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Sample records for actual flight conditions

  1. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  2. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  3. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  4. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  5. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  6. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  7. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  8. 14 CFR 125.371 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.371 Continuing flight in unsafe conditions. (a) No pilot in command may allow a flight to continue... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing flight in unsafe conditions....

  9. 14 CFR 125.371 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.371 Continuing flight in unsafe conditions. (a) No pilot in command may allow a flight to continue... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuing flight in unsafe conditions....

  10. 14 CFR 125.371 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.371 Continuing flight in unsafe conditions. (a) No pilot in command may allow a flight to continue... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing flight in unsafe conditions....

  11. 14 CFR 125.371 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.371 Continuing flight in unsafe conditions. (a) No pilot in command may allow a flight to continue... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing flight in unsafe conditions....

  12. 14 CFR 125.371 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.371 Continuing flight in unsafe conditions. (a) No pilot in command may allow a flight to continue... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing flight in unsafe conditions....

  13. Alterations in calcium homeostasis and bone during actual and simulated space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal alteration in experimental animals induced by actual and simulated spaceflight are discussed, noting that the main factor contributing to bone loss in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Mechanical unloading is seen as the most obvious cause of bone loss in a state of weightlessness. Reference is made to a study by Roberts et al. (1981), which showed that osteoblast differentiation in the periodontal ligament of the maxilla was suppressed in rats flown in space. Since the maxilla lacks a weight-bearing function, this finding indicates that the skeletal alterations associated with orbital flight may be systemic rather than confined to weight-bearing bones. In addition, the skeletal response to simulated weightlessness may also be systemic (wronski and Morey, 1982). In suspended rats, the hindlimbs lost all weight-bearing functions, while the forelimbs maintained contact with the floor of the hypokinetic model. On this basis, it was to be expected that there would be different responses at the two skeletal sites if the observed abnormalities were due to mechanical unloading alone. The changes induced by simulated weightlessness in the proximal tibia and humerus, however, were generally comparable. This evidence for systemic skeletal responses has drawn attention to endocrine factors.

  14. Temperature histories of commercial flights at severe conditions from GASP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal environment of commercial aircraft from a data set gathered during the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is studied. The data set covers a four-year period of measurements. The report presents plots of airplane location and speed and atmospheric temperature as functions of elapsed time for 35 extreme-condition flights, selected by minimum values of several temperature parameters. One of these parameters, the severity factor, is an approximation of the in-flight wing-tank temperature. Representative low-severity-factor flight histories may be useful for actual temperature-profile inputs to design and research studies. Comparison of the GASP atmospheric temperatures to interpolated temperatures from National Meteorological Center and Global Weather Central analysis fields shows that the analysis temperatures are slightly biased toward warmer than actual temperatures, particularly over oceans and at extreme conditions.

  15. Effective Training for Flight in Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a piloted flight simulator called the Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) was recently completed. This device demonstrates the ability to accurately represent an iced airplane s flight characteristics and is utilized to train pilots in recognizing and recovering from aircraft handling anomalies that result from airframe ice formations. The ICEFTD was demonstrated at three recent short courses hosted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute. It was also demonstrated to a group of pilots at the National Test Pilot School. In total, eighty-four pilots and flight test engineers from industry and the regulatory community spent approximately one hour each in the ICEFTD to get a "hands on" lesson of an iced airplane s reduced performance and handling qualities. Additionally, pilot cues of impending upsets and recovery techniques were demonstrated. The purpose of this training was to help pilots understand how ice contamination affects aircraft handling so they may apply that knowledge to the operations of other aircraft undergoing testing and development. Participant feedback on the ICEFTD was very positive. Pilots stated that the simulation was very valuable, applicable to their occupations, and provided a safe way to explore the flight envelope. Feedback collected at each demonstration was also helpful to define additional improvements to the ICEFTD; many of which were then implemented in subsequent demonstrations.

  16. Digital signal conditioning for flight test instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, Glenn A.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to digital measurement processes on aircraft is provided. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog-intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. The topics include measurements that are digital in origin, as well as sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Examples of data extraction techniques are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Working Conditions: How Predictive of Planned and Actual Teacher Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers' perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools. Based on rich administrative data for North Carolina combined with a 2006 statewide survey administered to all teachers in the state, the study documents that working conditions are…

  18. Impact of Weather and Flight Condition on Secondary Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poling, Hugh W.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the occurrence and acoustic characteristics of secondary booms from HSCT aircraft for varying weather and flight conditions. Temperature and wind conditions allowing secondary booms will be determined. The ground location and acoustic impact of secondary booms for an HSCT aircraft will be estimated.

  19. Flight data recovery under adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, E. J.

    1981-11-01

    Methods for overcoming data loss, including bit dump, bit shift, forward and reverse readout, time displacement compensation (TDC), wideband TDC, and supersynchronization are discussed. Supersynchronization systems recognize acquisition of any one sync word as an in-sync condition and process accordingly. They open a window prior to the end of the subframe which enables the circuit to look for the next sync work up to 8 bits early. A feedback loop enables one shot timing methods to track the average bit rate automatically. A time duration equal to 70.7% of the average bit period is recommended. A digital bit averaging technique, in which the bit decision time is determined by the average of the two previous bits, gives excellent results. With forward and reverse processing, data are processed in the usual way through the engineering conversion process. Valid data, prior to the out of sync area, look normal. The computer then goes to the end of the subframe and processes data from this point backwards toward the sync loss area.

  20. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Meteorological conditions during the summer 1986 CITE 2 flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Bachmeier, A. Scott

    1990-01-01

    An overview of meteorological conditions during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Testing and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 2) summer 1986 flight series is presented. Computer-generated isentropic trajectories are used to trace the history of air masses encountered along each aircraft flight path. The synoptic-scale wind fields are depicted based on Montgomery stream function analyses. Time series of aircraft-measured temperature, dew point, ozone, and altitude are shown to depict air mass variability. Observed differences between maritime tropical and maritime polar air masses are discussed.

  2. Lightning attachment patterns and flight conditions for storm hazards, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Deal, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center Storm Hazards Program, 69 thunderstorm pentrations were made in 1980 with an F-106B airplane in order to record direct strike lightning data and the associated flight conditions. Ground based weather radar measurements in conjunction with these penetrations were made by NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory in Oklahoma and by NASA Wallops Flight Center in Virginia. In 1980, the airplane received 10 direct lightning strikes; in addition, lightning transient data were recorded from 6 nearby flashes. Following each flight, the airplane was thoroughly inspected for evidence of lightning attachment, and the individual lightning attachment points were plotted on isometric projections of the airplane to identify swept flash patterns. This report presents pilot descriptions of the direct strikes to the airplane, shows the strike attachment patterns that were found, and discusses the implications of the patterns with respect to aircraft protection design. The flight conditions are also included. Finally, the lightning strike scenarios for three U.S. Air Force F-106A airplanes which were struck during routine operations are given in the appendix to this paper.

  3. 14 CFR 91.151 - Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel requirements for flight in VFR... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.151 Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions. (a) No person...

  4. The development of seedling shoots under space flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Merkys, A J; Mashinsky, A L; Laurinavichius, R S; Nechitailo, G S; Yaroshius, A V; Izupak, E A

    1975-01-01

    The assumption that gravity is the major factor in the process of formation of plant polar axis was used as a working basis for the experiment. It was hypothesized by Merkys in 1973 that the effect of gravity related to axial polarity is similar to the process which determines the lateral polarity of shoots under the influence of gravity. There are two possibilities: (i) the development and morphogenesis of shoots takes place directly under the influence of gravity, or (ii) this process, at least during the first growth phases, is determined in the course of the germ development in the seed. In accordance with that assumption, the experiment was carried out in 1973. A special system was used for germinating and cultivating "Pioneer" and "Grybovsky rannyj" peas. The duration of the experiment under flight conditions was 48 hours in darkness, at 20 degrees C. The experimental conditions were the following: 1, the experiment in flight; 2, imitation of flight conditions using the horizontal clinostat; 3, vertical clinostat; 4, control (vertical plants). When the system was brought down to earth, the material was fixed and subjected to morphological and biochemical analysis. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusion was drawn: during the first growth phases, the morphogenesis of shoots and roots apparently does not change under flight conditions. This conclusion was confirmed by planting those seedlings under earth conditions; normal plants were obtained whose growth and development were similar to the control seedlings. The problem of the influence of changed gravity, or the lack of it, on the growth and development of plants is discussed. The possible role of gravity on the formation of the polarity axes is also discussed from the point of view of generative development and the determination of some peculiarities of morphogenesis.

  5. Simulating flight boundary conditions for orbiter payload modal survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Y. T.; Sernaker, M. L.; Peebles, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    An approach to simulate the characteristics of the payload/orbiter interfaces for the payload modal survey was developed. The flexure designed for this approach is required to provide adequate stiffness separation in the free and constrained interface degrees of freedom to closely resemble the flight boundary condition. Payloads will behave linearly and demonstrate similar modal effective mass distribution and load path as the flight if the flexure fixture is used for the payload modal survey. The potential non-linearities caused by the trunnion slippage during the conventional fixed base modal survey may be eliminated. Consequently, the effort to correlate the test and analysis models can be significantly reduced. An example is given to illustrate the selection and the sensitivity of the flexure stiffness. The advantages of using flexure fixtures for the modal survey and for the analytical model verification are also demonstrated.

  6. European shags optimize their flight behavior according to wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Yukihisa; Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Aerodynamics results in two characteristic speeds of flying birds: the minimum power speed and the maximum range speed. The minimum power speed requires the lowest rate of energy expenditure per unit time to stay airborne and the maximum range speed maximizes air distance traveled per unit of energy consumed. Therefore, if birds aim to minimize the cost of transport under a range of wind conditions, they are predicted to fly at the maximum range speed. Furthermore, take-off is predicted to be strongly affected by wind speed and direction. To investigate the effect of wind conditions on take-off and cruising flight behavior, we equipped 14 European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis with a back-mounted GPS logger to measure position and hence ground speed, and a neck-mounted accelerometer to record wing beat frequency and strength. Local wind conditions were recorded during the deployment period. Shags always took off into the wind regardless of their intended destination and take-off duration was correlated negatively with wind speed. We combined ground speed and direction during the cruising phase with wind speed and direction to estimate air speed and direction. Whilst ground speed was highly variable, air speed was comparatively stable, although it increased significantly during strong head winds, because of stronger wing beats. The increased air speeds in head winds suggest that birds fly at the maximum range speed, not at the minimum power speed. Our study demonstrates that European shags actively adjust their flight behavior to utilize wind power to minimize the costs of take-off and cruising flight.

  7. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    PubMed

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  8. Flow modeling of actual human nasal cavity for various breathing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Nur Hazwani; Yaakob, Muhammad Syauki; Osman, Kahar; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Abdullah, Wan Kamil Wan; Haron, Juhara

    2012-06-01

    Flow in the human nasal cavity varies when the body is under various physical activities. However, in order to visualize the flow pattern, traditional in-vivo technique may disturb the flow patterns. In this study, computational method was used to model the flow in the nasal cavity under various breathing conditions. Image from CT-Scan was used to mimic the actual cavity geometry. The image was computationally constructed and EFD. Lab was used to predict the flow behavior. Steady incompressible flow was considered for all case studies. The result shows that, for all breathing conditions, vortices were observed in the turbinate region which confirms the turbinate functions as a filter before the flow reaches the olfactory area. Larger vortices were detected when the flow rates were higher. In the olfactory region, the flow velocities were shown to be dramatically dropped to the ideal odorant uptake velocity range for all cases studied. This study had successfully produced visual description of air flow pattern in the nasal cavity.

  9. Color Perception in Microgravity Conditions: The Results of CROMOS Parabolic Flight Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacht, I. L.; Brambillasca, S.; Birke, H.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this research are first to verify the actual difference in color perception between conditions in Earth's (1× g) and parabolic flight's microgravitational conditions (μg) and to improve the methodology used for data collection, testing the CROMOS software for color sensitivity investigation. Additionally this paper seeks to establish a larger awareness of microgravity vision and its design implications in the field of aerospace engineering. The analysis of variations in color perception between microgravity and 1× g can be applied to a range of fields concerning the space habitat (Fig. 1), the design of information (such as safety notices), or in the space station the analysis of chemical and biological reactions based on chromatography (for example, when subtle color variations are used as indicators in histological cell analysis).

  10. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10−11 ~ 10−9 molL−1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  11. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10-11 ~ 10-9 molL-1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  12. Do we know the actual magnetopause position for typical solar wind conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, A. A.; Gordeev, E.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Å afránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Å imůnek, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tóth, G.; Merkin, V. G.; Raeder, J.

    2016-07-01

    We compare predicted magnetopause positions at the subsolar point and four reference points in the terminator plane obtained from several empirical and numerical MHD models. Empirical models using various sets of magnetopause crossings and making different assumptions about the magnetopause shape predict significantly different magnetopause positions (with a scatter >1 RE) even at the subsolar point. Axisymmetric magnetopause models cannot reproduce the cusp indentations or the changes related to the dipole tilt effect, and most of them predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than nonaxisymmetric models for typical solar wind conditions and zero tilt angle. Predictions of two global nonaxisymmetric models do not match each other, and the models need additional verification. MHD models often predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than the nonaxisymmetric empirical models, but the predictions of MHD simulations may need corrections for the ring current effect and decreases of the solar wind pressure that occur in the foreshock. Comparing MHD models in which the ring current magnetic field is taken into account with the empirical Lin et al. model, we find that the differences in the reference point positions predicted by these models are relatively small for Bz=0. Therefore, we assume that these predictions indicate the actual magnetopause position, but future investigations are still needed.

  13. Environmental Conditions for Space Flight Hardware: A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Lee, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    Interest in generalization of the physical environment experienced by NASA hardware from the natural Earth environment (on the launch pad), man-made environment on Earth (storage acceptance an d qualification testing), the launch environment, and the space environment, is ed to find commonality among our hardware in an effort to reduce cost and complexity. NASA is entering a period of increase in its number of planetary missions and it is important to understand how our qualification requirements will evolve with and track these new environments. Environmental conditions are described for NASA projects in several ways for the different periods of the mission life cycle. At the beginning, the mission manager defines survivability requirements based on the mission length, orbit, launch date, launch vehicle, and other factors . such as the use of reactor engines. Margins are then applied to these values (temperature extremes, vibration extremes, radiation tolerances, etc,) and a new set of conditions is generalized for design requirements. Mission assurance documents will then assign an additional margin for reliability, and a third set of values is provided for during testing. A fourth set of environmental condition values may evolve intermittently from heritage hardware that has been tested to a level beyond the actual mission requirement. These various sets of environment figures can make it quite confusing and difficult to capture common hardware environmental requirements. Environmental requirement information can be found in a wide variety of places. The most obvious is with the individual projects. We can easily get answers to questions about temperature extremes being used and radiation tolerance goals, but it is more difficult to map the answers to the process that created these requirements: for design, for qualification, and for actual environment with no margin applied. Not everyone assigned to a NASA project may have that kind of insight, as many have

  14. Spacecraft “Foton-M” in-flight thermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Ivashnyov, O. E.; Nerchenko, V. A.; Kazakova, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of thermal conditions aboard the "Foton-M" spacecraft during its orbital flight is under consideration in this paper. The problem is very acute for performing microgravity experiments onboard of the orbital platform, because on one hand, many experiments need a definite temperature range to be performed, and on the other hand all electrical devices aboard radiate heat. To avoid uncontrolled heating of the environment special heat exchangers are used. To transport heat from different places of the capsule to heat exchanger special fans are installed given definite orientation. All the heat exchange facilities should be designed in advance being adjusted to current capsule loading and heat radiation by equipment. Thus special tools are needed predicting the capsule thermal conditions being function of equipment placement. The present paper introduces a new developed prognostic mathematical model able to forecast temperature distribution inside the capsule with account of fan induced air flows, thermal irradiation by scientific equipment and heat losses due to cooling system.

  15. Influence of orbital flight conditions on formation of genitals in Muscari racemosum and Anethum graveolens.

    PubMed

    Kordyum, E L; Popova, A F; Mashinsky, A L

    1979-01-01

    It was shown that under space flight conditions development of male genitals in Muscari racemosum is accelerated compared to that of laboratory and natural field controls. Conditions of space flight produced an inhibitory effect on germination and germinative energy of Anethum graveolens seeds. The first stages of the plant development, right up to the flowering stage, also suffered from the inhibitory influence of space flight conditions. A cytoembryological study of the experiment and control plants found no essential differences between them.

  16. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in more humid environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using Eddy Covariance (EC) towers a...

  17. Comparison of model predictions for coherence length to in-flight measurements at cruise conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxter, Stefan; Spehr, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we will focus on coherence lengths of pressure fluctuations underneath a turbulent boundary layer on an actual aircraft measured during a flight test. Coherence lengths of pressure fluctuations have already been measured in the past and various models have been set up in order to predict the values. However, most of the underlying data were measured at Mach numbers and pressures different from our region of interest and it is not known if the models are applicable. In some of the investigations also unknown alignment procedures between array and flow were used and it will be shown that this can have a considerable influence on the result. We have performed flight tests at cruising speed and altitude in which we took due account of this alignment by means of an array processing technique which is capable of determining the flow direction for each frequency bin under consideration. In this paper one of the data points will be evaluated and compared to the prediction models. From the differences and subsequently from the adopted run conditions for the measurement of the data of the models, several conclusions are drawn concerning scaling effects and importance of alignment. Also, two of the prediction models are adjusted to our measurements.

  18. 78 FR 19981 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... 11562). The document issued special conditions pertaining flight envelope protection: high...

  19. 14 CFR 121.627 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules... toward any airport to which it has been dispatched or released if, in the opinion of the pilot in...

  20. 14 CFR 121.627 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules... toward any airport to which it has been dispatched or released if, in the opinion of the pilot in...

  1. 14 CFR 121.627 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules... toward any airport to which it has been dispatched or released if, in the opinion of the pilot in...

  2. 14 CFR 121.627 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules... toward any airport to which it has been dispatched or released if, in the opinion of the pilot in...

  3. 14 CFR 121.627 - Continuing flight in unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules... toward any airport to which it has been dispatched or released if, in the opinion of the pilot in...

  4. Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions decreased with increasing altitude, and increased with increasing flight speed. NOX emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude, and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  5. Analytical ice shape predictions for flight in natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Brian M.; Riley, James T.

    1988-01-01

    LEWICE is an analytical ice prediction code that has been evaluated against icing tunnel data, but on a more limited basis against flight data. Ice shapes predicted by LEWICE is compared with experimental ice shapes accreted on the NASA Lewis Icing Research Aircraft. The flight data selected for comparison includes liquid water content recorded using a hot wire device and droplet distribution data from a laser spectrometer; the ice shape is recorded using stereo photography. The main findings are as follows: (1) An equivalent sand grain roughness correlation different from that used for LEWICE tunnel comparisons must be employed to obtain satisfactory results for flight; (2) Using this correlation and making no other changes in the code, the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in flight are in general as good as the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in the tunnel (as in the case of tunnel ice shapes, agreement is least reliable for large glaze ice shapes at high angles of attack); (3) In some cases comparisons can be somewhat improved by utilizing the code so as to take account of the variation of parameters such as liquid water content, which may vary significantly in flight.

  6. Digital signal conditioning for flight test, volume 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Flight test instrumentation engineers are provided with an introduction to digital processes on aircraft. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. Topics include: measurements that are digital in origin, sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing of data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Some example data extractions are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

  7. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  8. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  9. Exhaust emission survey of an F100 afterburning turbofan engine at simulated altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, J. E.; Cullom, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions of carbon monoxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide from an F100, afterburning, two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. For each flight condition emission measurements were made for two or three power levels from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning. The data showed that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate power (nonafterburning) and partial afterburning, but regions of high carbon monoxide were present downstream of the flame holder at maximum afterburning. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were low for most of the simulated flight conditions. The local NOX concentrations and their variability with power level increased with increasing flight Mach number at constant altitude, and decreased with increasing altitude at constant Mach number. Carbon dioxide emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all conditions.

  10. The Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator: Flight and Post-Flight Conditions and Modeling of Instrumental Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Olinger, Chad; Wurz, Peter; Heber, Veronika S.; Burnett, Donald S.

    2013-06-01

    The Genesis mission Solar Wind Concentrator was built to enhance fluences of solar wind by an average of 20x over the 2.3 years that the mission exposed substrates to the solar wind. The Concentrator targets survived the hard landing upon return to Earth and were used to determine the isotopic composition of solar-wind—and hence solar—oxygen and nitrogen. Here we report on the flight operation of the instrument and on simulations of its performance. Concentration and fractionation patterns obtained from simulations are given for He, Li, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Ar in SiC targets, and are compared with measured concentrations and isotope ratios for the noble gases. Carbon is also modeled for a Si target. Predicted differences in instrumental fractionation between elements are discussed. Additionally, as the Concentrator was designed only for ions ≤22 AMU, implications of analyzing elements as heavy as argon are discussed. Post-flight simulations of instrumental fractionation as a function of radial position on the targets incorporate solar-wind velocity and angular distributions measured in flight, and predict fractionation patterns for various elements and isotopes of interest. A tighter angular distribution, mostly due to better spacecraft spin stability than assumed in pre-flight modeling, results in a steeper isotopic fractionation gradient between the center and the perimeter of the targets. Using the distribution of solar-wind velocities encountered during flight, which are higher than those used in pre-flight modeling, results in elemental abundance patterns slightly less peaked at the center. Mean fractionations trend with atomic mass, with differences relative to the measured isotopes of neon of +4.1±0.9 ‰/amu for Li, between -0.4 and +2.8 ‰/amu for C, +1.9±0.7‰/amu for N, +1.3±0.4 ‰/amu for O, -7.5±0.4 ‰/amu for Mg, -8.9±0.6 ‰/amu for Si, and -22.0±0.7 ‰/amu for S (uncertainties reflect Monte Carlo statistics). The slopes of the

  11. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  12. Aircraft flight path angle display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A display system for use in an aircraft control wheel steering system provides the pilot with a single, quickened flight path angle display to overcome poor handling qualities due to intrinsic flight path angle response lags, while avoiding multiple information display symbology. The control law for the flight path angle control system is designed such that the aircraft's actual flight path angle response lags the pilot's commanded flight path angle by a constant time lag .tau., independent of flight conditions. The synthesized display signal is produced as a predetermined function of the aircraft's actual flight path angle, the time lag .tau. and command inputs from the pilot's column.

  13. Impact of age and cognitive demand on lane choice and changing under actual highway conditions.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Donmez, Birsen; Lavallière, Martin; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F; Teasdale, Normand

    2013-03-01

    Previous research suggests that drivers change lanes less frequently during periods of heightened cognitive load. However, lane changing behavior of different age groups under varying levels of cognitive demand is not well understood. The majority of studies which have evaluated lane changing behavior under cognitive workload have been conducted in driving simulators. Consequently, it is unclear if the patterns observed in these simulation studies carry over to actual driving. This paper evaluates data from an on-road study to determine the effects of age and cognitive demand on lane choice and lane changing behavior. Three age groups (20-29, 40-49, and 60-69) were monitored in an instrumented vehicle. The 40's age group had 147% higher odds of exhibiting a lane change than the 60's group. In addition, drivers in their 60's were less likely to drive on the leftmost lane compared to drivers in their 20's and 40's. These results could be interpreted as evidence that older adults adopt a more conservative driving style as reflected in being less likely to choose the leftmost lane than the younger groups and less likely to change lanes than drivers in their 40's. Regardless of demand level, cognitive workload reduced the frequency of lane changes for all age groups. This suggests that in general drivers of all ages attempt to regulate their behavior in a risk reducing direction when under added cognitive demand. The extent to which such self-regulation fully compensates for the impact of added cognitive demand remains an open question.

  14. Best-range flight conditions for cruise-climb flight of a jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Breguet range equation was developed for cruise climb flight of a jet aircraft to include the climb angle and is then maximized with respect to the no wind true airspeed. The expression for the best range airspeed is a function of the specific fuel consumption and minimum drag airspeed and indicates that an operational airspeed equal to the fourth root of three times the minimum-drag airspeed introduces range penalties of the order of one percent.

  15. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  16. Experimental investigation of panel radiator heat output enhancement for efficient thermal use under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisir, Tamer; Baskaya, Senol; Onur Yazar, Hakan; Yucedag, Sinan

    2015-05-01

    In this study the heat output of a panel-convector-convector-panel radiator (PCCP) under controlled laboratory conditions under Turkish household and especially Ankara conditions was investigated experimentally. In this sense, investigations were performed for different heating water mass flow rates, water inlet temperatures and radiator inlet and outlet connection positions, which are most commonly used in Turkey. An experimental setup was built for this purpose in a test room where temperature was controlled and held constant during the experiments. Inlet and outlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were measured and heat output of the radiator was calculated. Infrared thermal camera visualizations of the steel panel radiator front surface were also performed.

  17. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-01-01

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation. PMID:28367963

  18. The effect of actual and imaginary handgrip on postural stability during different balance conditions.

    PubMed

    VanderHill, M S; Wolf, E E; Langenderfer, J E; Ustinova, K I

    2014-09-01

    The stabilizing effect of holding an object on upright posture has been demonstrated in a variety of settings. The mechanism of this effect is unknown but could be attributed to either additional sensorimotor activity triggered by a hand contact or cognitive efforts related to performance of a supra-postural task. A potential mechanism was investigated by comparing postural stability in young healthy individuals while gripping a custom instrumented wooden stick with a 5N force and while imagining holding the same stick in the hand. Twenty subjects were tested during three standing balance conditions: on a stationary surface, on a freely moving rockerboard, and with an unexpected perturbation of 10° forward rockerboard tipping. Postural stability was evaluated as velocity of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) compared across all experimental conditions. COM and COP velocities were equally reduced when subjects gripped the stick and imagined gripping while standing stationary and on the rockerboard. When perturbed, subjects failed to show any postural stability improvements regardless of handgrip task. Results indicate a stabilizing effect of focusing attention on motor task performance. This cognitive strategy does not appear to contribute any additional stabilization when subjects are perturbed. This study adds to the current understanding of postural stabilization strategies.

  19. Nutrient Considerations for Plants Grown Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    2006-01-01

    We present here results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of both dicotyledonous (Haplopappus gracilis, n=75) and monocotyledonous (Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze, n=25) aseptic plants in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during the 5-day CHROMEX-01 Space Shuttle flight (March 1989, STS-29). At recovery, the medium remaining within each of the five floral foam blocks (for both the space flight and ground control experiments) was extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptic tissue culture generated plantlets or sterile seedling clones, and the design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by postflight microbial sampling). This permitted the elimination of microbial considerations in the interpretation of the data. The significance of these findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  20. Understanding the Human Factors Associated With Visual Flight Rules Flight Into Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    code.of.Federal.regulatons.(cFr).Part.91 .103.adses. that.all.plots.flyng.nstrument.flght.rules.( IFr ).or.out. of.the.a...ted.from.the.oklahoma.cty.area.as. subject.matter.experts.( SMes ) ..each.plot.was.proded. roughly.16.hours.of.nstructon.on.the.HFAcS.frame- work,.wh...Flight Plan Filed N Percent Company VFR 14 2.3 IFR 18 3.0 None 487 80.0 Unknown 1 0.2 VFR/ IFR 1 0.2 VFR 88 14.4 Table 9

  1. Preliminary Flight Deck Observations During Flight in High Ice Water Content Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas; Duchanoy, Dominque; Bourdinot, Jean-Francois; Harrah, Steven; Strapp, Walter; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Dezitter, Fabien; Grandin, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, Mason et al. identified common observations that occurred in engine power-loss events attributed to flight in high concentrations of ice crystals. Observations included light to moderate turbulence, precipitation on the windscreen (often reported as rain), aircraft total temperature anomalies, lack of significant airframe icing, and no flight radar echoes at the location and altitude of the engine event. Since 2006, Mason et al. and others have collected information from pilots who experienced engine power-loss events via interviews and questionnaires to substantiate earlier observations and support event analyses. In 2011, Mason and Grzych reported that vertical acceleration data showed increases in turbulence prior to engine events, although the turbulence was usually light to moderate and not unique to high ice water content (HIWC) clouds. Mason concluded that the observation of rain on the windscreen was due to melting of ice high concentrations of ice crystals on the windscreen, coalescing into drops. Mason also reported that these pilot observations of rain on the windscreen were varied. Many pilots indicated no rain was observed, while others observed moderate rain with unique impact sounds. Mason concluded that the variation in the reports may be due to variation in the ice concentration, particle size, and temperature.

  2. Results and Prospects of Studying the Gravitationally Sensitive Systems of Plants under Conditions of Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinsky, A. L.; Nechitailo, G. S.

    2001-07-01

    Based on systematic studies of the impact of space flight factors on higher plants, carried out for many years both aboard orbital research stations and in the ground laboratories, we have formulated the means of solving the problem of the interaction of mankind with the plant life. The principal feasibility of the growth and development of higher plants (arabidopsis, peas, and wheat) under conditions of space flight is established, including the generative stage (arabidopsis). It is proved that the factors of space flight destabilize the macro- and microstructures of higher plants and their cellular organelles, which is an unambiguous response of cells to the changing conditions of their existence.

  3. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a J-58 engine at simulated supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

  4. Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

  5. Flight initiation of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under natural climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Juan M; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2006-03-01

    Flight dispersal of Triatoma infestans Klug is probably the most important mechanism for house reinfestation at a village scale after residual spraying with insecticides. The aim of the current study was to estimate the flight initiation probability of field-collected T. infestans and to assess how this probability was affected by sex, adult age, partial bloodmeal, and the presence of a host inaccessible for feeding. Four experimental series, each consisting of three to six consecutive nights and repeated measurements of flight initiation on each individually marked bug, were carried out in experimental huts inside closed cages under natural climatic conditions. We demonstrate that flight initiation probability of T. infestans is much higher than previously reported, responds to temperature in a sigmoid manner, and is higher in females than males, and that the frequency distribution of the number of flights per individual is highly aggregated in female and male bugs. The age of adults had strong effects on flight initiation, whereas the presence of an inaccessible host and a partial bloodmeal exerted no significant effects in models controlling for the effects of bug weight-to-length ratio. The high flight potential found is consistent with the rapid changes in reinfestation patterns observed in the field. The present estimates of flight probabilities and the identification of factors modifying them provide essential knowledge for modeling reinfestation patterns and for improving control strategies of T.

  6. Flight test and analyses of the B-1 structural mode control system at supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, J. H.; Kelpl, M. J.; Brosnan, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A practical structural mode control system (SMCS) that could be turned on at takeoff and be left on for the entire flight was demonstrated. The SMCS appears to be more effective in damping the key fuselage bending modes at supersonic speeds than at the design point of Mach 0.85 (for fixed gains). The SMCS has an adverse effect on high frequency symmetric modes; however, this adverse effect did not make the system unstable and does not appear to affect ride quality performance. The vertical ride quality analyses indicate that the basic configuration without active systems is satisfactory for long term exposure. If clear air turbulence were to be encountered, indications are that the SMCS would be very effective in reducing the adverse accelerations. On the other hand, lateral ride quality analyses indicate that the aircraft with the SMCS on does not quite meet the long term exposure criteria, but would be satisfactory for shot term exposure at altitude. Again, the lateral SMCS was shown to be very effective in reducing peak lateral accelerations.

  7. Preflight and In-Flight Exercise Conditions for Astronauts on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guilliams, Mark E.; Nieschwitz, Bruce; Hoellen, David; Loehr, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The physiological demands of spaceflight require astronauts to have certain physical abilities. They must be able to perform routine and off-nominal physical work during flight and upon re-entry into a gravity environment to ensure mission success, such as an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) or emergency egress. To prepare the astronauts for their mission, a Wyle Astronaut Strength Conditioning and Rehabilitation specialist (ASCR) works individually with the astronauts to prescribe preflight strength and conditioning programs and in-flight exercise, utilizing Countermeasure Systems (CMS) exercise hardware. PURPOSE: To describe the preflight and in-flight exercise programs for ISS crewmembers. METHODS: Approximately 2 years before a scheduled launch, an ASCR is assigned to each astronaut and physical training (PT) is routinely scheduled. Preflight PT of astronauts consists of carrying out strength, aerobic and general conditioning, employing the principles of periodization. Exercise programs are prescribed to the astronauts to account for their individual fitness levels, planned mission-specific tasks, areas of concern, and travel schedules. Additionally, astronauts receive instruction on how to operate CMS exercise hardware and receive training for microgravity-specific conditions. For example, astronauts are scheduled training sessions for the International Space Station (ISS) treadmill (TVIS) and cycle ergometer (CEVIS), as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). In-flight programs are designed to maintain or even improve the astronauts pre-flight levels of fitness, bone health, muscle strength, power and aerobic capacity. In-flight countermeasure sessions are scheduled in 2.5 h blocks, six days a week, which includes 1.5 h for resistive training and 1 h for aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Crewmembers reported the need for more scheduled time for preflight training. During flight, crewmembers have indicated that the in-flight exercise is sufficient

  8. 14 CFR 91.151 - Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... speed— (1) During the day, to fly after that for at least 30 minutes; or (2) At night, to fly after that... begin a flight in an airplane under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather... (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of...

  9. 14 CFR 91.151 - Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... speed— (1) During the day, to fly after that for at least 30 minutes; or (2) At night, to fly after that... begin a flight in an airplane under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather... (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of...

  10. 14 CFR 91.151 - Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... speed— (1) During the day, to fly after that for at least 30 minutes; or (2) At night, to fly after that... begin a flight in an airplane under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather... (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of...

  11. 14 CFR 91.151 - Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... speed— (1) During the day, to fly after that for at least 30 minutes; or (2) At night, to fly after that... begin a flight in an airplane under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather... (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of...

  12. Power conditioning for large dc motors for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veatch, Martin S.; Anderson, Paul M.; Eason, Douglas J.; Landis, David M.

    1988-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype power-conditioning system for use with large brushless dc motors on NASA space missions are discussed in detail and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, and graphs. The 5-kW 8-phase parallel module evaluated here would be suitable for use in the Space Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. A current-balancing magnetic assembly with low distributed inductance permits high-speed current switching from a low-voltage bus as well as current balancing between parallel MOSFETs.

  13. [EEG-correlates of pilots' functional condition in simulated flight dynamics].

    PubMed

    Kiroy, V N; Aslanyan, E V; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M

    2015-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the EEG recorded on two professional pilots in the simulator TU-154 aircraft in flight dynamics, including takeoff, landing and horizontal flight (in particular during difficult conditions) were analyzed. EEG recording was made with frequency band 0.1-70 Hz continuously from 15 electrodes. The EEG recordings were evaluated using analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Statistical significant of the identified differences and the influence of the main factors and their interactions were evaluated using Greenhouse - Gaiser corrections. It was shown that the spectral characteristics of the EEG are highly informative features of the state of the pilots, reflecting the different flight phases. High validity ofthe differences including individual characteristic, indicates their non-random nature and the possibility of constructing a system of pilots' state control during all phases of flight, based on EEG features.

  14. Fuel penalties and time flexibility of 4D flight profiles under mismodeled wind conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric sensitivity study was conducted to evaluate time flexibility and fuel penalties associated with 4D operations in the presence of mismodeled wind. The final cruise and descent segments of a flight in an advanced time-metered air traffic control environment were considered. Optimal performance of a B-737-100 airplane in known, constant winds was determined. Performance in mismodeled wind was obtained by tracking no-wind reference profiles in the presence of actual winds. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of loss of time flexibility and fuel penalties compared to the optimum performance in modeled winds.

  15. Frigate birds track atmospheric conditions over months-long transoceanic flights.

    PubMed

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Bishop, Charles; Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine; Prudor, Aurélien; Sachs, Gottfried

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how animals respond to atmospheric conditions across space is critical for understanding the evolution of flight strategies and long-distance migrations. We studied the three-dimensional movements and energetics of great frigate birds (Fregata minor) and showed that they can stay aloft for months during transoceanic flights. To do this, birds track the edge of the doldrums to take advantage of favorable winds and strong convection. Locally, they use a roller-coaster flight, relying on thermals and wind to soar within a 50- to 600-meter altitude band under cumulus clouds and then glide over kilometers at low energy costs. To deal with the local scarcity of clouds and gain longer gliding distances, birds regularly soar inside cumulus clouds to use their strong updraft, and they can reach altitudes of 4000 meters, where freezing conditions occur.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Pressure-volume-Temperature Mass Gauging Method Under Microgravity Condition by Parabolic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Mansu; Park, Hana; Yoo, DonGyu; Jung, Youngsuk; Jeong, Sangkwon

    Gauging the volume or mass of liquid propellant of a rocket vehicle in space is an important issue for its economic feasibility and optimized design of loading mass. Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging method is one of the most suitable measuring techniques in space due to its simplicity and reliability. This paper presents unique experimental results and analyses of PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition by parabolic flight. A vacuum-insulated and cylindrical-shaped liquid nitrogen storage tank with 9.2 L volume is manufactured by observing regulation of parabolic flight. PVT gauging experiments are conducted under low liquid fraction condition from 26% to 32%. Pressure, temperature, and the injected helium mass into the storage tank are measured to obtain the ullage volume by gas state equation. Liquid volume is finally derived by the measured ullage volume and the known total tank volume. Two sets of parabolic flights are conducted and each set is composed of approximately 10 parabolic flights. In the first set of flights, the short initial waiting time (3 ∼ 5 seconds) cannot achieve sufficient thermal equilibrium condition at the beginning. It causes inaccurate gauging results due to insufficient information of the initial helium partial pressure in the tank. The helium injection after 12 second waiting time at microgravity condition with high mass flow rate in the second set of flights achieves successful initial thermal equilibrium states and accurate measurement results of initial helium partial pressure. Liquid volume measurement errors in the second set are within 11%.

  17. Flight-test evaluation of two electronic display formats for approach to landing under instrument conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.; Knox, C. E.; Steinmetz, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a flight evaluation of two electronic display formats for the approach to landing under instrument conditions are presented. The evaluation was conducted for a base-line electronic display format and for the same format with runway symbology and track information added. The evaluation was conducted during 3 deg, manual straight-in approaches with and without initial localizer offsets. Flight path tracking performance data and pilot subjective comments were examined with regard to the pilot's ability to capture and maintain localizer and glide slope by using both display formats.

  18. A gravity exercise system. [for muscle conditioning during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, W. E.; Clark, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    An effective method for muscle conditioning during weightlessness flight is derived from isometric exercise. The basic principle of gravity exercise is to periodically displace the human body upon reactionless rollers so that spacial equilibrium can only be maintained by the proper tension and relaxation of the body's muscles. A rotating platform mounted upon two degrees of freedom rollers provides such a condition of gravitational reaction stress throughout each of its 360 deg rotation.

  19. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  20. Approaches in the Determination of Plant Nutrient Uptake and Distribution in Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which may impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the nuclides Ca45 and Fe59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  1. Flight responses by a migratory soaring raptor to changing meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lanzone, Michael J; Miller, Tricia A; Turk, Philip; Brandes, David; Halverson, Casey; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brooks, Robert P; Katzner, Todd

    2012-10-23

    Soaring birds that undertake long-distance migration should develop strategies to minimize the energetic costs of endurance flight. This is relevant because condition upon completion of migration has direct consequences for fecundity, fitness and thus, demography. Therefore, strong evolutionary pressures are expected for energy minimization tactics linked to weather and topography. Importantly, the minute-by-minute mechanisms birds use to subsidize migration in variable weather are largely unknown, in large part because of the technological limitations in studying detailed long-distance bird flight. Here, we show golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migratory response to changing meteorological conditions as monitored by high-resolution telemetry. In contrast to expectations, responses to meteorological variability were stereotyped across the 10 individuals studied. Eagles reacted to increased wind speed by using more orographic lift and less thermal lift. Concomitantly, as use of thermals decreased, variation in flight speed and altitude also decreased. These results demonstrate how soaring migrant birds can minimize energetic expenditures, they show the context for avian decisions and choices of specific instantaneous flight mechanisms and they have important implications for design of bird-friendly wind energy.

  2. Lightning swept-stroke attachment patterns and flight conditions for storm hazards 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center Storm Hazards Program, 111 thunderstorm penetrations were made in 1981 with an F-106B airplane in order to record direct-strike lightning data and the associated flight conditions. Ground-based weather radar measurements in conjunction with these penetrations were made by NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory in Oklahoma and by NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. In 1981, the airplane received 10 direct lightning strikes; in addition, lightning transient data were recorded from 22 nearby flashes. Following each flight, the airplane was thoroughly inspected for evidence of lightning attachment, and the individual lightning attachment points were plotted on isometric projections of the airplane to identify swept-flash patterns. This report shows the strike attachment patterns that were found, and tabulates the flight conditions at the time of each lightning event. Finally, this paper contains a table in which the data in this report are cross-referenced with the previously published electromagnetic waveform data recorded onboard the airplane.

  3. Flight responses by a migratory soaring raptor to changing meteorological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lanzone, Michael J.; Miller, Tricia A.; Turk, Philip; Brandes, David; Halverson, Casey; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brooks, Robert P.; Katzner, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Soaring birds that undertake long-distance migration should develop strategies to minimize the energetic costs of endurance flight. This is relevant because condition upon completion of migration has direct consequences for fecundity, fitness and thus, demography. Therefore, strong evolutionary pressures are expected for energy minimization tactics linked to weather and topography. Importantly, the minute-by-minute mechanisms birds use to subsidize migration in variable weather are largely unknown, in large part because of the technological limitations in studying detailed long-distance bird flight. Here, we show golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migratory response to changing meteorological conditions as monitored by high-resolution telemetry. In contrast to expectations, responses to meteorological variability were stereotyped across the 10 individuals studied. Eagles reacted to increased wind speed by using more orographic lift and less thermal lift. Concomitantly, as use of thermals decreased, variation in flight speed and altitude also decreased. These results demonstrate how soaring migrant birds can minimize energetic expenditures, they show the context for avian decisions and choices of specific instantaneous flight mechanisms and they have important implications for design of bird-friendly wind energy. PMID:22593085

  4. Conjugation-mediated plasmid exchange between bacteria grown under space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, P.; Mergeay, M.; Ilyin, V.; Forget-Hanus, D.; Van der Auwera, G.; Mahillon, J.

    2007-09-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGE) such as phages, plasmids and transposons play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation and evolution. These MGE mobilize and reorganize genes within a given genome or between bacterial cells. The impact of space flight conditions on these processes is largely unknown. The Mobilisatsia/Plasmida experiment was set up to investigate the impact of space flight conditions on plasmid-mediated conjugation. The experiment was done aboard the International Space Station during the Soyuz Mission 8S (April 19th until April 30th 2004). An experiment was performed with the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis AND931 (carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO 16), B. thuringiensis 4Q7 (with mobilizable plasmid pC194) andB. thuringiensis GBJ002 (final recipient). A second experiment was carried out with the Gram-negative Escherichia coli CM140 (carrying the conjugative plasmid RP4), E. coli CM1962 (with the mobilizable plasmid pMOL222) and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 (final recipient). It was observed by selective platings that plasmid exchange between the Gram-positive bacterial strains occurred in the space flight experiment. It is speculated that the latter plasmid exchange occurs more efficient than in the ground control experiment. No significant differences could be observed between space flight and ground control for the Gram-negative bacteria. The data indicate that plasmid exchange between microorganisms is occurring under space flight conditions. Since microorganisms are endogenous to any spacecraft and their presence considered as a possible jeopardy for manned space exploration, more experiments are needed to evaluate the occurrence and implications of microbial adaptation and evolution via MGE.

  5. Exhaust emission calibration of two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude, supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, nitric oxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16.0 to 23.5 km. For each flight condition exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels, from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. Oxides of nitrogen emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  6. [Researches of autonomic regulation of blood circulation in the condition of long-term space flight].

    PubMed

    Baevskiĭ, R M; Luchitskaia, E S; Funtova, I I; Chernikova, A G

    2013-01-01

    In the article is presented five-year experience of experimentation in autonomic regulation of blood circulation onboard the International space station. The heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was the basic methodical approach in the researches. We described probabilistic approach created on the basis of HRV analysis to an estimation of risk of pathology development in the conditions of long space flight. The individual type of autonomic regulation had essential value during the analysis of results. It is shown that the type of regulation, which is inherent in every cosmonaut in the conditions of weightlessness, remains even during following flights. We obtained the new scientific data on connection of character of adaptable reaction of an organism to the space flight factors with individual type of autonomic regulation. It is shown that staying in weightlessness is connected with changeover of regulatory systems and with transition in a zone of prenosological states. Adaptable reactions in weightlessness are characterized by tension growth of regulatory systems at preservation of sufficient functional reserves. The mobilization of additional resources after returning to the Earth is required and consequently functional reserve of mechanisms of regulation decreases. Cosmonauts with vagotonic and normo-sympatotonic types of autonomic regulation appear to be the most resistant. Knowing the type of autonomic regulation we will be able to foresee possible reaction of the cosmonaut to the factors of space flight. As a result of HRV analysis during the flight of the past few months likelihood estimations were calculated and risk categories were defined. Consequently, 3 groups of risk of pathology development were distinguished. In conclusion, theoretical and applied relevance of the conducted experiments were considered.

  7. Locomotor behavior of fish hatched from embryos exposed to flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1978-01-01

    Embryos of Fundulus heteroclitus in various stages of development were exposed to space flight conditions aboard Apollo spacecraft and Cosmos satellites. The objective of the study was to ascertain whether fish hatched from these embryos displayed locomotor behavior different from that of control fish of the same age. An electronic monitoring technique was used to record behavior. Results indicate no change in locomotor behavior in fish on Apollo Spacecraft, but inexplicable significant changes were noted in fish aboard Cosmos Satellites.

  8. Response of the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to space flight conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, N.; Wattiez, R.; Rosier, C.; de Boever, P.; Baatout, S.; Mergeay, M.

    Background When man goes to space inevitably microbes hitchhike along some needed others unwanted Knowledge is required to understand the behaviour of bacteria in spaceflight conditions Aim The aim of this work was to investigate the physiological and metabolic response and adaptation of the environmental model bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to space flight conditions The strain was grown in the International Space Station ISS during 2 separated Soyuz missions MESSAGE 1 2 experiments and in the Rotating Wall Vessel RWV mimicking microgravity on ground Results It was clear that pre- in- and post-flight incubation conditions are critical in spaceflight experiments and should be controlled monitored and taken into account as much as possible when comparing space flight with ground grown cells Distinct changes in physiology and metabolism were observed in the cell cultures grown in space flight when compared to correct ground control cultures A total of 12 proteins over-produced in space conditions were identified and divided in functional groups One group are proteins that protect the cell against physical damage such as heat-shock GrpE UspA and oxidative agents AhpC TrxB DpsA Another group of proteins is probably involved in a metabolic pathway to produce the energy-rich Acetyl-CoA Ald ExaC LpsJ CaiA with the help of a de carboxylase AcxABC Higher concentrations of this group of proteins were also detected in cells grown with acetone or 2-propanol as

  9. Probabilities of good, marginal, and poor flying conditions for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, D. M.; Guttman, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    Empirical probabilities are provided for good, marginal, and poor flying weather for ferrying the Space Shuttle Orbiter from Edwards AFB, California, to Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and from Edwards AFB to Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama. Results are given by month for each overall route plus segments of each route. The criteria for defining a day as good, marginal, or poor and the method of computing the relative frequencies and conditional probabilities for monthly reference periods are described.

  10. Pose Measurement Performance of the Argon Relative Navigation Sensor Suite in Simulated Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Eepoel, John Van; Strube, Matt; Gill, Nat; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Hyslop, Andrew; Patrick, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Argon is a flight-ready sensor suite with two visual cameras, a flash LIDAR, an on- board flight computer, and associated electronics. Argon was designed to provide sensing capabilities for relative navigation during proximity, rendezvous, and docking operations between spacecraft. A rigorous ground test campaign assessed the performance capability of the Argon navigation suite to measure the relative pose of high-fidelity satellite mock-ups during a variety of simulated rendezvous and proximity maneuvers facilitated by robot manipulators in a variety of lighting conditions representative of the orbital environment. A brief description of the Argon suite and test setup are given as well as an analysis of the performance of the system in simulated proximity and rendezvous operations.

  11. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to the...

  12. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... system. This system provides an electronic interface between the pilot's flight controls and ] the...

  13. Psycho-physiological monitoring in real and simulated space flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Larina, I M; Bystritzkaya, A F; Smirnova, T M

    1997-07-01

    Earlier in simulating experiments from long isolation of small group in hermetic cabin we were found out the significant interrelation between changes physiological parameters and subjective appraisal of a condition, activity regulating systems of organism, individual variability of a colour choice, and also quality of operator's activity. On the basis of these results we develop a method of psychophysiological monitoring. The important component of a method is study of the variational characteristics of registered parameters, with the purpose of reception of the information about character of transients in organism. The present research is carried out in conditions of 135-daily isolation in a breadboard model MIR station (experiment HUBES). Its PURPOSE was study of dynamic psycho-emotional condition, simultaneously with study physiological and biochemical parameters, describing process of adaptation to complex conditions of ability to live. Besides were analyzed the results of circadian rhythm's researches during space flights of 6 Russian cosmonauts (duration from 70 till 182 days) on orbital MIR station.

  14. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine at simulated cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine were measured in an altitude facility at four simulated cruise flight conditions: Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 9.1, 10, 7, and 12.2 km and Mach 0.9 at 10.7 km. Engine inlet air temperature was held constant at 283 K for all tests. Emissions measurements were made at nominally 6 cm intervals across the horizontal diameter of the engine exhaust nozzle with a single-point traversing gas sample probe. Measured emissions of decreased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 10.4 to one of 8.3, while carbon monoxide increased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 1.6 to one of 4.4. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were essentially negligible for all flight conditions. Since the engine inlet air temperatures were not correctly simulated, the NOx emission indices were corrected to true altitude conditions by using correlating parameters for changes in combustor inlet temperature, pressure, and temperature rise. The correction was small at the lowest altitude. At the 10.7 and 12.2 km, Mach 0.8 test conditions the correction decreased the measured values by 1 emission index.

  15. Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance of high altitude balloon ascending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Dongxu

    2015-08-01

    Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance are addressed for the high altitude balloon ascending process. A novel dynamic model was established to describe thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of balloon which consists of atmospheric, thermal and dynamic submodels. Based on the model, ascending processes of a high altitude balloon under different initial launch conditions were simulated. The initial launch conditions were classified into three types: inflating quantity, launch time and launch position. The ascending velocity and the differential pressure were defined and used as evaluation parameters of flight performance. Results showed that the inflating quantity is the most effective factor for ascending process, and the upper and lower limits were also proposed separately from safety and performance perspectives. For both launch time and launch location conditions, different solar radiation is the main effect approach during ascending process. Specifically, the influence mechanism of launch time in one day and launch longitude are completely identical due to the Earth's rotation. Results also showed that the sunset process is the optimal selection for safety of balloon and efficient utilization of solar energy. Due to the Earth's revolution, the influence mechanism of launch date and launch latitude are identical and the effects are more seasonal and less effective. Launch time and location should be considered comprehensively in practical operation of ballooning.

  16. The reduction of airplane flight test data to standard atmosphere conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S; Lesley, E P

    1926-01-01

    This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in order to supply the need of practical methods of reducing observed performance to standard conditions with a minimum of labor. The first part gives a very simple approximate method of reducing performance in climb, and is particularly adapted to work not requiring extreme accuracy. The second part gives a somewhat more elaborate and more accurate method which is well suited to general flight test reduction. The third part gives the conventional method of calibrating air-speed indicators and reducing the indicated speeds to true air speeds. An appendix gives working tables and charts for the standard atmosphere. (author)

  17. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  18. Ejector nozzle test results at simulated flight conditions for an advanced supersonic transport propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Bresnahan, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel tests conducted to verify the performance improvements of a refined ejector nozzle design for advanced supersonic transport propulsion systems. The analysis of results obtained at simulated engine operating conditions is emphasized. Tests were conducted with models of approximately 1/10th scale which were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise, and supersonic cruise. Transonic cruise operation was not a consideration during the nozzle design phase, although an evaluation at this condition was later conducted. Test results, characterized by thrust and flow coefficients, are given for a range of nozzle pressure ratios, emphasizing the thrust performance at the engine operating conditions predicted for each flight Mach number. The results indicate that nozzle performance goals were met or closely approximated at takeoff and supersonic cruise, while subsonic cruise performance was within 2.3 percent of the goal with further improvement possible.

  19. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  20. In-flight measurements of wing ice shapes and wing section drag increases caused by natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, K.; Juhasz, N.; Ranaudo, R.; Mcknight, R.; Freedman, R.; Greissing, J.

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft icing flight research was performed in natural icing conditions with a twin engine computer type STOL aircraft. In-flight measurements were made of the icing cloud environment, the shape of the ice accretion on the wing, and the corresponding increase in the wing section drag. Results are presented for three icing encounters. On one flight, the wing section drag coefficient increased 35 percent over the uniced baseline for cruise conditions while a 43 percent increase was observed at an aircraft angle of attack of 6.2 degrees.

  1. The influence of touchdown conditions and contact phase technique on post-flight height in the straight handspring somersault vault.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, Maurice R; Jackson, Monique I; Hiley, Michael J

    2014-09-22

    In vaulting the gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact in order to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the effects of touchdown conditions and contact technique on peak post-flight height of a straight handspring somersault vault. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a straight handspring somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to optimise peak post-flight height of the mass centre for a straight handspring somersault. It was found that optimising either the touchdown conditions or the contact technique increased post-flight height by 0.1m whereas optimising both together increased post-flight height by 0.4m above that of a simulation matching the recorded performance. Thus touchdown technique and contact technique make similar contributions to post-flight height in the straight handspring somersault vault. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight height although there was a critical value of vertical touchdown velocity beyond which post-flight height decreased.

  2. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  3. Flight Tests of an Airplane Showing Dependence of the Maximum Lift Coefficient on the Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, H A; Hootman, James A

    1937-01-01

    Data are presented to show the extent to which the maximum lift coefficient and consequently the minimum speed of an airplane, determined by flight tests, may vary with test conditions. The data show that cl-max may vary as much as 14 percent, depending on the altitude and wing loading at which the tests were made, the position or motion of the propeller, and the rate at which the angle of attack is changing when the maximum lift coefficient is obtained. The variation of the maximum lift coefficient with these factors, which are under the control of the test engineer, shows the need of standardizing the test procedure. A further variation is shown with wing conditions as affected by weathering and vibration, factors that cannot be completely controlled.

  4. Real-time aircraft structural damage identification with flight condition variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a real-time structural damage identification method for aircraft with flight condition variations. The proposed approach begins by identifying the dynamic models under various test conditions from time-domain input/output data. A singular value decomposition technique is then used to characterize and quantify the parameter uncertainties from the identified models. The uncertainty coordinates, corresponding to the identified principal directions, of the identified models are computed, and the residual errors between the identified uncertainty coordinates and the estimated uncertainty coordinates of the health structure are used to identify damage status. A correlation approach is applied to identify damage type and intensity, based on the difference between the identified parameters and the estimated parameters of the healthy structure. The proposed approach is demonstrated by application to the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind-tunnel model.

  5. [Errors in targeted movements of the hand under the conditions of orbital space flight].

    PubMed

    Popov, K E; Roll, R; Lipshits, M I; Roll, Zh P; Zhil'od, Zh K; Gurfinkel', V S

    1999-01-01

    Three crew members of the Russian-French MIR mission were tested to determine errors in pointing to memorized visual targets. In the laboratory, all test-subjects consistently used to point to the spot below the actual target presentation. The mean Y-error (the vertical error) made up -31.6 +/- 21.8 mm. In microgravity, the Y-error moved "upward" so that the mean Y-error was -16.8 +/- 37.0 mm. The data demonstrate adaptation of the central program of aiming arm movement to the microgravity conditions.

  6. [The features of adaptation and disadaptation of the human cardiovascular system in the space flight conditions].

    PubMed

    Kotovskaia, A R; Fomina, G A

    2010-01-01

    The work was aimed at analysis and generalization of the hemodynamic data collected over 20 years from 26 cosmonauts flown 8 to 438 days aboard orbital stations Salyut 7 and Mir. The paper presents the results of ultrasonic investigations of the heart, arterial and venous peripheral vessels in different parts of human body, and measurements of leg veins capacity with the use of occlusive plethysmograpy. It was shown that in the resting condition such prime hemodynamic parameters as the pumping function of the heart and blood supply of the brain, and integral parameters, i.e. arterial pressure and heat rate, were best "protected" as they demonstrated stability throughout long exposure in microgravity. In the absence of gravitational stimulation, arterial resistance went down in essentially all vascular regions below the heart level; to put it differently, the anti-gravity distribution of the vascular tone was annulled gradually as unneeded in microgravity. Compared with the data about arteries, venous hemodynamics was found to be particularly sensitive considering the early advent and significance of changes. Venous return slowed down, resistance of the lower body vessels declined and capacity of the leg venous net increased. Functional testing with the lower body negative pressure revealed degradation of the gravity-dependent reactions that became more conspicuous as flight duration extended further. Cardiovascular deconditioning showed itself clearly on return to Earth's gravity by decreased g-tolerance during re-entry and orthostatic instability post flight. These investigations provided objective evidence for multifactorial genesis of orthostatic instability during space flight including blood redistribution, altered tone regulation of leg's venous and arterial vessels and hypovolemia.

  7. A Method for Calculating the Heat Required for Windshield Thermal Ice Prevention Based on Extensive Flight Tests in Natural Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Holdaway, George H; Steinmetz, Charles P

    1947-01-01

    An equation is presented for calculating the heat flow required from the surface of an internally heated windshield in order to prevent the formation of ice accretions during flight in specified icing conditions. To ascertain the validity of the equation, comparison is made between calculated values of the heat required and measured values obtained for test windshields in actual flights in icing conditions. The test windshields were internally heated and provided data applicable to two common types of windshield configurations; namely the V-type and the type installed flush with the fuselage contours. These windshields were installed on a twin-engine cargo airplane and the icing flights were conducted over a large area of the United States during the winters of 1945-46 and 1946-47. In addition to the internally heated windshield investigation, some test data were obtained for a windshield ice-prevention system in which heated air was discharged into the windshield boundary layer. The general conclusions resulting from this investigation are as follows: 1) The amount of heat required for the prevention of ice accretions on both flush- and V-type windshields during flight in specified icing conditions can be calculated with a degree of accuracy suitable for design purposes. 2) A heat flow of 2000 to 2500 Btu per hour per square foot is required for complete and continuous protection of a V-type windshield in fight at speeds up to 300 miles per hour in a moderate cumulus icing condition. For the same degree of protection and the same speed range, a value of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot suffices in a moderate stratus icing condition. 3) A heat supply of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot is adequate for a flush windshield located well aft of the fuselage stagnation region, at speeds up to 300 miles per hour, for flight in both stratus and moderate cumulus icing conditions. 4) The external air discharge system of windshield thermal ice prevention is thermally

  8. Suppression of Combustor-Inlet Interaction in a Scramjet Engine under Mach 4 Flight Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kan; Kanda, Takeshi; Tomioka, Sadatake; Tani, Kouichiro; Sakuranaka, Noboru; Mitani, Tohru

    A sidewall-compression-type scramjet engine was tested under Mach 4 flight conditions. The tested engine had an inlet, a constant cross-sectional area isolator, a constant cross-sectional area combustor, a diverging combustor, and an internal nozzle. In a previous study under the same flight conditions, the maximum thrust increment using fuel injection within the constant-area combustor was 1,380 N at an equivalence ratio of 0.31, and further fuel injection resulted in combustor-inlet interaction (designated as CII). To suppress the CII in the present study, we attempted (1) two-stage fuel injection within the constant-area combustor and the diverging combustor and (2) a boundary layer bleed on the top wall. The former was to suppress heat release around the first-stage fuel injectors in the constant-area combustor, and the latter was to decrease interaction length by decreasing the boundary layer thickness on the top wall. In the case of two-stage fuel injection, the maximum thrust increment was 2,230 N at an equivalence ratio of 0.63. In the case of the boundary layer bleed, on the other hand, the maximum thrust increment was 2,300 N at an equivalence ratio of 0.66. Thus, two-stage fuel injection and boundary layer bleed led to 62% and 67% higher maximum thrust increments than that obtained in the previous study, respectively. Finally, both the two-stage fuel injection and boundary layer bleed were applied simultaneously to obtain the best thrust performance, and the maximum thrust increment was 2,560 N at an equivalence ratio of 0.95. As a result, we obtained an 86% higher maximum thrust increment than that in the previous study. The thrust achievement factor, which was defined as the ratio of the maximum thrusts obtained from experiment and theoretical prediction, under this condition was estimated as 70%.

  9. Peculiarities of transformation of adaptation level of the astronaut in conditions of long-lasting flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padashulya, H.; Prisnyakova, L.; Prisnyakov, V.

    Prognostication of the development of adverse factors of psychological processes in the personality of the astronaut who time and again feels transformation of internal structure of his personality is one of cardinal problems of the long-lasting flight Adaptation to changing conditions of long-lasting flight is of particular importance because it has an effect on the efficiency of discharged functions and mutual relations in the team The fact of standard psychological changes emerging in the personality being in the state of structural transformations is the precondition for the possibility of prognostication Age-specific gender and temperamental differences in the personality enable to standardize these changes Examination of the process of transformation of adaptation level of the personality in the varied environment depending on the type of temperament and constituents age and gender is chief object of the report In the report it is shown that in the process of transformation of adaptation parameters - attitude to guillemotleft work guillemotright guillemotleft family guillemotright guillemotleft environment guillemotright and guillemotleft ego guillemotright - the changes can go in two directions - in the direction of increase and decline of indexes The trend of increase enables to accumulate them and form potentiality to reduce or increase the level of personality adaptation There is a hypothesis that the dynamics of the process of transformation of adaptation parameter is shown up in the orientation of increase of

  10. Local Flow Conditions for Propulsion Experiments on the NASA F-15B Propulsion Flight Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Corda, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Local flow conditions were measured underneath the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-15B airplane to support development of future experiments on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF). The local Mach number and flow angles were measured using a conventional air data boom on a cone-cylinder mounted under the PFTF and compared with the airplane air data nose boom measurements. At subsonic flight speeds, the airplane and PFTF Mach numbers were approximately equal. Transonic Mach number values were up to 0.1 greater at the PFTF than the airplane, which is a counterintuitive result. The PFTF local supersonic Mach numbers were as much as 0.46 less than the airplane values. The maximum local Mach number at the PFTF was approximately 1.6 at an airplane Mach number near 2.0. The PFTF local angle of attack was negative at all Mach numbers, ranging from -3 to -8 degrees. When the airplane angle of sideslip was zero, the PFTF local value was zero between Mach 0.8 and Mach 1.1, -2 degrees between Mach 1.1 and Mach 1.5, and increased from zero to 1 degree from Mach 1.5 to Mach 2.0. Airplane inlet shock waves crossed the aerodynamic interface plane between Mach 1.85 and Mach 1.90.

  11. Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

  12. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...). Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system....

  13. Remote Sensing of In-Flight Icing Conditions: Operational, Meteorological, and Technological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryerson, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Remote-sensing systems that map aircraft icing conditions in the flight path from airports or aircraft would allow icing to be avoided and exited. Icing remote-sensing system development requires consideration of the operational environment, the meteorological environment, and the technology available. Operationally, pilots need unambiguous cockpit icing displays for risk management decision-making. Human factors, aircraft integration, integration of remotely sensed icing information into the weather system infrastructures, and avoid-and-exit issues need resolution. Cost, maintenance, power, weight, and space concern manufacturers, operators, and regulators. An icing remote-sensing system detects cloud and precipitation liquid water, drop size, and temperature. An algorithm is needed to convert these conditions into icing potential estimates for cockpit display. Specification development requires that magnitudes of cloud microphysical conditions and their spatial and temporal variability be understood at multiple scales. The core of an icing remote-sensing system is the technology that senses icing microphysical conditions. Radar and microwave radiometers penetrate clouds and can estimate liquid water and drop size. Retrieval development is needed; differential attenuation and neural network assessment of multiple-band radar returns are most promising to date. Airport-based radar or radiometers are the most viable near-term technologies. A radiometer that profiles cloud liquid water, and experimental techniques to use radiometers horizontally, are promising. The most critical operational research needs are to assess cockpit and aircraft system integration, develop avoid-and-exit protocols, assess human factors, and integrate remote-sensing information into weather and air traffic control infrastructures. Improved spatial characterization of cloud and precipitation liquid-water content, drop-size spectra, and temperature are needed, as well as an algorithm to

  14. A continuum analysis of chemical nonequilibrium under hypersonic low-density flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Results of employing the continuum model of Navier-Stokes equations under the low-density flight conditions are presented. These results are obtained with chemical nonequilibrium and multicomponent surface slip boundary conditions. The conditions analyzed are those encountered by the nose region of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. A detailed comparison of the Navier-Stokes (NS) results is made with the viscous shock-layer (VSL) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) predictions. With the inclusion of new surface-slip boundary conditions in NS calculations, the surface heat transfer and other flowfield quantities adjacent to the surface are predicted favorably with the DSMC calculations from 75 km to 115 km in altitude. This suggests a much wider practical range for the applicability of Navier-Stokes solutions than previously thought. This is appealing because the continuum (NS and VSL) methods are commonly used to solve the fluid flow problems and are less demanding in terms of computer resource requirements than the noncontinuum (DSMC) methods.

  15. Flight test report of the NASA icing research airplane: Performance, stability, and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. L.; Platz, S. J.; Schinstock, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Flight test results are presented documenting the effect of airframe icing on performance and stability and control of a NASA DHC-6 icing research aircraft. Kohlman System Research, Inc., provided the data acquisition system and data analysis under contract to NASA. Performance modeling methods and MMLE techniques were used to determine the effects of natural ice on the aircraft. Results showed that ice had a significant effect on the drag coefficient of the aircraft and a modest effect on the MMLE derived longitudinal stability coefficients (code version MMLE). Data is also presented on asymmetric power sign slip maneuvers showing rudder floating characteristics with and without ice on the vertical stabilizer.

  16. Natural laminar flow wing for supersonic conditions: Wind tunnel experiments, flight test and stability computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Olivier; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueda, Yoshine; Arnal, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of next supersonic transport airplane generation, the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a new natural laminar flow highly swept wing. The design has been experimentally validated firstly in a supersonic wind tunnel and secondly accomplishing flight test. These experimental data were then analyzed and completed by numerical stability analyses in a joint research program between Onera and JAXA. At the design condition, for a Mach number M=2 at an altitude of h=18 km, results have confirmed the laminar design of the wing due to a strong attenuation of cross-flow instabilities ensuring an extended laminar zone. As the amplification of disturbances inside the boundary layer and transition process is very sensitive to external parameters, the impact of wall roughness of the models and the influence of Reynolds number on transition process have been carefully analyzed.

  17. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Flight Deck Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C. (Editor); Scanlon, Charles H. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A Government and Industry workshop on Flight-Deck-Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) was conducted October 29, 1996 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This document contains the slides and records of the proceedings of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose to the National airspace community the status of ongoing NASA R&D to address the closely spaced parallel runway problem in IMC and to seek advice and input on direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. The workshop also included a description of a Paired Approach Concept which is being studied at United Airlines for application at the San Francisco International Airport.

  18. The framing effect with rectangular and trapezoidal surfaces: actual and pictorial surface slant, frame orientation, and viewing condition.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt-Rutland, A H

    1999-01-01

    The perceived slant of a surface relative to the frontal plane can be reduced when the surface is viewed through a frame between the observer and the surface. Aspects of this framing effect were investigated in three experiments in which observers judged the orientations-in-depth of rectangular and trapezoidal surfaces which were matched for pictorial depth. In experiments 1 and 2, viewing was stationary-monocular. In experiment 1, a frontal rectangular frame was present or absent during viewing. The perceived slants of the surfaces were reduced in the presence of the frame; the reduction for the trapezoidal surface was greater, suggesting that conflict in stimulus information contributes to the phenomenon. In experiment 2, the rectangular frame was either frontal or slanted; in a third condition, a frame was trapezoidal and frontal. The conditions all elicited similar results, suggesting that the framing effect is not explained by pictorial perception of the display, or by assimilation of the surface orientation to the frame orientation. In experiment 3, viewing was moving-monocular to introduce motion parallax; the framing effect was reduced, being appreciable only for a trapezoidal surface. The results are related to other phenomena in which depth perception of points in space tends towards a frontal plane; this frontal-plane tendency is attributed to heavy experimental demands, mainly concerning impoverished, conflicting, and distracting information.

  19. Scramjet Tests in a Shock Tunnel at Flight Mach 7, 10, and 15 Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. C.; Shih, A. T.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Foelsche, R. O.

    2001-01-01

    Tests of the Hyper-X scramjet engine flowpath have been conducted in the HYPULSE shock tunnel at conditions duplicating the stagnation enthalpy at flight Mach 7, 10, and 15. For the tests at Mach 7 and 10 HYPULSE was operated as a reflected-shock tunnel; at the Mach 15 condition, HYPULSE was operated as a shock-expansion tunnel. The test conditions matched the stagnation enthalpy of a scramjet engine on an aerospace vehicle accelerating through the atmosphere along a 1000 psf dynamic pressure trajectory. Test parameter variation included fuel equivalence ratios from lean (0.8) to rich (1.5+); fuel composition from pure hydrogen to mixtures of 2% and 5% silane in hydrogen by volume; and inflow pressure and Mach number made by changing the scramjet model mounting angle in the HYPULSE test chamber. Data sources were wall pressures and heat flux distributions and schlieren and fuel plume imaging in the combustor/nozzle sections. Data are presented for calibration of the facility nozzles and the scramjet engine model. Comparisons of pressure distributions and flowpath streamtube performance estimates are made for the three Mach numbers tested.

  20. Airflow and thrust calibration of an F100 engine, S/N P680059, at selected flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Lee, D.; Rodriguez, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An airflow and thrust calibration of an F100 engine, S/N P680059, was conducted to study airframe propulsion system integration losses in turbofan-powered high-performance aircraft. The tests were conducted with and without thrust augmentation for a variety of simulated flight conditions with emphasis on the transonic regime. The resulting corrected airflow data generalized into one curve with corrected fan speed while corrected gross thrust increased as simulated flight conditions increased. Overall agreement between measured data and computed results was 1 percent for corrected airflow and -1 1/2 percent for gross thrust. The results of an uncertainty analysis are presented for both parameters at each simulated flight condition.

  1. Stagnation-point heat-transfer rate predictions at aeroassist flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Jones, Jim J.; Rochelle, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented for the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates used in the design process of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle over its entire aeropass trajectory. The prediction methods used in this investigation demonstrate the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to a wide range of flight conditions and their usefulness in a design process. The heating rates were computed by a viscous-shock-layer (VSL) code at the lower altitudes and by a Navier-Stokes (N-S) code for the higher altitude cases. For both methods, finite-rate chemically reacting gas was considered, and a temperature-dependent wall-catalysis model was used. The wall temperature for each case was assumed to be radiative equilibrium temperature, based on total heating. The radiative heating was estimated by using a correlation equation. Wall slip was included in the N-S calculation method, and this method implicitly accounts for shock slip. The N-S/VSL combination of projection methods was established by comparison with the published benchmark flow-field code LAURA results at lower altitudes, and the direct simulation Monte Carlo results at higher altitude cases. To obtain the design heating rate over the entire forward face of the vehicle, a boundary-layer method (BLIMP code) that employs reacting chemistry and surface catalysis was used. The ratio of the VSL or N-S method prediction to that obtained from the boundary-layer method code at the stagnation point is used to define an adjustment factor, which accounts for the errors involved in using the boundary-layer method.

  2. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  3. Numerical investigation of a hydrogen-fueled scramjet combustor at flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabadan, E.; Weigand, B.

    2013-03-01

    Numerical investigations of a hydrogen-fueled scramjet combustor at cruise flight conditions of Mach 8 at an altitude of 30 km have been performed. Two combustor configurations were investigated: a single-stage combustor with a central strut injector and a two-staged combustor combining the central strut and wall-mounted ramp injectors. These numerical simulations are aimed to study the flow structure, supersonic mixing, autoignition, and combustion for the present combustor configurations. A turbulent flow from a separate intake calculation was used as inflow condition for the combustor. A better performance for the two-staged combustor configuration was observed. The combination of the central strut injection together with the wall-ramp injection improved the turbulent mixing and, consequently, the combustion process. Inside the supersonic combustion chamber, the autoignition zone occurred downstream of the injectors, and combustion takes place accompanied by high heat release and pressure rise. As the equivalence ratio was increased, the combustion became stronger causing an upstream displacement of the shock train producing different pressure variations. For the two-staged combustor configuration, the location of the autoignition zone was found to appear further upstream compared to single-stage combustor. Mixing was improved by addition of the second-stage injection. The influence of the wall temperature was also investigated showing an effect on the combustion pressure rise and the length and location of the shock train.

  4. [Embryogenesis of the Japanese quail in hypomagnetic conditions applied to deep space flights].

    PubMed

    Trukhanov, K A; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Kruglov, O S; Lebedev, V M; Spasskiĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    During future interplanetary flights and on the lunar base, astronauts and bioregenerative systems on the space ship will occur in an interplanetary magnetic field, which is much lower than the habitual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is known that hypomagnetic conditions have an adverse biological effect on human beings and other living systems. In our research the Japanese quail has been chosen as one of the possible elements of the bioregenerative live support system. The magnetic system--Helmholtz's coils--is used for compensation of GMF. The GMF in the center of Helmholtz's coils was decreased to 80-100 times. The eggs were kept under hypomagnetic conditions for 4 and 10 days in a special nonmagnetic incubator. The experiments have demonstrated a negative influence of hypomagnetic fields on the embryo development of the Japanese quail. One of the possible ways to solve the problem consists in installing special magnetic systems onboard the interplanetary ship and a lunar base. Evidently, it is necessary to create an analogue of GMF for bioregenerative live support systems.

  5. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems.

  6. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL.... When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  7. Approximate approach for optimization space flights with a low thrust on the basis of sufficient optimality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmin, Vadim V.

    2017-01-01

    Flight mechanics with a low-thrust is a new chapter of mechanics of space flight, considered plurality of all problems trajectory optimization and movement control laws and the design parameters of spacecraft. Thus tasks associated with taking into account the additional factors in mathematical models of the motion of spacecraft becomes increasingly important, as well as additional restrictions on the possibilities of the thrust vector control. The complication of the mathematical models of controlled motion leads to difficulties in solving optimization problems. Author proposed methods of finding approximate optimal control and evaluating their optimality based on analytical solutions. These methods are based on the principle of extending the class of admissible states and controls and sufficient conditions for the absolute minimum. Developed procedures of the estimation enabling to determine how close to the optimal founded solution, and indicate ways to improve them. Authors describes procedures of estimate for approximately optimal control laws for space flight mechanics problems, in particular for optimization flight low-thrust between the circular non-coplanar orbits, optimization the control angle and trajectory movement of the spacecraft during interorbital flights, optimization flights with low-thrust between arbitrary elliptical orbits Earth satellites.

  8. Direct-strike lightning photographs, swept-flash attachment patterns, and flight conditions for storm hazards 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaepfel, K. P.; Fisher, B. D.; Ott, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center Storm Hazards Program, 241 thunderstorm penetrations were made in 1982 with an F-106B airplane in order to record direct-strike lightning data and the associated flight conditions. During these penetrations, the airplane received 156 direct lightning strikes; in addition, lightning transient data were recorded from 26 nearby lightning flashes. The tests were conducted within 150 nautical miles of Hampton, Virginia, assisted by ground-based weather-radar guidance from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The photographs of the lightning attachments taken from two onboard 16-mm color movie cameras and the associated strike attachment patterns are presented. A table of the flight conditions recorded at the time of each lightning event, and a table in which the data are cross-referenced with the previously published lightning electromagnetic waveform data are included.

  9. 78 FR 14005 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...) part 25 do not specifically relate to flight characteristics associated with fixed attitude limits. Embraer S.A. will implement pitch and roll attitude protection functions through the normal modes of the... Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14...

  10. 78 FR 11562 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature, specifically an electronic flight control system which contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections, for the overspeed protection and roll limiting function. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or......

  11. X-33 Aerodynamic and Aeroheating Computations for Wind Tunnel and Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Thompson, Richard A.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Riley, Christopher J.; Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of hypersonic Computational Fluid Dynamics research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to support the Phase II development of the X-33 vehicle. The X-33, which is being developed by Lockheed-Martin in partnership with NASA, is an experimental Single-Stage-to-Orbit demonstrator that is intended to validate critical technologies for a full-scale Reusable Launch Vehicle. As part of the development of the X-33, CFD codes have been used to predict the aerodynamic and aeroheating characteristics of the vehicle. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for the X 33 vehicle using two finite- volume, Navier-Stokes solvers. Inviscid solutions were also generated with an Euler code. Computations were performed for Mach numbers of 4.0 to 10.0 at angles-of-attack from 10 deg to 48 deg with body flap deflections of 0, 10 and 20 deg. Comparisons between predictions and wind tunnel aerodynamic and aeroheating data are presented in this paper. Aeroheating and aerodynamic predictions for flight conditions are also presented.

  12. Changes in functional activity of bone tissue cells under space flight conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Nesterenko, Olga; Kabitskaya, Olga

    The space flight conditions affect considerably the state of bone tissue, leading to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Many aspects of reactions of bone tissue cells still remain unclear until now. With the use of electron microscopy we studied the samples gathered from the femoral bonеs metaphyses of rats flown on board the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) during 2 weeks and samples from tibial bones of mice C57 Black ( Bion М-1). It was established, that under microgravity conditions there occur remodelling processes in a spongy bone related with a deficit of support load. In this work the main attention is focused on studying the ultrastructure of osteogenetic cells and osteoclasts. The degree of differentiation and functional state are evaluated according to the degree of development of organelles for specific biosynthesis: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgy complex (GC), as well as the state of mitochondria and cell nucleus. As compared with a synchronous control, the population of osteogenetic cells from zones of bone reconstruction shows a decrease in the number of functionally active forms. We can judge of this from the reduction of a specific volume of RER, GC, mitochondria in osteoblasts. RER loses architectonics typical for osteoblasts and, as against the control, is represented by short narrow canaliculi distributed throughout the cytoplasm; some canals disintegrate. GC is slightly pronounced, mitochondria become smaller in size and acquire an optically dark matrix. These phenomena are supposed to be associated with the desorganization of microtubules and microfilaments in the cells under microgravity conditions. The population of osteogenetic cells shows a decrease in the number of differentiating osteoblasts and an increase in the number of little-differentiated stromal cells. In the population of osteoblasts, degrading and apoptotic cells are sometimes encountered. Such zones show a numerical increase of monocytic cells and

  13. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  14. Effects of factors of prolonged space flight on conditions of tortoise skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupakon, G. P.; Volozhin, A. I.; Korzhenyants, V. A.; Yagodovskiy, V. S.; Polyakov, A. N.; Korolev, V. V.; Elivanov, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    After a 60-90 day space flight mild osteoporosis developed in the epiphyses and metaphyses of long tubular bones of tortoises, which was not attributed to reduced mineral saturation of the preserved bone tissue microstructures. The diminished strength of the cancellous bone of the epiphyses in tortoises after space flight was due to the reduced properties of its structure. The strength of the compact substance did not change under the effect of weightlessness.

  15. Effectiveness of a serpentine inlet duct flow control scheme at design and off-design simulated flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Angela C.

    An experimental investigation was conducted in a static ground test facility to determine the flow quality of a serpentine inlet duct incorporating active flow control for several simulated flight conditions. The total pressure distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) was then used to predict the resulting stability for a compression system. This study was conducted using a model of a compact, low observable, engine inlet duct developed by Lockheed Martin. A flow control technique using air injection through microjets at 1% of the inlet mass flow rate was developed by Lockheed Martin to improve the quality of the flow exiting the inlet duct. Both the inlet duct and the flow control technique were examined at cruise condition and off-design simulated flight conditions (angle of attack and asymmetric distortion). All of the experimental tests were run at an inlet throat Mach number of 0.55 and a resulting Reynolds number of 1.76*105 based on the hydraulic diameter at the inlet throat. For each of the flight conditions tested, the flow control scheme was found to improve the flow uniformity and reduce the inlet distortion at the AIP. For simulated cruise condition, the total pressure recovery was improved by ˜2% with the addition of flow control. For the off-design conditions of angle of attack and asymmetric distortion, the total pressure recovery was improved by 1.5% and 2% respectively. All flight conditions tested showed a reduction in circumferential distortion intensity with flow control. The cruise condition case showed reduced maximum circumferential distortion of 70% with the addition of flow control. A reduction in maximum circumferential distortion of 40% occurred for the angle of attack case with flow control, and 30% for the asymmetric distortion case with flow control. The inlet total pressure distortion was used to predict the changes in stability margin of a compression system due to design and off-design flight conditions and the

  16. A Flight Evaluation of an Airborne Physiological Instrumentation System, Including Preliminary Results Under Conditions of Varying Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Holden, George R.; Smith, Joseph R., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A physiological instrumentation system capable of recording the electrocardiogram, pulse rate, respiration rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during flight has been developed. This instrumentation system was designed for use during control studies at varied levels of acceleration in order to monitor the well-being of the pilot and at the same time to obtain data for study of the relationships between his various physiological functions and his performance capability. Flights, made in a T-33 aircraft, demonstrated the ability of the system to obtain the desired physiological data in flight. The data obtained in these flights, although limited in nature, indicate a slowing of the pulse rate under the subgravity conditions of brief duration. There appeared to be a proportional nearly in-phase relationship between pulse rate and acceleration. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure together with an increase in pulse pressure was noted during subgravity conditions and an elevation of the diastolic pressure together with a decrease in pulse pressure du-ring increased accelerations. No change worthy of note was seen in the records of the systolic blood pressure, the respiration rate, or the electrocardiogram over the range of acceleration studied (0 to 3 g).

  17. Influence of space flight conditions on phenotypes and function of nephritic immune cells of swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepenbreier, K.; Renn, J.; Fischer, R.; Goerlich, R.

    2006-01-01

    During space fights, animals and astronauts have to live and act under unusual environmental conditions characterised by reduced gravity. Due to interactions with several physiological systems, the immune system is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous influences. The present study provides the first data of parameters of the defence system, namely differential haemogram and spontaneous cell proliferation activity of nephritic tissue as well as phagocytosis activity of isolated nephritic phagocytes, in teleost fish after 9 days (STS-89) and 16 days (STS-90) of space flight. The artificial aquatic ecosystem C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) was the habitat of swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) during space flights and for ground controls. No statistically significant differences were observed between fish after space flights and ground controls either after 9 or 16 days. Additionally, all values of the space flight experiments remained within the physiological normal area. However, in comparison to the values of fish that were kept in aquaria as ground controls, the environmental conditions of some C.E.B.A.S. ground experiments showed a decrease of monocytes and lymphocytes as well as inhibition of the activity of phagocytosis and spontaneous cell proliferation. Swordtails from C.E.B.A.S. ground experiments showed typical symptoms of a stress reaction, namely a decrease of monocytes and lymphocytes and an inhibition of phagocytosis activity. These results indicate that short-term space flights of 9 and 16 days have no effects on the immune system of the swordtails, whereas specific environmental conditions such as those found in the C.E.B.A.S. module during the experiments have the potential to influence defence parameters.

  18. An Alternative Flight Software Trigger Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions Using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Gay, Robert S.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles.

  19. An Alternative Flight Software Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kelly; Gay, Robert; Stachowiak, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles

  20. An Alternative Flight Software Trigger Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Gay, Robert S.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the drogue parachute deployment based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this velocity-based trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers excellent performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles.

  1. 78 FR 31838 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight envelope... flight envelope protection features integral to the electronic flight control system design. These flight...) occurs in the control laws of the electronic flight control system as the limit is approached or...

  2. The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

    were likely induced by specific conditions of that flight. All sorts of disturbances we observed in eye development were similar with dom inated types found in birds and mammals on ground and could be induced by factors we intend to discuss in our report.

  3. Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

  4. Lessons Learned from Numerical Simulations of the F-16XL Aircraft at Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Arthur; Jirasek, Adam; Lamar, John; Crippa, Simone; Badcock, Kenneth; Boelens, Oklo

    2009-01-01

    Nine groups participating in the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) project have contributed steady and unsteady viscous simulations of a full-scale, semi-span model of the F-16XL aircraft. Three different categories of flight Reynolds/Mach number combinations were computed and compared with flight-test measurements for the purpose of code validation and improved understanding of the flight physics. Steady-state simulations are done with several turbulence models of different complexity with no topology information required and which overcome Boussinesq-assumption problems in vortical flows. Detached-eddy simulation (DES) and its successor delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) have been used to compute the time accurate flow development. Common structured and unstructured grids as well as individually-adapted unstructured grids were used. Although discrepancies are observed in the comparisons, overall reasonable agreement is demonstrated for surface pressure distribution, local skin friction and boundary velocity profiles at subsonic speeds. The physical modeling, steady or unsteady, and the grid resolution both contribute to the discrepancies observed in the comparisons with flight data, but at this time it cannot be determined how much each part contributes to the whole. Overall it can be said that the technology readiness of CFD-simulation technology for the study of vehicle performance has matured since 2001 such that it can be used today with a reasonable level of confidence for complex configurations.

  5. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific... certificate for its new Gulfstream Model GVI passenger airplane. Gulfstream later applied for, and was...

  6. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.; Jordan, J. L.; Schinstock, W. C.; Platz, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degration in lift and drag.

  7. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  8. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  9. A model of radiation conditions during spacecraft flights in the interplanetary space and in the Earth's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Getselev, I V; Ignatiev, P P; Kabashova, N A; Kontor, N N; Moszhukhina, A R; Timofeev, G A; Khotilovskaya, T G

    1992-01-01

    Based on the available measurement data, simulations of radiation conditions during spacecraft flights in the interplanetary space and in the Earth's and Jupiter's radiation belts has been carried out. The > or = 10 MeV and > or = 30 MeV solar flare proton fluence forecast has been proposed for Cycle 22. Radiation conditions due to both magnetospheric electrons and protons and to solar flare protons, magnetic rigidity cutoff being taken into account, have been evaluated on spacecraft trajectories in the Earth's and Jupiter's magnetospheres.

  10. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  11. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...(s), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides... flight envelope protection features integral to the electronic flight control system design. These flight...) occurs in the control laws of the electronic flight control system as the limit is approached or...

  12. Postflight analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis organisms exposed to space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrenn, R. T.; Simmonds, R. C.; Heimpel, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Cultures of B. thuringiensis returned from space flight appeared to be normal to slightly affected adversely in their ability to produce three toxins that affect insects. In addition, it can be stated that B. thuringiensis spores are very resistant to ultraviolet irradiation at the individual wavelengths and energy levels previously described. Full sunlight, however, does have a detrimental effect on the viability of B. thuringiensis spores.

  13. Detection and Characterization of Boundary-Layer Transition in Flight at Supersonic Conditions Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a powerful tool for investigating fluid mechanics on flight vehicles. (Can be used to visualize and characterize transition, shock impingement, separation etc.). Updated onboard F-15 based system was used to visualize supersonic boundary layer transition test article. (Tollmien-Schlichting and cross-flow dominant flow fields). Digital Recording improves image quality and analysis capability. (Allows accurate quantitative (temperature) measurements, Greater enhancement through image processing allows analysis of smaller scale phenomena).

  14. Effect of different flight conditions at the release of a small spacecraft from a high performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, L.; Pontani, M.; Teofilatto, P.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, mainly due to miniaturization of electronics as well as to the improvement of computer performance, small spacecraft have increased their capabilities. More and more frequently specific mission objectives can be achieved with cheap satellites of reduced size. The growing use of small satellites stimulates the development of systems specifically dedicated to orbit injection of small payloads. In this context, one option is represented by air-launched rockets. The use of an air-launched rocket for delivering a small payload into the desired orbit has several advantages. First of all, payload release is much more flexible, because the delivery conditions are directly related to the dynamics of the aircraft and can be viewed as independent of ground facilities. In addition, reduced costs are associated with higher efficiency of an aircraft in the lower layers of the atmosphere with respect to traditional ground-launched rockets. To date, air-launched rockets separate from the aircraft in a horizontal flight condition. Then they maneuver in order to achieve the correct flight path angle for injecting into a gravity-turn arc of trajectory. Relevant losses are associated to this pitch maneuver; in addition, in this phase the rocket usually needs an aerodynamic control. Hence, the release of a rocket departing with a high flight path angle from the aircraft would avoid these losses and would simplify the control system, because in such a situation the pitch maneuver becomes unnecessary. This paper is aimed at investigating the dynamic behavior and performance of a payload delivered from a high performance aircraft, which flies with a high flight path angle. In particular, this work is concerned with showing the differences and tradeoffs among different starting conditions of a multistage air-launched rocket related to several flight path angles of the aircraft at release. An optimal system configuration, which allows placing a micro-satellite into a

  15. Research in lightning swept-stroke attachment patterns and flight conditions with the NASA F-106B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Brown, P. W.; Plumer, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Data on 637 direct lightning strikes and 117 close flashes observed by the NASA instrumented F-106B aircraft as part of the Storm Hazards Program at NASA Langley during 1980-1984 are compiled and analyzed, updating the report of Fisher and Plumer (1983). The airborne and ground-based measurement and recording apparatus and the flight and data-reduction procedures are described, and the results are discussed in terms of lightning-strike-conducive flight conditions and lightning attachment patterns. A peak strike rate of 2.1/min is found at altitude 38,000-40,000 ft and temperature below -40 C, with very few strikes below 20,000 ft. Four categories of swept-flash attachment pattern are identified, but it is pointed out that all exterior surfaces of the F-106B are potential attachment sites.

  16. Changes in the Neurochemical Composition of Motor Neurons of the Spinal Cord in Mice under Conditions of Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Porseva, V V; Shilkin, V V; Strelkov, A A; Krasnov, I B; Masliukov, P M

    2017-01-01

    Expression of choline acetyltransferase, 200-kDa neurofilament protein, 28-kDa calbindin, neuronal NO synthase, caspase 3, and Ki-67 in the motor neurons of spinal cord segments T3-T5 in male C57Bl/6 mice after 30-day space flight in the Bion-M1 biosatellite was studied by immunohistochemical methods. Under conditions space flight, the size of motoneurons increased, the number of neurons containing choline acetyltransferase and neurofilaments, decreased, and the number of calbindin-positive neurons increased; motoneurons, expressing neuronal NO synthase and caspase 3 appeared, while Ki-67 was not detected. Fragmentation of neurons with the formation structures similar to apoptotic (residual) bodies was observed in individual caspase 3-positive motoneurons.

  17. [Behavioral reactions of animals subjected in the prenatal development period to space flight conditions].

    PubMed

    Apanasenko, Z I; Kuznetsova, M A; Korotkova, V Iu

    1986-01-01

    The Wistar female rats were flown on the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 during their pregnancy days 13-18. Offspring (at the age 1 to 3 months) of four of these rats were used to investigate their behavioral reactions in the open field and mazes of different design, food attraction being applied. Control rats of matched pregnancy term were kept either in a vivarium or in a biosatellite mockup where all flight factors, except for weightlessness, were simulated. It was found that exposure to weightlessness in the above intrauterine developmental period caused no serious changes in the behavioral reactions of rats during their postnatal development. The number of refusals and errors and the latency period were similar in the rats from the flight and control groups. Changes were seen only in fine behavioral regulation. The flown animals displayed a lower research activity in the open field, a longer time of search in the maze, a far longer time or grooming and a greater number of inadequate movements, and a stronger response to external inhibiting stimuli. These changes seem to be caused by a slight attenuation of the basic nervous processes (primarily, inhibitory) and a decrease of their balance and lability. These effects may be associated with an inhibitory influence of space flight factors on the maturation of cortical structures.

  18. [Evaluation of condition and factors affecting activity effectiveness and visual performance of pilots who use night vision goggles during the helicopter flights].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A S; Davydov, V V; Lapa, V V; Minakov, A A; Sukhanov, V V; Chistov, S D

    2014-07-01

    According to analysis of questionnaire authors revealed factors, which affect activity effectiveness, and visual performance of pilots who use night vision goggles during the helicopter flights. These are: difficulty of flight tasks, flying conditions, illusion of attitude. Authors gave possible ways to reduce an impact of these factors.

  19. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  20. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): Actual Condition of Coral Reefs Associated with the Guanica and Manati Watersheds in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.; Guild, L. S.; Ortiz, J.; Setegn, S. G.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Santiago, L.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs), particularly coral reefs, have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Here we present an overview of the first year of findings of a NASA-funded project that studies human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project includes remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change of CMEs. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. This project will include imagery from Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Field data was collected through a series of phototransects at the main reefs associated with these two priority watersheds. A preliminary assessment shows a range in coral cover from 0.2-30% depending on the site (Guánica) whereas apparently healthy corals dominate the reef in the north coast (Manatí). Reefs on the southwest coast of PR (Guánica) show an apparent shift from hard corals to a more algae and soft corals dominance after decades of anthropogenic impacts (sedimentation, eutrophication, mechanical damage through poorly supervised recreational activities, etc.). Additionally preliminary results from land cover/land use changes analyses show dynamic historical shoreline changes in beaches located west of the Manatí river mouth and a degradation of water quality in Guánica possibly being one of the main factors affecting the actual condition of its CMEs.

  1. The first actual record of deep open-ocean conditions in the Ediacaran: Fe speciation in pelagic deep-sea sediments in accretionary complexes in Wales, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Asanuma, H.; Okada, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Shozugawa, K.; Matsuo, M.; Windley, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The first oxidation of a deep ocean in Earth history is considered to have occurred in the Neoproterozoic, coincident with the metazoan diversification; however, the Neoproterozoic geological record has so far been limited to only continental shelves, slopes, or basins at the deepest. Here, we document Neoproterozoic pelagic deep-sea sediments in reconstructed oceanic plate stratigraphy (OPS) in accretionary complexes (ACs) in Anglesey and Lleyn, Wales, UK. The OPS mostly consists of mid-ocean ridge basalts, pelagic red-bedded cherts, hemipelagic siliceous mudstones and turbidite sandstones, in ascending order. Only at Porth Felen in Lleyn Peninsula does the OPS contain black mudstones (ca. 10 m-thick) instead of pelagic red-bedded cherts. Based on the tectonic reconstruction of these ACs, the OPS at Porth Felen has the oldest depositional age. Our new U-Pb date of detrital zircons separated from the turbidite sandstones at Porth Felen has the youngest age of 580±13 Ma. These results suggest that the black mudstones at Porth Felen were deposited no later than the early Ediacaran. We have analyzed these black mudstones by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, and found that about a quarter of their iron content is contained in pyrite, while the other components are paramagnetic Fe2+ or occasionally paramagnetic Fe3+ in clay minerals. The red cherts in the younger OPS contain hematite as the main iron mineral, paramagnetic Fe3+, and paramagnetic Fe2+. The occurrence of hematite in a deep-sea chert essentially indicates a primary oxidizing depositional condition, whereas pyrite is indicative of a reducing environment. The present data confirm that a reducing deep-sea existed in the early Ediacaran during the black mudstone deposition, and that an oxidizing deep-sea had been established by the late Ediacaran. In conclusion, our results provide the first direct evidence of an actual deep open-ocean in the Ediacaran to clarify the timing and extent of the Neoproterozoic

  2. Increased efficiency of mammalian somatic cell hybrid production under microgravity conditions during ballistic rocket flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnettler, R.; Gessner, P.; Zimmermann, U.; Neil, G. A.; Urnovitz, H. B.

    1989-01-01

    The electrofusion of hybridoma cell lines under short-duration microgravity during a flight of the TEXUS 18 Black Brand ballistic sounding rocket at Kiruna, Sweden is reported. The fusion partners, growth medium, cell fusion medium, cell fusion, cell viability in the fusion medium, and postfusion cell culture are described, and the rocket, cell fusion chamber, apparatus, and module are examined. The experimental timeline, the effects of fusion medium and incubation time on cell viability and hybrid yields, and the effect of microgravity on hybrid yields are considered.

  3. [Mechanisms of natural variability at adaptation of human physiological systems to conditions of space flight].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Grigor'ev, A I

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the physiological data using the principle of invariant relationships, to reveal the mechanisms of adaptive variability. It was used physical-chemical, biochemical, and hormonal blood parameters of cosmonauts who have committed short-term and long space flights. These results suggest that application of the methods of fractal geometry to quantitative estimates of homeostasis allows to allocate the processes depending on the increase/decrease of adaptive variability and fix the state of stability or instability of certain physiological regulatory subsystems, due to mobility and to reduce the level of stability which remains stable internal structure of relationships throughout the body.

  4. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  5. Axial segregation in metal halide lamps under varying gravity conditions during parabolic flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flikweert, A. J.; van Kemenade, M.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Haverlag, M.; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Stoffels, W. W.

    2006-04-01

    Metal-halide lamps have high efficiencies. These lamps often contain rare-earth additives (in our case dysprosium iodide) which radiate very efficiently in the visible spectrum. Colour separation is a problem in these lamps; this is caused by axial segregation of these additives as a result of diffusion and convection. To vary the effect of convection, parabolic flights were performed with micro-gravity (0g) and hyper-gravity (~1.8g) phases. During these flights, the atomic dysprosium density was measured by means of laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the lamp voltage, which is strongly influenced by the total amount of Dy in the lamp, was measured. The Dy density and axial segregation are dependent on the gravity. The dynamic lamp behaviour during the parabolas was investigated: the dysprosium density and lamp voltage followed the gravity variations. When entering the micro-gravity phase, the axial diffusion time constant is the slowest time constant; it is proportional to the mercury pressure in the lamp.

  6. Windmilling of the rotor of a turbojet engine with an axial-flow compressor under flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgon, J.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of rotor windmilling is understood to mean rotation of the rotor caused solely by the energy of the air (not gas) streaming through the apertures between the blades (under conditions of power shut-off) under the action of dynamic pressure. The concept of windmilling is analyzed for an engine with an axial-flow compressor, showing that windmilling must be taken into account in such cases as in-flight reignition of the engine. A graph-analytic method for determining the range of windmilling is proposed.

  7. Means and methods of physical conditioning of man in long space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepantsov, V. I.; Yeremin, A. V.; Tikhonov, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of prophylaxis for disorders caused predominantly by reduction or absence of hydrostatic blood pressure in weightlessness and in experimental stimulation of it (readjustment of the watersalt metabolism, relative dehydration, disruption of competence of the cardiovascular system with respect to orthostatic loads, etc.), are adequately substantiated. Two theoretically possible approaches to prophylaxis of this type of disorder are examined: The use of methods of simulation of the effect of hydrostatic blood pressure in flight and the decrease in the gravitational redistribution of blood to the lower part of the body in the postflight period. In particular, the method of negative pressure in the lower region of the body gave favorable results. A significant decrease in orthostatic disorders after completion of such experiments was achieved by use of g-suits or other types of special clothing.

  8. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  9. 78 FR 32078 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model G280 Airplane, Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... compartment view,'' as was done by Special Conditions No. 25-180-SC, but also to define the scope of intended.... Special conditions, as defined in Sec. 11.19, are issued in accordance with Sec. 11.38 and become part of... HUD, such as alerts, airspeed, attitude, altitude and direction, approach guidance, wind...

  10. Condensation of cosmic analog material in microgravity conditions - Preliminary analysis of a first set of flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, D.; Bussoletti, E.; Mennella, V.; Vittone, A. A.; Colangeli, L.; Mirra, C.; Stephens, J.; Nuth, J.; Lilleleht, L.; Furgeson, F.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of the STARDUST project, aimed at producing and analyzing cosmic-dust analog materials in microgravity conditions, are summarized. The discussion covers the purpose of the investigation, cosmic-dust formation and properties, previous simulations of cosmic-dust formation, the current approach, the microgravity experimental apparatus, and potential advantages of studying dust formation under microgravity conditions.

  11. Determination of washout performance of various monochrome displays under simulated flight ambient and solar lighting conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Robertson, James B.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    The aircraft cockpit ambient lighting simulation system (ACALSS) has been developed to study display readability and associated pilot/vehicle performance effects in a part-task simulator cockpit. In the study reported here, the ACALSS was used to determine the illumination levels at which subjects lose the ability to maintain aircraft states when using three display technologies as display media for primary flight displays: a standard monochrome EL (electroluminescent) flat-panel, a laboratory-class monochrome CRT, and an enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel. The multivariate statistical technique of modified profile analysis was used to test for performance differences between display devices as functions of illumination levels. The standard monochrome EL flat-panel display began to washout after the 2500 foot-candle level of illumination. The monochrome CRT began to washout after the 5500 foot-candle level of illumination. No performance decrements by increased illumination up to the 12,000 foot-candle level were found for the enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel display. What was not anticipated was that half the subjects would subjectively prefer the CRT over the enhanced-brightness EL, even though their performance errors would have indicated the opposite.

  12. Flight Experiments of Physical Vapor Transport of ZnSe: Growth of Crystals in Various Convective Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The flight experiment will conduct crystal growths of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT). The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, especially the effects of different growth orientations related to gravity direction on the grown crystals.

  13. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  14. Flight test of an erectable spacecraft used for decelerator testing at simulated Mars entry conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, A. B.; Lundstrom, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A 55 foot diameter disk-gap-band parachute was deployed behind an expandable 15 foot diameter, 120 deg blunted-cone simulated spacecraft. The spacecraft was carried to altitude in the folded condition. An automatic control system kept the folded spacecraft pointing in the desired direction after booster separation. The aeroshell was then erected at the desired conditions by ground command. When the desired parachute test conditions were reached, another ground command deployed the test parachute. The test Mach number and dynamic pressure obtained at the parachute peak load were 2.62 and 19.4 pounds per square foot respectively. A large disturbance after aeroshell erection caused a large angle of attack to exist at parachute deployment. Methods of preventing this disturbance are discussed.

  15. 78 FR 68775 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire/Flammability Resistance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... associated with the in-flight fire and flammability resistance of the composite fuselage. Experience has... fire test criteria for insulation films directly relating to the resistance of in-flight...

  16. 78 FR 11560 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Lateral-Directional and Longitudinal Stability and Low Energy Awareness... or unusual design feature(s) associated with an electronic flight control system with respect to... features: (1) Lateral-Directional Static Stability: The electronic flight control system on the Model...

  17. 77 FR 69573 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Lateral-Directional and Longitudinal Stability and Low Energy Awareness... airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with an electronic flight control system... features: (1) Lateral-Directional Static Stability: The electronic flight control system on the Model...

  18. 78 FR 76249 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... feature(s) associated with a flight control system that prevents the pilot from inadvertently or... unique in that traditional airplanes with conventional flight control systems (mechanical linkages) are... using the Airbus flight control system. Under Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR)...

  19. Effect of cavity configuration on kerosene spark ignition in a scramjet combustor at Ma 4.5 flight condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Heng; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Spark ignition experiments of liquid kerosene are conducted in a scramjet model equipped with dual-cavities at Ma 4.5 flight condition with a stagnation temperature of 1032 K. The ignition ability of two cavities with different length is compared and analyzed based on the wall pressure distribution along the combustor and the thrust evolution. The experimental results indicate that the longer cavity (L/D=7) is more suitable than the smaller cavity (L/D=5) in spark ignition. When employing the smaller cavity, three steady combustion states are observed after spark ignition. The concept of 'local flame' is adopted to explain the expanding problem of weak combustion. The local equivalence ratio in the shear layer is the dominated factor in determining the developing process of local flame. The final steady combustion mode of the combustor is dependent on the flame developing process. When employing the longer cavity, the establishment of intense combustion state can be much easier.

  20. Mixing, ignition and combustion studies using discrete orifice injection at hypervelocity flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R.; Tamagno, J.; Trucco, R.; Rizkalla, O.; Chinitz, W.

    1991-01-01

    Testing at hypervelocity test conditions continues in the Hypulse expansion tube. A newly-calibrated Mach 13 operating point has been achieved, and hydrogen injection studies were performed at this test condition. The experiments were conducted in a 2-in x 1-in combustor model employing three injector configurations: a single flush-wall circular orifice; two such orifices on opposite walls (the 'dual' injector configuration); and two orifices on the upper and the lower walls (the 'quad' injector configuration). The quad injectors were distinctly superior to the other two configurations in promoting mixing, ignition, and combustion. The single injector, however, proved to be superior to the dual injectors, supporting the concept that the aspect ratio of the 'injection cell' plays a large role in promoting the processes required to achieve high combustion efficiency.

  1. Peculiarities in formation of Arabidopsis Thaliana (L.) Heynh, generative organs under space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordyum, Y. L.; Chernyayeva, I. I.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities in the formation of the andrecium and gynecium elements are described for Arabidopsis plants grown from the stages of two cotyledonous leaves in the Svitoblok-1 device on board the Salyut 6 orbital research station and in the laboratory. It is established that flower buds and flowers, normally formed in habitus, contain sterile elements of andrecium and gynecium whose degeneration occurs at different developmental stages of the Arabidopsis plants in the experiment under conditions of weightlessness.

  2. Crew-MC communication and characteristics of crewmembers' sleep under conditions of simulated prolonged space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna; Ehmann, Bea; Balazs, Laszlo; Zavalko, Irina

    Characteristics of crew-MC communication and psychophysiological state of the crewmembers were studied in simulation experiment with 520-day isolation. We used method of computerized quantitative content analysis to investigate psychologically relevant characteristics of the crew’s messages content. Content analysis is a systematic, reproducible method of reducing of a text array to a limited number of categories by means of preset scientifically substantiated rules of coding (Berelson, 1971, Krippendorff, 2004). All statements in the crew’s messages to MC were coded with certain psychologically relevant content analysis categories (e.g. ‘Needs’, ‘Negativism’, ‘Time’). We attributed to the ‘Needs’ category statements (semantic units), containing the words, related to subject’s needs and their satisfaction, e.g. ‘‘necessary, need, wish, want, demand’’. To the ‘Negativism’ category we refer critical statements, containing such words as ‘‘mistakes, faults, deficit, shortage’’. The ‘Time’ category embodies statements related to time perception, e.g. “hour, day, always, never, constantly”. Sleep study was conducted with use of EEG and actigraphy techniques to assess characteristics of the crewmembers’ night sleep, reflecting the crew’s adaptation to the experimental conditions. The overall amount of communication (quantity of messages and their length) positively correlated with sleep effectiveness (time of sleep related to time in bed) and with delta sleep latency. Occurrences of semantic units in categories ‘Time’ and ‘Negativism’ negatively correlated with sleep latency, and positively - with delta sleep latency and sleep effectiveness. Frequency of time-related semantic units’ utilization in the crew’s messages was significantly increasing during or before the key events of the experiment (beginning of high autonomy, planetary landing simulation, etc.). It is known that subjective importance of time

  3. An investigation of side-stick-controller/stability and control-augmentation system requirements for helicopter terrain flight under reduced visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Glusman, S. I.; Aiken, E. W.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation of the reduced visibility tasks is effected by providing the pilot with a visually coupled, helmet-mounted display of flight-control symbols superimposed upon terrain-board imagery. Forward-flight, low-speed, and precision-hover control modes are implemented, and a method is developed for the blending of control laws between each control mode. An investigation is made of the variations in the level of integration of primary control functions on a single side-stick controller. For most of the flight tasks investigated, separated controller configurations are preferred to a single, fully integrated side-stick device. Satisfactory handling qualities over all controller configurations are attained only for a precision-hover task conducted with a high level of stability and control augmentation. For most tasks flown with the helmet-mounted display significant degradation in handling qualities occurs relative to the identical tasks flown under visual flight conditions.

  4. The Additional Error of Inertial Sensors Induced by Hypersonic Flight Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Karachun, Volodimir; Mel’nick, Viktorij; Korobiichuk, Igor; Nowicki, Michał; Szewczyk, Roman; Kobzar, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of hypersonic technology pose a new challenge for inertial navigation sensors, widely used in aerospace industry. The main problems are: extremely high temperatures, vibration of the fuselage, penetrating acoustic radiation and shock N-waves. The nature of the additional errors of the gyroscopic inertial sensor with hydrostatic suspension components under operating conditions generated by forced precession of the movable part of the suspension due to diffraction phenomena in acoustic fields is explained. The cause of the disturbing moments in the form of the Coriolis inertia forces during the transition of the suspension surface into the category of impedance is revealed. The boundaries of occurrence of the features on the resonance wave match are described. The values of the “false” angular velocity as a result of the elastic-stress state of suspension in the acoustic fields are determined. PMID:26927122

  5. The Additional Error of Inertial Sensors Induced by Hypersonic Flight Conditions.

    PubMed

    Karachun, Volodimir; Mel'nick, Viktorij; Korobiichuk, Igor; Nowicki, Michał; Szewczyk, Roman; Kobzar, Svitlana

    2016-02-26

    The emergence of hypersonic technology pose a new challenge for inertial navigation sensors, widely used in aerospace industry. The main problems are: extremely high temperatures, vibration of the fuselage, penetrating acoustic radiation and shock N-waves. The nature of the additional errors of the gyroscopic inertial sensor with hydrostatic suspension components under operating conditions generated by forced precession of the movable part of the suspension due to diffraction phenomena in acoustic fields is explained. The cause of the disturbing moments in the form of the Coriolis inertia forces during the transition of the suspension surface into the category of impedance is revealed. The boundaries of occurrence of the features on the resonance wave match are described. The values of the "false" angular velocity as a result of the elastic-stress state of suspension in the acoustic fields are determined.

  6. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  7. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  8. Performance of an optimized rotor blade at off-design flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is made of the dynamic and aerodynamic performance of a helicopter rotor previously optimized for minimum 4/rev vertical shear and blade weight subject to certain dynamic and structural constraints. The program CAMRAD which was used in designing the optimized blade is used for both dynamic and aerodynamic analaysis. The behavior of the optimized rotor is analyzed over a wide range of operating conditions and for a larger number of rotor characteristics than those considered in designing the blade. To assess the dynamic behavior, the blade root vibratory shears and moments that are transmitted to the rotor hub are calculated. The aerodynamic performance assessments are made based on the power required by the rotor for a given rotor task, the rotor lifting efficiencies, maximum rotor thrust envelopes and the control margins. Results are presented for the optimized blade and the control margins. Results are presented for the optimized blade and the reference blade, which was used as the baseline for the optimized blade, for two rotor tasks.

  9. A hypersonic shock tunnel test of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle at high altitude test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittliff, C. E.; O'Connor, A. C.; Sweet, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is a 4.26 m-diameter raked and blunted elliptic cone that is intended to obtain aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic data on blunt bodies at velocities near 10 km/s and altitudes above 75 km. Previous wind tunnel tests of this configuration have been at Mach numbers of 10 or lower. The present test program consisted of five test conditions at Mach numbers between 15 and 20 and simulated altitudes from 75 km to 97 km. Static longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients, the lift-to-drag ratio, and the trim angle-of-attack were obtained for angles-of-attack between 7 deg and 27 deg. The effects of angle-of-attack and shock Reynolds number, Re2, have been studied. These results indicate the AFE configuration is longitudinally stable. The variation of normal force slope, CNalpha and lift-to-drag slope, (L/D)alpha as well as the trim angle-of-attack with Re2 are documented. The trim angle-of-attack increases with decreasing values of shock Reynolds number (increasing altitude) while the lift-to-drag ratio at the trimmed conditions is relatively constant.

  10. Conception on the cell mechanisms of bone tissue loss under spase flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Oganov, Victor; Kabitskaya, Olga

    Basing on the analysis of available literature and the results of our own electron microscopic and radioautographic researches the data are presented about the morpho-functional peculiarities and succession of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals (rats, monkeys, mice) to microgravity (SLS-2, Bion-11, BionM-1). The probable cellular mechanisms of the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis are considered. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and surface osteocytes as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and to those lying on bone surfaces. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, some of the osteoblasts undergo apoptosis. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts and bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn’t occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in these remodeling loci. These cell reactions are considered as adaptive-compensatory, but they don’t result

  11. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal... control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety... a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck...

  12. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    PubMed

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-02-22

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  13. The Communicative Relevancies of Instrument Flight; A Technologically Contingent World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Claire Elaine

    The success and safety of flight in actual instrument conditions is dependent upon the communicative competency of the individuals involved. The more obvious elements of communication involved include crew coordination and communication both verbal and nonverbal, aircraft and ground communication links, pilot interpretation of verbally and…

  14. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  15. Wind-tunnel Tests of a 2-engine Airplane Model as a Preliminary Study of Flight Conditions Arising on the Failure of the Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 15-foot-span model of a two-engine low wing transport airplane were made as a preliminary study of the emergency arising from the failure of one engine in flight. Two methods of reducing the initial yawing moment resulting from the failure of one engine were investigated and the equilibrium conditions were explored for two basic modes on one engine, one with zero angle of sideslip and the other with several degrees of sideslip. The added drag resulting from the unsymmetrical attitudes required for flight on one engine was determined for the model airplane. The effects of the application of power upon the stability, controllability, lift, and drag of the model airplane were measured. A dynamic pressure survey of the propeller slipstream was made in the neighborhood of the tail surfaces at three angles of attack. The added parasite drag of the model airplane resulting from the unfavorable conditions of flight on one engine was estimated. From 35 to 50 percent of this added drag was due to the drag of the dead engine propeller and the other 50 to 65 percent was due to the unsymmetrical attitude of the airplane. The mode of flight on one engine in which the angle of sideslip was zero was found to require less power than the mode in which the angle of sideslip was several degrees.

  16. Flight testing of a luminescent surface pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Espina, J.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Demandante, C. G. N.; Bjarke, L.

    1992-01-01

    NASA ARC has conducted flight tests of a new type of aerodynamic pressure sensor based on a luminescent surface coating. Flights were conducted at the NASA ARC-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The luminescent pressure sensor is based on a surface coating which, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emits visible light with an intensity dependent on the local air pressure on the surface. This technique makes it possible to obtain pressure data over the entire surface of an aircraft, as opposed to conventional instrumentation, which can only make measurements at pre-selected points. The objective of the flight tests was to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a luminescent pressure sensor in the actual flight environment. A luminescent pressure sensor was installed on a fin, the Flight Test Fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of an F-104 aircraft. The response of one particular surface coating was evaluated at low supersonic Mach numbers (M = 1.0-1.6) in order to provide an initial estimate of the sensor's capabilities. This memo describes the test approach, the techniques used, and the pressure sensor's behavior under flight conditions. A direct comparison between data provided by the luminescent pressure sensor and that produced by conventional pressure instrumentation shows that the luminescent sensor can provide quantitative data under flight conditions. However, the test results also show that the sensor has a number of limitations which must be addressed if this technique is to prove useful in the flight environment.

  17. Wind as an abiotic factor of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) flight take-off activity under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Mccarthy, P C; MacKinley, P D

    2010-10-01

    The flight take-off activity of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was significantly higher at a landscape-protected than at semiexposed and exposed sites in a 2-yr field study. In both years, mean daylight temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were generally similar at all sites, but wind speed was lower at the protected site than at the exposed sites. Results suggest that wind was the limiting abiotic factor for flight take-off at the exposed site. Caged beetles exposed to constant wind speeds of 3.4, 4.7, and 7.0 m/s showed a significant corresponding decrease in number of flight take-off. There was no cumulative effect of wind exposure on the readiness of the beetles to fly, suggesting that wind acts as a physical barrier to flight take-off. It should be possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle flight dispersal by selecting fields most exposed to wind over landscape-protected fields when rotating potato, Solanum tuberosum L., crops.

  18. Heat-transfer and pressure measurements on a simulated elevon deflected 30 deg near flight conditions at Mach 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Taylor, A. H.; Weinstein, I.

    1977-01-01

    Heat transfer rates and pressures were obtained on an elevon plate (deflected 30 deg) and a flat plate upstream of the elevon in an 8 foot high-temperature structures tunnel. The flight Reynolds number and flight total enthalpy for altitudes of 26.8 km and 28.7 km at Mach seven were duplicated. The heat transfer and pressure data were used to establish heating and pressure loads. The measured heating was compared with several theoretical predictions, and the closest agreement obtained with a Schultz-Grunow reference enthalpy method of calculation.

  19. Effects of the space flight environment on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.

  20. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.

  1. The interactions of the cells in the development of osteoporotic changes in bones under space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Kabitskaya, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Using the methods of electron microscopy and autoradiography with ³N-glycine and ³N-thymidine on biosatellites "Bion-11" (Macaca mulatta, the duration of the experiments -10 days), "Bion-M1" (mouse C57 Black, duration of the flight - 30 days) in the experiments with modeled hypokinesia (white rats, hind limbs unloading, the duration of the experiments 28 days) new data about the morpho-functional peculiarities of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling zones of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals to microgravity. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and paving endost one as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and perivascular cells. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of perivascular cell-stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, the number of apoptotic osteoblasts increases. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts, bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn't occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in remodeling loci. These cell reactions

  2. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  3. Flight Investigation at High Speeds of Flow Conditions Over an Airplane Wing as Indicated by Surface Tufts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-06-01

    WHB AS INDICATED BY SURFACE TOFTS By Clotalre Wood, and John A. Zalovcik Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory Langley Field, Va. • r^CHH, T R<a...motion-picture filii t*’.ren c!urin3 flight ’s shown as figure l+. The quality of the ohotographs was, in general, too poor to oermit

  4. Simulation of physiological systems in order to evaluate and predict the human condition in a space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verigo, V. V.

    1979-01-01

    Simulation models were used to study theoretical problems of space biology and medicine. The reaction and adaptation of the main physiological systems to the complex effects of space flight were investigated. Mathematical models were discussed in terms of their significance in the selection of the structure and design of biological life support systems.

  5. 77 FR 69572 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    .... The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet airplanes designed for corporate flight... equipped with two Honeywell HTF7500-E medium bypass ratio turbofan engines mounted on aft fuselage pylons. Each engine produces approximately 6,540 pounds of thrust for normal takeoff. The primary...

  6. [Bion-M1. Biological activities of microorganisms under the conditions of a 30-day space flight].

    PubMed

    Voeĭkova, T A; Tiaglov, B V; Novikova, L M; Krest'ianova, I N; Emel'ianova, L K; Korshunov, D V; Morozova, Iu A; Il'in, V K

    2014-01-01

    It was stated that spaceflight factors (SFF) affect the chromosomal DNA interchange during Streptomyces crossing. Cross polarity and primary input of a parent chromosome fragment in recombinant generation imply a more lasting cells contact in microgravity and a broader horizontal transport of genetic material. SFF had no effect on recombination frequency and mutation in a model of parental auxotrophic markers reversion to prototrophism. It was demonstrated that SFF boosted the fC31 phage exit from S. lividans 66 (fC31) and did not influence phage induction in S. coelicolor A3(2) (fC31). SFF inhibited synthesis of antiobiotic actinorhodin in lisogenic S. coelicolor A3(2), and tylosin and desmicosin in S. fradiae. Survivability of electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in space flight was higher compared with the synchronous control experiment. The reduction activity of S. oneidensis MR-1 as an indicator of electron generation effectiveness was identical in flight and laboratory samples.

  7. Performance of the Components of the XJ34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine over a Range of Engine and Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, John E; Sobolewski, Adam E; Smith, Ivan D

    1952-01-01

    Performance of the compressor, combustor, and turbine operating as integral parts of the XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine was determined in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel over a range of altitudes from 5000 to 55,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.05. Data were obtained for each of four exhaust-nozzle areas and are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  8. Variations in recovery and readaptation to load bearing conditions after space flight and whole body suspension in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Stepke, B.

    1991-01-01

    Result are presented on studies of the effects of space flight and simulated microgravity on the cardiovascular and electrolyte characteristics, the adrenal gland weight, and hormonal responses of rats flown aboard Cosmos-605 and -782 or exposed to whole-body tail suspension. Results indicate an age-independent decrease in circulating antinatriuretic factor (ANF) in suspended rats, indicating that ANF may not significantly contribute to the sustained elevated bariuresis and diuresis observed in chronic head-down-suspended rats.

  9. [The ability for psych self-regulation as a factor in resistance to the stresses in extreme conditions of space flight].

    PubMed

    Vinokhodova, A G; Bystritskaia, A F; Smirnova, T M

    2005-01-01

    Significance of the ability for psych self-regulation in the context of resistance to the stresses of space flight was studied in an experiment with 9 test-subjects simulating such factors of space flights as 8 to 9-day isolation and confinement, some physiological effects of microgravity in a head-down position at -8 degrees for 7 d, artificial climate, and implementation of dock and piloting operations. Stress resistance, self-regulation, mental performance and behavior were assessed with the use of computerized tests "Mirror coordinograph", "Relaxometer", and "SOPR-monitoring". The ability to voluntary control psych was shown to be favorable to stress-resistance and rapid recovery of mental efficiency after the natural decline in consequence of the experimental simulation. The ability for psych self-regulation is one of the major criteria of professional selection for exposure to extreme conditions.

  10. Atomization, drop size, and penetration for cross-stream water injection at high-altitude reentry conditions with application to the RAM C-1 and C-3 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooderum, P. B.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    Atomization, drop size, and penetration data are presented for cross stream water injection at conditions simulating high altitude reentry (low Weber number, high static temperature, high Knudsen number, and low static pressure). These results are applied to the RAM C-1 and C-3 flights. Two primary breakup modes are considered, vapor pressure or flashing and aerodynamic atomization. Results are given for breakup boundaries and mean drop size for each of these atomization mechanisms. Both standard and flight orifice geometries are investigated. The data were obtained in both a static environment and in conventional aerodynamic facilities at Mach numbers of 4.5 and 8. The high temperature aspects of reentry were simulated in a Mach 5.5 cyanogen-oxygen tunnel with total temperature of 4500 K.

  11. [Growth and development of plants in a sequence of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Sychev, V. N.; Signalova, O. B.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Podol'skii, I. G.; Masgreiv, M. E.; Bingheim, G. E.; Musgrave, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose was to study characteristic features of growth and development of several plant generations in space flight in experiment GREENHOUSE-3 as a part of the Russian-US space research program MIR/NASA in 1997. The experiment consisted of cultivation of Brassica rapa L. in board greenhouse Svet. Two vegetative cycles were fully completed and the third vegetation was terminated on day 13 on the phase of budding. The total duration of the space experiment was 122 days, i.e. same as in the ground controls. In the experiment with Brassica rapa L. viable seeds produced by the first crop were planted in space flight and yielded next crop. Crops raised from the ground and space seeds were found to differ in height and number of buds. Both parameters were lowered in the plants grown from the space seeds. The prime course for smaller size and reduced organogenic potential of plantTs reproductive system seems to be a less content of nutrients in seeds that had matured in the space flight. Experiment GREENHOUSE-3 demonstrated principle feasibility of plant reproduction in space greenhouse from seeds developed in microgravity.

  12. Technical Seminar: "Flight Deck Technologies"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Reduced visibility affects the safety and efficiency of nearly all flight operations. As a result, researchers are improving ways to give pilots a vision capability that is independent of actual vi...

  13. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1988-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic R and D chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing have been the crucible in which aeronautical concepts have advanced and been proven to the point that engineers and companies have been willing to stake their future to produce and design new aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress made and the challenges to come.

  14. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  15. Flight Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5276 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER TOP 7-4-020 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...2 3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS ............................................. 3 3.1...3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS . 3.1 Air Vehicle Flight Test Techniques. Many different flight test techniques are in existence. As technology

  16. Scientific experiments in the flight of the 1977 biological satellite (draft plan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The physiological, biological, radiobiological and radiophysical experiments planned for the 1977 biological satellite are described. The biological experiments will involve rats, higher and lower plants, insects and other biological specimens carried on the biosatellite. The responses of these organisms to weightlessness, artificial gravity, cosmic radiation particles and general flight factors will be studied. The radiophysical experiments will investigate certain properties of cosmic radiation as well as the possibility of creating electrostatic and dielectric radiation shields under actual space-flight conditions.

  17. Endocrine responses to space flights.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Fickova, M; Kolena, J; Knopp, J; Tigranian, R A; Popova, I A; Grogoriev, A I

    2001-07-01

    Simultaneously with human space flights several series of observations were performed by using experimental animals--mainly rats--exposed to space flights on board of special satellites BION-COSMOS or in Shuttle Transportation Systems (STS). The aims of these experiments were to study in more details: the mechanisms of the changes in bones and skeletal muscle, the alterations of the function of immune system, the radiation effects on organism, the mechanism of the changes of endocrine functions, the evaluation of the role of hormones in alteration of metabolic processes in organism. The advantages of these animal experiments were the possibilities to analyze not only the plasma samples, but it was possible to obtain samples of organs or tissues: for morphological and biochemical analysis for studies of the changes in enzyme activities and in gene expressions, for measurement of metabolic processes and for investigation of the hormone production in endocrine glands and estimation of the response of tissues to hormones. It was also possible to compare the endocrine response to spaceflight and to other stress stimuli. These animal studies are interesting for verification of some hypothesis in the mechanism of adaptation of human organism to the changes of gravity. The disadvantage was, however, that the animals in almost all experiments could be examined only after space flight. The actual inflight changes were investigated only in two SLS flights. In this short review it is not possible to evaluate all hormonal data available on the response of endocrine system to the conditions of space flights. Therefore we will concentrate on the response of pituitary adrenocortical system, pituitary thyroid and pituitary gonadal functions.

  18. [Investigation of the copper content in blood serum and its ultrafiltrate in the conditions of experimental space flight simulation].

    PubMed

    Piruzian, L A; Protasova, O V; Maksimova, I A; Morukov, B V; Protasov, S V; Ushakov, I B

    2013-01-01

    In experiment MARS-500 on remote space flight simulation, atomic emission spectral analysis with inductively coupled argon plasma was used to measure serum copper and its ultrafiltration fraction. It was shown that, in contrast to baseline data, the Cu serum level varied within the normal physiological boundaries throughout the entire simulation experiment. These variations were sync in all the serum samples. In several periods in the experiment reductions in serum Cu within the baseline range were equivalent to simultaneous reductions in ceruloplasmin. Amount of the free Cu (ultrafiltration) fraction, i.e. not bound to proteins in blood serum, was constant at all times. Since the simulation experiment is not a perfect analogy of space flight because of nonreproducibility of some factors, ionizing radiation specifically, we should take into consideration shifts in the serum copper balance caused by the action of space radiation on human organism. Radiation-induced imbalance is not only a marker of disturbed oxidase function of blood but also points to a mechanism of potential pathological outcome of toxic excessive copper accumulated in the brain, liver and kidney.

  19. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  20. [The cascade scheme as a methodical platform for analysis of health risks in space flight and partially and fully analog conditions].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Poliakov, A V; Usov, V M

    2011-01-01

    Space anthropoecology, a subsection of human ecology, studies various aspects of physiological, psychological, social and professional adaptation to the extreme environment of space flight and human life and work in partially- and fully analogous conditions on Earth. Both SF and simulated extreme conditions are known for high human safety standards and a substantial analytic base that secures on-line analysis of torrent of information. Management evaluation and response to germing undesired developments aimed to curb their impact on the functioning of the crew-vehicle-environment system and human health involve the complete wealth of knowledge about risks to human health and performance. Spacecrew safety issues are tackled by experts of many specialties which emphasizes the importance of integral methodical approaches to risk estimation and mitigation, setting up barriers to adverse trends in human physiology and psychology in challenging conditions, and minimization of delayed effects on professional longevity and disorders in behavioral reactions.

  1. The problems of cosmic ray particle simulation for the near-Earth orbital and interplanetary flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Nymmik, R A

    1999-10-01

    A wide range of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP event flux simulation problems for the near-Earth satellite and manned spacecraft orbits and for the interplanetary mission trajectories are discussed. The models of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP events in the Earth orbit beyond the Earth's magnetosphere are used as a basis. The particle fluxes in the near-Earth orbits should be calculated using the transmission functions. To calculate the functions, the dependences of the cutoff rigidities on the magnetic disturbance level and on magnetic local time have to be known. In the case of space flights towards the Sun and to the boundary of the solar system, particular attention is paid to the changes in the SEP event occurrence frequency and size. The particle flux gradients are applied in this case to galactic cosmic ray fluxes.

  2. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  3. A Simulation Study of Instrument Meteorological Condition Approaches to Dual Parallel Runways Spaced 3400 and 2500 Feet Apart Using Flight-Deck-Centered Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    A number of our nations airports depend on closely spaced parallel runway operations to handle their normal traffic throughput when weather conditions are favorable. For safety these operations are curtailed in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) when the ceiling or visibility deteriorates and operations in many cases are limited to the equivalent of a single runway. Where parallel runway spacing is less than 2500 feet, capacity loss in IMC is on the order of 50 percent for these runways. Clearly, these capacity losses result in landing delays, inconveniences to the public, increased operational cost to the airlines, and general interruption of commerce. This document presents a description and the results of a fixed-base simulation study to evaluate an initial concept that includes a set of procedures for conducting safe flight in closely spaced parallel runway operations in IMC. Consideration of flight-deck information technology and displays to support the procedures is also included in the discussions. The procedures and supporting technology rely heavily on airborne capabilities operating in conjunction with the air traffic control system.

  4. Shuttle avionics software development trials: Tribulations and successes, the backup flight system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    The development and verification of the Backup Flight System software (BFS) is discussed. The approach taken for the BFS was to develop a very simple and straightforward software program and then test it in every conceivable manner. The result was a program that contained approximately 12,000 full words including ground checkout and the built in test program for the computer. To perform verification, a series of tests was defined using the actual flight type hardware and simulated flight conditions. Then simulated flights were flown and detailed performance analysis was conducted. The intent of most BFS tests was to demonstrate that a stable flightpath could be obtained after engagement from an anomalous initial condition. The extention of the BFS to meet the requirements of the orbital flight test phase is also described.

  5. Autonomous Formation Flight: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer; Cobleigh, Brent; Vachon, Jake; Ray, Ronald J.; Ennix, Kimberly; Walsh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: a) Map the vortex effects; b) Formation Auto-Pilot Requirements. Two NASA F/A-18 aircraft in formation: a) NASA 845 Systems Research Aircraft; b) NASA 847 Support Aircraft. Flight Conditions: M = 0.56, 25000 feet (Subsonic condition); b) M = 0.86, 36000 feet (Transonic condition). Nose-To-Tail (N2T) Distances: 20, 55, 110 and 190 feet. Lessons learned: a) Controllable flight in vortex is possible with pilot feedback (displays); b) Position hold at best C(sub D), is attainable; c) Best drag location is close to max rolling moment; e) Drag reductions demonstrated up to 22% (WFE up to 20%); f) Induced drag results compare favorably with simple prediction model; g) "Sweet Spot" (lateral & vertical area > 25%) is larger than predicted; h) Larger wing overlaps result in sign reversals in roll, yaw; i) As predicted, favorable effects degrade gradually with increased nose-to-tail distances after peaking at 3 span lengths aft; and j) Demonstrated - over 100 N mi (>15%) range improvement and 650 lbs (14%) fuel savings on actual simulated F/A-18 cruise mission.

  6. 77 FR 57039 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane... conditions for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design..., data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special...

  7. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of Space Shuttle main engine multiple plume flows at high-altitude flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Holt, J. B.; Liu, B. L.; Johnson, S. L.

    1992-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is providing verification of Space Shuttle flight performance details and is being applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine Multiple plume interaction flow field definition. Advancements in real-gas CFD methodology that are described have allowed definition of exhaust plume flow details at Mach 3.5 and 107,000 ft. The specific objective includes the estimate of flow properties at oblique shocks between plumes and plume recirculation into the Space Shuttle Orbiter base so that base heating and base pressure can be modeled accurately. The approach utilizes the Rockwell USA Real Gas 3-D Navier-Stokes (USARG3D) Code for the analysis. The code has multi-zonal capability to detail the geometry of the plumes based region and utilizes finite-rate chemistry to compute the plume expansion angle and relevant flow properties at altitude correctly. Through an improved definition of the base recirculation flow properties, heating, and aerodynamic design environments of the Space Shuttle Vehicle can be further updated.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of Space Shuttle main engine multiple plume flows at high-altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Holt, J. B.; Liu, B. L.; Johnson, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is providing verification of Space Shuttle flight performance details and is being applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine Multiple plume interaction flow field definition. Advancements in real-gas CFD methodology that are described have allowed definition of exhaust plume flow details at Mach 3.5 and 107,000 ft. The specific objective includes the estimate of flow properties at oblique shocks between plumes and plume recirculation into the Space Shuttle Orbiter base so that base heating and base pressure can be modeled accurately. The approach utilizes the Rockwell USA Real Gas 3-D Navier-Stokes (USARG3D) Code for the analysis. The code has multi-zonal capability to detail the geometry of the plumes based region and utilizes finite-rate chemistry to compute the plume expansion angle and relevant flow properties at altitude correctly. Through an improved definition of the base recirculation flow properties, heating, and aerodynamic design environments of the Space Shuttle Vehicle can be further updated.

  9. [Growth and development of plants in a row of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Sychev, V. N.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Signalova, O. B.; Podol'skii, I. G.; Avdeev, S. V.; Bingheim, G. E.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Results of the experiment aimed at harvesting a second space generation of wheat var. Apogee in Mir greenhouse Svet (experiment GREENHOUSE-5) are presented. In space flight, germination rate of space seeds from the first crop made up 89% against 100% of the ground seeds. The full biological ripeness was observed in 20 plants grown from the ground seeds and one plant grown from the space seeds following 80- to 90-d vegetation. The plant of the second space generation was morphologically different neither from the species in the first space crop nor from the ground controls. To study the biological characteristics of Apogee seeds gathered in the first and second crops in spaceflight experiment GREENHOUSE-5, the seeds were planted on their return to the laboratory. Morphometric analysis showed that they were essentially similar to the controls. Hence, the space experiments in Mir greenhouse Svet performed during 1998-1999 gave proof that plants cultivated in microgravity can pass the ontogenetic cycle more than once. However, initial results of the investigations into growth and development of plants through several generations are still in-sufficient to speak of possible delayed effects of the spaceflight factors (microgravity, multicomponent radiation, harmful trace contaminants etc.).

  10. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of bone-Impact of sample preparation and measurement conditions.

    PubMed

    Henss, Anja; Hild, Anne; Rohnke, Marcus; Wenisch, Sabine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-06-07

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enables the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ions and fragments with high mass and spatial resolution. Due to recent technical developments, ToF-SIMS has been increasingly applied in the life sciences where sample preparation plays an eminent role for the quality of the analytical results. This paper focusses on sample preparation of bone tissue and its impact on ToF-SIMS analysis. The analysis of bone is important for the understanding of bone diseases and the development of replacement materials and new drugs for the cure of diseased bone. The main purpose of this paper is to find out which preparation process is best suited for ToF-SIMS analysis of bone tissue in order to obtain reliable and reproducible analytical results. The influence of the embedding process on the different components of bone is evaluated using principal component analysis. It is shown that epoxy resin as well as methacrylate based plastics (Epon and Technovit) as embedding materials do not infiltrate the mineralized tissue and that cut sections are better suited for the ToF-SIMS analysis than ground sections. In case of ground samples, a resin layer is smeared over the sample surface due to the polishing step and overlap of peaks is found. Beside some signals of fatty acids in the negative ion mode, the analysis of native, not embedded samples does not provide any advantage. The influence of bismuth bombardment and O2 flooding on the signal intensity of organic and inorganic fragments due to the variation of the ionization probability is additionally discussed. As C60 sputtering has to be applied to remove the smeared resin layer, its effect especially on the organic fragments of the bone is analyzed and described herein.

  11. Flight Testing an Integrated Synthetic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream GV aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  12. The German ISS-Experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP): The Effects of Single and Combined Space Flight Conditions on Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, C.; Hellweg, C. E.; Arenz, A.

    The combined action of ionizing radiation and microgravity will continue to influence future space missions with special risks for astronauts on the Moon surface or for long duration missions to Mars Previous space flight experiments have reported additive neither sensitization nor protection as well as synergistic increased radiation effect under microgravity interactions of radiation and microgravity in different cell systems Although a direct effect of microgravity on enzymatic mechanisms can be excluded on thermo dynamical reasons modifications of cellular repair can not be excluded as such processes are under the control of cellular signal transduction systems which are controlled by environmental parameters presumably also by gravity DNA repair studies in space on bacteria yeast cells and human fibroblasts which were irradiated before flight gave contradictory results from inhibition of repair by microgravity to enhancement whereas others did not detect any influence of microgravity on repair At the Radiation Biology Department of the German Aerospace Center DLR recombinant bacterial and mammalian cell systems were developed as reporters for cellular signal transduction modulation by genotoxic environmental conditions The space experiment CERASP Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space to be performed at the International Space Station ISS will make use of such reporter cell lines thereby supplying basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity One of the biological endpoints will be survival

  13. 77 FR 75066 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Flight Envelope Protection (Icing and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...-floor system is to increase automatically the thrust on the operating engines under unusual... special conditions are the following: --High incidence protection system: A system that operates directly... incidence protection system operating and the longitudinal control held on its aft stop. --V min :...

  14. 78 FR 63902 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes... for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature... this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference...

  15. Theoretical nitric oxide production incidental to autoignition and combustion of several fuels homogeneously dispersed in air under some typical hypersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahn, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    A reaction package of 100 chemical reactions and attendant reaction rate constants defined for the autoignition and combustion of four carbonaceous fuels, CH4, CH3OH, C2H6, and C2H5OH. Definition of the package was made primarily by means of comparison between trial calculations and experimental data for the autoignition of CH4. Autoignition and combustion of each of these four fuels was calculated under three sets of conditions realistic for hypersonic flight applications, for comparison to hydrogen fuel, particularly with respect to formation of nitric oxide. Results show that, for all of the fuels including hydrogen, if NO production is a significant problem, compromise must be made between approaching equilibrium heat release and approaching equilibrium NO concentration.

  16. Characteristics of Five Propellers in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Mixson, R E

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the characteristics of five full-scale propellers in flight. The equipment consisted of five propellers in conjunction with a VE-7 airplane and a Wright E-2 engine. The propellers were of the same diameter and aspect ratio. Four of them differed uniformly in thickness and pitch and the fifth propeller was identical with one of the other four with exception of a change of the airfoil section. The propeller efficiencies measured in flight are found to be consistently lower than those obtained in model tests. It is probable that this is mainly a result of the higher tip speeds used in the full-scale tests. The results show also that because of differences in propeller deflections it is difficult to obtain accurate comparisons of propeller characteristics. From this it is concluded that for accurate comparisons it is necessary to know the propeller pitch angles under actual operating conditions. (author)

  17. 2D Analysis of In-flight Light Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    One of the primary uses of the in-flight icing research performed aboard NASA Glenn s DHC-6 Twin Otter is for Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and icing prediction code (Lewice) validation. Using the in-flight data to establish the IRT and Lewice as accurate simulators of actual icing conditions is crucial for supporting the research done in the Icing Branch. During test flights during the 2003 and 2004 flight season, a Natural Ice Shape Database was collected. For flights where conditions were appropriate, the aircraft is flown in an icing cloud with all ice protection systems deactivated. The duration of this period is usually determined by the pilot s ability to safely control the aircraft. When safe flight is no longer possible, the aircraft is maneuvered into clear air above the cloud layer. At this point several photographs are taken of the ice shape that was accreted on the wing test section during this icing encounter using a stereo photograph system (Figure 1). The stereo photograph system utilizes two cameras located at different locations on the fuselage that are both pointed at the same location on the wing. When both cameras take photographs of the same location at the same time, the negatives can be combined digitally to generate a two dimensional plot describing the cross-section of the ice shape. After these photographs are taken, the wing de-icing boots are activated and the ice shape is removed.

  18. Online analysis of single cyanobacteria and algae cells under nitrogen-limited conditions using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cahill, John F; Darlington, Thomas K; Fitzgerald, Christine; Schoepp, Nathan G; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-08-18

    Metabolomics studies typically perform measurements on populations of whole cells which provide the average representation of a collection of many cells. However, key mechanistic information can be lost using this approach. Investigating chemistry at the single cell level yields a more accurate representation of the diversity of populations within a cell sample; however, this approach has many analytical challenges. In this study, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used for rapid analysis of single algae and cyanobacteria cells with diameters ranging from 1 to 8 μm. Cells were aerosolized by nebulization and directly transmitted into the ATOFMS. Whole cells were determined to remain intact inside the instrument through a combination of particle sizing and imaging measurements. Differences in cell populations were observed after perturbing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells via nitrogen deprivation. Thousands of single cells were measured over a period of 4 days for nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-limited conditions. A comparison of the single cell mass spectra of the cells sampled under the two conditions revealed an increase in the dipalmitic acid sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), a chloroplast membrane lipid, under nitrogen-limited conditions. Single cell peak intensity distributions demonstrate the ability of the ATOFMS to measure metabolic differences of single cells. The ATOFMS provides an unprecedented maximum throughput of 50 Hz, enabling the rapid online measurement of thousands of single cell mass spectra.

  19. Investigation of the Centaur boost pump overspeed condition at main engine shutdown on the Titan Centaur TC-2 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baud, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate a potential boost pump overspeed condition which could exist on the Titan/Centaur launch vehicle after main engine shut-off. Preliminary analyses indicated that the acceleration imparted to the unloaded boost pump-turbine assembly, caused by purging residual hydrogen peroxide from the turbine supply lines, could result in a pump-turbine overspeed. Previous test experience indicated that turbine damage occurs at speeds in excess of 75,000 rpm. Detailed theoretical analyses, in conjunction with pump tests, were conducted to establish the maximum pump-turbine speed at main engine shut-off. The analyses predicted a maximum speed of 68,000 rpm. Testing showed the pump-turbine speed to be 66,700 rpm in the overspeed condition. Inasmuch as both the analysis and tests showed the overspeed to be sufficiently less than the speed at which damage could occur, it was concluded that no corrective action would be required for the launch vehicle.

  20. The Flight Track Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burn, Melissa; Carey, Jeffrey; Czech, Joseph; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Flight Track Noise Impact Model (FTNIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operations might have on air carrier operating efficiency at any one of 8 selected U.S. airports. The analyst selects an airport and case year for study, chooses a set of flight tracks for use in the case, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft by 3, 6, or 10 decibels. Two sets of flight tracks are available for each airport: one that represents actual current conditions, including noise abatement tracks, which avoid flying over noise-sensitive areas; and a second set that offers more efficient routing. FTNIM computes the resultant noise impact and the time and distance saved for each operation on the more efficient, alternate tracks. Noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to the more efficient alternate routing.

  1. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  2. Influence of space flight conditions on phenotypes and functionality of nephritic immune cells of fish (Xiphophorus helleri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepenbreier, K.; Renn, J.; Fischer, R.; Goerlich, R.

    Microgravity is considered to directly perturb a number of immunological and haematological parameters in mammalians, and therefore is of fundamental importance in space biology. The viviparous teleost Xiphophorus helleri (swordtail) was used as a "lower vertebrate model" in the shuttle missions STS-89 (Small Payload) and STS-90 (NEUROLAB). When developing a regenerative aquatic system (like the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System - C.E.B.A.S.) to produce food fish on long-term space missions, we have to make sure that microgravity and other space conditions do not endanger the animals' health. Immunological aspects are very important in this field. The major research targets were immunological research of accessory (monocytes) and immunoreactive cells (lymphocytes) of the kidney from X. helleri, which were exposed to microgravity in comparison to ground control animals. Cell cycle analysis of the main haematopoetic organ (kidney), cell behaviour, cell cytochemistry, phagocytic ability and in vitro stimulation of immunoreactive cells from kidney after return to earth were investigated. The results are also important for basic research in immunotoxicology and developmental biology. As there is an interrelation between immune cells and bone metabolism, the investigations are also interesting for space medicine. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (50 WB 9412, 50 WB 9996) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA 98HEDS-02-418)

  3. Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations and Flight Procedures Rehearsal Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    Limited visibility has been cited as predominant causal factor for both Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA is conducting research and development of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) technologies which may potentially mitigate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to these accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Two experimental evaluation studies were performed to determine the efficacy of two concepts: 1) head-worn display application of SVS technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations, and 2) three-dimensional SVS electronic flight bag display concept for flight plan preview, mission rehearsal and controller-pilot data link communications interface of flight procedures. In the surface operation study, pilots evaluated two display devices and four display modes during taxi under unlimited and CAT II visibility conditions. In the mission rehearsal study, pilots flew approaches and departures in an operationally-challenged airport environment, including CFIT scenarios. Performance using the SVS concepts was compared to traditional baseline displays with paper charts only or EFB information. In general, the studies evince the significant situation awareness and enhanced operational capabilities afforded from these advanced SVS display concepts. The experimental results and conclusions from these studies are discussed along with future directions.

  4. Effects of space flight conditions on the function of the immune system and catecholamine production simulated in a rodent model of hindlimb unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aviles, Hernan; Belay, Tesfaye; Vance, Monique; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The rodent model of hindlimb unloading has been successfully used to simulate some of the effects of space flight conditions. Previous studies have indicated that mice exposed to hindlimb-unloading conditions have decreased resistance to infections compared to restrained and normally housed control mice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanisms involved in resistance to infection in this model by examining the effects of hindlimb unloading on the function of the immune system and its impact on the production of catecholamines. METHODS: Female Swiss Webster mice were hindlimb-unloaded during 48 h and the function of the immune system was assessed in spleen and peritoneal cells immediately after this period. In addition, the kinetics of catecholamine production was measured throughout the hindlimb-unloading period. RESULTS: The function of the immune system was significantly suppressed in the hindlimb-unloaded group compared to restrained and normally housed control mice. Levels of catecholamines were increased in the hindlimb-unloaded group and peaked at 12 h following the commencement of unloading. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that physiological responses of mice are altered early after hindlimb unloading and that catecholamines may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system. These changes may affect the ability of mice to resist infections. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Summary of shuttle data processing and aerodynamic performance comparisons for the first 11 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research is but one part of the most comprehensive end-to-end flight test program ever undertaken considering: the extensive pre-flight experimental data base development; the multitude of spacecraft and remote measurements taken during entry flight; the complexity of the Orbiter aerodynamic configuration; the variety of flight conditions available across the entire speed regime; and the efforts devoted to flight data reduction throughout the aerospace community. Shuttle entry flights provide a wealth of research quality data, in essence a veritable flying wind tunnel, for use by researchers to verify and improve the operational capability of the Orbiter and provide data for evaluations of experimental facilities as well as computational methods. This final report merely summarizes the major activities conducted by the AMA, Inc. under NASA Contract NAS1-16087 as part of that interesting research. Investigators desiring more detailed information can refer to the glossary of AMA publications attached herein as Appendix A. Section I provides background discussion of software and methodology development to enable Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) generation. Actual products generated are summarized in Section II as tables which completely describe the post-flight products available from the first three-year Shuttle flight history. Summary results are presented in Section III, with longitudinal performance comparisons included as Appendices for each of the flights.

  6. Analysis of the Quality of Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambot, Thomas; Ord, Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Parabolic flights allow researchers to conduct several 20 second micro-gravity experiments in the course of a single day. However, the measurement can have large variations over the course of a single parabola, requiring the knowledge of the actual flight environment as a function of time. The NASA Flight Opportunities program (FO) reviewed the acceleration data of over 400 parabolic flights and investigated the quality of micro-gravity for scientific purposes. It was discovered that a parabolic flight can be segmented into multiple parts of different quality and duration, a fact to be aware of when planning an experiment.

  7. Development of a fast capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the speciation of organotin compounds under separation conditions of high electrical field strengths.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ashok Kumar; Grundmann, Marco; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2013-11-15

    A novel approach has been developed for the separation of organotin species with capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It has been applied to the development of a method for the determination and speciation of organotin compounds namely, dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), diphenyltin (DPT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in water samples. Experiments were made with a special laboratory constructed CE instrument. A non-aqueous buffer system compatible with TOF-MS has been developed using ammonium acetate-acetic acid (50 mM and 1 M) in acetonitrile: methanol (80:20). The total analysis time is less than 3 min for these compounds under the conditions developed. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of these compounds in river water samples. Detection limits of the CE-TOF-MS method were between 1 and 8×10(-7) M, and between 2 and 11×10(-9) M (0.46 to 3.2 µg L(-1)) when used in conjunction with solid phase extraction. The short analysis time as well as good sensitivity and selectivity make it a useful approach for the fast screening of organotin compounds.

  8. Experimental and Computational Study of the Flow past a Simplified Geometry of an Engine/Pylon/Wing Installation at low velocity/moderate incidence flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bury, Yannick; Lucas, Matthieu; Bonnaud, Cyril; Joly, Laurent; ISAE Team; Airbus Team

    2014-11-01

    We study numerically and experimentally the vortices that develop past a model geometry of a wing equipped with pylon-mounted engine at low speed/moderate incidence flight conditions. For such configuration, the presence of the powerplant installation under the wing initiates a complex, unsteady vortical flow field at the nacelle/pylon/wing junctions. Its interaction with the upper wing boundary layer causes a drop of aircraft performances. In order to decipher the underlying physics, this study is initially conducted on a simplified geometry at a Reynolds number of 200000, based on the chord wing and on the freestream velocity. Two configurations of angle of attack and side-slip angle are investigated. This work relies on unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes computations, oil flow visualizations and stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The vortex dynamics thus produced is described in terms of vortex core position, intensity, size and turbulent intensity thanks to a vortex tracking approach. In addition, the analysis of the velocity flow fields obtained from PIV highlights the influence of the longitudinal vortex initiated at the pylon/wing junction on the separation process of the boundary layer near the upper wing leading-edge.

  9. Assessment of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction conditions for gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification of organic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, M; Rodríguez, I; Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Cela, R; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2014-11-14

    The suitability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for gas chromatography (GC) characterization of minor organic compounds in honey samples is evaluated. Under optimized conditions, samples were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by DLLME using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.075 mL) as extractant. The yielded settled phase was analyzed by GC using high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The whole sample preparation process is completed in approximately 10 min, with a total consumption of organic solvents below 4 mL, relative standard deviations lower than 12% and with more than 70 organic compounds, displaying linear retention index in the range from 990 to 2900, identified in the obtained extracts. In comparison with HS SPME extraction, higher peak intensities were attained for most volatile and semi-volatile compounds amenable to both extraction techniques. Furthermore, other species such as highly polar and water soluble benzene acids, long chain fatty acids, esters and flavonoids, which are difficult to concentrate by HS SPME, could be identified in DLLME extracts. Some of the compounds identified in DLLME extracts have been proposed as useful for samples classification and/or they are recognized as markers of honeys from certain geographic areas.

  10. Flight in Adverse Environmental Condition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    to 0) exposed. llaysia A)OO. During MS approach in poor visibilityt thundeatorms and heavy rain Aircraft undershot And came to rest 1000 water * before...It calcul des avions I Is rafalt, tiles oot slot-s ith utillis Pour trotrwer dts vs~turs d"Intensiti do ratsle I PoatUt des bn. Devuls Son appart -ion...mean wind Is rather difficult. Using earth fixed sensors, a temporal *vraging Is performed for each measuring point. Out the question for the right

  11. Robust Hurwitz Stability and Performance Analysis of H-Infinity Controlled Forward-Velocity Dynamics of UAVs in Close Formation Flight Using Bounded Phase Conditions in a Kharitonov Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Y.; Dasgupta, S.

    2014-07-01

    Multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control in formation flight is comparatively a new research area in the field of aerospace engineering. In the proposed work, robust control techniques are implemented to maintain a fixed relative distance in horizontal and vertical direction with uniform pitch orientation in an uncertain leader-follower pattern of close formation flight platform. The forward velocity dynamics is of focal interest in this paper. H-infinity controllers are designed for leader control and its tracking. The robustness of the H-infinity controller is validated with Kharitonov related bounded phase conditions by forming interval polynomials.

  12. Mars Airplane Valles Marineris Terrain Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a computer simulation showing a proposed configuration of the Langley Mars Airplane on a flyover of the Valles Marineris system on the planet Mars. The actual flight is scheduled for Dec. 17, 2003, timed to mark the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers' historic powered flight at Kitty Hawk, N.C.

  13. Flight research experiments on ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results and analysis of several flight research experiments in ride quality are described. These tests were carried out aboard the NASA Flight Research Center, JetStar Aircraft equipped with the General Purpose Airborne Simulator; and aboard a specially instrumented Boeing 747 flown in actual commercial flight. The data was analyzed to determine appropriate models for subjective reaction to the motion environment. Specifically, vertical and transverse acceleration inputs and aircraft bank angle were studied along with duration of exposure.

  14. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: appendix I. Condition of flight animals on recovery; food intake; observations on hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ordy, J M; Brizzee, K R; Samorajski, T

    1975-04-01

    The rationale for studying certain hypothalamic nuclei and the pituitary and adrenal glands of the pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII was the need to evaluate the effects of the potentially severe stress on these animals in the foreign environment of flight canister, weightlessness, increased G forces, and other unnatural conditions. Decrease in body weight and variability of food intake were significant among the four flight animals that were recovered alive. The mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei did not differ significantly from the values obtained in the control animals. On the other hand, the mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the supraoptic nucleus of the flight mice was significantly greater than in the control groups. Comparisons of the adeno- and neuropypophysis revealed no significant differences among the three groups. Insofar as they were studied, the adrenals were similar in all groups.

  15. Thermal performance evaluation of the Northrop model NSC-01-0732 concentrating solar collector array at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar house test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The thermal efficiency of the concentrating, tracking solar collector was tested after ten months of operation at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar house. The test procedures and results are presented.

  16. The German ISS-experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP): The effects of single and combined space flight conditions on mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Thelen, M.; Arenz, A.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    The combined action of ionizing radiation and microgravity will continue to influence future manned space missions, with special risks for astronauts on the Moon surface or for long duration missions to Mars. There is increasing evidence that basic cellular functions are sensitive not only to radiation but also to microgravity. Previous space flight experiments gave contradictory results: from inhibition of DNA repair by microgravity to enhancement, whereas others did not detect any influence of microgravity on repair. At the Radiation Biology Department of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), recombinant bacterial and mammalian cell systems were developed as reporters for cellular signal transduction modulation by genotoxic environmental conditions. The space experiment “Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space” (CERASP) to be performed at the International Space Station (ISS) will make use of such reporter cell lines thereby supplying basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological endpoints will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP). A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized d2EGFP variant. The promoter element to be investigated reflects the activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The NF-κB family of proteins plays a major role in the inflammatory and immune response, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and tumor genesis. Results obtained with X-rays and accelerated heavy ions produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL imply that densely ionizing radiation has a stronger potential to activate NF-κB dependent gene expression than sparsely ionizing radiation. The correlation of NF-κB activation to negative regulation of apoptosis could favor

  17. Thrust Augmentation of a Turbojet Engine at Simulated Flight Conditions by Introduction of a Water-Alcohol Mixture into the Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W.; Auble, Carmon M.; Harvey, Ray W., Sr.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at simulated high-altitude flight conditions to evaluate the use of compressor evaporative cooling as a means of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation. Comparison of the performance of the engine with water-alcohol injection at the compressor inlet, at the sixth stage of the compressor, and at the sixth and ninth stages was made. From consideration of the thrust increases achieved, the interstage injection of the coolant was considered more desirable preferred over the combined sixth- and ninth-stage injection because of its relative simplicity. A maximum augmented net-thrust ratio of 1.106 and a maximum augmented jet-thrust ratio of 1.062 were obtained at an augmented liquid ratio of 2.98 and an engine-inlet temperature of 80 F. At lower inlet temperatures (-40 to 40 F), the maximum augmented net-thrust ratios ranged from 1.040 to 1.076 and the maximum augmented jet-thrust ratios ranged from 1.027 to 1.048, depending upon the inlet temperature. The relatively small increase in performance at the lower inlet-air temperatures can be partially attributed to the inadequate evaporation of the water-alcohol mixture, but the more significant limitation was believed to be caused by the negative influence of the liquid coolant on engine- component performance. In general, it is concluded that the effectiveness of the injection of a coolant into the compressor as a means of thrust augmentation is considerably influenced by the design characteristics of the components of the engine being used.

  18. In-flight and simulated aircraft fuel temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel tank measurements from ten flights of an L1011 commercial aircraft are reported for the first time. The flights were conducted from 1981 to 1983. A thermocouple rake was installed in an inboard wing tank and another in an outboard tank. During the test periods of either 2 or 5 hr, at altitudes of 10,700 m (35,000 ft) or higher, either the inboard or the outboard tank remained full. Fuel temperature profiles generally developed in the expected manner. The bulk fuel was mixed by natural convection to a nearly uniform temperature, especially in the outboard tank, and a gradient existed at the bottom conduction zone. The data indicated that when full, the upper surface of the inboard tank was wetted and the outboard tank was unwetted. Companion NASA Lewis Research Center tests were conducted in a 0.20 cubic meter (52 gal) tank simulator of the outboard tank, chilled on the top and bottom, and insulated on the sides. Even though the simulator tank had no internal components corresponding to the wing tank, temperatures agreed with the flight measurements for wetted upper surface conditions, but not for unwetted conditions. It was concluded that if boundary conditions are carefully controlled, simulators are a useful way of evaluating actual flight temperatures.

  19. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  20. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  1. DAST Being Calibrated for Flight in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    DAST-2, a modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone, undergoes calibration in a hangar at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. After the crash of the first DAST vehicle, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II (serial # 72-1558) with the rebuilt ARW-1 (ARW-1R) wing. The DAST-2 made a captive flight aboard the B-52 on October 29, 1982, followed by a free flight on November 3, 1982. During January and February of 1983, three launch attempts from the B-52 had to be aborted due to various problems. Following this, the project changed the launch aircraft to a DC-130A. Two captive flights occurred in May 1983. The first launch attempt from the DC-130 took place on June 1, 1983. The mothership released the DAST-2, but the recovery system immediately fired without being commanded. The parachute then disconnected from the vehicle, and the DAST-2 crashed into a farm field near Harper Dry Lake. Wags called this the 'Alfalfa Field Impact Test.' These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and

  2. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than

  3. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  4. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in space and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  5. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  6. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  7. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.

  8. KC-135 winglet flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Three KC-135 winglet configurations were flight tested for cant/incidence angles of 15 deg/-4 deg, 15 deg/-2 deg, and 0 deg/-4 deg, as well as the basic wing. The flight results for the 15 deg/-4 deg and basic wing configurations confirm the wind tunnel predicted 7% incremental decrease in total drag at cruise conditions. The 15 deg/-4 configuration flight measured wing and winglet pressure distributions, loads, stability and control, flutter, and buffet also correlate well with predicted values. The only unexpected flight results as compared with analytical predictions is a flutter speed decrease for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration. The 15 deg/-2 deg configuration results show essentially the same incremental drag reduction as the 15 deg/-4 deg configuration; however, the flight loads are approximately 30% higher for the 15 deg/-2 deg configuration. The drag data for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration show only a flight drag reduction.

  9. 78 FR 75284 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... electronic flight control system that contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections, for... Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington,...

  10. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  11. Flight Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    PROCEEDINGS No.408 Flight Simulation DTIC !ELECTE NOVO505s ’ D -J DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY I I •k i nimy fle-"-- THE MISSION OF AGARI) The mission of...recherche. Ie d ~veloppement et lentrainement. Les objectifs du symposium de la commmission m~canique de vol de L’AGARD 6taient de fournir une description...tttbution Availjbiily CcodeS AvailI a.- d or Dist Spe~cial FLIGHT MECHANICS PANEL OFFICERS Chairman: Dr Ing. P.Hamcl Deputy Chairman: Dr Ing. A.Filisetti

  12. STS-112 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-112 post flight presentation begins with a shot of the moonrise over the Earth's Limb. A photograph of the STS-112 crew is shown. The crew consists of Mission Specialists Sandy Magnus, David Wolf, Piers Sellers and Fodor Yurchikhin, Pilot Pam Melroy and Commander Jeff Ashby. The crew departs from the Operations and Control Building to the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Sandy Magnus is shown preparing to board the Space Shuttle Atlantis. The actual STS-112 launch with flight deck activity during rendezvous with the International Space Station is also presented.

  13. Cognitive Assessment During Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly; Kane, R. L.; Sipes, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer-based, self-administered battery of five cognitive assessment tests developed for medical operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. WinSCAT is a medical requirement for U.S. long-duration astronauts and has been implemented with U.S. astronauts from one NASA/Mir mission (NASA-7 mission) and all expeditions to date on the International Space Station (ISS). Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success. WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. Additionally, WinSCAT Version 2.0.28 has increased difficulty of items in Mathematics, increased number of items in Match-to-Sample, incorporates a moving rather than a fixed baseline, and implements stricter interpretation rules. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. WinSCAT tests are routinely taken monthly during an ISS mission. Performance data from these ISS missions do not indicate significant cognitive decrements due to microgravity/space flight alone but have shown decrements. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight.. Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests.

  14. Activity Tracking for Pilot Error Detection from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an application of activity tracking for pilot error detection from flight data, and describes issues surrounding such an application. It first describes the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS), in-flight data collected from the NASA Langley Boeing 757 Airborne Research Integrated Experiment System aircraft, and a model of B757 flight crew activities. It then presents an example of CATS detecting actual in-flight crew errors.

  15. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  16. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  17. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  18. Improved Flight Test Procedures for Flutter Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick C.; Brenner, Martin J.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1997-01-01

    Flight flutter testing is an integral part of flight envelope clearance. This paper discusses advancements in several areas that are being investigated to improve efficiency and safety of flight test programs. Results are presented from recent flight testing of the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft. A wingtip excitation system was used to generate aeroelastic response data. This system worked well for many flight conditions but still displayed some anomalies. Wavelet processing is used to analyze the flight data. Filtered transfer functions are generated that greatly improve system identification. A flutter margin is formulated that accounts for errors between a model and flight data. Worst-case flutter margins are computed to demonstrate the flutter boundary may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated. This paper concludes with developments for a distributed flight analysis environment and on-line health monitoring.

  19. Historical Analysis of Aircraft Flight Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing and displaying one or more present flight parameter values (FP(t) of an aircraft in motion at a measurement time t(sub n), and for comparing the present flight parameter value with a selected percentage band, containing historical flight parameter data for similar conditions.

  20. Pathogenetic validation of the use of biological protective agents and early treatment in cases of radiation injury simulating radiation effects under space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogozkin, V. D.; Varteres, V.; Sabo, L.; Groza, N.; Nikolov, I.

    1974-01-01

    In considering a radiation safety system for space flights, the various measures to protect man against radiation include drug prophylaxis. At the present time a great deal of experimental material has been accumulated on the prevention and treatment of radiation injuries. Antiradiation effectiveness has been established for sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances, auxins, cyanides, polynucleotides, mucopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, aminosaccharides, synthetic polymers, vitamins, hormones, amino acids and other compounds which can be divided into two basic groups - biological and chemical protective agents.

  1. Base pressure and heat transfer tests of the 0.0225-scale space shuttle plume simulation model (19-OTS) in yawed flight conditions in the NASA-Lewis 10x10-foot supersonic wind tunnel (test IH83)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foust, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressures, heat transfer rates, and gas recovery temperatures in the base region of a rocket firing model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle during simulated yawed flight conditions. First and second stage flight of the space shuttle were simulated by firing the main engines in conjunction with the SRB rocket motors or only the SSME's into the continuous tunnel airstream. For the correct rocket plume environment, the simulated altitude pressures were halved to maintain the rocket chamber/altitude pressure ratio. Tunnel freestream Mach numbers from 2.2 to 3.5 were simulated over an altitude range of 60 to 130 thousand feet with varying angle of attack, yaw angle, nozzle gimbal angle and SRB chamber pressure. Gas recovery temperature data derived from nine gas temperature probe runs are presented. The model configuration, instrumentation, test procedures, and data reduction are described.

  2. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    for heat transfer research while the X-1C was intended as a high-speed armament systems test bed. All of these aircraft like the original X-1s, were launched from a Boeing B-29 or Boeing B-50 'mothership' to take maximum advantage of their limited flying time with a rocket engine. Most launches were made from the JTB-29A (45-21800). The other launch aircraft was EB-50A (46-006). X-1A The Bell X-1A was similar to the Bell X-1, except for having turbo-driven fuel pumps (instead of a system using nitrogen under pressure), a new cockpit canopy, longer fuselage and increased fuel capacity. The X-1A arrived at Edwards Air Force Base, California on January 7, 1953, with the first glide flight being successfully completed by Bell pilot, Jean 'Skip' Ziegler. The airplane also made five powered flights with Ziegler at the controls. The USAF was attempting a Mach 2 flight and USAF test pilot Charles 'Chuck' Yeager was eager. He reached speed of Mach 2.435, at a altitude of 75,000 feet on December 12, 1953, a speed record at the time. But all was not well, the aircraft encountered an inertial coupling phenomenon and went out of control. Once the X-1A had entered the denser atmosphere (35,000 feet) it slowly stabilized and Yeager was able to return to Edwards. The aircraft had experienced high-speed roll-coupling, something aerodynamicists had predicted, but this was the first actual encounter. On August 26, 1954, Major Arthur Murray, USAF test pilot flew the X-1A to an altitude record of 90,440 feet. NACA High-Speed Flight Station received the aircraft in September 1954 and returned it to Bell for the installation of an ejection seat. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made a familiarization flight on July 20, 1955 followed by another scheduled flight on August 8, 1955. Shortly before launch the X-1A suffered an explosion. The extent of the damage prohibited landing the crippled aircraft. The X-1A was jettisoned into the desert, exploding and burning on impact. Walker and the B-29

  3. Flight test comparison between enhanced vision (FLIR) and synthetic vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-05-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA"s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  4. Flight Test Comparison Between Enhanced Vision (FLIR) and Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA s Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  5. Spacewedge #1 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Wedge. The Spacewedge was a flattened biconical airframe joined to a ram-air parafoil with a custom harness. In the manual control mode, the vehicle was flown using a radio uplink. In its autonomous mode, it was controlled using a small computer that received input from onboard sensors. Selected sensor data was recorded onto several onboard data loggers. Two Spacewedge shapes were used for four airframes representing generic hypersonic vehicle configurations. Spacewedge vehicles were 48 inches long, 30 inches wide, and 21 inches high. Their basic weight was 120 pounds, although different configurations weighed from 127 to 184 pounds. Potential uses for Spacewedge-based technology include deployable, precision, autonomous landing systems, such as the one deployed by the X-38 crew return vehicle; planetary probes; booster recovery systems; autonomous gliding parachute systems on military aircraft ejection seats; offset delivery of military cargoes; and delivery of humanitarian aid to hard-to-reach locations. Dryden employees involved with the Spacewedge program included R. Dale Reed, who originated the concept of conducting a subscale flight test at Dryden and participated in the actual testing. Alexander Sim managed the flight project and participated in its documentation. James Murray served as the principal Dryden investigator and as the lead for all systems integration for Phases I and II (the Spacewedge phases).

  6. Long duration flights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  7. X-48B Flight Research Progress Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Tim; Cosentino, Gary; Regan, Chris; Kisska, Michael; Princen, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Program Objectives; I. Assess stability & control characteristics of a BWB class vehicle in free-flight conditions: a) Assess dynamic interaction of control surfaces; b) Assess control requirements to accommodate asymmetric thrust; c) Assess stability and controllability about each axis at a range of flight conditions II. Assess flight control algorithms designed to provide desired flight characteristics: a) Assess control surface allocation and blending; b) Assess edge of envelope protection schemes; c) Assess takeoff and landing characteristics; d) Test experimental control laws and control design methods. III. Evaluate prediction and test methods for BWB class vehicles: a) Correlate flight measurements with ground-based predictions and measurements.

  8. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  9. All-Weather Flight Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-01-01

    for you to carry over into actuual flight the tratiners atre unrealistic. On the contrry, they are skills you learrn in the trainer. 21) reTlistic...reactions of tile proper actual instrument flying with far greater skill , kind. knowledge and confidence than otherwise. Figure 1-1. Device 1-CA-1...Instrument Flying Skills . 6-2 -(1) Instrument Coverage ........ 6-2 (2) Instrument Interpretation 6-2 . .. - - (3) A ircraft Control

  10. DTFT-1: Analysis of the first USV flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G.

    2009-11-01

    The first dropped transonic flight test (DTFT) of the USV Program, performed with Castor, the first of the two spacecrafts developed within the USV Program, was performed on Saturday 24th February 2007, from Tortolì Airport in Sardinia. At 8:30 a.m. the 340 000 m 3 stratospheric balloon lifted off from the East coast of Sardinia, bringing the flying test bed (FTB) up to 20.2 km before release within the isolated sea polygon controlled by Italian air force test range in Salto di Quirra (PISQ). The mission ended at 10:30 a.m. with the splash-down of the space vehicle. The flight itself was very good, with a nose-up manoeuvre under transonic conditions, reaching a maximum Mach as high as 1.08. The mission target was completely achieved as some 2 million measures were taken related to flight data, housekeeping, as well as 500 aerodynamic and structural experimental sensors. Unfortunately, the vehicle has been damaged more than expected during splash-down. Many national and international institutions and industries contributed to the mission carrying out, under the supervision and technical guide of CIRA: Italian Space Agency, Italian Air Force, Italian Navy, Italian Civil Aviation Authority, Italian Company for Air Navigation Services, Port Authorities, European Space Agency, Techno System Dev., Vitrociset, Carlo Gavazzi Space, Space Software Italia, Alcatel Alenia Space Italy, ISL-Altran Group. The paper reports the actual status of post-flight data analysis.

  11. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    for heat transfer research while the X-1C was intended as a high-speed armament systems test bed. All of these aircraft like the original X-1s, were launched from a Boeing B-29 or Boeing B-50 'mothership' to take maximum advantage of their limited flying time with a rocket engine. Most launches were made from the JTB-29A (45-21800). The other launch aircraft was EB-50A (46-006). X-1A The Bell X-1A was similar to the Bell X-1, except for having turbo-driven fuel pumps (instead of a system using nitrogen under pressure), a new cockpit canopy, longer fuselage and increased fuel capacity. The X-1A arrived at Edwards Air Force Base, California on January 7, 1953, with the first glide flight being successfully completed by Bell pilot, Jean 'Skip' Ziegler. The airplane also made five powered flights with Ziegler at the controls. The USAF was attempting a Mach 2 flight and USAF test pilot Charles 'Chuck' Yeager was eager. He reached speed of Mach 2.435, at a altitude of 75,000 feet on December 12, 1953, a speed record at the time. But all was not well, the aircraft encountered an inertial coupling phenomenon and went out of control. Once the X-1A had entered the denser atmosphere (35,000 feet) it slowly stabilized and Yeager was able to return to Edwards. The aircraft had experienced high-speed roll-coupling, something aerodynamicists had predicted, but this was the first actual encounter. On August 26, 1954, Major Arthur Murray, USAF test pilot flew the X-1A to an altitude record of 90,440 feet. NACA High-Speed Flight Station received the aircraft in September 1954 and returned it to Bell for the installation of an ejection seat. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made a familiarization flight on July 20, 1955 followed by another scheduled flight on August 8, 1955. Shortly before launch the X-1A suffered an explosion. The extent of the damage prohibited landing the crippled aircraft. The X-1A was jettisoned into the desert, exploding and burning on impact. Walker and the B-29

  12. Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Adam; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Elster, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy allows for depth-selective determination of absorption changes in the adult human head that facilitates separation between cerebral and extra-cerebral responses to brain activation. The aim of the present work is to analyze which combinations of moments of measured distributions of times of flight (DTOF) of photons and source-detector separations are optimal for the reconstruction of absorption changes in a two-layered tissue model corresponding to extra- and intra-cerebral compartments. To this end we calculated the standard deviations of the derived absorption changes in both layers by considering photon noise and a linear relation between the absorption changes and the DTOF moments. The results show that the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper (superficial) layer increases (decreases) with the thickness of the superficial layer. It is confirmed that for the deeper layer the use of higher moments, in particular the variance of the DTOF, leads to an improvement. For example, when measurements at four different source-detector separations between 8 and 35 mm are available and a realistic thickness of the upper layer of 12 mm is assumed, the inclusion of the change in mean time of flight, in addition to the change in attenuation, leads to a reduction of the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper tissue layer by a factor of 2.5. A reduction by another 4% can be achieved by additionally including the change in variance.

  13. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Amit; Conry, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet. Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion. Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. PMID:24106549

  14. Parabolic flight experiments on physiological data acquisition and processing technologies using small jet aircraft (MU300).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Nagaoka, S; Usui, S; Miyamoto, A; Suzuki, H; Hirata, T; Yoshimoto, S; Ueno, T; Kojima, T; Yamagata, M; Ishikura, S

    1994-05-01

    The parabolic aircraft flight provides a short low gravity environment for approximately 20 seconds, which may not be sufficient for a research on the physiological phenomenon induced by actual weightlessness in space. However, the method is still useful to reveal essential and characteristic feature of physiological signs, and is available for testing hardware and also training of crew member during altered gravity. This paper reports the summary of parabolic flight experiments recently conducted as a NASDA program (1990-1992). The program is providing opportunities in low gravity research with small jet aircraft for researchers and agencies. The flight experiments in the life science area have been conducted mostly focused on a physiological changes and basic methodology which may be effective under the altered gravity condition. In this study, the following research team, NASDA, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hospital, Torey Research Center and JSUP were involved and coordinated for the research.

  15. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  16. Bumblebee Flight in Heavy Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, T.; Kolomenskiy, D.; Schneider, K.; Lehmann, F.-O.; Sesterhenn, J.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments, or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  17. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  18. Aircraft health and usage monitoring system for in-flight strain measurement of a wing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Yurim; Kim, Yoon-Young; Shrestha, Pratik; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an aircraft health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. This study aims to implement and evaluate the HUMS for in-flight strain monitoring of aircraft structures. An optical-fiber-based HUMS was developed and applied to an ultralight aircraft that has a rectangular wing shape with a strut-braced configuration. FBG sensor arrays were embedded into the wing structure during the manufacturing process for effective sensor implementation. Ground and flight tests were conducted to verify the integrity and availability of the installed FBG sensors and HUMS devices. A total of 74 flight tests were conducted using the HUMS implemented testbed aircraft, considering various maneuvers and abnormal conditions. The flight test results revealed that the FBG-based HUMS was successfully implemented on the testbed aircraft and operated normally under the actual flight test environments as well as providing reliable in-flight strain data from the FBG sensors over a long period of time.

  19. Post-Flight Assessment of Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Flight Dynamics Test 2 Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; White, Joseph P.; Striepe, Scott A.; Queen, Eric M.; O'Farrel, Clara; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its second Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-2) on June 8, 2015. The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics tools used to simulate and predict the flight performance and was a major tool used in the post-flight assessment of the flight trajectory. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in the simulation to reconcile the predictions with flight data. These analyses are beneficial to characterize the results of the flight test and to improve the simulation and targeting of the subsequent LDSD flights.

  20. Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session WA1 includes short reports concerning: (1) Medical and Physiological Studies During 438-Day Space Flights: (2) Human Performance During a 14 Month Space Mission: (3) Homeostasis in Long-Term Microgravity Conditions; (4) Strategy of Preservation of Health of Cosmonauts in Prolonged and Superprolonged Space Flights; (5) Rehabilitation of Cosmonauts Health Following Long-Term Space Missions; and (6) Perfect Cosmonauts: Some Features of Bio-Portrait.

  1. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  2. Flight-deck display of neighboring aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holforty, Wendy L.

    Over the coming decades, aviation operations are predicted to rise steadily, increasing the burden on already congested and constrained airspace. A major factor governing the safe minimum separation distance between aircraft is the hazard generated by the wake of neighboring aircraft. Unaware of their proximity to other traffic, aircraft have encountered the wake turbulence of neighboring aircraft tens of miles ahead of them with serious or fatal consequences. The wake display described herein is a perspective view, synthetic vision, flight deck display that enables flight crews to "see" neighboring aircraft, as well as their wakes via a predictive algorithm. Capable of enhancing the situational awareness with respect to the wake-vortex encounter hazard by enabling the flight crew to see the relative position of their aircraft with respect to the wake hazard, the display may allow for a decrease in the standard aircraft spacing to those now used in VFR conditions and an increase in airport and airspace capacity. At present, there is no mechanism in place in the National Airspace System that warns pilots of potential wake vortex encounters. The concept of a wake vortex display addresses the need for a real-time wake vortex avoidance scheme available directly to the pilot. The wake display has been evaluated under both simulated and actual flight conditions. Thirteen pilots with flight experience ranging from a student pilot to commercial airline and military pilots served as pilot test subjects evaluating the display under simulated conditions. The pilot test subjects completed a survey concerning their knowledge and understanding of wake vortices prior to the simulation data trials and, after the trials, they completed a pilot evaluation and postflight survey rating their experience and providing feedback for the display design. One test pilot and four guest pilots flew the display during the in-flight evaluations incorporating three wake encounter scenarios. They

  3. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  4. Flight investigation of XB-70 structural response to oscillatory aerodynamic shaker excitation and correlation with analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, J. M.; Kordes, E. E.; Wykes, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The low frequency symmetric structural response and damping characteristics of the XB-70 airplane were measured at four flight conditions: heavyweight at a Mach number of 0.87 at an altitude of 7620 meters (25,000 feet); lightweight at a Mach number of 0.86 at an altitude of 7620 meters (25,000 feet); a Mach number of 1.59 at an altitude of 11,918 meters (39.100 feet); and a Mach number of 2.38 and an altitude of 18,898 meters (62,000 feet). The flight data are compared with the response calculated by using early XB-70 design data and with the response calculated with mass, structural, and aerodynamic data updated to reflect as closely as possible the airplane characteristics at three of the flight conditions actually flown.

  5. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-509 Apollo 14 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 flight is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight failures are identified, their causes are determined and corrective actions are recommended. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  6. Immune function during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  7. Statistical Trajectory Estimation Program (STEP) implementation for BLDT post flight trajectory simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to provide flight conditions for qualifying the Viking Decelerator System in a simulated Mars environment. A balloon launched decelerator test (BLDT) vehicle which has an external shape similar to the actual Mars Viking Lander Capsule was used so that the decelerator would be deployed in the wake of a blunt body. An effort was made to simulate the BLDT vehicle flights from the time they were dropped from the balloon, through decelerator deployment, until stable decelerator conditions were reached. The procedure used to simulate these flights using the Statistical Trajectory Estimation Program (STEP) is discussed. Using primarily ground-based position radar and vehicle onboard rate gyro and accelerometer data, the STEP produces a minimum variance solution of the vehicle trajectory and calculates vehicle attitude histories. Using film from cameras in the vehicle along with a computer program, attitude histories for portions of the flight before and after decelerator deployment were calculated independent of the STEP simulation. With the assumption that the vehicle motions derived from camera data are accurate, a comparison reveals that STEP was able to simulate vehicle motions for all flights both before and after decelerator deployment.

  8. 78 FR 75287 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This... can be accomplished smoothly with average piloting skill and without exceeding any structural...

  9. Cooling Enhancement by Drop Impact and Pool Boiling on Nano-textured Surfaces Under Normal Gravity Conditions and at Zero and Increased Gravity in Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarin, Alexander; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Jun, Seongchul

    2014-03-01

    The earth experiments with drop impact onto metal-plated electrospun nanofiber mats encompass a single drop, or drop trains or jets impacts. The results on drop cooling and pool boiling on nano-textured surface were obtained during the parabolic flights supported by NASA and ESA. Pool boiling on nano-textured surfaces was studied for ethanol and water as working fluids. The nano-textured surfaces were copper platelets covered with copper-plated electrospun nanofibers. The results revealed that the heat flux in boiling on the nano-textured surfaces was about 3-8 times higher than that on the bare copper. This stems from the fact that nano-textured surfaces promote bubble growth by increasing the average temperature of fluid surrounding growing bubbles. Nano-textured surfaces facilitated bubble growth rate and increase bubble detachment frequency. On the other hand, the critical heat flux (CHF) on the nano-textured surfaces was found to be very close to its counterpart on the bare copper surfaces. However, the heat flux on the nano-textured surfaces in transition boiling was significantly higher than on the bare copper ones, since the presence of nanofibers prevented bubble merging and delayed formation of vapor film.

  10. Multi-Dimensionality of Synthetic Vision Cockpit Displays: Prevention of Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results showed the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  12. Transfer of Training with Formation Flight Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gary B.; Cyrus, Michael L.

    The present research was conducted to determine transfer of practice from a formation simulator to actual aircraft flight for the wing aircraft component of the formation flying task. Evidence in support of positive transfer was obtained by comparing students trained in the formation simulator with students who were essentially untrained and with…

  13. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  14. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center Solar test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation of a single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions for a total of approximately ten months. The solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, and 3.8 inches in depth.

  15. Flight test of a propulsion controlled aircraft system on the NASA F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight tests of the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system on the NASA F-15 airplane evolved as a result of a long series of simulation and flight tests. Initially, the simulation results were very optimistic. Early flight tests showed that manual throttles-only control was much more difficult than the simulation, and a flight investigation was flown to acquire data to resolve this discrepancy. The PCA system designed and developed by MDA evolved as these discrepancies were found and resolved, requiring redesign of the PCA software and modification of the flight test plan. Small throttle step inputs were flown to provide data for analysis, simulation update, and control logic modification. The PCA flight tests quickly revealed less than desired performance, but the extensive flexibility built into the flight PCA software allowed rapid evaluation of alternate gains, filters, and control logic, and within 2 weeks, the PCA system was functioning well. The initial objective of achieving adequate control for up-and-away flying and approaches was satisfied, and the option to continue to actual landings was achieved. After the PCA landings were accomplished, other PCA features were added, and additional maneuvers beyond those originally planned were flown. The PCA system was used to recover from extreme upset conditions, descend, and make approaches to landing. A heading mode was added, and a single engine plus rudder PCA mode was also added and flown. The PCA flight envelope was expanded far beyond that originally designed for. Guest pilots from the USAF, USN, NASA, and the contractor also flew the PCA system and were favorably impressed.

  16. Subsonic Flight Tests of a 1/7-Scale Radio-Controlled Model of the North American X-15 Airplane with Particular Reference to High Angel-of-Attack Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewes, Donald E.; Hassell, James L., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation of the subsonic stability and control characteristics of an unpowered 1/7-scale model based on the North American X-15 airplane was conducted by using a radio-controlled model launched from a helicopter and flown in free-gliding flight. At angles of attack below about 20 deg. where the model motions represent those of the X-15 airplane, the model was found to be both longitudinally and laterally stable, and the all-movable tail surfaces were found to be very effective. The model could also be flown at much higher angles of attack where the model motions did not necessarily represent those of the airplane because of slight geometrical differences and Reynolds number effects, but these test results are useful in evaluating the effectiveness at these angles of the type of lateral control system used in the X-15 airplane. In some cases, the model was flown to angles of attack as high as 60 or 70 deg. without encountering divergent or uncontrollable conditions. For some flights in which the model was subjected to rapid maneuvers, spinning motions were generated by application of corrective controls to oppose the direction of rotation. Rapid recoveries from this type of motion were achieved by applying roll control in the direction of rotation.

  17. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  18. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  19. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  20. Some results of the growth of semiconductor crystals in microgravity conditions (to the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight into space)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shul'pina, I. L.; Zakharov, B. G.; Parfen'ev, R. V.; Farbshtein, I. I.; Serebryakov, Yu. A.; Prokhorov, I. A.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the growth of semiconductor crystals aboard space vehicles and their subsequent investigation has been described shortly. It has been shown using Ge(Ga), GaSb(Si), and GaSb(Te) crystals as an example that the formation of segregation growth striations can be avoided during their recrystallization by the vertical Bridgman method in conditions of physical simulation of microgravity on the Earth, mainly due to the essential weakening of the thermal gravitation convection. By their structure and impurity distribution, they approach the crystals grown in space. The investigation of recrystallization of Te has made it possible to determine the role of the detachment effect characteristic of the microgravity conditions and the features of the microstructure of the samples that crystallize with a free surface. The analysis of the results obtained from experiments in space allows us to better understand the processes occurring during the crystallization of the melts and to improve the crystal growth in terrestrial conditions.

  1. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  2. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  3. Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-701) 2: Extrapolation of wind-tunnel data to full-scale conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Mann, M. J.; Sorrells, R. B., III; Sawyer, W. C.; Fuller, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of calculations necessary to extrapolate performance data on an XB-70-1 wind tunnel model to full scale at Mach numbers from 0.76 to 2.53 are presented. The extrapolation was part of a joint program to evaluate performance prediction techniques for large flexible supersonic airplanes similar to a supersonic transport. The extrapolation procedure included: interpolation of the wind tunnel data at the specific conditions of the flight test points; determination of the drag increments to be applied to the wind tunnel data, such as spillage drag, boundary layer trip drag, and skin friction increments; and estimates of the drag items not represented on the wind tunnel model, such as bypass doors, roughness, protuberances, and leakage drag. In addition, estimates of the effects of flexibility of the airplane were determined.

  4. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  5. Performance assessment in a flight simulator test—Validation of a space psychology methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, B.; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Maschke, Peter; Stelling, Dirk; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk

    2007-02-01

    The objective assessment of operator performance in hand controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station has 30 years of tradition and is well established. In the last years the performance assessment was successfully combined with a psycho-physiological approach for the objective assessment of the levels of physiological arousal and psychological load. These methods are based on statistical reference data. For the enhancement of the statistical power of the evaluation methods, both were actually implemented into a comparable terrestrial task: the flight simulator test of DLR in the selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for civil airlines. In the first evaluation study 134 male subjects were analysed. Subjects underwent a flight simulator test including three tasks, which were evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardised rating scales. The principles of the performance algorithms of the docking training were adapted for the automated flight performance assessment. They are presented here. The increased human errors under instrument flight conditions without visual feedback required a manoeuvre recognition algorithm before calculating the deviation of the flown track from the given task elements. Each manoeuvre had to be evaluated independently of former failures. The expert rated performance showed a highly significant correlation with the automatically calculated performance for each of the three tasks: r=.883, r=.874, r=.872, respectively. An automated algorithm successfully assessed the flight performance. This new method will possibly provide a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  6. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  7. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  8. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on Space Shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  9. Advanced concepts flight simulation facility.

    PubMed

    Chappell, S L; Sexton, G A

    1986-12-01

    The cockpit environment is changing rapidly. New technology allows airborne computerised information, flight automation and data transfer with the ground. By 1995, not only will the pilot's task have changed, but also the tools for doing that task. To provide knowledge and direction for these changes, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lockheed-Georgia Company have completed three identical Advanced Concepts Flight Simulation Facilities. Many advanced features have been incorporated into the simulators - e g, cathode ray tube (CRT) displays of flight and systems information operated via touch-screen or voice, print-outs of clearances, cockpit traffic displays, current databases containing navigational charts, weather and flight plan information, and fuel-efficient autopilot control from take-off to touchdown. More importantly, this cockpit is a versatile test bed for studying displays, controls, procedures and crew management in a full-mission context. The facility also has an air traffic control simulation, with radio and data communications, and an outside visual scene with variable weather conditions. These provide a veridical flight environment to evaluate accurately advanced concepts in flight stations.

  10. Analysis of the Quality of Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambot, Thomas; Ord, Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Parabolic flight allows researchers to conduct several micro-gravity experiments, each with up to 20 seconds of micro-gravity, in the course of a single day. However, the quality of the flight environment can vary greatly over the course of a single parabola, thus affecting the experimental results. Researchers therefore require knowledge of the actual flight environment as a function of time. The NASA Flight Opportunities program (FO) has reviewed the acceleration data for over 400 parabolas and investigated the level of micro-gravity quality. It was discovered that a typical parabola can be segmented into multiple phases with different qualities and durations. The knowledge of the microgravity characteristics within the parabola will prove useful when planning an experiment.

  11. Comparing future options for human space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-09-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10 10/year expense in the US. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options— Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon—which are then analyzed for their purpose, societal myth, legacy benefits, core needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialog with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  12. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  13. Flight projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the activities of the Flight Projects Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Information is given on space research and technology strategy, current space flight experiments, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the Orbiter Experiment Program, the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System, the Arcjet Flight Experiment, the Telerobotic Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment, the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment, the Industry/University In-Space Flight Experiments, and the Aeroassist Flight Experiment.

  14. In-flight evaluation of an optical head motion tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawada, Kazuho

    2009-05-01

    We have presented a new approach for Optical HMT (Head Motion Tracker) last year (Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550A1-11, 2008) [1]. In existing Magnetic HMT, it is inevitable to conduct pre-mapping in order to obtain sufficient accuracy because of magnetic field's distortion caused by metallic material around HMT, such as cockpit and helmet. Optical HMT is commonly known as mapping-free tracker; however, it has some disadvantages on accuracy, stability against sunlight conditions, in terms of comparison with Magnetic HMT. We have succeeded to develop new Optical HMT, which can overcome particular disadvantages by integration with two area cameras, LED markers, image processing techniques and inertial sensors with simple algorithm in laboratory level environment. We have also reported some experimental results conducted in laboratory, which proves good accuracy even in the sunlight condition. This time, we show actual performance of the Optical HMT in flight condition, including evaluation of stability against sunlight. Shimadzu Corp. and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) is conducting joint research named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) [2] that aims at inventing method of presenting suitable information to the pilot to support search and rescue missions by helicopters. The Optical HMT has been evaluated through a series of flight evaluation in SAVERH and demonstrated the operation concept.

  15. Atmospheric reentry flight test of winged space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto

    A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.

  16. Studying Biological Rhythms of Person's Skin-galvanic Reaction and Dynamics of Light Transmission by Isomeric Substance in Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glushko, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Intensity and amplitude of human functional systems and human most important organs are wavelike, rhythmic by nature. These waves have constant periodicity, phase and amplitude. The mentioned characteristics can vary, however their variations have a pronounced reiteration in the course of time. This indicates a hashing of several wave processes and their interference. Stochastic changes in wave processes characteristics of a human organism are explained either by 'pulsations' associated with hashing (superposition) of several wave processes and their interference, or by single influence of environmental physical factors on a human organism. Human beings have respectively periods of higher and lower efficiency, state of health and so on, depending not only of environmental factors, but also of 'internal' rhythmic factor. Sometimes peaks and falls periodicity of some or other characteristics is broken. Disturbance of steady-state biological rhythms is usually accompanied by reduction of activity steadiness of the most important systems of a human organism. In its turn this has an effect on organism's adaptation to changing living conditions as well as on general condition and efficiency of a human being. The latter factor is very important for space medicine. Biological rhythmology is a special branch of biology and medicine, it studies rhythmic activity mechanisms of organs, their systems, individuals and species. Appropriate researches were also carried out in space medicine.

  17. Flight Instruction and the Private Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Louis T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports the results of a questionnaire designed to assess the quality of flight instruction given to the private pilot. Areas covered included preparedness of the flight instructor, attitude of the instructor, teaching methods employed, cost of obtaining a license, and condition of the aircraft used. (GS)

  18. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  19. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team is to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions as well as stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to the baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This set of open-loop flight tests was performed in preparation for a future phase of flights in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed a pitch frequency sweep and an automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. An examination of flight data shows that addition of the flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved the pitch handling qualities of the aircraft.

  20. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  1. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  2. Multi-Exciter Vibroacoustic Simulation of Hypersonic Flight Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    GREGORY,DANNY LYNN; CAP,JEROME S.; TOGAMI,THOMAS C.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; HOLLINGSHEAD,JAMES RONALD

    1999-11-11

    Many aerospace structures must survive severe high frequency, hypersonic, random vibration during their flights. The random vibrations are generated by the turbulent boundary layer developed along the exterior of the structures during flight. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past using a fixed-based, single exciter input with an upper frequency range of 2 kHz. This study investigates the possibility of using acoustic ardor independently controlled multiple exciters to more accurately simulate hypersonic flight vibration. The test configuration, equipment, and methodology are described. Comparisons with actual flight measurements and previous single exciter simulations are also presented.

  3. D-558-2 launch and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    ,000 feet and push over into a slight dive, Crossfield made aviation history on November 20, 1953, when he flew to Mach 2.005 (1,291 miles per hour). He became the first pilot to reach Mach 2 in this, the only flight in which the Skyrocket flew that fast. Following this flight, Crossfield and NACA pilots Joseph A. Walker and John B. McKay flew the airplane for such purposes as to gather data on pressure distribution, structural loads, and structural heating. The last flight in the program occurred on December 20, 1956, when McKay obtained dynamic stability data and sound-pressure levels at transonic speeds and above. Meanwhile, NACA 145 had completed 21 contractor flights by Douglas Aircraft pilots Eugene F. May and Bill Bridgeman in November 1950. In this jet-and-rocket-propelled craft, Scott Crossfield and Walter Jones began the NACA investigation of pitchup, which lasted from September 1951 well into the summer of 1953. They flew the Skyrocket with a variety of wing-fence, wing-slat, and leading-edge chord extension configurations, performing various maneuvers as well as straight-and-level flying at transonic speeds. While fences significantly aided recovery from pitchup conditions, leading edge chord extensions did not, disproving wind-tunnel tests to the contrary. Slats (long, narrow auxiliary airfoils) in the fully open position eliminated pitchup except in the speed range around Mach 0.8 to 0.85. In June 1954, Crossfield began an investigation of the effects of external stores (bomb shapes and fuel tanks) upon the D-558-2 transonic behavior. McKay and Stanley Butchart completed the NACA investigation of this issue, with McKay flying the final mission on August 28, 1956. Besides setting several records, the Skyrocket pilots had gathered important data and understanding about what would and would not work to provide stable, controlled flight of a swept-wing aircraft in the transonic and supersonic flight regimes. The data they gathered also helped to enable a better

  4. External Vision Systems (XVS) Proof-of-Concept Flight Test Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawrence, III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, High Speed Project is performing research, development, test and evaluation of flight deck and related technologies to support future low-boom, supersonic configurations (without forward-facing windows) by use of an eXternal Vision System (XVS). The challenge of XVS is to determine a combination of sensor and display technologies which can provide an equivalent level of safety and performance to that provided by forward-facing windows in today's aircraft. This flight test was conducted with the goal of obtaining performance data on see-and-avoid and see-to-follow traffic using a proof-of-concept XVS design in actual flight conditions. Six data collection flights were flown in four traffic scenarios against two different sized participating traffic aircraft. This test utilized a 3x1 array of High Definition (HD) cameras, with a fixed forward field-of-view, mounted on NASA Langley's UC-12 test aircraft. Test scenarios, with participating NASA aircraft serving as traffic, were presented to two evaluation pilots per flight - one using the proof-of-concept (POC) XVS and the other looking out the forward windows. The camera images were presented on the XVS display in the aft cabin with Head-Up Display (HUD)-like flight symbology overlaying the real-time imagery. The test generated XVS performance data, including comparisons to natural vision, and post-run subjective acceptability data were also collected. This paper discusses the flight test activities, its operational challenges, and summarizes the findings to date.

  5. Future Flight Central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA 'Future Flight Central,' the world's first full-scale virtual airport control tower, opened December 13, 1999 at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Constructed at a cost of $10 million, the two story facility was jointly funded by NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The facility is designed to test ways to solve potential air and ground traffic problems at commercial airports under realistic airport conditions and configurations. The facility provides an opportunity for airlines and airports to mitigate passenger delays by fine tuning airport hub operations, gate management, ramp movement procedures, and various other airport improvements. Twelve rear projection screens provide a seamless 360 degree high- resolution view of the airport or other screens being depicted. The imaging system, powered by supercomputers, provides a realistic view of weather conditions, enviromental and seasonal effects and the movement of up to 200 active aircraft and ground vehicles.

  6. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  7. I-FORCAST: Rapid Flight Planning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaida, Bogdan; Khan, Mohammed; Mercury, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    I-FORCAST (Instrument - Field of Regard Coverage Analysis and Simulation Tool) is a flight planning tool specifically designed for quickly verifying the feasibility and estimating the cost of airborne remote sensing campaigns (see figure). Flights are simulated by being broken into three predefined routing algorithms as necessary: mapping in a snaking pattern, mapping the area around a point target (like a volcano) with a star pattern, and mapping the area between a list of points. The tool has been used to plan missions for radar, lidar, and in-situ atmospheric measuring instruments for a variety of aircraft. It has also been used for global and regional scale campaigns and automatically includes landings when refueling is required. The software has been compared to the flight times of known commercial aircraft route travel times, as well as a UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) campaign, and was within 15% of the actual flight time. Most of the discrepancy is due to non-optimal flight paths taken by actual aircraft to avoid restricted airspace and used to follow landing and take-off corridors.

  8. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  9. Post-Flight Analysis of GPSR Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John

    2016-01-01

    On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.

  10. Preliminary Flight Results of a Fly-by-throttle Emergency Flight Control System on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies were followed by flight tests. The principles of throttles only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including actual landings with throttles-only control are discussed.

  11. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30–60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  12. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  13. Flight Motor Set 360L003 (STS-29R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riehr, Glen A.

    1989-01-01

    The redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) flight set 360L003 was launched on March 13, 1989 as part of NASA space shuttle mission STS-29R. As was the case with flight sets 360L001 and 360L002 (STS-26R and STS-27R), both motors (360L003A and 360L003B) performed in an excellent manner. Evaluation of the ground environment instrumentation measurements verified thermal model analysis data and showed agreement with predicted environmental effects. The right-hand aft field joint primary heater failed during the countdown; the secondary heater was activated and performed as designed. All other field joint heaters and aft skirt thermal conditioning systems had no anomalies. Shuttle thermal imager infrared readings compared favorably with measured ground environment instrumentation data. No thermal launch commit criteria violations occurred at any time. Evaluation of the development flight instrumentation showed exceptional propulsion performance. All ballistic parameters closely matched the predicted values and were well within the required specification levels. Girth and biaxial strain gage measurements compared closely with corresponding gages on previous flight motors, static tests, and with preflight predictions. Adequate safety factors were verified. (Some ignition transient spiking was noted in a few girth gages; the spiking was determined not to be representative of actual case behavior, but an instrumentation phenomena.) The accelerometers again measured high vibration amplitude levels during the ignition transient and the reentry Max Q phases. Postflight inspection showed that all combustion gas was contained by the insulation in the field and case-to-nozzle joints. No anomalous insulation erosion patterns were found, and the seals that did directly contain motor pressure showed no heat effects, erosion, or blowby. All anomalies identified were a result of splashdown damage, with the exception of fretting in the case field joint interference (nonsealing) surfaces

  14. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  15. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  16. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-511 Apollo 16 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 16 mission is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are deet determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are provide in tabular form.

  17. Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the launch vehicle and lunar roving vehicle performance for the Apollo 17 flight is presented. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  18. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  19. NICMOS flight FPA qualification program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markum, Arvel D.; Kormos, Karen A.; Edwards, Jere B.

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive program has been developed for the production of focal plane assemblies (FPA) for use on the University of Arizona Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) instrument which is to be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This paper describes the current schedule, tests to be performed, test conditions and unique test facilities of the flight FPA qualification test program. This test series is intended to validate design, assembly, performance and reliability of flight qualified FPAs. Also described are the design features, performance characteristics and test results obtained with prototype FPAs used as engineering evaluation units prior to committing the flight qualification units to manufacture. The qualification tests will demonstrate performance margins over and above requirements under operating environmental conditions. Included in the qualification tests are electrical, mechanical and thermal tests. Random vibration tests and mechanical shock tests will be performed at 1.5 times the load level specified for acceptance requirements. The random vibration tests simulate launch conditions and will induce stresses to uncover any potential structural deficiencies that might exist. The mechanical shock tests will simulate potential impacts incurred as a result of handling or transport. The qualification test program is intended to maximize confidence in the quality and integrity of the flight FPAs.

  20. STS 63: Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Misssion Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Misssion Specialist from Russia. A short biography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission is given. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MIR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  1. On-board fault diagnostics for fly-by-light flight control systems using neural network flight processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urnes, James M., Sr.; Cushing, John; Bond, William E.; Nunes, Steve

    1996-10-01

    Fly-by-Light control systems offer higher performance for fighter and transport aircraft, with efficient fiber optic data transmission, electric control surface actuation, and multi-channel high capacity centralized processing combining to provide maximum aircraft flight control system handling qualities and safety. The key to efficient support for these vehicles is timely and accurate fault diagnostics of all control system components. These diagnostic tests are best conducted during flight when all facts relating to the failure are present. The resulting data can be used by the ground crew for efficient repair and turnaround of the aircraft, saving time and money in support costs. These difficult to diagnose (Cannot Duplicate) fault indications average 40 - 50% of maintenance activities on today's fighter and transport aircraft, adding significantly to fleet support cost. Fiber optic data transmission can support a wealth of data for fault monitoring; the most efficient method of fault diagnostics is accurate modeling of the component response under normal and failed conditions for use in comparison with the actual component flight data. Neural Network hardware processors offer an efficient and cost-effective method to install fault diagnostics in flight systems, permitting on-board diagnostic modeling of very complex subsystems. Task 2C of the ARPA FLASH program is a design demonstration of this diagnostics approach, using the very high speed computation of the Adaptive Solutions Neural Network processor to monitor an advanced Electrohydrostatic control surface actuator linked through a AS-1773A fiber optic bus. This paper describes the design approach and projected performance of this on-line diagnostics system.

  2. A Simple Flight Mill for the Study of Tethered Flight in Insects.

    PubMed

    Attisano, Alfredo; Murphy, James T; Vickers, Andrew; Moore, Patricia J

    2015-12-10

    Flight in insects can be long-range migratory flights, intermediate-range dispersal flights, or short-range host-seeking flights. Previous studies have shown that flight mills are valuable tools for the experimental study of insect flight behavior, allowing researchers to examine how factors such as age, host plants, or population source can influence an insects' propensity to disperse. Flight mills allow researchers to measure components of flight such as speed and distance flown. Lack of detailed information about how to build such a device can make their construction appear to be prohibitively complex. We present a simple and relatively inexpensive flight mill for the study of tethered flight in insects. Experimental insects can be tethered with non-toxic adhesives and revolve around an axis by means of a very low friction magnetic bearing. The mill is designed for the study of flight in controlled conditions as it can be used inside an incubator or environmental chamber. The strongest points are the very simple electronic circuitry, the design that allows sixteen insects to fly simultaneously allowing the collection and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time and the potential to use the device in a very limited workspace. This design is extremely flexible, and we have adjusted the mill to accommodate different species of insects of various sizes.

  3. A Simple Flight Mill for the Study of Tethered Flight in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, Alfredo; Murphy, James T.; Vickers, Andrew; Moore, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Flight in insects can be long-range migratory flights, intermediate-range dispersal flights, or short-range host-seeking flights. Previous studies have shown that flight mills are valuable tools for the experimental study of insect flight behavior, allowing researchers to examine how factors such as age, host plants, or population source can influence an insects' propensity to disperse. Flight mills allow researchers to measure components of flight such as speed and distance flown. Lack of detailed information about how to build such a device can make their construction appear to be prohibitively complex. We present a simple and relatively inexpensive flight mill for the study of tethered flight in insects. Experimental insects can be tethered with non-toxic adhesives and revolve around an axis by means of a very low friction magnetic bearing. The mill is designed for the study of flight in controlled conditions as it can be used inside an incubator or environmental chamber. The strongest points are the very simple electronic circuitry, the design that allows sixteen insects to fly simultaneously allowing the collection and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time and the potential to use the device in a very limited workspace. This design is extremely flexible, and we have adjusted the mill to accommodate different species of insects of various sizes. PMID:26709537

  4. Supersonic Retropropulsion Flight Test Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Ethan A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Tanimoto, Rebekah L.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program has proposed plans for a series of three sub-scale flight tests at Earth for supersonic retropropulsion, a candidate decelerator technology for future, high-mass Mars missions. The first flight test in this series is intended to be a proof-of-concept test, demonstrating successful initiation and operation of supersonic retropropulsion at conditions that replicate the relevant physics of the aerodynamic-propulsive interactions expected in flight. Five sub-scale flight test article concepts, each designed for launch on sounding rockets, have been developed in consideration of this proof-of-concept flight test. Commercial, off-the-shelf components are utilized as much as possible in each concept. The design merits of the concepts are compared along with their predicted performance for a baseline trajectory. The results of a packaging study and performance-based trade studies indicate that a sounding rocket is a viable launch platform for this proof-of-concept test of supersonic retropropulsion.

  5. Sounding Rockets as a Real Flight Platform for Aerothermodynamic Cfd Validation of Hypersonic Flight Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamminger, A.; Turner, J.; Hörschgen, M.; Jung, W.

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of sounding rockets to provide a platform for flight experiments in hypersonic conditions as a supplement to wind tunnel tests. Real flight data from measurement durations longer than 30 seconds can be compared with predictions from CFD calculations. This paper will regard projects flown on sounding rockets, but mainly describe the current efforts at Mobile Rocket Base, DLR on the SHarp Edge Flight EXperiment SHEFEX.

  6. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  7. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  8. Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

  9. On Global Optimal Sailplane Flight Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, G. J.; Litt, F. X.

    1979-01-01

    The derivation and interpretation of the necessary conditions that a sailplane cross-country flight has to satisfy to achieve the maximum global flight speed is considered. Simple rules are obtained for two specific meteorological models. The first one uses concentrated lifts of various strengths and unequal distance. The second one takes into account finite, nonuniform space amplitudes for the lifts and allows, therefore, for dolphin style flight. In both models, altitude constraints consisting of upper and lower limits are shown to be essential to model realistic problems. Numerical examples illustrate the difference with existing techniques based on local optimality conditions.

  10. Automated verification of flight software. User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saib, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    (Automated Verification of Flight Software), a collection of tools for analyzing source programs written in FORTRAN and AED is documented. The quality and the reliability of flight software are improved by: (1) indented listings of source programs, (2) static analysis to detect inconsistencies in the use of variables and parameters, (3) automated documentation, (4) instrumentation of source code, (5) retesting guidance, (6) analysis of assertions, (7) symbolic execution, (8) generation of verification conditions, and (9) simplification of verification conditions. Use of AVFS in the verification of flight software is described.

  11. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  12. In-flight turbulence benefits soaring birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallon, Julie M; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (<50 m), along forest edges, and when conditions were poor for thermal development. Because of the tortuous nature of this flight, we describe it as “contorted soaring.” The primary air movement suitable to subsidize flight at this altitude and under these atmospheric conditions is small-scale, shear-induced turbulence, which our results suggest can be an important resource for soaring birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.

  13. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  14. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  15. The Influence of Forward Flight on Propeller Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magliozzi, B.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of flight on blade surface pressures and propeller noise was reported. There were significant differences in blade surface pressures and far-field noise between static and flight conditions. The static data showed many high-intensity, tone-like peaks whereas the flight data was generally free from tones. The turbulence ingested by the propeller operating statically was dominated by long, thin eddies. In flight the scale of the turbulence was greately reduced from that observed statically.

  16. Measurements of Load Train Motion on a Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruner, Timothy D.; Olney, David J.; Russo, Angela M.

    2005-01-01

    Attitude measurements using gyros and magnetometers placed on a stratospheric balloon during a non-pointed test flight were used to observe the natural azimuth and elevation motions of a balloon/load train/gondola at an altitude of 36 km over a total flight time of 400 minutes. Time traces of the entire flight are presented. This flight, conducted under nominal atmospheric conditions, had significant motion about the azimuth. Some discussion on balloon disturbances is also included.

  17. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  18. Optimization of detection conditions and single-laboratory validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of 135 pesticides and 25 organic pollutants in grapes and wine by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Soma; Banerjee, Kaushik; Dhumal, Kondiba N; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes single-laboratory validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of 135 pesticides, 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and bisphenol A in grapes and wine by GC/time-of-flight MS in a total run time of 48 min. The method is based on extraction with ethyl acetate in a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:1, followed by selective dispersive SPE cleanup for grapes and wine. The GC/MS conditions were optimized for the chromatographic separation and to achieve highest S/N for all 160 target analytes, including the temperature-sensitive compounds, like captan and captafol, that are prone to degradation during analysis. An average recovery of 80-120% with RSD < 10% could be attained for all analytes except 17, for which the average recoveries were 70-80%. LOQ ranged within 10-50 ng/g, with < 25% expanded uncertainties, for 155 compounds in grapes and 151 in wine. In the incurred grape and wine samples, the residues of buprofezin, chlorpyriphos, metalaxyl, and myclobutanil were detected, with an RSD of < 5% (n = 6); the results were statistically similar to previously reported validated methods.

  19. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  20. Flight Testing Under Extreme Climatic Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    FACILITY .. ........ 33 MCKINLEY CIMATIC LABORATORY .... ............ 34 Climatic Laboratory Description ... ........... 35 Climatic Laboratory...with other changes result- ing from a development program. This assures the availability of a globally effective system in the shortest possible time...procedural changes /improvements implemented and an assessment made of objectives achieved. This assessment sets the stage for preparation of the procedures

  1. Preliminary Report on Free Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, E P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Results are presented for a series of tests made by the Advisory Committee's staff at Langley Field during the summer of 1919 with the objectives of determining the characteristics of airplanes in flight and the extent to which the actual characteristics differ from those predicted from tests on models in the wind tunnel, and of studying the balance of the machines and the forces which must be applied to the controls in order to maintain longitudinal equilibrium.

  2. Advanced flight software reconfiguraton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcher, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on advanced flight software reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is defined as identifying mission and configuration specific requirements, controlling mission and configuration specific data, binding this information to the flight software code to perform specific missions, and the release and distribution of the flight software. The objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced software reconfiguration tools and techniques; to demonstrate reconfiguration approaches on Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard systems displays; and to interactively test onboard systems displays, flight software, and flight data.

  3. Structures of immiscible Al-In alloys solidified under microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potard, C.

    1981-01-01

    Four samples of the immiscible Al-In system having monotectic and hypermonotectic compositions were solidified under microgravity during the NASA-SPAR IX flight of January 20th, 1981. The experimental thermal and physico-chemical conditions actually achieved have been analysed. Radiographic and metallographic observations of the samples show a non-regular dispersed primary phase inside the monotectic matrix. These observations are commented on the basis of capillarity and solidification aspects.

  4. High-lift flow-physics flight experiments on a subsonic civil transport aircraft (B737-100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Cornelis P.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the subsonic transport high-lift program, flight experiments are being conducted using NASA Langley's B737-100 to measure the flow characteristics of the multi-element high-lift system at full-scale high-Reynolds-number conditions. The instrumentation consists of hot-film anemometers to measure boundary-layer states, an infra-red camera to detect transition from laminar to turbulent flow, Preston tubes to measure wall shear stress, boundary-layer rakes to measure off-surface velocity profiles, and pressure orifices to measure surface pressure distributions. The initial phase of this research project was recently concluded with two flights on July 14. This phase consisted of a total of twenty flights over a period of about ten weeks. In the coming months the data obtained in this initial set of flight experiments will be analyzed and the results will be used to finalize the instrumentation layout for the next set of flight experiments scheduled for Winter and Spring of 1995. The main goal of these upcoming flights will be: (1) to measure more detailed surface pressure distributions across the wing for a range of flight conditions and flap settings; (2) to visualize the surface flows across the multi-element wing at high-lift conditions using fluorescent mini tufts; and (3) to measure in more detail the changes in boundary-layer state on the various flap elements as a result of changes in flight condition and flap deflection. These flight measured results are being correlated with experimental data measured in ground-based facilities as well as with computational data calculated with methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations or a reduced set of these equations. Also these results provide insight into the extent of laminar flow that exists on actual multi-element lifting surfaces at full-scale high-life conditions. Preliminary results indicate that depending on the deflection angle, the slat and flap elements have significant regions of laminar flow over

  5. The 757 NLF glove flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. Jim; Bielak, G. W.; Behbehani, R. A.; Chen, A. W.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    A major concern in the application of a laminar flow wing design to commercial transports is whether laminar flow can be sustained in the presence of the noise environment due to wing mounted turbofan engines. To investigate this issue, a flight test program was conducted using the Boeing 757 flight research airplane with a portion of the wing modified to obtain natural laminar flow. The flight test had two primary objectives. The first was to measure the noise levels on the upper and lower surface of the wing for a range of flight conditions. The second was to investigate the effect of engine noise on laminar boundary layer transition. The noise field on the wing and transition location on the glove were then measured as a function of the engine power setting at a given flight condition. The transition and noise measurement on the glove show that there is no apparent effect of engine noise on the upper surface transition location. On the lower surface, the transition location moved forward 2 to 3 percent chord. A boundary layer stability analysis to the flight data showed that cross flow disturbances were the dominant cause of transition at most flight conditions.

  6. Space flight, microgravity, stress, and immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to space flight conditions has resulted in numerous alterations in immunological parameters. Decreases in lymphocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production, and natural killer cell activity have all been reported after space flight. Alterations in leukocyte subset distribution have also been reported after flight of humans and animals in space. The relative contribution of microgravity conditions and stress to the observed results has not been established. Antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic, suspension of rodents and chronic head-down tilt bed-rest of humans have been used to model effects of microgravity on immune responses. After use of these models, some effects of space flight on immune responses, such as decreases in cytokine function, were observed, but others, such as alterations in leukocyte subset distribution, were not observed. These results suggest that stresses that occur during space flight could combine with microgravity conditions in inducing the changes seen in immune responses after space flight. The biological/biomedical significance of space flight induced changes in immune parameters remains to be established.

  7. [Psychophysiological aspects of piloted flights to space].

    PubMed

    Kozarenko, O P; Ponomareva, I P

    2008-01-01

    The paper illuminates some issues of the psychophysiological support (PPS) of piloted flights to space discussed with academician O.G. Gazenko. Already in initial space flights monitoring and assessment of the psychic state and mental performance of crew members were the key PPS component that needed all-round investigations and development of associated methods. The poly-effect method of registering the physiological functions (ECG, EEG, GSR) was recognized as a potent tool for gathering information to be used in actual state assessment. Starting from the 96-d flight of Yu. Romanenko and G. Grechko, the enhanced PPS system has been an indispensable component of long-term missions to orbital complexes Salyut, Mir, and the International space station. The practical experience with the PPS system showed its major contribution to maintenance of space crew mental health and performance.

  8. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  9. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  10. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  11. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  12. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  13. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  14. Simulating Parabolic Flight like g-Profiles on Ground - A Combination of Centrifuge and Clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungs, Sonja; Petrat, Guido; der Wiesche, Melanie von; Anken, Ralf; Kolanus, Waldemar; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Clinostats and centrifuges are widely used to create simulated microgravity or hypergravity, respectively, in order to study the impact of gravity on biosystems. Here, we used a clinostat and a centrifuge in alternating modes of operation in order to create a simulated parabolic flight like g-profile. To our knowledge, it is the first time that both devices were run in connection. In order to test the method, we investigated the production of reactive oxygen species of immune cells (macrophages) during oxidative burst in an on-line kinetic approach, which has been extensively studied under real (parabolic flight) and simulated microgravity (clinostat) as well as under hypergravity conditions (centrifuge). Our results indicate that clinostat and centrifuge can be operated in an alternating way to simulate the repetitive changes of gravity during parabolic flight. Although the switch from one gravity level to the other could not be carried out as quickly as it takes place during actual parabolic flight due to technical and operational reasons, it can be concluded that running experiments in a clinostat aboard a centrifuge on ground are suitable for studying gravity-related phenomena.

  15. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  16. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  17. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  18. X-43C Flight Demonstrator Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    The X-43C Flight Demonstrator Project is a joint NASA-USAF hypersonic propulsion technology flight demonstration project that will expand the hypersonic flight envelope for air-breathing engines. The Project will demonstrate sustained accelerating flight through three flights of expendable X-43C Demonstrator Vehicles (DVs). The approximately 16-foot long X-43C DV will be boosted to the starting test conditions, separate from the booster, and accelerate from Mach 5 to Mach 7 under its own power and autonomous control. The DVs will be powered by a liquid hydrocarbon-fueled, fuel-cooled, dual-mode, airframe integrated scramjet engine system developed under the USAF HyTech Program. The Project is managed by NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Flight tests will be conducted by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center off the coast of California over water in the Pacific Test Range. The NASA/USAF/industry project is a natural extension of the Hyper-X Program (X-43A), which will demonstrate short duration (approximately 10 seconds) gaseous hydrogen-fueled scramjet powered flight at Mach 7 and Mach 10 using a heavy-weight, largely heat sink construction, experimental engine. The X-43C Project will demonstrate sustained accelerating flight from Mach 5 to Mach 7 (approximately 4 minutes) using a flight-weight, fuel-cooled, scramjet engine powered by much denser liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The X-43C DV design flows from integrating USAF HyTech developed engine technologies with a NASA Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle accelerator-class configuration and Hyper-X heritage vehicle systems designs. This paper describes the X-43C Project and provides the background for NASA's current hypersonic flight demonstration efforts.

  19. Use of Flight Simulators for Pilot-Control Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathert, George A., Jr.; Creer, Brent Y.; Douvillier, Joseph G., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between actual flight results and results obtained with fixed and moving flight simulators in a number of phases of flying airplanes with a wide range of characteristics. These results have been used to study the importance of providing motion stimuli in a simulator in order that the pilot operate the simulator in a realistic manner. Regions of airplane characteristics where motion stimuli are either mandatory or desirable are indicated.

  20. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  1. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  3. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  6. Support of Helicopter 'Free Flight' Operations in the 1996 Olympics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, James R.; Cooper, Eric G.

    1996-01-01

    The microcosm of activity surrounding the 1996 Olympic Games provided researchers an opportunity for demonstrating state-of-the art technology in the first large-scale deployment of a prototype digital communication/navigation/surveillance system in a confined environment. At the same time it provided an ideal opportunity for transportation officials to showcase the merits of an integrated transportation system in meeting the operational needs to transport time sensitive goods and provide public safety services under real-world conditions. Five aeronautical CNS functions using a digital datalink system were chosen for operational flight testing onboard 91 aircraft, most of them helicopters, participating in the Atlanta Short-Haul Transportation System. These included: GPS-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance, Cockpit Display of Traffic Information, Controller-Pilot Communications, Graphical Weather Information (uplink), and Automated Electronic Pilot Reporting (downlink). Atlanta provided the first opportunity to demonstrate, in an actual operating environment, key datalink functions which would enhance flight safety and situational awareness for the pilot and supplement conventional air traffic control. The knowledge gained from such a large-scale deployment will help system designers in development of a national infrastructure where aircraft would have the ability to navigate autonomously.

  7. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The first flights of the ER-2 solar cell calibration demonstration were conducted during September-October of 2014. Three flights were performed that not only tested out the equipment and operational procedures, but also demonstrated the capability of this unique facility by conducting the first short-circuit measurements on a variety of test solar cells. Very preliminary results of these first flights were presented at the 2014 Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT) Conference in Cleveland, OH shortly following these first flights. At the 2015 Space Power Workshop, a more detailed description of these first ER-2 flights will be presented, along with the final flight data from some of the test cells that were flown and has now been reduced and corrected for ER-2 atmospheric flight conditions. Plans for ER-2 flights during the summer of 2015 will also be discussed.

  8. Flight Test Implementation of a Second Generation Intelligent Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.

  9. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  10. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  11. Challenges in Rotorcraft Acoustic Flight Prediction and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Challenges associated with rotorcraft acoustic flight prediction and validation are examined. First, an outline of a state-of-the-art rotorcraft aeroacoustic prediction methodology is presented. Components including rotorcraft aeromechanics, high resolution reconstruction, and rotorcraft acoustic prediction arc discussed. Next, to illustrate challenges and issues involved, a case study is presented in which an analysis of flight data from a specific XV-15 tiltrotor acoustic flight test is discussed in detail. Issues related to validation of methodologies using flight test data are discussed. Primary flight parameters such as velocity, altitude, and attitude are discussed and compared for repeated flight conditions. Other measured steady state flight conditions are examined for consistency and steadiness. A representative example prediction is presented and suggestions are made for future research.

  12. Development and Flight Evaluation of an Emergency Digital Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Webb, Lannie Dean

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system for emergency flight control of aircraft with no flight controls was developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane has been flown in a throttles-only manual mode and with an augmented system called PCA in which pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to drive the throttles. Results from a 36-flight evaluation showed that the PCA system can be used to safety land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure. The PCA system was used to recover from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Guest pilots have also evaluated the PCA system. This paper describes the principles of throttles-only flight control; a history of loss-of-control accidents; a description of the F-15 aircraft; the PCA system operation, simulation, and flight testing; and the pilot comments.

  13. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil

  14. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil

  15. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  16. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  17. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  18. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  19. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  20. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  1. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  2. Flight telerobotic servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (SSFTS) are presented. Topics covered include: SSFTS design; SSFTS elements; FTS mission requirements; FTS general requirements; flight telerobotic servicer - telerobot; FTS manipulator; force-torque transducer; end effector changeout mechanism; flight telerobotic servicer - end-of-arm tooling; user interfaces; FTS data management and processing; control subsystem; FTS vision subsystem and camera positioning assembly; FTS workstation display assembly panel; mini-master hand controller; and FTS NASREM system architecture.

  3. Digital flight control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  4. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  5. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  6. YF-17 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator aircraft in flight during a 1976 flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From May 27 to July 14, 1976, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, flew the Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator to test the high-performance U.S. Air Force fighter at transonic speeds. The objectives of the seven-week flight test program included the study of maneuverability of this aircraft at transonic speeds and the collection of in-flight pressure data from around the afterbody of the aircraft to improve wind-tunnel predictions for future fighter aircraft. Also studied were stability and control and buffeting at high angles of attack as well as handling qualities at high load factors. Another objective of this program was to familiarize center pilots with the operation of advanced high-performance fighter aircraft. During the seven-week program, all seven of the center's test pilots were able to fly the aircraft with Gary Krier serving as project pilot. In general the pilots reported no trouble adapting to the aircraft and reported that it was easy to fly. There were no familiarization flights. All 25 research flights were full-data flights. They obtained data on afterbody pressures, vertical-fin dynamic loads, agility, pilot physiology, and infrared signatures. Average flight time was 45 minutes, although two flights involving in-flight refueling lasted approximately one hour longer than usual. Dryden Project Manager Roy Bryant considered the program a success. Center pilots felt that the aircraft was generations ahead of then current active military aircraft. Originally built for the Air Force's lightweight fighter program, the YF-17 Cobra left Dryden to support the Northrop/Navy F-18 Program. The F-18 Hornet evolved from the YF-17.

  7. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

  8. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  9. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  10. Training needs for advanced technology flight decks.

    PubMed

    Maurino, D

    1991-05-01

    The author examines training implications of increased automation in aircraft flight decks. Training issues include the need for basic pilot skills and knowledge, general knowledge of the aircraft, revision of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) to reflect changes due to technology, and tailoring Line-Oriented Flight Training to focus on routine human-automation interfaces and CRM principles in addition to scenarios of abnormal conditions.

  11. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  12. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  13. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  14. Initial results from flight testing a large, remotely piloted airplane model. [flight tests of remotely controlled scale model of F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, E. C. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    The first four flights of a remotely piloted airplane model showed that a flight envelope can be expanded rapidly and that hazardous flight tests can be conducted safely with good results. The flights also showed that aerodynamic data can be obtained quickly and effectively over a wide range of flight conditions, clear and useful impressions of handling and controllability of configurations can be obtained, and present computer and electronic technology provide the capability to close flight control loops on the ground, thus providing a new method of design and flight test for advanced aircraft.

  15. Vision-based range estimation using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Hussien, Bassam

    1992-01-01

    Pilot aiding during low-altitude flight depends on the ability to detect and locate obstacles near the helicopter's intended flightpath. Computer-vision-based methods provide one general approach for obstacle detection and range estimation. Several algorithms have been developed for this purpose, but have not been tested with actual flight data. This paper presents results obtained using helicopter flight data with a feature-based range estimation algorithm. A method for recursively estimating range using a Kalman filter with a monocular sequence of images and knowledge of the camera's motion is described. The helicopter flight experiment and four resulting datasets are discussed. Finally the performance of the range estimation algorithm is explored in detail based on comparison of the range estimates with true range measurements collected during the flight experiment.

  16. Vision-based range estimation using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Hussein, Bassam

    1992-01-01

    Pilot aiding during low-altitude flight depends on the ability to detect and locate obstacles near the helicopter's intended flightpath. Computer-vision-based methods provide one general approach for obstacle detection and range estimation. Several algorithms have been developed for this purpose, but have not been tested with actual flight data. This paper presents results obtained using helicopter flight data with a feature-based range estimation algorithm. A method for recursively estimating range using a Kalman filter with a monocular sequence of images and knowledge of the camera's motion is described. The helicopter flight experiment and one of four resulting datasets is briefly discussed. Finally the performance of the range estimation algorithm is explored based on comparison of the range estimates with true range measurements collected during the flight experiment.

  17. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  18. A Preliminary Flight Investigation of Formation Flight for Drag Reduction on the C-17 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joe; Berger, Dave; Venti, Michael W.; Faber, James J.; Duggan, Chris; Cardinal, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that aircraft flying in formation could experience significant reductions in fuel use compared to solo flight. To date, formation flight for aerodynamic benefit has not been thoroughly explored in flight for large transport-class vehicles. This paper summarizes flight data gathered during several two ship, C-17 formation flights at a single flight condition of 275 knots, at 25,000 ft MSL. Stabilized test points were flown with the trail aircraft at 1,000 and 3,000 ft aft of the lead aircraft at selected crosstrack and vertical offset locations within the estimated area of influence of the vortex generated by the lead aircraft. Flight data recorded at test points within the vortex from the lead aircraft are compared to data recorded at tare flight test points outside of the influence of the vortex. Since drag was not measured directly, reductions in fuel flow and thrust for level flight are used as a proxy for drag reduction. Estimated thrust and measured fuel flow reductions were documented at several trail test point locations within the area of influence of the leads vortex. The maximum average fuel flow reduction was approximately 7-8%, compared to the tare points flown before and after the test points. Although incomplete, the data suggests that regions with fuel flow and thrust reduction greater than 10% compared to the tare test points exist within the vortex area of influence.

  19. Flight set 360L001 (STS-26) igniter, post flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Elgie J.

    1990-01-01

    Space Transportation System (STS-26) was launched from KSC pad 39B. Two of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) were part of the launch system and are designated RSRM-1A and RSRM-1B. Each of these motors were initiated by an 1U75164 igniter. The post flight condition of the igniters and associated components is documented. The overall performance of the igniter components was excellent. No damage or heat affected areas were noted. The sealing elements of the igniter functioned as expected with no evidence of erosion or blowby. The thermal protection system protected all areas adequately. No excessive erosion was noted. Corrosion was found in the special bolt holes in the igniter chamber. The corrosion will not affect refurbishment of the chamber. Beginning with flight 5 grease has been added to the chamber holes to prevent this erosion.

  20. Stereoscopic layout of a perspective flight guidance display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Matthias; Muecke, Stephan K. M.; Mayer, Udo

    1997-05-01

    Analyses of aviation accidents ascribe about 75% of all incidents to human (pilot) behavior. A strong effort is being made to improve ergonomic cockpit layout, because of dramatic changes in the airspace structure, the increase in air traffic, and larger aircraft. One part of an interdisciplinary research project investigates the potential of stereoscopic flight-guidance displays in order to improve pilots' situation awareness. This experimental approach, which aims to research and apply ergonomic design recommendations for stereoscopic flight displays, is based upon a new type of perspective flight-guidance display. The examination of existing research regarding stereoscopic flight displays reveals a lack of basic knowledge, as well as a need for further systematic research into cockpit application. Thus the project contains experiments on different levels of abstraction, ranging from classic parameter experiments to flight simulator tests. Both current knowledge and recent discoveries are applied to superimposed 2-D flight parameters and to real and synthetic 3-D elements, such as a perspective landscape, other airplanes or flight prediction. The stereoscopic layout takes into consideration specific informational needs within different flight phases and is evaluated by means of pilot performance and pilot strain. Selected symbols of the flight guidance display and actual results are presented as examples of the research approach.

  1. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  2. Flight demonstration of a self repairing flight control system in a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James M.; Stewart, James; Eslinger, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Battle damage causing loss of control capability can compromise mission objectives and even result in aircraft loss. The Self Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) flight development program directly addresses this issue with a flight control system design that measures the damage and immediately refines the control system commands to preserve mission potential. The system diagnostics process detects in flight the type of faults that are difficult to isolate post flight, and thus cause excessive ground maintenance time and cost. The control systems of fighter aircraft have the control power and surface displacement to maneuver the aircraft in a very large flight envelope with a wide variation in airspeed and g maneuvering conditions, with surplus force capacity available from each control surface. Digital flight control processors are designed to include built-in status of the control system components, as well as sensor information on aircraft control maneuver commands and response. In the event of failure or loss of a control surface, the SRFCS utilizes this capability to reconfigure control commands to the remaining control surfaces, thus preserving maneuvering response. Correct post-flight repair is the key to low maintainability support costs and high aircraft mission readiness. The SRFCS utilizes the large data base available with digital flight control systems to diagnose faults. Built-in-test data and sensor data are used as inputs to an Onboard Expert System process to accurately identify failed components for post-flight maintenance action. This diagnostic technique has the advantage of functioning during flight, and so is especially useful in identifying intermittent faults that are present only during maneuver g loads or high hydraulic flow requirements. A flight system was developed to test the reconfiguration and onboard maintenance diagnostics concepts on a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft.

  3. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  4. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  5. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  6. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  7. X-43A Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  8. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4)…

  9. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  10. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  11. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  12. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    . Atmospheric experiments were flown from Stavanger, Norway in January and February 1989 north of the Arctic Circle to investigate ozone loss in the stratosphere. From October 1991 through October 1994 a series of ER-2 flights were flown out of Fairbanks, Alaska; Bangor, Maine; and Christchurch, New Zealand to study the winter polar stratosphere. During these polar campaigns the ER-2 acquired atmospheric data with an array of up to 18 sampling instruments onboard the aircraft. Other atmospheric experiments provided more information about clouds and radiation that will help improve climate models. These experiments coordinated satellite, airborne, and surface observations to investigate how cloud formation affects global temperatures. Recently the ER-2, team conducted missions to help determine the effects of a proposed fleet of high-altitude, high-speed transport aircraft. Background measurements of chemistry at high altitudes have been compared to measurements of exhaust plumes of high altitude aircraft like the Concorde and the ER-2. A series of flights from April to September 1997 originating in Fairbanks, Alaska, resulted in the first in situ study of summer ozone conditions in a polar region. Since the program's inception, the NASA U-2's and ER-2's assisted in developing satellite sensors by testing sensor prototypes or by simulating proposed configurations with existing systems. In the early years of the program the U-2 flew prototypes of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner now operating on Landsats 4 and 5.

  13. The flight of Archaeopteryx.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R Jack

    2003-01-01

    The origin of avian flight is often equated with the phylogeny, ecology, and flying ability of the primitive Jurassic bird, Archaeopteryx. Debate persists about whether it was a terrestrial cursor or a tree dweller. Despite broad acceptance of its arboreal life style from anatomical, phylogenetic, and ecological evidence, a new version of the cursorial model was proposed recently asserting that a running Archaeopteryx could take off from the ground using thrust and sustain flight in the air. However, Archaeopteryx lacked both the powerful flight muscles and complex wing movements necessary for ground takeoff. Here we describe a flight simulation model, which suggests that for Archaeopteryx, takeoff from a perch would have been more efficient and cost-effective than from the ground. Archaeopteryx may have made short flights between trees, utilizing a novel method of phugoid gliding.

  14. Theseus on Take-off for First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft takes off for its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden

  15. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  16. Chemical research projects office fuel tank sealants review. [flight testing of fluorosilicone sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant prediction studies, flight simulation and actual flight testing of best state-of-the-art fluorosilicone sealants. The technical accomplishments of these projects are reviewed.

  17. Numerical CFD Simulation and Test Correlation in a Flight Project Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.; Lung, S. F.; Ibrahim, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents detailed description of a novel CFD procedure and comparison of its solution results to that obtained by other available CFD codes as well as actual flight and wind tunnel test data pertaining to the GIII aircraft, currently undergoing flight testing at AFRC.

  18. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  20. Software conversion history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the overall history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) applications software conversion project. It describes the background and nature of the project; traces the actual course of conversion; assesses the process, product, and personnel involved; and offers suggestions for future projects. It also contains lists of pertinent reference material and examples of supporting data.

  1. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  2. Robust and reconfigurable flight control system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwakosit, Wichai

    2001-07-01

    A reconfigurable flight control system is a control system which can automatically adapt itself to maintain the performance of a damaged aircraft to be as close as possible to that of the normal or undamaged one. This research focuses mainly on Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) reconfigurable flight control for an aircraft with damaged actuator(s) which may greatly affect the performance and control of the aircraft, and also pose a challenging flight control problem. The foundation of the control system is a baseline controller and an adaptive module which constitutes a reconfigurable part. The baseline controller ensures that the aircraft has acceptable performance and handling qualities throughout the flight envelope. The combination of a Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Pre-Design Technique (PDT) and a Reduced-order, Linear, Dynamic Inversion (RLDI) control strategy yields a flight control system with good tracking performance and handling qualities with no Pilot Induced Oscillation (PIO) tendencies throughout the designated set of flight conditions. In addition, the system is highly immune to large uncertainties in the aircraft dynamics. The modified filtered-ɛ adaptive algorithm is developed and utilized in the adaptive module of the system. This adaptive algorithm performs well with MIMO system with the added advantage of not having to pre-identify the dynamics of the damaged aircraft, provided that the conditions of reconfigurability are met. An example of the proposed control system with the NASA F-18 HARV vehicle model and a damaged actuator demonstrates the effectiveness of the concept.

  3. Bat wing sensors support flight control

    PubMed Central

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed. PMID:21690408

  4. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  10. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  11. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  12. Speech Recognition Interfaces Improve Flight Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    "Alpha, Golf, November, Echo, Zulu." "Sierra, Alpha, Golf, Echo, Sierra." "Lima, Hotel, Yankee." It looks like some strange word game, but the combinations of words above actually communicate the first three points of a flight plan from Albany, New York to Florence, South Carolina. Spoken by air traffic controllers and pilots, the aviation industry s standard International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet uses words to represent letters. The first letter of each word in the series is combined to spell waypoints, or reference points, used in flight navigation. The first waypoint above is AGNEZ (alpha for A, golf for G, etc.). The second is SAGES, and the third is LHY. For pilots of general aviation aircraft, the traditional method of entering the letters of each waypoint into a GPS device is a time-consuming process. For each of the 16 waypoints required for the complete flight plan from Albany to Florence, the pilot uses a knob to scroll through each letter of the alphabet. It takes approximately 5 minutes of the pilot s focused attention to complete this particular plan. Entering such a long flight plan into a GPS can pose a safety hazard because it can take the pilot s attention from other critical tasks like scanning gauges or avoiding other aircraft. For more than five decades, NASA has supported research and development in aviation safety, including through its Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) program, which works to advance safer and more capable flight decks (cockpits) in aircraft. Randy Bailey, a lead aerospace engineer in the VSST program at Langley Research Center, says the technology in cockpits is directly related to flight safety. For example, "GPS navigation systems are wonderful as far as improving a pilot s ability to navigate, but if you can find ways to reduce the draw of the pilot s attention into the cockpit while using the GPS, it could potentially improve safety," he says.

  13. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  14. Digital Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Validation Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Jarvis, C. R.; Krier, G. E.; Megna, V. A.; Brock, L. D.; Odonnell, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    The experience gained in digital fly-by-wire technology through a flight test program being conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in an F-8C aircraft is described. The system requirements are outlined, along with the requirements for flight qualification. The system is described, including the hardware components, the aircraft installation, and the system operation. The flight qualification experience is emphasized. The qualification process included the theoretical validation of the basic design, laboratory testing of the hardware and software elements, systems level testing, and flight testing. The most productive testing was performed on an iron bird aircraft, which used the actual electronic and hydraulic hardware and a simulation of the F-8 characteristics to provide the flight environment. The iron bird was used for sensor and system redundancy management testing, failure modes and effects testing, and stress testing in many cases with the pilot in the loop. The flight test program confirmed the quality of the validation process by achieving 50 flights without a known undetected failure and with no false alarms.

  15. Columbia's first shakedown flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The space shuttle orbiter Columbia, first of the planned fleet of spacecraft in the nation's space transportation system, will liftoff on its first orbital shakedown flight on or about the 10th of April 1981. Launch will be from the NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A, no earlier than 45 minutes after sunrise. Crew for the first orbital flight will be John W. Young, commander, veteran of two Gemini and two Apollo space flights, and U.S. Navy Capt. Robert L. Crippen, pilot. Crippen has not flown in space.

  16. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  17. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  18. Numerical study of insect free hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Lim, Tee Tai; Fluid lab, Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore Team

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present the computational fluid dynamics study of three-dimensional flow field around a free hovering fruit fly integrated with unsteady FSI analysis and the adaptive flight control system for the first time. The FSI model being specified for fruitfly hovering is achieved by coupling a structural problem based on Newton's second law with a rigorous CFD solver concerning generalized finite difference method. In contrast to the previous hovering flight research, the wing motion employed here is not acquired from experimental data but governed by our proposed control systems. Two types of hovering control strategies i.e. stroke plane adjustment mode and paddling mode are explored, capable of generating the fixed body position and orientation characteristic of hovering flight. Hovering flight associated with multiple wing kinematics and body orientations are shown as well, indicating the means by which fruitfly actually maintains hovering may have considerable freedom and therefore might be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements. Additionally, both the near- and far-field flow and vortex structure agree well with the results from other researchers, demonstrating the reliability of our current model.

  19. Flight Test Techniques Used to Evaluate Performance Benefits During Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Vachon, M. Jake; SaintJohn, Clinton

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Formation Flight research project has been implemented at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to demonstrate the benefits of formation flight and develop advanced technologies to facilitate exploiting these benefits. Two F/A-18 aircraft have been modified to precisely control and monitor relative position, and to determine performance of the trailing airplane. Flight test maneuvers and analysis techniques have been developed to determine the performance advantages, including drag and fuel flow reductions and improvements in range factor. By flying the trailing airplane through a matrix of lateral, longitudinal, and vertical offset positions, a detailed map of the performance benefits has been obtained at two flight conditions. Significant performance benefits have been obtained during this flight test phase. Drag reductions of more than 20 percent and fuel flow reductions of more than 18 percent have been measured at flight conditions of Mach 0.56 and an altitude of 25,000 ft. The results show favorable agreement with published theory and generic predictions. An F/A-18 long-range cruise mission at Mach 0.8 and an altitude of 40,000 ft has been simulated in the optimum formation position and has demonstrated a 14-percent fuel reduction when compared with a controlled chase airplane of similar configuration.

  20. Hyper-X Flight Engine Ground Testing for X-43 Flight Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Rock, Kenneth E.; Ruf, Edward G.; Witte, David W.; Andrews, Earl H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Airframe-integrated scramjet engine testing has been completed at Mach 7 flight conditions in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel as part of the NASA Hyper-X program. This test provided engine performance and operability data, as well as design and database verification, for the Mach 7 flight tests of the Hyper-X research vehicle (X-43), which will provide the first-ever airframe-integrated scramjet data in flight. The Hyper-X Flight Engine, a duplicate Mach 7 X-43 scramjet engine, was mounted on an airframe structure that duplicated the entire three-dimensional propulsion flowpath from the vehicle leading edge to the vehicle trailing edge. This model was also tested to verify and validate the complete flight-like engine system. This paper describes the subsystems that were subjected to flight-like conditions and presents supporting data. The results from this test help to reduce risk for the Mach 7 flights of the X-43.

  1. Identification of atypical flight patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing aircraft data, including multiple selected flight parameters for a selected phase of a selected flight, and for determining when the selected phase of the selected flight is atypical, when compared with corresponding data for the same phase for other similar flights. A flight signature is computed using continuous-valued and discrete-valued flight parameters for the selected flight parameters and is optionally compared with a statistical distribution of other observed flight signatures, yielding atypicality scores for the same phase for other similar flights. A cluster analysis is optionally applied to the flight signatures to define an optimal collection of clusters. A level of atypicality for a selected flight is estimated, based upon an index associated with the cluster analysis.

  2. Lateral stability and control derivatives of a jet fighter airplane extracted from flight test data by utilizing maximum likelihood estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Steinmetz, G. G.

    1972-01-01

    A method of parameter extraction for stability and control derivatives of aircraft from flight test data, implementing maximum likelihood estimation, has been developed and successfully applied to actual lateral flight test data from a modern sophisticated jet fighter. This application demonstrates the important role played by the analyst in combining engineering judgment and estimator statistics to yield meaningful results. During the analysis, the problems of uniqueness of the extracted set of parameters and of longitudinal coupling effects were encountered and resolved. The results for all flight runs are presented in tabular form and as time history comparisons between the estimated states and the actual flight test data.

  3. A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. F.; Robinson, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulent conditions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) the problem of flight safety in turbulence, (2) new criterion for turbulence flight where existing ones seem adequate, and (3) computational problems associated with new criterion. Primary emphasis is placed on catastrophic occurrences in subsonic cruise with the aircraft under automatic control. A Monte Carlo simulation is used in the formulation and evaluation of probabilities of survival of an encounter with turbulence.

  4. Controlled Hypersonic Flight Air Data System and Flight Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    strongly on the flight envelope, re-entry trajectory and vehicle structure. Flight envelope and re-entry trajectory influence primarily the sensor...6 3.3 Flight Wind angles and basic considerations...determination the Mach number independence principle can however be used to derive simple analytic expressions. 3.3 Flight Wind angles and basic

  5. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  6. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  7. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  8. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  9. Flight motor set 360L001 (STS-26R). (Reconstructed dynamic loads analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    A transient analysis was performed to correlate the predicted versus measured behavior of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) during Flight 360L001 (STS-26R) liftoff. Approximately 9 accelerometers, 152 strain gages, and 104 girth gages were bonded to the motors during this event. Prior to Flight 360L001, a finite element model of the RSRB was analyzed to predict the accelerations, strains, and displacements measured by this developmental flight instrumentation (DFI) within an order of magnitude. Subsequently, an analysis has been performed which uses actual Flight 360L001 liftoff loading conditions, and makes more precise predictions for the RSRB structural behavior. Essential information describing the analytical model, analytical techniques used, correlation of the predicted versus measured RSRB behavior, and conclusions, are presented. A detailed model of the RSRB was developed and correlated for use in analyzing the motor behavior during liftoff loading conditions. This finite element model, referred to as the RSRB global model, uses super-element techniques to model all components of the RSRB. The objective of the RSRB global model is to accurately predict deflections and gap openings in the field joints to an accuracy of approximately 0.001 inch. The model of the field joint component was correlated to Referee and Joint Environment Simulation (JES) tests. The accuracy of the assembled RSRB global model was validated by correlation to static-fire tests such DM-8, DM-9, QM-7, and QM-8. This validated RSRB global model was used to predict RSRB structural behavior and joint gap opening during Flight 360L001 liftoff. The results of a transient analysis of the RSRB global model with imposed liftoff loading conditions are presented. Rockwell used many gage measurements to reconstruct the load parameters which were imposed on the RSRB during the Flight 360L001 liftoff. Each load parameter, and its application, is described. Also presented are conclusions and

  10. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  11. Anesthetic Concerns of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are acutely aware of the fact that, although a given surgical procedure may be relatively simple, the required anesthetic care is, in certain cases, extremely complex. This principle is particularly evident when one ponders the difficulties involved in providing even basic anesthetic care in microgravity. In this issue some of these difficulties through the evaluation of airway management techniques during water immersion are confronted, a simulation of the gravito-inertial conditions of space flight. As prelude for this paper, I would like to outline some of the challenges to be overcome before surgical, anesthetic, and critical care can be delivered beyond our home planet.

  12. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  13. International Flight Planning Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    SAC pilots and navigators for international operations and provide increased confidence to deal effectively with contingencies that might occur. -, The...control and altitude separation. Therefore, aircrft separation is greater than operations within a radar enviro :..en:. The service is provided by the ICAO...within the CONUS ARTCC system are connected. Therefore, a handoff of a flight will be effected prior to entry into an adjoining FIR or UIR. Once a flight

  14. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  15. X-29 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This 23 second clip begins with a camera pan from the aircraft's right rear quarter forward as the X-29 flies along in a near- stall maneuver.

  16. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  17. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  18. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  19. Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

  20. Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei

    stability under mal-function of the roll control system. The roll motion of the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle under nominal flight conditions is actively stabilized by its roll control system employing thrusters. This dissertation describes the ascent flight control design problem of Ares-I in the event of disabled or failed roll control. A simple pitch/yaw control logic is developed for such a technically challenging problem by exploiting the inherent versatility of a quaternion-based attitude control system. The proposed scheme requires only the desired inertial attitude quaternion to be re-computed using the actual uncontrolled roll angle information to achieve an ascent flight trajectory identical to the nominal flight case with active roll control. Another approach that utilizes a simple adjustment of the proportional-derivative gains of the quaternion-based flight control system without active roll control is also presented. This approach doesn't require the re-computation of desired inertial attitude quaternion. A linear stability criterion is developed for proper adjustments of attitude and rate gains. The linear stability analysis results are validated by nonlinear simulations of the ascent flight phase. However, the first approach, requiring a simple modification of the desired attitude quaternion, is recommended for the Ares-I as well as other launch vehicles in the event of no active roll control. Finally, the method derived to stabilize a large flexible launch vehicle in the event of uncontrolled roll drift is generalized as a modified attitude quaternion feedback law. It is used to stabilize an axisymmetric rigid body by two independent control torques.