminant differences for the DIVIDER and CORREO underground nuclear explosions is provided as an example of the approach used.

  1. Mental and physical quality of life in actual living liver donors versus potential living liver donors: a prospective, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Kroencke, Sylvia; Beckmann, Mingo; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz; Nashan, Björn; Senf, Wolfgang; Erim, Yesim

    2009-12-01

    In a quasi-experimental design, we investigated the quality of life (QOL) in actual liver donors (n = 43) and potential liver donors (n = 33) before and 3 months after liver transplantation. This is the first study in this field combining a prospective design with an adequate control group. Potential donors served as a control group because they also had a relative in need of a liver transplant and were as emotionally involved with the recipient as actual donors, but they were not subjected to the donor operation. Groups did not differ in age, gender, marital status, donor-recipient relationship, urgency of transplantation, or recipient group (adult versus child). Actual donors showed decreased physical QOL, whereas potential donors were not affected. However, for both groups, a decrease in anxiety was found. Furthermore, actual donors showed a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The recipients of these 2 groups did not differ with respect to postoperative complications. Furthermore, the groups did not report a different caregiver burden, but actual donors showed higher self-esteem. Because of the surgery, the worsening of physical symptoms in actual donors was expected. It is remarkable, however, that although actual donors still showed a limited physical QOL 3 months after the operation, in both groups, a similar reduction in anxiety could be observed, and actual donors even demonstrated a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The latter might be due to a psychological benefit that actual donors derived from the fact that they were able to help the recipients.

  2. Reliability and Uncertainty in Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    6 RTO-MP-IST-063 Reliability and Uncertainty in Situation Awareness Presented by: Glen Nakamoto Tom Johansen Group 3 2 Members David Hall Glen... Nakamoto D. M. Akbar Hussain Tom Johansen Vera Kamp Kesh Kesavadas 3 Motivation –Current Reality Operational Tempo Short Decision Time High Stress

  3. Measuring Situational Interest in Academic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Durik, Amanda M.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Tauer, John M.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate scores on a new measure appropriate for assessing adolescents' situational interest (SI) across various academic settings. In Study 1 (n = 858), a self-report questionnaire was administered to undergraduates in introductory psychology. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported a three-factor…

  4. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  5. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  6. 48 CFR 5.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Synopses of Proposed Contract Actions 5.205 Special situations. (a) Research and... interest in potential R&D programs whenever market research does not produce a sufficient number of... subsequent solicitation. Advanced notices must be entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought”...

  7. 29 CFR 785.31 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special situations. 785.31 Section 785.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... related to his job, or paid for by the employer....

  8. 29 CFR 785.31 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special situations. 785.31 Section 785.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... related to his job, or paid for by the employer....

  9. 29 CFR 785.31 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special situations. 785.31 Section 785.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... related to his job, or paid for by the employer....

  10. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  11. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  12. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  13. A Typology of Relapse Promoting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    Outcome data on smoking cessation has emphasized that most people have difficulty not in quitting smoking, but in maintaining cessation. An attempt was made to develop a more meaningful typology of relapse-promoting situations using a sample of 183 exsmokers who called a telephone hotline seeking help to stay away from cigarettes. Two higher order…

  14. 20 CFR 655.17 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Emergency situations. 655.17 Section 655.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF... Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States...

  15. 20 CFR 655.17 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Emergency situations. 655.17 Section 655.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF... Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States...

  16. Situating the Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George E., II; Ketterer, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Social constructivist theory has advanced the notion that distance education is inferior, because effective learning is thought to require immersion in a cognitive apprenticeship under the guidance of a mentor. Effective learning is said to be situated in activity, context, and culture as a collaboration in a community of practice. Administrators…

  17. Situation Awareness-Based Agent Transparency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Initiative. 15. SUBJECT TERMS human-robot interaction, autonomous systems, transparency, trust, situation awareness (SA) 16. SECURITY...11 5. Example: Autonomous Squad Member 13 5.1 SAT Level 1...5 1 1. Introduction Autonomous agents have been increasingly used for military operations (e.g., casualty extraction

  18. Situation Awareness Information Dominance & Information Warfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Information warfare and its primary objective of achieving information dominance over enemy forces have arisen as a major area of emphasis for future...military actions. The concept of information dominance and the issues involved in attaining it are explored through a model of situation awareness...directions for the development of systems to support the goal of information dominance can be established.

  19. Experiences with the Situation Approach in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Jurgen

    This paper relates the experiences of an early childhood professor from the Freie University of Berlin on a trip through East Asia to provide advice and assistance on the situational approach to preschool education. Impressions of the sociopolitical and educational environment and needs of Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and…

  20. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  1. Profile of the Language Situation: Idoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odumuh, Adama Emmanuel

    A discussion of the situation of Idoma, a Nigerian language, begins with different accounts of the language's origin, referring to both local legend and cosmology. It then proceeds to a review of modern linguists' efforts, since 1927, to classify the language. A statistical overview contains information on the number of speakers of Idoma as a…

  2. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  3. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  4. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control.

  5. Two Replicable Suppressor Situations in Personality Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tracy, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    Suppressor situations occur when the simultaneous inclusion of two predictors improves one or both validities. A common allegation is that suppressor effects rarely replicate and have little substantive import. We present substantive examples from two established research domains to counter this skepticism. In the first domain, we show how…

  6. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  7. Modeling Situation Awareness and Crash Risk

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Donald L.; Strayer, David. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we develop a model of the relationship between crash risk and a driver’s situation awareness. We consider a driver’s situation awareness to reflect the dynamic mental model of the driving environment and to be dependent upon several psychological processes including Scanning the driving environment, Predicting and anticipating hazards, Identifying potential hazards in the driving scene as they occur, Deciding on an action, and Executing an appropriate Response (SPIDER). Together, SPIDER is important for establishing and maintaining good situation awareness of the driving environment and good situation awareness is important for coordinating and scheduling the SPIDER-relevant processes necessary for safe driving. An Order-of-Processing (OP) model makes explicit the SPIDER-relevant processes and how they predict the likelihood of a crash when the driver is or is not distracted by a secondary task. For example, the OP model shows how a small decrease in the likelihood of any particular SPIDER activity being completed successfully (because of a concurrent secondary task performance) would lead to a large increase in the relative risk of a crash. PMID:24776225

  8. Disclosure Flexibility and Social-Situational Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelune, Gordon J.

    1977-01-01

    Reactions of observers, classified as either high or low in self-disclosure flexibility, to high and low behavioral samples of self-disclosure to a stranger were examined. Results suggest self-disclosure flexibility reflects perceptual awareness of social-situational norms governing the appropriateness of self-disclosing behavior. (Author)

  9. Awareness of Situational Effects on Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Douglas D.; Phil, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a survey to determine how aware drinkers (N=64) are of the situational determinants of alcohol. Findings showed that social drinkers were well aware of the effects of different settings on the quantity consumed and the effects experienced. (Author/LLL)

  10. Situation awareness in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tumkaya, Selim; Karadag, Filiz; Mueller, Shane T; Ugurlu, Tugce T; Oguzhanoglu, Nalan K; Ozdel, Osman; Atesci, Figen C; Bayraktutan, Mustafa

    2013-10-30

    Past studies have suggested that OCD patients suffer memory impairment on tasks using complex stimuli that require memory for combined elements to be maintained, but not for more simplistic memory tests. We tested this with 42 OCD patients and 42 healthy controls performed a computerized situation awareness task. In addition, participants completed the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). The OCD patients had poorer accuracy in integration/comprehension and perception levels than controls. There were significant correlations between situational awareness scores (i.e., visuo-spatial monitoring and processing) and Y-BOCS obsession-compulsion and slowness and doubt scores of MOCI in OCD patients. In addition, there were also significant correlations between situational awareness and controlling, cleaning, slowness, rumination and total scores of MOCI in control group. Results indicated that (I) OCD patients have problems of perception, integration, and comprehension of complex visual perceptions; (II) situation awareness deficits associated with severity and prevalence of obsessions and compulsions.

  11. [History and current situation of BCG vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Marchal, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination using Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) discovered at the beginning of the 20th century in France, saved many lives in a period where tuberculosis was extremely widespread in our country. Mandatory for children since the 1950s, the vaccination programme has now been revised and concerns only well-defined situations considered to be at risk.

  12. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  13. Evaluation in a Situated Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    1993-01-01

    Examines evaluation in a situated learning context. Topics discussed include a model for evaluation in a computer learning environment; portfolios, including written, electronic, and video formats; summary statistics; diagnosis; reflection and self-assessment; story construction or scenario design; learners as designers of instruction; and…

  14. Situation-Specific Assessment of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bergman, Mindy E.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 13,743 women in the armed forces used an instrument to identify specific experiences of sexual harassment rather than aggregate approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measure's construct validity. Reasons for using aggregate versus situation-specific approaches were identified. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  15. Situational Strategies for Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control isn’t always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies—which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud— may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective, namely that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.—Sun Tzu, The Art of War PMID:26817725

  16. Mobile, collaborative situated knowledge creation for urban planning.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Gustavo; Baloian, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Geo-collaboration is an emerging research area in computer sciences studying the way spatial, geographically referenced information and communication technologies can support collaborative activities. Scenarios in which information associated to its physical location are of paramount importance are often referred as Situated Knowledge Creation scenarios. To date there are few computer systems supporting knowledge creation that explicitly incorporate physical context as part of the knowledge being managed in mobile face-to-face scenarios. This work presents a collaborative software application supporting visually-geo-referenced knowledge creation in mobile working scenarios while the users are interacting face-to-face. The system allows to manage data information associated to specific physical locations for knowledge creation processes in the field, such as urban planning, identifying specific physical locations, territorial management, etc.; using Tablet-PCs and GPS in order to geo-reference data and information. It presents a model for developing mobile applications supporting situated knowledge creation in the field, introducing the requirements for such an application and the functionalities it should have in order to fulfill them. The paper also presents the results of utility and usability evaluations.

  17. Legal assessment of current situation on orphan patients in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Spokiene, Indre

    2008-01-01

    After Lithuania joined the European Union, the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 on orphan medicinal products and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 came into force as part of national legislation. Member States must adopt specific measures to increase knowledge on rare diseases and to improve their detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of this article was to present and to assess the current legal situation on orphan patients and their treatment in Lithuania, to identify legislation gaps, and to propose some ideas how to facilitate the solution of the existing problems in this field. For this purpose, European Union and Lithuanian legal documents on rare medicinal products are examined using a comparative method. With reference to inventory of Member States' incentives for rare diseases in national level, the most important issues, which orphan patients face to in Lithuania, are singled out. In Lithuania, the situation of orphan patients in terms of protection of patient rights is insufficiently determined. The access to effective health care services or approved therapies in some cases is restricted. Working relationships between genetic services and various clinical specialists as well as with those in primary care are not legally determined; the number of clinical trials aimed at orphan medicinal products is low. These results suggest a need for awareness raising among Lithuanian Government, health care specialists, patient organizations about the importance to improve practical implementation of European Union legislation and progressive experience of some European countries in this field.

  18. Mobile, Collaborative Situated Knowledge Creation for Urban Planning

    PubMed Central

    Zurita, Gustavo; Baloian, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Geo-collaboration is an emerging research area in computer sciences studying the way spatial, geographically referenced information and communication technologies can support collaborative activities. Scenarios in which information associated to its physical location are of paramount importance are often referred as Situated Knowledge Creation scenarios. To date there are few computer systems supporting knowledge creation that explicitly incorporate physical context as part of the knowledge being managed in mobile face-to-face scenarios. This work presents a collaborative software application supporting visually-geo-referenced knowledge creation in mobile working scenarios while the users are interacting face-to-face. The system allows to manage data information associated to specific physical locations for knowledge creation processes in the field, such as urban planning, identifying specific physical locations, territorial management, etc.; using Tablet-PCs and GPS in order to geo-reference data and information. It presents a model for developing mobile applications supporting situated knowledge creation in the field, introducing the requirements for such an application and the functionalities it should have in order to fulfill them. The paper also presents the results of utility and usability evaluations. PMID:22778639

  19. Perceived and actual social discrimination: the case of overweight and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the correspondence between perceived and actual social discrimination of overweight people. In total, 77 first-year students provided self-ratings about their height, weight, and perceived social inclusion. To capture actual social inclusion, each participant nominated those fellow students (a) she/he likes and dislikes and (b) about whom she/he is likely to hear social news. Students with lower Body Mass Index (BMI) felt socially included, irrespective of their actual social inclusion. In contrast, students with higher BMI felt socially included depending on the degree of their actual social inclusion. Specifically, their felt social inclusion accurately reflected whether they were actually liked/disliked, but only when they were part of social news. When not part of social news, they also showed insensitivity to their actual social inclusion status. Thus, students with a lower BMI tended to be insensitive, while students with a higher BMI showed a differential sensitivity to actual social discrimination.

  20. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in the world].

    PubMed

    Flores Castro, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Zoonoses are at the present time more important than ever due to their magnitude and impact. The international trade in animals, products and sub products, as well as the intense travel of people around the world, represent risks of dissemination of infectious diseases, and are the reason for a new age of emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Under these conditions, public health and animal health authorities are obliged to work together in order to get more efficient control programs. In this paper the actual situation of some important emerging and reemerging zoonoses is analyzed, including: anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hanta virus, Hendra and Nipah virus. Particular attention is given to leptospirosis, due to the fact that it is considered by WHO and OIE as the widest spread zoonotic disease in the world. Zoonoses caused by ingestion of animal food products are discussed. They are responsible for the death of almost 2.2 million people. Bacteria of genus salmonella and campylobacter are considered. Some recommendations are given for the control and prevention of zoonoses, emphasizing the "One Health" concept.

  1. Fear-related behaviors in situations of mass threat

    PubMed Central

    Espinola, Maria; Shultz, James M.; Espinel, Zelde; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Cooper, Janice L.; Baingana, Florence; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Cela, Toni; Towers, Sherry; Mazurik, Laurie; Greene, M. Claire; Beck, Alyssa; Fredrickson, Michelle; McLean, Andrew; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This Disaster Health Briefing focuses on the work of an expanding team of researchers that is exploring the dynamics of fear-related behaviors in situations of mass threat. Fear-related behaviors are individual or collective behaviors and actions initiated in response to fear reactions that are triggered by a perceived threat or actual exposure to a potentially traumatizing event. Importantly, fear-related behaviors modulate the future risk of harm. Disaster case scenarios are presented to illustrate how fear-related behaviors operate when a potentially traumatic event threatens or endangers the physical and/or psychological health, wellbeing, and integrity of a population. Fear-related behaviors may exacerbate harm, leading to severe and sometimes deadly consequences as exemplified by the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. Alternatively, fear-related behaviors may be channeled in a constructive and life-saving manner to motivate protective behaviors that mitigate or prevent harm, depending upon the nature of the threat scenario that is confronting the population. The interaction between fear-related behaviors and a mass threat is related to the type, magnitude, and consequences of the population encounter with the threat or hazard. The expression of FRBs, ranging from risk exacerbation to risk reduction, is also influenced by such properties of the threat as predictability, familiarity, controllability, preventability, and intentionality. PMID:28265486

  2. Analyzing person, situation and person × situation interaction effects: Latent state-trait models for the combination of random and fixed situations.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Christian; Litson, Kaylee; Bishop, Jacob; Keller, Brian T; Burns, G Leonard; Servera, Mateu; Shiffman, Saul

    2015-06-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) models (Steyer, Ferring, & Schmitt, 1992) allow separating person-specific (trait) effects from (1) effects of the situation and person × situation interactions, and (2) random measurement error in purely observational studies. Typical LST applications use measurement designs in which all situations are sampled randomly and do not have to be known for any individual. Limitations of conventional LST models for only random situations are that traits are implicitly assumed to generalize perfectly across situations, and that main effects of situations are inseparable from person × situation interaction effects because both are measured by the same latent variable. In this article, we show how these limitations can be overcome by using measurement designs in which two or more random situations are nested within two or more fixed situations that are known for each individual. We present extended LST models for the combination of random and fixed situations (LST-RF approach) and show that the extensions allow (1) examining the extent to which traits are situation-specific and (2) isolating person × situation interactions from situation main effects. We demonstrate that the LST-RF approach can be applied with both homogenous and heterogeneous indicators in either the single- or multilevel structural equation modeling frameworks. Advantages and limitations of the new models as well as their relation to other approaches for studying person × situation interactions are discussed.

  3. Preliminary study for the personal handheld device based snoring detection in ordinary sleep situation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hangsik; Choi, Wangrim; Kim, Yi-gon; Cho, Jaegeol

    2014-01-01

    Snoring is one of the representative phenomena of the sleep disorder and detection of snoring is quite important for improving quality of daily human life. The purpose of this research is to define the noises of the ordinary sleep situation and to find its characteristics as a preliminary research of snoring detection. Differently from previous snoring researches, we use a built-in sound recording system of Smartphone for practical use in ordinary sleep condition, and recording was carried out in a general private bedroom. Especially, we designed the experimental protocol, including the various noises could be frequently occurred during sleep such as cough, music, talking, alarm, door open/close, fan, radio and footstep to make closer to the actual sleep circumstance. The sound data set was recorded during actual sleep from 10 normal subjects. Totally 44 snoring data set and 75-noise dataset is acquired and analyzed.

  4. Satellite situation report, volume 33, number 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Situation Report is a listing of those satellites (objects) currently in orbit and those which have previously orbited the Earth. Some objects are too small or too far from the Earth's surface to be detected; therefore, the Satellite Situation Report does not include all manmade objects orbiting the Earth. Generally, satellites are classified as follows: (1) Payloads may contain one or more functioning or nonfunctioning experiments. Usually only the owners of the satellites know if the experiments are functioning, and there is no one source which indicates the operational status of all payloads and/or experiments. Payloads are normally the first listed in the Satellite Situation Report, i.e., 1982 087A, unless there are multiple payloads for the launch. In which case, the first objects cataloged are usually all payloads, unless a subsequent payload is later identified after objects other than payloads have been cataloged. (2) Platforms are used to support a payload while it is being placed into orbit. A platform may remain in orbit long after its purpose is served, usually longer than rocket bodies. It is usually the first object identified in the Satellite Situation Report listing after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087B (when a platform is not used, the first object after the payload(s) is usually the rocket body). (3) Rocket bodies are used to place the payload and platform (if one is used) into orbit. Some launches may have more than one rocket body because of the payload weight or the type of orbit or experiment. Most rocket bodies decay within a short time after the payload (and platform) have achieved orbit. Rocket bodies are usually the third object listed in the Satellite Situation Report after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087C. (4) Debris in orbit occurs when parts (nose cone shrouds, lens or hatch covers) are separated from the payload, when rocket bodies or payloads disintegrate or explode, or when objects are placed into free space from manned

  5. How Many Parameters Actually Affect the Mobility of Conjugated Polymers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, Rocco P.; Blom, Paul W. M.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    We describe charge transport along a polymer chain with a generic theoretical model depending in principle on tens of parameters, reflecting the chemistry of the material. The charge carrier states are obtained from a model Hamiltonian that incorporates different types of disorder and electronic structure (e.g., the difference between homo- and copolymer). The hopping rate between these states is described with a general rate expression, which contains the rates most used in the literature as special cases. We demonstrate that the steady state charge mobility in the limit of low charge density and low field ultimately depends on only two parameters: an effective structural disorder and an effective electron-phonon coupling, weighted by the size of the monomer. The results support the experimental observation [N. I. Craciun, J. Wildeman, and P. W. M. Blom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056601 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.056601] that the mobility in a broad range of (polymeric) semiconductors follows a universal behavior, insensitive to the chemical detail.

  6. Potential versus actual contribution of vertical transmission to pathogen fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kover, P. X.; Dolan, T. E.; Clay, K.

    1997-01-01

    Theory predicts that virulent parasites cannot be maintained at high prevalence if they are only vertically transmitted. However, parasites with high rates of vertical transmission that cause severe reduction in host fitness have been reported. Atkinsonella hypoxylon is a fungal pathogen capable of both vertical and horizontal transmission that drastically reduces its host's fitness. In contrast with theoretical predictions, field and laboratory observations suggested that the primary mechanism of transmission was vertical. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers, we investigated the effective contribution of vertical and horizontal transmission to the genetic structure of three natural populations of A. hypoxylon. We found high genotypic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium, indicating that most established genotypes are derived from horizontally transmitted, sexual spores. The low contribution of vertical transmission to the parasite's fitness despite its high potential might be due to lower establishment of cleistogamous seeds (through which vertical transmission occurs) or lower vigour of vertically transmitted fungal genotypes. Low establishment of vertically infected hosts might explain the persistence of virulent parasites with high apparent vertical transmission. Our results suggest that caution must be taken when using the potential for vertical transmission to make predictions about the evolution of parasite virulence.

  7. [Current malaria situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Bismil'din, F B; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Anpilova, E N

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is situated in the northern hemisphere on the boundary of two continents--Europe and Asia--at a longitude of 45 degrees E--87 degrees E and a latitude of 40 degrees N--55 degrees N. The total area of the republic is 2,724,900 square kilometers. Kazakhstan shares a border with the Russian Federation to the north-west, north and east: the border between the two countries is almost 6500 km long. To the south, Kazakhstan shares a border with the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan (380 km), Uzbekistan (2300 km) and Kyrgystan (980 km). To the south-east, it shares a border with China (1460 km): to the west is the Caspian Sea (600 km). Thus, the total length of Kazakhstan's external borders is 12,000 km. Because of the geographical, natural and climatic features prevailing throughout most of the Republic, there is a potential danger that local transmission of malaria may begin again if the disease is imported from abroad. The areas most at risk are the Panfilov and Uigur raions of Almaty oblast, which share a border with malaria-endemic regions of China, and the Saryagash and Makhtaral' raions of South Kazakhstan oblast along the border with Uzbekistan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan places particular emphasis on malaria prevention and control, taking into account the historical data about the prevalence of malaria from the late 1920s to the early 1940s, amounting to hundreds of thousands of cases every year. Government Decree No. 840 entitled "Urgent Measures to Protect the Population from Blood-Sucking Insects and Ticks Dangerous to Humans", which lays down measures for the control of malarial mosquitoes in the areas most susceptible to malaria resurgence, was adopted in 1996. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan issued instructions in 1998 and 1999 which were designed to motivate all health facilities in the field of malaria prevention and control. At present, as part of the directives developed by the

  8. Fenton's treatment of actual agriculture runoff water containing herbicides.

    PubMed

    Sangami, Sanjeev; Manu, Basavaraju

    2017-01-01

    This research was to study the efficiency of the Fenton's treatment process for the removal of three herbicides, namely 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), ametryn and dicamba from the sugarcane field runoff water. The treatment process was designed with the Taguchi approach by varying the four factors such as H2O2/COD (1-3.5), H2O2/Fe(2+) (5-50), pH (2-5) and reaction time (30-240 min) as independent variables. Influence of these parameters on chemical oxygen demand (COD), ametryn, dicamba and 2,4-D removal efficiencies (dependent variables) were investigated by performing signal to noise ratio and other statistical analysis. The optimum conditions were found to be H2O2/COD: 2.125, H2O2/Fe(2+): 27.5, pH: 3.5 and reaction time of 135 min for removal efficiencies of 100% for ametryn, 95.42% for dicamba, 88.2% for 2,4-D and with 75% of overall COD removal efficiencies. However, the percentage contribution of H2O2/COD ratio was observed to be significant among all four independent variables and were 44.16%, 67.57%, 51.85% and 50.66% for %COD, ametryn, dicamba and 2,4-D removal efficiencies, respectively. The maximum removal of herbicides was observed with the H2O2 dosage of 5.44 mM and Fe(2+) dosage of 0.12 mM at pH 3.5.

  9. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  10. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part I).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this article, we review regulatory issues related to the approval of biosimilars, with a particular focus on the situation in the European Union. We will examine analytical characterization studies and special considerations for clinical trials with biosimilars, and also look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. Finally, we will review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  11. Situation Awareness of Onboard System Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Thronesbery, Carroll; Hudson, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    We have developed intelligent agent software for onboard system autonomy. Our approach is to provide control agents that automate crew and vehicle systems, and operations assistants that aid humans in working with these autonomous systems. We use the 3 Tier control architecture to develop the control agent software that automates system reconfiguration and routine fault management. We use the Distributed Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) System to develop the operations assistants that provide human services, including situation summarization, event notification, activity management, and support for manual commanding of autonomous system. In this paper we describe how the operations assistants aid situation awareness of the autonomous control agents. We also describe our evaluation of the DCI System to support control engineers during a ground test at Johnson Space Center (JSC) of the Post Processing System (PPS) for regenerative water recovery.

  12. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  13. What factors may influence epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland and in the world?

    PubMed

    Rowińska-Zakrzewska, Ewa; Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szturmowicz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the review of factors influencing epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland and in the world. The groups of increased risk of tuberculosis, and clinical conditions predisposing to activation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) such as HIV, uremia, diabetes mellitus, transplantation of organs, treatment with glucocorticosteroids and with antibodies to TNF and to its receptors, were presented. The higher prevalence and worse prognosis of tuberculosis in elderly people was emphasised. The methods of LTBI recognition, according to recent recommendations, with special consideration to patients in immunosupression, were shown. Methods of treatment to prevent LTBI activation, according to WHO experts, were also presented. All data were discussed in relation to the actual epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland.

  14. Preparedness for radiological emergency situations in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the Austrian system of emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency situations. It demonstrates, in particular, the legal basis, the roles and competencies of the competent authorities, international and bilateral conventions on early notification of nuclear accidents, the Austrian emergency plans, the Austrian radiation monitoring system, the operated prognosis and decision support systems and the results of an estimation of possible impacts of nuclear power plant disasters on Austria.

  15. Cognitively Inspired Neural Network for Situation Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-14

    Neurodynamics of Higher-Level Cognition and Consciousness, Eds. Perlovsky, 1.I., Kozma, R. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. Perlovsky, L.I., Deming...Perlovsky L. I., Kozma R. (2007) Eds. Neurodynamics of Higher-Level Cognition and Consciousness. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Perlovsky, L.1...AFRL-RY -HS-TR-20 10-0028 Cognitively Inspired Neural Network for Situation Recognition Roman Ilin and Leonid Perlovsky AFRURYHE 80 Scott Drive

  16. Amateur Astronomy in Armenia: Current Situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buniatyan, Rouben; Melikyan, Gagik

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the current situation about the amateur astronomy in Armenia and briefly outlines the activities of "Goodricke John" amateur astronomers NGO in 2013 and 2014. Particular attention is paid to the project supported by Ministry of Education for organization of open classes on astronomy and practical stargazing exercises in schools. Similarly, the report highlights the projects developed with and funded by the RA Ministry of Defense, which enabled organization of stargazing exercises in several military units in Armenia in August 2014.

  17. Space Situational Awareness: Difficult, Expensive and Necessary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    that such sensors were important, the pro- grams, in general, proceeded as though their distance from the surface of the earth and their speed conveyed...instruments created by various nations, space-based navigation systems developed by Russia and China, and weather- and earth -sensing devices...also includes items like out-of-control satellites and rockets. The Needs of Space Situational Awareness Although the term is a rather clumsy

  18. Cyber Situational Awareness for Joint Force Commanders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    Officer assigned to the Air War College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. Lt Col Payne is a graduate of Ohio University with a Bachelor of Science...manner. The central thesis being addressed is that military commanders need a common framework for cyber situation awareness in order to aid the force...The central thesis being addressed is that military commanders need a common framework for cyber SA in order to aid the force with building a

  19. Cognitive Situation Awareness for Information Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    spatio-temporal locations, and situations. Gestalt theory [3] arose in 1890 as a reaction to the prevalent psychological theory of the time - atomism...were intrigued by the way our mind perceives wholes out of incomplete elements. The main vision of the Gestalt theory is that things are "more than the...understanding to all other types of information. Based on the Gestalt theory , our aim is to analyse the notions of perceptive items, grouping and

  20. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-11

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices.

  1. Current Situation of Postmenopausal Grandmothers Raising Their Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jang Yong

    2015-01-01

    As the average life expectancy of women increases, the family and social roles of postmenopausal women have become more important. With the growing number of dual-income households, postmenopausal grandmothers occupy a large role in child-rearing. Postmenopausal women mainly experience social changes as a family member along with personal changes. Postmenopausal women face changes in physical and mental aspects due to drastic hormonal changes. Grandmothers sharing the burden of raising children are actually encountering a number of challenges while dealing with hardships to adapt to physical and mental changes at the same time. It is thought to be important to understand the impact of raising grandchildren on physical and mental conditions among grandmothers experiencing hardships between social reality and personal changes from medical perspective based on sociological studies. Focusing mainly on studies on related fields, this study aims to investigate personal and social supports from medical perspective and to device practical measures. PMID:26355272

  2. PREFACE: XVII International Youth Scientific School on Actual Problems of Magnetic Resonance and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    Editors: M.S.Tagirov, V.V.Semashko, A.S.Nizamutdinov Kazan is the motherland of Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) which was discovered in Kazan State University in 1944 by prof. E.K.Zavojskii. Since the Young Scientist School of Magnetic Resonance run by professor G.V.Skrotskii from MIPT stopped its work, Kazan took up the activity under the initiative of academician A.S.Borovik-Romanov. Nowadays this school is rejuvenated and the International Youth Scientific School studying "Actual problems of the magnetic resonance and its application" is developing. Traditionally the main subjects of the School meetings are: Magnetic Resonance in Solids, Chemistry, Geology, Biology and Medicine. The unchallenged organizers of that school are Kazan Federal University and Kazan E. K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute. The rector of the School is professor Murat Tagirov, vice-rector - professor Valentine Zhikharev. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from Germany, France, Switzerland, USA, Japan, Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia, Georgia provided plenary lecture presentations. Almost 700 young scientists have had an opportunity to participate in discussions of the latest scientific developments, to make their oral reports and to improve their knowledge and skills. To enhance competition among the young scientists, reports take place every year and the Program Committee members name the best reports, the authors of which are invited to prepare full-scale scientific papers. Since 2013 the International Youth Scientific School "Actual problems of the magnetic resonance and its application", following the tendency for comprehensive studies of matter properties and its interaction with electromagnetic fields, expanded "the field of interest" and opened the new section: Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non

  3. Academic Boredom in Under- and Over-Challenging Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyunjin J.; Kim, Jung-In; Chu, Hsiang-Ning R.; Kim, Myoungsook; Cho, YoonJung; Wicker, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    This project explored students' perceptions of academic boredom in under- and over-challenging situations with the hypothesis that boredom is a multidimensional and situation-dependent construct. In Study 1, college students were asked to think of an under- and over-challenging situation and for each situation complete the 36-item Academic Boredom…

  4. Does advanced driver training improve situational awareness?

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Kazi, Tara A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P

    2009-07-01

    Over 70 years of experiential evidence suggests that a specific form of advanced driver training, one based on an explicit system of car control, improves driver situation awareness (SA). Five experimental hypotheses are developed. They propose that advanced driving should increase the number of information elements in the driver's working memory, increase the interconnection between those elements, increase the amount of 'new' information in memory as well as the prominence of existing information, and that finally, it should stimulate behaviours that help drivers evolve better situations to be aware of. An approach to SA based on Neisser's perceptual cycle theory is anchored to a network based methodology. This is applied within the context of a longitudinal on-road study involving three groups of 25 drivers, all of whom were measured pre- and post-intervention. One experimental group was subject to advanced driver training and two further groups provided control for time and for being accompanied whilst driving. Empirical support is found for all five hypotheses. Advanced driving does improve driver SA but not necessarily in the way that existing situation focused, closed loop models of the concept might predict.

  5. The incidence of calorie labeling on fast food choices: A comparison between stated preferences and actual choices.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel

    2016-09-01

    In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments.

  6. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  7. Situational Temptation for HIV Medication Adherence in High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Murphy, Debra A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Huszti, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the role of situational temptation, a component of self-efficacy, in adolescent and young adult (ages 16–24) HIV medication adherence by assessing participants' perceptions of their temptation to miss medications in various situations (e.g., when medication causes physical side effects, when there is fear of disclosure of HIV status). Youth (n = 186; 83% African American) were participants in a multisite clinical trial examining the efficacy of a motivational intervention. Data were collected using computer-assisted personal interviewing. Youth believed the most tempting reasons or situations that might lead them to miss their HIV medications to be symptoms (if the medicine caused you to have other physical symptoms) and sick (if the medicine made you sick to your stomach or made you throw up or if it tasted bad), but these were not significantly associated with nonadherence. This suggests disconnection between youths' expectations of temptation and actual tempting situations associated with nonadherence. Situational temptations associated with nonadherence included lack of social support, needing a break from medications, and not seeing a need for medications. Interventions to improve adherence should consider perceptions of HIV medications, particularly the benefits of taking medications and expectations of physical symptoms. Interventionists and clinicians should consider situations that may tempt youth to miss doses of medication and help youth gain insight into these temptations. Emerging methods, such as Ecological Momentary Assessment (e.g., daily diaries, cell phone text messaging), may be useful in gaining insight into the day-to-day experience of youth living with HIV. PMID:21162691

  8. Role conflict: appropriateness of a nurse researcher's actions in the clinical field.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Lesley; Cert, Renal; Beale, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to judge the appropriateness of a particular nurse researcher's actions in a vignette from the clinical field, and to explore frameworks used to determine the appropriateness of actions. Twelve experienced nurse researchers were interviewed by telephone. They were given four vignettes of actual research situations and asked to comment and explain their judgement on the appropriateness of the nurse researcher's actions. The findings confirmed blurring of boundaries between professional and research roles for nurses. Nurses appear to use a mixture of frameworks, including scientific/rigour method, ethics, nursing competencies and their own personal-moral values. Frameworks need to be discussed and debated so that neophyte researchers are well-prepared before they enter the field to conduct research.

  9. Let's not, and say we would: imagined and actual responses to witnessing homophobia.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Jennifer Randall; Wilson, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We compared imagined versus actual affective and behavioral responses to witnessing a homophobic slur. Participants (N = 72) witnessed a confederate using a homophobic slur, imagined the same scenario, or were not exposed to the slur. Those who imagined hearing the slur reported significantly higher levels of negative affect than those who actually witnessed the slur, and nearly one half of them reported that they would confront the slur, whereas no participants who actually heard the slur confronted it. These findings reveal a discrepancy between imagined and real responses to homophobic remarks, and they have implications for the likelihood that heterosexuals will actually confront homophobic remarks.

  10. Student Participation in Rover Field Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, C. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Nelson, S. V.; Sherman, D. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    2001-12-01

    The LAPIS program was developed in 1999 as part of the Athena Science Payload education and public outreach, funded by the JPL Mars Program Office. For the past three years, the Athena Science Team has been preparing for 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission operations using the JPL prototype Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover in extended rover field trials. Students and teachers participating in LAPIS work with them each year to develop a complementary mission plan and implement an actual portion of the annual tests using FIDO and its instruments. LAPIS is designed to mirror an end-to-end mission: Small, geographically distributed groups of students form an integrated mission team, working together with Athena Science Team members and FIDO engineers to plan, implement, and archive a two-day test mission, controlling FIDO remotely over the Internet using the Web Interface for Telescience (WITS) and communicating with each other by email, the web, and teleconferences. The overarching goal of LAPIS is to get students excited about science and related fields. The program provides students with the opportunity to apply knowledge learned in school, such as geometry and geology, to a "real world" situation and to explore careers in science and engineering through continuous one-on-one interactions with teachers, Athena Science Team mentors, and FIDO engineers. A secondary goal is to help students develop improved communication skills and appreciation of teamwork, enhanced problem-solving skills, and increased self-confidence. The LAPIS program will provide a model for outreach associated with future FIDO field trials and the 2003 Mars mission operations. The base of participation will be broadened beyond the original four sites by taking advantage of the wide geographic distribution of Athena team member locations. This will provide greater numbers of students with the opportunity to actively engage in rover testing and to explore the possibilities of

  11. Integration of Remote Sensing derived Actual Evapotranspiration with Meteorological Data for Real Time Demand Forecasting in Semi-arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, M. K.; Hafeez, M. M.; Chemin, Y.; Faux, R.; Sixsmith, J.

    2010-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is major consumer of fresh water, but a large part of the water devour for irrigation is wasted due to poor management of irrigation systems. Improving water management in irrigated areas require the analysis of real time water demand in order to determine the possibilities in which it may be modified and rationalised. Real time water demand information in irrigated areas is a key for planning about sustainable use of irrigation water. These activities are needed not only to improve water productivity, but also to increase the sustainability of irrigated agriculture by saving irrigation water. Demand forecasting entail the complete understanding of spatial and expected temporal variability of metrological parameters and evapotranspiration (ET). ET is the overriding aspect for irrigation demand forecasting at farm to catchment scale. Many models have been used to measure the ET rate, either empirical or functional. The major disadvantage of this approach is that most methods generate only point values, resulting in estimates that are not representative of large areas. These methods are based on crop factors under ideal conditions and cannot therefore represent actual crop ET. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful mean to estimate ET over various spatial and temporal scales. For improved irrigation system management and operation, a holistic approach of integrating remote sensing derived ET from SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping ET) algorithm, for Australian agro-ecosystem, with forecasted meteorological data and field application loss functions for major crops were used to forecast actual water demand in Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), New South Wales, Australia. It covers approximately 79,000 ha of intensive irrigation and comprise of number of secondary and tertiary canals. In order to capture the spatial variability, CIA has been divided into 22 nodes based on direction of flow and connectivity. All hydrological data of inflow (i

  12. Sensitivity of runoff behaviour of Alpine catchments to system conditions - looking at the current and future situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißl, Gertraud; Klebinder, Klaus; Kerl, Florian; Dobler, Christian; Geitner, Clemens; Schöberl, Friedrich; Kohl, Bernhard; Markart, Gerhard; Sotier, Bernadette; Formayer, Herbert; Goler, Robert; Gorgas, Theresa; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Alpine settlements are often situated on alluvial fans at the outlet of small catchments. Thus they are - due to the short response time - exposed to a high risk in case of flash floods. Within the project "Sensitivity of the runoff characteristics of small Alpine catchments to climate change" we aim at identifying the critical combinations of event characteristics (intensity and duration of rain) and system conditions (soil moisture, state of vegetation and land use, snow cover) producing flash floods in order to improve the predictability of such events. We have investigated three Alpine catchments in western Austria with different altitudes and precipitation regimes. On the plot scale, field measurements, especially irrigation experiments, revealed that the rainfall-runoff reaction of slopes producing a high or low amount of surface runoff is relatively independent of the actual soil moisture content. However, plots producing a medium amount of surface runoff at dry conditions may generate significantly increased surface runoff volumes at moist conditions. Intensive grazing raises the amount of surface runoff with the duration of pasture season. Event analysis and mapping of the catchment inventories showed that the catchments with low (Ruggbachtal, 400 - 1000 m a.s.l, Vorarlberg) and medium altitude (Brixenbachtal, 800 - 2000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) tend to be sensitive to antecedent precipitation. Due to the high amount of pastured areas, the Brixenbach catchment shows a seasonal variation of runoff behaviour with a maximum of surface runoff in the late summer. The highly situated catchment (Längental, 2000 - 3000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) may show an increased runoff response at rain-on-snow-events. Because of its high portion of rock and talus slopes the runoff reaction of the catchment is quite insensitive to antecedent soil moisture content and grazing intensity. Currently ongoing hydrological modelling will show how seasonal system conditions (duration of snow cover

  13. Problems of Modern Higher Education in the Sphere of Russian Philology and the Ways of Solving Them (on the Example of the Situation in Kazan Federal University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushkanets, Leah E.; Mahinina, Natalia G.; Nasrutdinova, Lilia H.; Sidorova, Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problems of modern higher education in the sphere of Russian Philology which depends on the world crisis situation, that continues to persist, despite the efforts to reform it. This article aims to mark some important problematical items necessary to realize the reformation of higher philological education and…

  14. Evaluation of six potential evapotranspiration models for estimating crop potential and actual evapotranspiration in arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sien; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jianhua; Du, Taisheng; Tong, Ling; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Using potential evapotranspiration (PET) to estimate crop actual evapotranspiration (AET) is a critical approach in hydrological models. However, which PET model performs best and can be used to predict crop AET over the entire growth season in arid regions still remains unclear. The six frequently-used PET models, i.e. Blaney-Criddle (BC), Hargreaves (HA), Priestley-Taylor (PT), Dalton (DA), Penman (PE) and Shuttleworth (SW) models were considered and evaluated in the study. Five-year eddy covariance data over the maize field and vineyard in arid northwest China were used to examine the accuracy of PET models in estimating daily crop AET. Results indicate that the PE, SW and PT models underestimated daily ET by less than 6% with RMSE lower than 35 W m-2 during the four years, while the BC, HA and DA models under-predicted daily ET approximately by 10% with RMSE higher than 40 W m-2. Compared to BC, HA and DA models, PE, SW and PT models were more reliable and accurate for estimating crop PET and AET in arid regions. Thus the PE, SW and PT models were recommended for predicting crop evapotranspiration in hydrological models in arid regions.

  15. Do we know the actual magnetopause position for typical solar wind conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, A. A.; Gordeev, E.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Å afránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Å imůnek, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tóth, G.; Merkin, V. G.; Raeder, J.

    2016-07-01

    We compare predicted magnetopause positions at the subsolar point and four reference points in the terminator plane obtained from several empirical and numerical MHD models. Empirical models using various sets of magnetopause crossings and making different assumptions about the magnetopause shape predict significantly different magnetopause positions (with a scatter >1 RE) even at the subsolar point. Axisymmetric magnetopause models cannot reproduce the cusp indentations or the changes related to the dipole tilt effect, and most of them predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than nonaxisymmetric models for typical solar wind conditions and zero tilt angle. Predictions of two global nonaxisymmetric models do not match each other, and the models need additional verification. MHD models often predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than the nonaxisymmetric empirical models, but the predictions of MHD simulations may need corrections for the ring current effect and decreases of the solar wind pressure that occur in the foreshock. Comparing MHD models in which the ring current magnetic field is taken into account with the empirical Lin et al. model, we find that the differences in the reference point positions predicted by these models are relatively small for Bz=0. Therefore, we assume that these predictions indicate the actual magnetopause position, but future investigations are still needed.

  16. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest and their expressed situational interest. One class of Finnish fourth-graders (N = 22, age 9-10 years) participated in a heat transfer lesson. The lesson encompassed an interactive demonstration with a thermal camera, teacher-led discussions and the conduct and presentation of a collaborative inquiry task. Pupils expressed their interest levels (scale: 1 = very boring, 5 = very interesting) by using an electronic response system called a 'clicker'. The measurement took place 15 times during the lesson, with 1 measurement being just a rehearsal. The lesson was video recorded, and visible aspects of interest at the measurement time points were analysed. Reported and observational data were compared. In most cases, the observations did not yield data compatible with the pupils' own evaluations, indicating that most pupils' expressed interest is not easily interpreted through observation of their facial expressions and behaviour. In general, the interest of the group as a whole seems to diminish during the lesson. We argue that in order to maintain and increase pupils' interest, their evaluations should be taken into account in lesson planning. Video-based research might also be further enriched and validated by employing the participants' own expressions. The clicker is a suitable means of collecting primary pupils' experiences concerning their interest levels.

  17. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  18. The Gravity of the Situation. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles; Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged exposure in humans to a microgravity environment can lead to significant loss of bone and muscle mass, cardiovascular and sensory-motor deconditioning, and hormonal changes. These adaptive changes to weightlessness present a formidable obstacle to human exploration of space, particularly for missions requiring travel times of several months or more, such as on a trip to Mars. Countermeasures that address each of these body systems separately show only limited success. One possible remedy for this situation is artificial gravity, because it tackles all these systems across the board.

  19. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  20. Assessing Situational Awareness in Task Force XXI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    information dominance over the enemy and that units equipped with greater situational awareness will fight more successfully than units without the added capability. In an effort to test this hypothesis the Army conducted an Advanced Warfighter Experiment (AWE) which began at Ft. Hood, TX and culminated in a focused rotation at the National Training Center, Ft. Irwin, CA. Although many initiatives in the area of information dominance were tested in the AWE, the centerpiece of the program was a test case unit designated as Task Force Twenty-One (TF

  1. Situational Psychogenic Anejaculation: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Rajesh; Thangadurai, Packirisamy; Kuruvilla, Anju; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Anejaculation is an uncommon clinical entity that may result from a variety of causes, both organic and psychological. Psychogenic anejaculation is influenced by relationship, behavioral, and psychological factors. We present a clinical case of situational anejaculation, which was managed with a combination of techniques that addressed these factors including changes in masturbatory technique, improved marital communication and quality, and reduction of anxiety using cognitive behavioral techniques. It is suggested that the standard techniques of sex therapy be modified and tailored to manage the specific problems of the individual patient. PMID:25035564

  2. Situational Variables in Expert Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Ute; Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In traditional laboratory studies of decision making, the experimenter structures the problem, defines the goal and specifies available information. In contrast, when people make decisions in non-laboratory environments characterized as complex, dynamic and consequential, they must first identify the problem and determine what information and responses are relevant. The present research was designed to investigate which situational aspects are important to experienced pilots making aviation decisions. Twenty-eight professional pilots were asked to sort descriptions of 22 aircraft incidents into piles involving similar types of major decisions. Preliminary analyses suggest four underlying variables: time pressure, risk level, available resources, and certainty of goal attainment.

  3. Satellite Situation Center data system for magnetospheric science planning

    SciTech Connect

    Aist-Sagara, L.; Cooper, J.F.; Mcguire, R.E.; Parthasarathy, R.; Peredo, M.

    1995-01-01

    Critical problems in planning coordinated observation campaigns for magnetospheric science include the need to predict time intervals when one or more observing satellites or ground stations will be connected along magnetic field lines to other observation sites, or when such sites will be located within magnetospheric regions of common interest. The Satellite Situation Center (SSC) was created at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) during the International Magnetospheric Study in the 1970s to address these problems. The SSC Data System has evolved since that era to support potentially complex queries by SSC staff and has now been opened to NASA Science Internet access via the NSSDC On-line Data Information System (NODIS). The SSC software, ephemeris data base, and access modes are described for the Version 2.1 release in 1993.

  4. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  5. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder situational awareness using tools and techniques of mobile computing. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802.11 network. Responders can also wirelessly share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of a particular emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercise at NASA Ames.

  6. Contrasting Systemic Functional Linguistic and Situated Literacies Approaches to Multimodality in Literacy and Writing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kate T.

    2013-01-01

    Against the backdrop of proliferating research on multimodality in the fields of literacy and writing studies, this article considers the contributions of two prominent theoretical perspectives--Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and Situated Literacies--and the methodological tensions they raise for the study of multimodality. To delineate…

  7. A View from the Margins: Situating CTL Staff in Organizational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravett, Emily O.; Bernhagen, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore assumptions that underlie work on organizational development in their field, which reveal hierarchical and homogenizing tendencies, despite commitments to inclusivity. Given that the aim of recent literature, such as Schroeder and Associates' Coming in from the Margins, is to situate educational developers in relation to…

  8. Training in Context: Toward a Person-by-Situation View of Voluntary Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Daniel L.; Korsgaard, M. Audrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this field study of 327 nonfaculty university professionals was to examine the joint relationship of conscientiousness and context on two dependent variables: motivation and participation in voluntary training systems. Drawing on the principles of person-by-situation theories of personality, this study examined how the relationship…

  9. Discursive Shadowing in Linguistic Ethnography. Situated Practices and Circulating Discourses in Multilingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewilde, Joke; Creese, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We consider discursive shadowing as methodology in linguistic ethnography and how it refines our analyses of participants' situated practices. In addition to the constant and extended company the researcher and key participant keep with one another in the field, shadowing in a linguistic ethnographic approach includes the ubiquitous…

  10. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  11. Capability Set 13: Blue Force Tracking Upgrades Offer Greater Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    situational awareness picture. Prior to and as part of Capability Set 13, JCR is being fielded to Afghanistan. The system allows Soldiers in battle...Soldier experience and feedback. While JCR is being fielded to troops in Afghan- istan through CS 13, JBC-P, which will bring enhanced on-the-move command...Among the upgrades JCR brings is JCR -Logis- tics, which integrates FBCB2/BFT capability with Movement Tracking System for Army logisticians. The

  12. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  13. From VET School to the Labour Market in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Expected versus Actual Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankovic, Nina; Oruc, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the differences between expected and actual wages of VET students and graduates. It uses a survey of VET students enrolled in schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and data about employed VET graduates from the Labour Force Survey. The model of determinants of wages, expected or actual, estimated separately on each dataset,…

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  15. Interpersonal Communication Behaviors and Self-Actualizing Values: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Thomas

    This report addresses the relationship between self-actualizing values and interpersonal communication behaviors. After a discussion of behavioristic and humanistic frameworks for social science research, the paper explains Abraham Maslow's and Carl Roger's concepts of self-actualization as the tendency toward completing and perfecting one's…

  16. 49 CFR 24.301 - Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for actual reasonable moving and related... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Payments for Moving and Related Expenses § 24.301 Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses. (a) General. (1)...

  17. 49 CFR 24.301 - Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for actual reasonable moving and related... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Payments for Moving and Related Expenses § 24.301 Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses. (a) General. (1)...

  18. 49 CFR 24.301 - Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for actual reasonable moving and related... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Payments for Moving and Related Expenses § 24.301 Payment for actual reasonable moving and related expenses. (a) General. (1)...

  19. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH... identified in this section in those areas where the Actuarial Table provides coverage. Except when...

  20. 7 CFR 400.51 - Availability of actual production history program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....51 Section 400.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... History § 400.51 Availability of actual production history program. An Actual Production History (APH... identified in this section in those areas where the Actuarial Table provides coverage. Except when...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  2. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing... THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.180 How do I determine an actual processing allowance? (a) Determining a processing allowance if you...

  4. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  5. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  6. Reviving the Bowen Ratio method for Actual Evaporation with Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxemburg, W. M. J.; Euser, T.; Everson, C. S.; Mengistu, M. G.; Clulow, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    We have used the technique of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with a fiber optic cable to determine actual evaporation over land. The results were compared with measurements using a surface layer scintilometer, surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques. Dry and wetted sections of a fiber optic cable were suspended from a six meter high tower in a sugar beet trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From the principle of a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapor pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals of a vertical column of air above the field could be derived. Subsequently it allowed accurate determination of the ratio of sensible and latent heat, i.e. the Bowen ratio over time and in the vertical. Using measurements of the net radiation, soil heat flux and the Bowen ratio sensible heat flux, the actual evaporation could be determined as the residual of the shortened energy balance equation. The advantage of the DTS method over the traditional Bowen ratio method is that one and the same sensor (the fiber optic cable) is used, with sufficient accuracy to discriminate small differences in temperature and vapor pressure respectively, hence giving numerous gradient measurements over the vertical. The traditional Bowen ratio method relies on only a few sensors that require careful calibration to detect the real differences of temperature and vapor pressure. Comparing the improved method with the traditional Bowen Ratio method, shows that the improved method gives more stable and constant results than the standard method. The DTS data were reliable, provided that water blown by strong wind from the wetted cable does not affect the temperature of air at the location of the dry cable. Under these conditions the vertical air temperature was not representative for the air temperature over the fetch of the crop. The experiments were carried out in South Africa, in November 2011 (summer) under varying radiation conditions. In this way it was

  7. Mobilestar field test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubow, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    Various field tests were performed in order to gain practical experience and a broader understanding of mobile communications. The first phase consisted of CW propagation tests to develop firsthand experience of propagation phenomena. From this information, estimates of the feasibility and accuracy of power control were possible. The next phase tested the idea of power control. Equipment representative of that expected to be used in an actual mobile satellite communication system was assembled and tested under a variety of environments.

  8. High Power Laser-Plasma Interaction under a Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Tomohito; Murakami, Masakatsu; Iwata, Natsumi; Hata, Masayasu; Mima, Kunioki

    2016-10-01

    We investigate laser-plasma interactions under a strong magnetic field by one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. A simple setup is considered in our analysis, in which a thin foil is irradiated by a right-handed circularly polarized laser. A uniform magnetic field is assumed in the direction of the laser propagation. Then the whistler wave can penetrate the overdense plasma when the external field is larger than the critical field strength Bc =meω0 / e . In this situation, key parameters of the system are the plasma density and the size of the external field. We performed various models in the density-field strength diagram, which is actually the so-called CMA diagram, to evaluate the efficiency of the energy conversion from the laser to plasma and the reflectivity and transmittance of the laser. It is found that there are two important processes in the interaction between the whistler wave and overdense plasma, which are the cyclotron resonance of relativistic electrons and the parametric (Brillouin) instability. Because of the high temperature of electrons, ions can be accelerated dramatically by a large sheath field at the target surface.

  9. A comparison of actual and perceived residential proximity to toxic waste sites.

    PubMed

    Howe, H L

    1988-01-01

    Studies of Memphis and Three Mile Island have noted a positive association between actual residential distance and public concern about exposure to the potential of contamination, whereas none was found at Love Canal. In this study, concern about environmental contamination and exposure was examined in relation to both perceived and actual proximity to a toxic waste disposal site (TWDS). It was hypothesized that perceived residential proximity would better predict concern levels that would actual residential distance. The data were abstracted from a New York State, excluding New York City, survey using all respondents (N = 317) from one county known to have a large number of TWDSs. Using linear regression, the variance explained in concern scores was 22 times higher with perceived distance than for actual distance. Perceived residential distance was a significant predictor of concern scores, while actual distance was not. However, perceived distance explained less than 5% of the variance in concern scores.

  10. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  11. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  12. Visual analysis of situationally aware building evacuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, Jack; Eaglin, Todd; Subramanian, Kalpathi; Ribarsky, William

    2013-01-01

    Rapid evacuation of large urban structures (campus buildings, arenas, stadiums, etc.) is a complex operation and of prime interest to emergency responders and planners. Although there is a considerable body of work in evacuation algorithms and methods, most of these are impractical to use in real-world scenarios (non real-time, for instance) or have difficulty handling scenarios with dynamically changing conditions. Our goal in this work is towards developing computer visualizations and real-time visual analytic tools for building evacuations, in order to provide situational awareness and decision support to first responders and emergency planners. We have augmented traditional evacuation algorithms in the following important ways, (1) facilitate real-time complex user interaction with first responder teams, as information is received during an emergency, (2) visual reporting tools for spatial occupancy, temporal cues, and procedural recommendations are provided automatically and at adjustable levels, and (3) multi-scale building models, heuristic evacuation models, and unique graph manipulation techniques for producing near real-time situational awareness. We describe our system, methods and their application using campus buildings as an example. We also report the results of evaluating our system in collaboration with our campus police and safety personnel, via a table-top exercise consisting of 3 different scenarios, and their resulting assessment of the system.

  13. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.

  14. Modeling Being "Lost": Imperfect Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Being "lost" is an exemplar of imperfect Situation Awareness/Situation Understanding (SA/SU) -- information/knowledge that is uncertain, incomplete, and/or just wrong. Being "lost" may be a geo-spatial condition - not knowing/being wrong about where to go or how to get there. More broadly, being "lost" can serve as a metaphor for uncertainty and/or inaccuracy - not knowing/being wrong about how one fits into a larger world view, what one wants to do, or how to do it. This paper discusses using agent based modeling (ABM) to explore imperfect SA/SU, simulating geo-spatially "lost" intelligent agents trying to navigate in a virtual world. Each agent has a unique "mental map" -- its idiosyncratic view of its geo-spatial environment. Its decisions are based on this idiosyncratic view, but behavior outcomes are based on ground truth. Consequently, the rate and degree to which an agent's expectations diverge from ground truth provide measures of that agent's SA/SU.

  15. Dynamic situation assessment and prediction (DSAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisti, Alex F.

    2003-09-01

    The face of war has changed. We no longer have the luxury of planning campaigns against a known enemy operating under a well-understood doctrine, using conventional weapons and rules of engagement; all in a well-charted region. Instead, today's Air Force faces new, unforeseen enemies, asymmetric combat situations and unconventional warfare (Chem/Bio, co-location of military assets near civilian facilities, etc.). At the same time, the emergence of new Air Force doctrinal notions (e.g., Global Strike Task Force, Effects-Based Operations, the desire to minimize or eliminate any collateral damage, etc.)- while propounding the benefits that can be expected with the adoption of such concepts - also impose many new technical and operational challenges. Furthermore, future mission/battle commanders will need to assimilate a tremendous glut of available information, and still be expected to make quick-response decisions - and to quantify the effects of those decisions - all in the face of uncertainty. All these factors translate to the need for dramatic improvements in the way we plan, rehearse, execute and dynamically assess the status of military campaigns. This paper addresses these crucial and revolutionary requirements through the pursuit of a new simulation paradigm that allows a user to perform real-time dynamic situation assessment and prediction.

  16. Double-blind photo lineups using actual eyewitnesses: an experimental test of a sequential versus simultaneous lineup procedure.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary L; Steblay, Nancy K; Dysart, Jennifer E

    2015-02-01

    Eyewitnesses (494) to actual crimes in 4 police jurisdictions were randomly assigned to view simultaneous or sequential photo lineups using laptop computers and double-blind administration. The sequential procedure used in the field experiment mimicked how it is conducted in actual practice (e.g., using a continuation rule, witness does not know how many photos are to be viewed, witnesses resolve any multiple identifications), which is not how most lab experiments have tested the sequential lineup. No significant differences emerged in rates of identifying lineup suspects (25% overall) but the sequential procedure produced a significantly lower rate (11%) of identifying known-innocent lineup fillers than did the simultaneous procedure (18%). The simultaneous/sequential pattern did not significantly interact with estimator variables and no lineup-position effects were observed for either the simultaneous or sequential procedures. Rates of nonidentification were not significantly different for simultaneous and sequential but nonidentifiers from the sequential procedure were more likely to use the "not sure" response option than were nonidentifiers from the simultaneous procedure. Among witnesses who made an identification, 36% (41% of simultaneous and 32% of sequential) identified a known-innocent filler rather than a suspect, indicating that eyewitness performance overall was very poor. The results suggest that the sequential procedure that is used in the field reduces the identification of known-innocent fillers, but the differences are relatively small.

  17. Evaluation of SEBS for estimation of actual evapotranspiration using ASTER satellite data for irrigation areas of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

    2013-05-01

    Spatial knowledge of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is of prime interest for environmental applications, such as optimizing irrigation water use, irrigation system performance, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies, and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent drought in Australia and concerns about climate change have highlighted the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food production. This study deals with the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) algorithm based on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area, located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. We have used 12 ASTER scenes covering the time period of 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2009 for estimating the actual ET over the study area. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the ASTER-derived actual ET values for the study area. The derived ET value over the study area is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error is 0.89 and the mean absolute percentage difference is 2.87 %, which demonstrate the reasonability of SEBS ET estimation for the study area.

  18. Situation analysis at a digital situation table with Fovea-Tablett

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Eck, Ralf; Rehfeld, Nils; Geisler, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A digital situation table which allows a team of experts to cooperatively analyze a situation has been developed. It is based on a horizontal work table providing a general overview of the situation. Tablet PCs referenced precisely to the scene image using a digital image processing algorithm display a detailed view of a local area of the image. In this way a see-through effect providing high local resolution at the position of the tablet PC is established. Additional information not fitting the bird's eye view of the work table can be displayed on a vertical screen. All output devices can be controlled using tablet PCs where each team member has his own tablet PC. An interaction paradigm has been developed allowing each team member to interact with a high degree of freedom and ensuring cooperative teamwork.

  19. Negotiating options in weight-loss surgery : "Actually I didn't have any other option".

    PubMed

    Groven, Karen Synne; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2016-09-01

    In this study we explore how a selection of Norwegian women account for their decision to undergo weight loss surgery (WLS). We argue that women's descriptions of their experiences leading up to this choice of action illuminate issues regarding social norms of bodily appearance and personal responsibility. The starting point is women's own experiences within a cultural context in which opting for WLS often attracts moral scrutiny. Inspired by Merleau-Ponty's notion of consciousness as embodied and de Beauvoir's ideas concerning women's situation, we argue that bodily as well as socio-cultural aspects intertwine with women's choice of surgery as a means of losing weight. Although society's stigmatization of women with obesity has been well challenged by scholars in the field of critical fat studies, women with obesity still experience the bodily hindrances associated with being overweight in an intense and subjective way. The findings suggest that women confronting the option of WLS do so in a context of pain, dysfunction and social stigma, a combination which illuminates the intricate ambiguity of the obese body as both subject (of agency) and object (of moral and medical scrutiny).

  20. Research and implementation of comprehensive situation sub-system in simulation platform of multiple UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Siliang; Huang, Siniu; Chen, Zongji

    2006-11-01

    Cooperative formation flight of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) becomes an attractive research field in recent years. The Simulation Platform of Multiple UAVs is a distributed interactive simulation environment based on High Level Architecture (HLA), which provides a universal simulation platform for the research of multiple UAVs, such as cooperative control, formation flight, mission planning, etc. The platform is composed of several nodes: Mission Control Station (MCS), Formation Control Unit (FCU), UAV Platform, Comprehensive Situation Display, 3-Dimension Display and Simulation Management. As an integral part of the simulation platform, the comprehensive situation sub-system monitors the geography environment and the situation of entities in the simulation. The sub-system is integrated into several nodes of the simulation platform: MCS, FCU and 2-Dimention Situation Display, etc. Considering generalized method and component-based rule, we design and implement comprehensive situation sub-system as well as supporting tool kits. It includes digital map walkthrough environment, map editor with Digital Elevation Model (DEM), bitmap creator, network communication module, situation display module and scenario editor module. Digital map walkthrough environment is a Geographic Information System (GIS) with specific functions, including multiple windows display, map walkthrough and data management. Map editor and bitmap creator create different type of digital map, which is suited for demands of the simulation, and generate terrain data for the UAVs to execute route planning based on DEM. Situation display module displays the situation information of entities in the simulation dynamically and timely. The system is developed without commercial GIS components, and integrated into the environment smoothly.

  1. USAF Academy Center for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearborn, M.; Chun, F.; Liu, J.; Tippets, R.

    2011-09-01

    Since the days of Sputnik, the Air Force has maintained the surveillance of space and a position catalog of objects that can be tracked by primarily ground-based radars and optical systems. Recent events in space such as the test of the Chinese anti-satellite weapon in 2007 and the collision between an Iridium and Russian Cosmo satellite have demonstrated the great need to have a more comprehensive awareness of the situation in space. Hence space situational awareness (SSA) has become an increasingly important mission to the Air Force and to the security of the United States. To help meet the need for future leaders knowledgeable about SSA, the Air Force Academy formally stood up the Center for Space Situational Awareness (CSSAR). The goal of the CSSAR is to provide a unique combination of educational operational experience as well as a world-class research capability for hands-on education in SSA. In order to meet this goal, the CSSAR is implementing an array of sensors, operations center, and associated software, and analysis tools. For example we have radar receivers for bi-static returns from the VHF space fence, a network of small aperture telescopes, AFSPC astro standards software, and Joint Mission System software. This paper focuses on the observational capabilities of our telescopes. In general, the preferable method for characterizing a satellite is to obtain a high-resolution image. However, high-resolution images from groundbased telescopes are only achievable if the satellite is large and close in range. Thus small satellites in low-earth orbits and large satellites in geosynchronous orbits are essentially unresolved in the focal plane of a ground-based telescope. Building ever larger telescopes capable of tracking fast enough for satellites at high resolution requires tremendous resources and funding. Cost is one of the reasons we decided to develop a network of small, commercially available telescopes spatially diverse and networked together. We call

  2. The Challenge of Aviation Emergency and Abnormal Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Barshi, Immanuel; Dismukes, Key

    2005-01-01

    Emergency and abnormal situations occur on flights everyday around the world. They range from minor situations readily managed to extremely serious and highly time-critical situations that deeply challenge the skills of even the most effective crews. How well crews respond to these situations is a function of several interacting sets of issues: (1) the design of non-normal procedures and checklists, (2) design of aircraft systems and automation, (3) specific aspects of the non-normal situation, such as time criticality and complexity of the situation, (4) human performance capabilities and cognitive limitations under high workload and stress, (5) design of training for non-normal situations, (6) philosophies, policies and practices within the industry, and (7) economic and regulatory constraints. Researchers and pilots working on NASA's Emergency and Abnormal Situations project are addressing these issues in a long-range study. In this paper we discuss these issues and illustrate them with examples from recent incidents and accidents.

  3. Variation in actual relationship as a consequence of Mendelian sampling and linkage

    PubMed Central

    HILL, W.G.; WEIR, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although the expected relationship or proportion of genome shared by pairs of relatives can be obtained from their pedigrees, the actual quantities deviate as a consequence of Mendelian sampling and depend on the number of chromosomes and map length. Formulae have been published previously for the variance of actual relationship for a number of specific types of relatives but no general formula for non-inbred individuals is available. We provide here a unified framework that enables the variances for distant relatives to be easily computed, showing, for example, how the variance of sharing for great grandparent–great grandchild, great uncle–great nephew, half uncle–nephew and first cousins differ, even though they have the same expected relationship. Results are extended in order to include differences in map length between sexes, no recombination in males and sex linkage. We derive the magnitude of skew in the proportion shared, showing the skew becomes increasingly large the more distant the relationship. The results obtained for variation in actual relationship apply directly to the variation in actual inbreeding as both are functions of genomic coancestry, and we show how to partition the variation in actual inbreeding between and within families. Although the variance of actual relationship falls as individuals become more distant, its coefficient of variation rises, and so, exacerbated by the skewness, it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish different pedigree relationships from the actual fraction of the genome shared. PMID:21226974

  4. Neuroimmunomodulation by nutrition in stress situations.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Javier; Warnberg, Julia; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Díaz, Ligia Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión

    2008-01-01

    Stress has long been suspected to play a role in the etiology of many diseases and may be detrimental to health. Nowadays, the communication between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems is well established and there is enough evidence that the magnitude of stress-associated immune dysregulation is large enough to have health implications. In stress conditions, modulation of the immune system by the central nervous system (CNS) is mediated by a complex network of signals, showing a relationship between stress and resistance to infection. On the other hand, an adequate balanced diet plays a crucial role in the management of stress, and nutrition seems to be a critical determinant in the interactions among CNS and the immune system under stress conditions. Thus, interactions among nutrition, CNS and the immune system could be a key to understand implications in physiological stress situations. The present article will briefly review nutrition approaches on stress-related immune response and CNS communication.

  5. Environmental situation in the Republic of Armenia

    SciTech Connect

    Sanasarian, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the environmental situation in Armenia with particular reference to (1) air, water, and soil pollution; (2) common and photochemical smog in the capital city, Yerevan, and other major cities; (3) household and industrial waste; (4) distribution of contaminated food imported from regions affected by the Chernobyl accident; (5) wasteful depletion of natural resources; (6) lack of a continuous monitoring of the environment and the public health; (7) absence of filtering equipment, and; (8) the extinction of plant and animal species. Armenia is currently living under an economic blockade which makes even elementary environmental protection projects such as water treatment difficult to accomplish. Even more important, the blockade may force the opening of the Armenian nuclear reactors at Medzamor leading to questions such as waste management. Medzamor was closed after the 1988 earthquake because it is located on a fault line.

  6. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  7. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  8. Infrared Imaging Sharpens View in Critical Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Innovative Engineering and Consulting (IEC) Infrared Systems, a leading developer of thermal imaging systems and night vision equipment, received a Glenn Alliance for Technology Exchange (GATE) award, half of which was in the form of additional NASA assistance for new product development. IEC Infrared Systems worked with electrical and optical engineers from Glenn's Diagnostics and Data Systems Branch to develop a commercial infrared imaging system that could differentiate the intensity of heat sources better than other commercial systems. The research resulted in two major thermal imaging solutions: NightStalkIR and IntrudIR Alert. These systems are being used in the United States and abroad to help locate personnel stranded in emergency situations, defend soldiers on the battlefield abroad, and protect high-value facilities and operations. The company is also applying its advanced thermal imaging techniques to medical and pharmaceutical product development with a Cleveland-based pharmaceutical company.

  9. Cockpit System Situational Awareness Modeling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John; Lebiere, Christian; Shay, Rick; Latorella, Kara

    2004-01-01

    This project explored the possibility of predicting pilot situational awareness (SA) using human performance modeling techniques for the purpose of evaluating developing cockpit systems. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) was combined with the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive modeling architecture to produce a tool that can model both the discrete tasks of pilots and the cognitive processes associated with SA. The techniques for using this tool to predict SA were demonstrated using the newly developed Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) system. By providing an SA prediction tool to cockpit system designers, cockpit concepts can be assessed early in the design process while providing a cost-effective complement to the traditional pilot-in-the-loop experiments and data collection techniques.

  10. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    SciTech Connect

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  11. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  12. Automated situation clustering of home photos for digital albuming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungji; Kim, Sang Kyun; Ro, Yong Man

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose automatic situation clustering method for digital photo album. A group of photos having the same situation could have similar visual semantics. In this paper, visual semantic hints of photo are proposed and used to cluster situations. Experiments were performed with 2345 photos and results showed that the proposed clustering with the visual semantic hints was useful for automated situation clustering based on human perception.

  13. Automated situation clustering of home photos for digital albuming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungji; Kim, Sang Kyun; Ro, Yong Man

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we propose automatic situation clustering method for digital photo album. A group of photos having the same situation could have similar visual semantics. In this paper, visual semantic hints of photo are proposed and used to cluster situations. Experiments were performed with 2345 photos and results showed that the proposed clustering with the visual semantic hints was useful for automated situation clustering based on human perception.

  14. In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children's Donating to Charity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pannebakker, Fieke; Out, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation-specific. Genetic make-up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across…

  15. Corps de la Paix Tunisie: Cours de situation (Peace Corps Tunisia: Situation Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps (Tunisia).

    This guide, entirely in French, is designed for language training of Peace Corps workers in Tunisia and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 25 theme-based lessons, each containing a situational dialogue, vocabulary, and exercises. The exercises focus more on new vocabulary and its usage than on systematic grammar…

  16. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  17. Arithmetic Word Problem Solving: A Situation Strategy First Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brissiaud, Remi; Sander, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Before instruction, children solve many arithmetic word problems with informal strategies based on the situation described in the problem. A Situation Strategy First framework is introduced that posits that initial representation of the problem activates a situation-based strategy even after instruction: only when it is not efficient for providing…

  18. Biosurveillance Technology: Providing Situational Awareness through Increased Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited BIOSURVEILLANCE ...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biosurveillance Technology: Providing Situational Awareness through...create better situational awareness and a common operating picture. 14. SUBJECT TERMS public health, information sharing, biosurveillance , situational

  19. Children's Comprehension Monitoring of Multiple Situational Dimensions of a Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; Beker, Katinka; van den Broek, Paul; van der Schoot, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Narratives typically consist of information on multiple aspects of a situation. In order to successfully create a coherent representation of the described situation, readers are required to monitor all these situational dimensions during reading. However, little is known about whether these dimensions differ in the ease with which they can be…

  20. Situational Knowledge in Physics: The Case of Electrodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; de Jong, Ton; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates how situational knowledge differs across individuals of different competence levels. Analyzes participants' descriptions of physics problem situations. Discusses the relationship between competence and the structure of problem situations, differences between experts and novices, and implications for teaching. (Author/KHR)

  1. Escape Behavior in Task Situations: Task versus Social Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jill C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four students (ages 4-6) with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to high intensity and low intensity social interaction in a play situation and a task situation. Interaction intensity made no difference in students' behavior. Two students exhibited task avoidance and two exhibited…

  2. Situation selection is a particularly effective emotion regulation strategy for people who need help regulating their emotions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Lindquist, Kristen A; Jones, Katelyn; Avishai, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-03-01

    Situation selection involves choosing situations based on their likely emotional impact and may be less cognitively taxing or challenging to implement compared to other strategies for regulating emotion, which require people to regulate their emotions "in the moment"; we thus predicted that individuals who chronically experience intense emotions or who are not particularly competent at employing other emotion regulation strategies would be especially likely to benefit from situation selection. Consistent with this idea, we found that the use of situation selection interacted with individual differences in emotional reactivity and competence at emotion regulation to predict emotional outcomes in both a correlational (Study 1; N = 301) and an experimental field study (Study 2; N = 125). Taken together, the findings suggest that situation selection is an effective strategy for regulating emotions, especially for individuals who otherwise struggle to do so.

  3. How much time do drivers need to obtain situation awareness? A laboratory-based study of automated driving.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenji; Coster, Xander; de Winter, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle. Results showed that the longer the video length, the lower the absolute error of the number of placed cars, the lower the total distance error between the placed cars and actual cars, and the lower the geometric difference between the placed cars and the actual cars. These effects appeared to be saturated at video lengths of 7-12 s. The total speed error between placed and actual cars also reduced with video length, but showed no saturation up to 20 s. Glance frequencies to the mirrors decreased with observation time, which is consistent with the notion that participants first estimated the spatial pattern of cars after which they directed their attention to individual cars. In conclusion, observers are able to reproduce the layout of a situation quickly, but the assessment of relative speeds takes 20 s or more.

  4. Live ECG readings using Google Glass in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Roger; Salamin, Fanny; Jimenez Del Toro, Oscar Alfonso; Atzori, Manfredo; Muller, Henning; Widmer, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Most sudden cardiac problems require rapid treatment to preserve life. In this regard, electrocardiograms (ECG) shown on vital parameter monitoring systems help medical staff to detect problems. In some situations, such monitoring systems may display information in a less than convenient way for medical staff. For example, vital parameters are displayed on large screens outside the field of view of a surgeon during cardiac surgery. This may lead to losing time and to mistakes when problems occur during cardiac operations. In this paper we present a novel approach to display vital parameters such as the second derivative of the ECG rhythm and heart rate close to the field of view of a surgeon using Google Glass. As a preliminary assessment, we run an experimental study to verify the possibility for medical staff to identify abnormal ECG rhythms from Google Glass. This study compares 6 ECG rhythms readings from a 13.3 inch laptop screen and from the prism of Google Glass. Seven medical residents in internal medicine participated in the study. The preliminary results show that there is no difference between identifying these 6 ECG rhythms from the laptop screen versus Google Glass. Both allow close to perfect identification of the 6 common ECG rhythms. This shows the potential of connected glasses such as Google Glass to be useful in selected medical applications.

  5. "On the job" learning: A bioinformatics course incorporating undergraduates in actual research projects and manuscript submissions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason T; Harris, Justine C; Lopez, Oscar J; Valverde, Laura; Borchert, Glen M

    2015-01-01

    The sequencing of whole genomes and the analysis of genetic information continues to fundamentally change biological and medical research. Unfortunately, the people best suited to interpret this data (biologically trained researchers) are commonly discouraged by their own perceived computational limitations. To address this, we developed a course to help alleviate this constraint. Remarkably, in addition to equipping our undergraduates with an informatic toolset, we found our course design helped prepare our students for collaborative research careers in unexpected ways. Instead of simply offering a traditional lecture- or laboratory-based course, we chose a guided inquiry method, where an instructor-selected research question is examined by students in a collaborative analysis with students contributing to experimental design, data collection, and manuscript reporting. While students learn the skills needed to conduct bioinformatic research throughout all sections of the course, importantly, students also gain experience in working as a team and develop important communication skills through working with their partner and the class as a whole, and by contributing to an original research article. Remarkably, in its first three semesters, this novel computational genetics course has generated 45 undergraduate authorships across three peer-reviewed articles. More importantly, the students that took this course acquired a positive research experience, newfound informatics technical proficiency, unprecedented familiarity with manuscript preparation, and an earned sense of achievement. Although this course deals with analyses of genetic systems, we suggest the basic concept of integrating actual research projects into a 16-week undergraduate course could be applied to numerous other research-active academic fields.

  6. PREFACE: XVI International Youth Scientific School 'Actual Problems of Magnetic Resonance and its Applications'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salakhov, M. Kh; Tagirov, M. S.; Dooglav, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    In 1997, A S Borovik-Romanov, the Academician of RAS, and A V Aganov, the head of the Physics Department of Kazan State University, suggested that the 'School of Magnetic Resonance', well known in the Soviet Union, should recommence and be regularly held in Kazan. This school was created in 1968 by G V Scrotskii, the prominent scientist in the field of magnetic resonance and the editor of many famous books on magnetic resonance (authored by A Abragam, B. Bleaney, C. Slichter, and many others) translated and edited in the Soviet Union. In 1991 the last, the 12th School, was held under the supervision of G V Scrotskii. Since 1997, more than 600 young scientists, 'schoolboys', have taken part in the School meetings, made their oral reports and participated in heated discussions. Every year a competition among the young scientist takes place and the Program Committee members name the best reports, the authors of which are invited to prepare full-scale scientific papers. The XVI International Youth Scientific School 'Actual problems of the magnetic resonance and its application' in its themes is slightly different from previous ones. A new section has been opened this year: Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on optical research, many of the reports are devoted to the implementation of nanotechnology in optical studies. The XVI International Youth Scientific School has been supported by the Program of development of Kazan Federal University. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors (BRUKER Ltd, Moscow, the Russian Academy of Science, the Dynasty foundation of Dmitrii Zimin, Russia, Russian Foundation for Basic Research) and all the participants and contributors for making the International School meeting possible and interesting. A V Dooglav, M Kh Salakhov and M S Tagirov The Editors

  7. Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields for switchgrass strains using NIRS analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes such as simultanteous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) requires expensive, complex fermentation assays and extensive compositional analyses of the biomass sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS...

  8. Prediction of Self-Actualization in Male Participants in a Group Conducted by Female Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to predict which male Ss (high or low authoritarian personality) would reflect higher self-actualization scores when exposed to a 16-hour marathon group conducted by female leaders. (Author/RK)

  9. Effect of Supervisor Actually Writing Performance Reports, Sex, and Communication between Workers on Organizational Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    SUPERVISOR ACTUALLY WRITING PERFORMANCE AU-APIT-LS Technical REPORTS, SEX, AND COMUNICATION BETWEEN WORKERS Report ON ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS 6...Technolcy (ATC Interpersonal comunication flterwfl A L 4.... Supervisory performance evalaution 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide It necesry and

  10. FAWKES Information Management for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetka, S.; Ramseyer, G.; Tucker, S.

    2010-09-01

    Current space situational awareness assets can be fully utilized by managing their inputs and outputs in real time. Ideally, sensors are tasked to perform specific functions to maximize their effectiveness. Many sensors are capable of collecting more data than is needed for a particular purpose, leading to the potential to enhance a sensor’s utilization by allowing it to be re-tasked in real time when it is determined that sufficient data has been acquired to meet the first task’s requirements. In addition, understanding a situation involving fast-traveling objects in space may require inputs from more than one sensor, leading to a need for information sharing in real time. Observations that are not processed in real time may be archived to support forensic analysis for accidents and for long-term studies. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) requires an extremely robust distributed software platform to appropriately manage the collection and distribution for both real-time decision-making as well as for analysis. FAWKES is being developed as a Joint Space Operations Center (JSPOC) Mission System (JMS) compliant implementation of the AFRL Phoenix information management architecture. It implements a pub/sub/archive/query (PSAQ) approach to communications designed for high performance applications. FAWKES provides an easy to use, reliable interface for structuring parallel processing, and is particularly well suited to the requirements of SSA. In addition to supporting point-to-point communications, it offers an elegant and robust implementation of collective communications, to scatter, gather and reduce values. A query capability is also supported that enhances reliability. Archived messages can be queried to re-create a computation or to selectively retrieve previous publications. PSAQ processes express their role in a computation by subscribing to their inputs and by publishing their results. Sensors on the edge can subscribe to inputs by appropriately authorized

  11. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The City of Hamburg is characterized by a large number of greens, parks and roadside trees: 600.000 trees cover about 14% of the city area, and moreover, 245.000 roadside trees can be found here. Urban vegetation is generally known to positively contribute to the urban micro-climate via cooling by evapotranspiration (ET). The water for ET is predominantly stored in the urban soils. Hence, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is - beside atmospheric drivers - determined by soil water availability at the soil surface and in the rooting zones of the respective vegetation. The overall aim of this study is to characterize soil water availability as a regulative factor for ETa in urban soil-vegetation systems. The specific questions addressed are: i) What is the spatio-temporal variation in soil water availability at the study sites? ii) Which soil depths are predominantly used for water uptake by the vegetation forms investigated? and iii) Which are the threshold values of soil water tension and soil water content (Θ), respectively, that limit ETa under dry conditions on both grass-dominated and tree-dominated sites? Three study areas were established in the urban region of Hamburg, Germany. We selected areas featuring both single tree stands and grass-dominated sites, both representing typical vegetation forms in Hamburg. The areas are characterized by relatively dry soil conditions. However, they differ in regard to soil water availability. At each area we selected one site dominated by Common Oak (Quercus ruber L.) with ages from 40 to 120 years, and paired each oak tree site with a neighboring grass-dominated site. All field measurements were performed during the years 2013 and 2014. At each site, we continuously measured soil water tension and Θ up to 160 cm depth, and xylem sap flux of each of three oak trees per site in a 15 min-resolution. Furthermore, we measured soil hydraulic properties as pF-curve, saturated and unsaturated conductivity at all sites

  12. An Analysis of Reenlistment Intention and Actual Reenlistment of Army Male Second-Term Enlisted Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    satisfaction with work environment , and satisfaction with pecuniary benefits. The result indicates that there were significant differences in the factors...affecting the intended and actual reenlistment decisions. Black, YOS, Medical, Probability of Alternative, Satisfaction with Work Environment , and...Satisfaction with Pecuniary Benefits were significant in explaining intentions while Single/Wo/Dep., Married/Wo/Dep., YOS, Admin/Supply, and Satisfaction with Work Environment were significant in explaining actual reenlistment.

  13. Comparison of Intent-to-Leave with Actual Turnover within the FAA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Incentives for early retirement (e.g., “buy-outs”) were offered in 1997 throughout the federal government as part of the shrinking of the federal...workforce under the Clinton administration (National Performance Review, 1993). It is possible that incentives for early retirement inflated the expressed...buy-out” as the primary reason. The FAA did not offer incentives for early retirement in 2000 through 2004. Actual turnover The actual turnover rate

  14. Interpersonal Privacy Management in Distributed Collaboration: Situational Characteristics and Interpretive Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sameer; Kobsa, Alfred; John, Ajita; Brotman, Lynne S.; Seligmann, Doree

    To understand how collaborators reconcile the often conflicting needs of awareness and privacy, we studied a large software development project in a multinational corporation involving individuals at sites in the U.S. and India. We present a theoretical framework describing privacy management practices and their determinants that emerged from field visits, interviews, and questionnaire responses. The framework identifies five relevant situational characteristics: issue(s) under consideration, physical place(s) involved in interaction(s), temporal aspects, affordances and limitations presented by technology, and nature of relationships among parties. Each actor, in turn, interprets the situation based on several simultaneous influences: self, team, work site, organization, and cultural environment. This interpretation guides privacy management action(s). Past actions form a feedback loop refining and/or reinforcing the interpretive influences. The framework suggests that effective support for privacy management will require that designers follow a socio-technical approach incorporating a wider scope of situational and interpretive differences.

  15. Shaping social situations: A hidden aspect of care work in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Fjaer, Eivind Grip; Vabø, Mia

    2013-12-01

    A significant aspect of care work in nursing homes involves dealing with emotional responses such as anxiety, fear, pain, depression and anger on the part of residents and their families. Previous care and nursing research on this topic centers around dyadic relationships and does not provide useful conceptualizations of how care workers actively deal with the social situations they encounter as part of their work. Drawing on ethnographic field work and interviews conducted in two Norwegian nursing homes, this article aims to describe and conceptualize a previously neglected aspect of good care work: the active shaping of social situations in order to lessen uneasy feelings of residents and their families. Three episodes of good work are described to illustrate how social situations can be shaped. Strategies include such actions as timing events, regulating one's presence, and composing social groups. The concluding section discusses some implications for nursing home management.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Situational Awareness Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.; Davison, H. J.; Burdick, M. D.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of effort has been invested in attempts to define situational awareness, and subsequently to measure this construct. However, relatively less work has focused on the sensitivity of these measures to manipulations that affect the SA of the pilot. This investigation was designed to manipulate SA and examine the sensitivity of commonly used measures of SA. In this experiment, we tested the most commonly accepted measures of SA: SAGAT, objective performance measures, and SART, against different levels of SA manipulation to determine the sensitivity of such measures in the rotorcraft flight environment. SAGAT is a measure in which the simulation blanks in the middle of a trial and the pilot is asked specific, situation-relevant questions about the state of the aircraft or the objective of a particular maneuver. In this experiment, after the pilot responded verbally to several questions, the trial continued from the point frozen. SART is a post-trial questionnaire that asked for subjective SA ratings from the pilot at certain points in the previous flight. The objective performance measures included: contacts with hazards (power lines and towers) that impeded the flight path, lateral and vertical anticipation of these hazards, response time to detection of other air traffic, and response time until an aberrant fuel gauge was detected. An SA manipulation of the flight environment was chosen that undisputedly affects a pilot's SA-- visibility. Four variations of weather conditions (clear, light rain, haze, and fog) resulted in a different level of visibility for each trial. Pilot SA was measured by either SAGAT or the objective performance measures within each level of visibility. This enabled us to not only determine the sensitivity within a measure, but also between the measures. The SART questionnaire and the NASA-TLX, a measure of workload, were distributed after every trial. Using the newly developed rotorcraft part-task laboratory (RPTL) at NASA Ames

  17. FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

  18. Mismatch Receptive Fields in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zmarz, Pawel; Keller, Georg B

    2016-11-23

    In primary visual cortex, a subset of neurons responds when a particular stimulus is encountered in a certain location in visual space. This activity can be modeled using a visual receptive field. In addition to visually driven activity, there are neurons in visual cortex that integrate visual and motor-related input to signal a mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow. Here we show that these mismatch neurons have receptive fields and signal a local mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow in restricted regions of visual space. These mismatch receptive fields are aligned to the retinotopic map of visual cortex and are similar in size to visual receptive fields. Thus, neurons with mismatch receptive fields signal local deviations of actual visual flow from visual flow predicted based on self-motion and could therefore underlie the detection of objects moving relative to the visual flow caused by self-motion. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  19. Understanding extraverts' enjoyment of social situations: the importance of pleasantness.

    PubMed

    Lucas, R E; Diener, E

    2001-08-01

    Extraversion is a broad, multifaceted trait, yet researchers are still unsure of its defining characteristics. One possibility is that the essential feature of extraversion is the tendency to enjoy social situations. An alternative possibility is that extraversion represents sensitivity to rewards and the tendency to experience pleasant affect. In three studies, participants rated situations that varied on two dimensions: (a) whether they were social or nonsocial and (b) whether they were very pleasant, moderately pleasant, moderately unpleasant, or very unpleasant. Extraverts only rated social situations more positively than introverts did when the situations were pleasant, and extraverts also rated nonsocial situations more positively than introverts did if the situations were pleasant. Thus, the pleasantness of situations was more important than whether they were social or nonsocial in determining extraverts' and introverts' enjoyment.

  20. Reinvigorating the concept of situation in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Reis, Harry T

    2008-11-01

    The concept of situation has a long and venerable history in social psychology. The author argues that recent approaches to the concept of situation have confused certain important elements. Herein, the author proposes that attention to three of these elements will reinvigorate the concept of situation in social psychology: (a) that the analysis of situations should begin with their objective features; (b) that situations should be conceptualized as affordances; and (c) that the interpersonal core of situations, in particular the extent to which they are influenced by relationships, is the proper and most profitable focus for social psychology. These elements are consistent with recent developments in the study of situated social cognition and may help better define social psychology's position within the sciences.

  1. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  2. The field worker's fields: ethics, ethnography and medical sociology.

    PubMed

    Anspach, Renée R; Mizrachi, Nissim

    2006-09-01

    Sociologists who do field work in medical settings face an intractable tension between their disciplinary field, which takes a critical perspective toward medicine, and their ethnographic field, which often includes physicians. This paper explores the ethical problems that result from the collision of the two fields. While in the field, ethnographers are forced to choose between sociology and their obligations to host members, as they decide whether to disclose their actual research agendas, whether to ask tough questions or to reveal their concerns, and whether to give advice. The tension persists when field workers leave the field to write, forcing them to choose between competing interpretations and to decide what to reveal or conceal in the interests of confidentiality. Through these moral choices about what to ask, record or present to the reader, ethnographers shape the academic field even as it shapes them.

  3. Correlation of parents' religious behavior with family's emotional relations and students' self-actualization.

    PubMed

    Poorsheikhali, Fatemah; Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the relationship between parents' religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and self-actualization of male and female high school students of district 2 in Kerman city. Research method is descriptive and of correlative type. Questionnaires of parent's religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and students' self-actualization were used in the research. After collecting questionnaires, data were analyzed by SPSS, MINITAB, and EXCEL software. The sample volume in the research has been 309 students and their parents, and the sampling method was in the form of classification and then in the form of cluster in two stages. 1.29 % of students had a low self-actualization, 17.15 % had average, and 81.55 % of them had high self-actualization. Also the results showed that 9.4 % of emotional relations in families were undesirable, 55.3 % were relatively desirable, and 35.3 % were desirable. Moreover, 2.27 % of parents' religious behavior was inappropriate, 29.13 % was relatively appropriate, and 68.61 % was appropriate. The main results of the research are as follows: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between parents' religious behavior and emotional relations inside students' family. (2) There is not any significant correlational between parents' religious behavior and students' self-actualization. (3) There is a significant positive correlation between emotional relations inside family and students' self-actualization.

  4. From preferred to actual mate characteristics: the case of human body shape.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Picq, Sandrine; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-09-27

    The way individuals pair to produce reproductive units is a major factor determining evolution. This process is complex because it is determined not only by individual mating preferences, but also by numerous other factors such as competition between mates. Consequently, preferred and actual characteristics of mates obtained should differ, but this has rarely been addressed. We simultaneously measured mating preferences for stature, body mass, and body mass index, and recorded corresponding actual partner's characteristics for 116 human couples from France. Results show that preferred and actual partner's characteristics differ for male judges, but not for females. In addition, while the correlation between all preferred and actual partner's characteristics appeared to be weak for female judges, it was strong for males: while men prefer women slimmer than their actual partner, those who prefer the slimmest women also have partners who are slimmer than average. This study therefore suggests that the influences of preferences on pair formation can be sex-specific. It also illustrates that this process can lead to unexpected results on the real influences of mating preferences: traits considered as highly influencing attractiveness do not necessarily have a strong influence on the actual pairing, the reverse being also possible.

  5. Working with the nature of science in physics class: turning ‘ordinary’ classroom situations into nature of science learning situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Lena; Leden, Lotta

    2016-09-01

    In the science education research field there is a large body of literature on the ‘nature of science’ (NOS). NOS captures issues about what characterizes the research process as well as the scientific knowledge. Here we, in line with a broad body of literature, use a wide definition of NOS including also e.g. socio-cultural aspects. It is argued that NOS issues, for a number of reasons, should be included in the teaching of science/physics. Research shows that NOS should be taught explicitly. There are plenty of suggestions on specific and separate NOS activities, but the necessity of discussing NOS issues in connection to specific science/physics content and to laboratory work, is also highlighted. In this article we draw on this body of literature on NOS and science teaching, and discuss how classroom situations in secondary physics classes could be turned into NOS-learning situations. The discussed situations have been suggested by secondary teachers, during in-service teacher training, as situations from every-day physics teaching, from which NOS could be highlighted.

  6. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  7. Improving Reading in Culturally Situated Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Maria; Lancaster, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article explores second year pre-service teachers' ability to work with Indigenous students and their families during a small-scale project conducted in an Indigenous community. Supported field placements offered the pre-service teachers valuable opportunities to engage with the teaching of reading to Indigenous students "on their…

  8. [The epidemic situation with malaria in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A; Morozova, K V; Medalieva, D O

    2000-01-01

    As a result of comprehensive research on the causative agents and vectors of malaria and wide use of synthetic antimalarials and highly effective residual insecticides, endemic malaria was eliminated in Turkmenistan by 1960. During the period 1965-1980, 23 local cases of malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. These local cases were confined to the regions of Mary and Akhal, on the borders of neighbouring countries. In 1998 the epidemiological situation in the country worsened and local transmission of infection resumed. During the year the number of cases recorded was 137:134 being a first diagnosis of the disease and three being relapsed cases. In comparison with 1997, the previous year, incidence was up by 123 cases (a 9.7-fold increase), while the incidence of imported cases of malaria went up by 11 (a 2.2-fold increase), principally in Dashkhovuz and Lebar regions, being brought in from malaria foci in Gushgin district, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Tadjikistan. Local transmission of malaria went up by 111 cases (a 27.7 fold increase); 108 cases were recorded in Gushgin district, Mary region. The first case of malaria in Gushkin district was detected in June 1998. At that time there were five active foci. The approximate number of inhabitants in the active focus area was 10,000. The appearance of local malaria in border districts was caused by the periodic influx of infected mosquitos from neighbouring countries (Afghanistan).

  9. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  10. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  11. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension. PMID:28298894

  12. [Situation analysis for drug clinical trial institutions].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Ying; Wu, Ping; Wang, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Drug clinical trial is an important link in the chain of new drug research and development. The results of drug discovery and development directly depend on the extent of standardization of clinical trials. Therefore, improving the quality of drug clinical trials is of great importance, and drug clinical trial institutions play a crucial role in the quality management of drug clinical trials. After years of development, the overall level of drug clinical trials has advanced rapidly in China, and a large number of clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine have also been carried out. However, there is still a big gap between our country and developed countries. Therefore, for the construction and management of Chinese drug clinical trial institutions, there is still a long way to go. This study aims to analyze the current development of drug clinical trial institutions in China and explore the existing problems from three aspects, including current situations of institutional organization and management, regional and professional distributions, and quality control. And some suggestions are put forward finally, including support of traditional Chinese medicine, introduction of drug-risk management system, and construction of information management.

  13. Fusion metrics for dynamic situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Pribilski, Mike; Daughtery, Bryan; Roscoe, Brian; Gunsett, Josh

    2004-08-01

    To design information fusion systems, it is important to develop metrics as part of a test and evaluation strategy. In many cases, fusion systems are designed to (1) meet a specific set of user information needs (IN), (2) continuously validate information pedigree and updates, and (3) maintain this performance under changing conditions. A fusion system"s performance is evaluated in many ways. However, developing a consistent set of metrics is important for standardization. For example, many track and identification metrics have been proposed for fusion analysis. To evaluate a complete fusion system performance, level 4 sensor management and level 5 user refinement metrics need to be developed simultaneously to determine whether or not the fusion system is meeting information needs. To describe fusion performance, the fusion community needs to agree on a minimum set of metrics for user assessment and algorithm comparison. We suggest that such a minimum set should include feasible metrics of accuracy, confidence, throughput, timeliness, and cost. These metrics can be computed as confidence (probability), accuracy (error), timeliness (delay), throughput (amount) and cost (dollars). In this paper, we explore an aggregate set of metrics for fusion evaluation and demonstrate with information need metrics for dynamic situation analysis.

  14. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  15. Cyber situational awareness and differential hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Tebben, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The advent of cyber threats has created a need for a new network planning, design, architecture, operations, control, situational awareness, management, and maintenance paradigms. Primary considerations include the ability to assess cyber attack resiliency of the network, and rapidly detect, isolate, and operate during deliberate simultaneous attacks against the network nodes and links. Legacy network planning relied on automatic protection of a network in the event of a single fault or a very few simultaneous faults in mesh networks, but in the future it must be augmented to include improved network resiliency and vulnerability awareness to cyber attacks. Ability to design a resilient network requires the development of methods to define, and quantify the network resiliency to attacks, and to be able to develop new optimization strategies for maintaining operations in the midst of these newly emerging cyber threats. Ways to quantify resiliency, and its use in visualizing cyber vulnerability awareness and in identifying node or link criticality, are presented in the current work, as well as a methodology of differential network hardening based on the criticality profile of cyber network components.

  16. Aggressive situational cues among Israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.

  17. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations.

    PubMed

    Caughron, Jay J; Antes, Alison L; Stenmark, Cheryl K; Thiel, Chaise E; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor's relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor.

  18. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations

    PubMed Central

    Caughron, Jay J.; Antes, Alison L.; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Thiel, Chaise E.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor’s relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor. PMID:26778850

  19. Enabling GEODSS for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, S.

    2016-09-01

    The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) System has been in operation since the mid-1980's. While GEODSS has been the Space Surveillance Network's (SSN's) workhorse in terms of deep space surveillance, it has not undergone a significant modernization since the 1990's. This means GEODSS continues to operate under a mostly obsolete, legacy data processing baseline. The System Program Office (SPO) responsible for GEODSS, SMC/SYGO, has a number of advanced Space Situational Awareness (SSA)-related efforts in progress, in the form of innovative optical capabilities, data processing algorithms, and hardware upgrades. Each of these efforts is in various stages of evaluation and acquisition. These advanced capabilities rely upon a modern computing environment in which to integrate, but GEODSS does not have one—yet. The SPO is also executing a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) to modernize the various subsystems within GEODSS, along with a parallel effort to implement a complete, modern software re-architecture. The goal is to use a modern, service-based architecture to provide expedient integration as well as easier and more sustainable expansion. This presentation will describe these modernization efforts in more detail and discuss how adopting such modern paradigms and practices will help ensure the GEODSS system remains relevant and sustainable far beyond 2027.

  20. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations.

    PubMed

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-05-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigated cultural differences in children's responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focused on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that 4- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and did not apply to physical pain. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1a and showed that individual differences in parents' level of social interdependence mediated the relationship between cultural group and how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 3 replicated this effect again and showed that children's tendency to recommend seeking social support following ostracism mediated the relationship between cultural group and the perceived pain of being excluded. Finally, Study 4 investigated cultural differences in moral responses to ostracism and showed that children from the farming community punished an individual who ostracized someone else less harshly than did children from the independent herding community. Thus different economic cultures are associated with striking differences in social interdependence and responses to ostracism from early in development. (PsycINFO Database Record