Science.gov

Sample records for actual flight performance

  1. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  2. NEAR spacecraft flight system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft was built and launched in 29 months. After a 4-year cruise phase the spacecraft was in orbit about the asteroid Eros for 1 year, which enabled the science payload to return unprecedented scientific data. A summary of spacecraft in-flight-performance, including a discussion of the December 1998 aborted orbit insertion burn, is provided. Several minor hardware failures that occurred during the last few years of operations are described. Lessons learned during the cruise phase led to new features being incorporated into several in-flight software uploads. The added innovative features included the capability for the spacecraft to autonomously choose a spacecraft attitude that simultaneously kept the medium-gain antennas pointed at Earth while using solar pressure to control system momentum and a capability to combine a propulsive momentum dump with a trajectory correction maneuver. The spacecraft proved flexible, reliable, and resilient over the 5-year mission.

  3. Orion Flight Performance Design Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark C.; Straube, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of the Orion pre-PDR design effort has focused on balancing mass with performance. High level performance metrics include abort success rates, lunar surface coverage, landing accuracy and touchdown loads. These metrics may be converted to parameters that affect mass, such as ballast for stabilizing the abort vehicle, propellant to achieve increased lunar coverage or extended missions, or ballast to increase the lift-to-drag ratio to improve entry and landing performance. The Orion Flight Dynamics team was tasked to perform analyses to evaluate many of these trades. These analyses not only provide insight into the physics of each particular trade but, in aggregate, they illustrate the processes used by Orion to balance performance and mass margins, and thereby make design decisions. Lessons learned can be gleaned from a review of these studies which will be useful to other spacecraft system designers. These lessons fall into several categories, including: appropriate application of Monte Carlo analysis in design trades, managing margin in a highly mass-constrained environment, and the use of requirements to balance margin between subsystems and components. This paper provides a review of some of the trades and analyses conducted by the Flight Dynamics team, as well as systems engineering lessons learned.

  4. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  5. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  6. Effect of flight loads on turbofan engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.; Kafka, P. G.; White, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A significant percentage of high bypass ratio, turbofan engine performance deterioration was caused by an increase in operating clearance between fan/compressor and turbine blades and their outer air seals. These increased clearances resulted from rubs induced by a combination of engine power transients and aircraft flight loads. An analytical technique for predicting the effect of quasi-steady state aircraft flight loads on engine performance deterioration was developed and is presented. Thrust, aerodynamic and inertia loads were considered. Analytical results are shown and compared to actual engine test experience.

  7. Effect of flight loads on turbofan engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.; Kafka, P. G.; White, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A significant percentage of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine performance deterioration is caused by an increase in operating clearance between fan/compressor and turbine blades and their outer air seals. These increased clearances result from rubs induced by a combination of engine power transients and aircraft flight loads. An analytical technique for predicting the effect of quasi-steady state aircraft flight loads on engine performance deterioration has been developed and is presented. Thrust, aerodynamic and inertia loads are considered. Analytical results are shown and compared to actual engine test experience.

  8. Alterations in calcium homeostasis and bone during actual and simulated space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal alteration in experimental animals induced by actual and simulated spaceflight are discussed, noting that the main factor contributing to bone loss in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Mechanical unloading is seen as the most obvious cause of bone loss in a state of weightlessness. Reference is made to a study by Roberts et al. (1981), which showed that osteoblast differentiation in the periodontal ligament of the maxilla was suppressed in rats flown in space. Since the maxilla lacks a weight-bearing function, this finding indicates that the skeletal alterations associated with orbital flight may be systemic rather than confined to weight-bearing bones. In addition, the skeletal response to simulated weightlessness may also be systemic (wronski and Morey, 1982). In suspended rats, the hindlimbs lost all weight-bearing functions, while the forelimbs maintained contact with the floor of the hypokinetic model. On this basis, it was to be expected that there would be different responses at the two skeletal sites if the observed abnormalities were due to mechanical unloading alone. The changes induced by simulated weightlessness in the proximal tibia and humerus, however, were generally comparable. This evidence for systemic skeletal responses has drawn attention to endocrine factors.

  9. Orion Entry Flight Control Stability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, Alan L.; Loe, Greg R.; Seiler, Pete

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Spacecraft will be required to perform entry and landing functions for both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Lunar return missions, utilizing only the Command Module (CM) with its unique systems and GN&C design. This paper presents the current CM Flight Control System (FCS) design to support entry and landing, with a focus on analyses that have supported its development to date. The CM FCS will have to provide for spacecraft stability and control while following guidance or manual commands during exo-atmospheric flight, after Service Module separation, translational powered flight required of the CM, atmospheric flight supporting both direct entry and skip trajectories down to drogue chute deploy, and during roll attitude reorientation just prior to touchdown. Various studies and analyses have been performed or are on-going supporting an overall FCS design with reasonably sized Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, that minimizes fuel usage, that provides appropriate command following but with reasonable stability and control margin. Results from these efforts to date are included, with particular attention on design issues that have emerged, such as the struggle to accommodate sub-sonic pitch and yaw control without using excessively large jets that could have a detrimental impact on vehicle weight. Apollo, with a similar shape, struggled with this issue as well. Outstanding CM FCS related design and analysis issues, planned for future effort, are also briefly be discussed.

  10. AltiKa in-flight performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, Francois; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Steunou, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL/AltiKa satellite has been launched the 25th of February 2013 from the launch pad of Sriharikota (India). Since this date, AltiKa provides measurements and affords the first altimetry results in Ka band. This paper recalls the instrument design and assesses the in-flight performance. The SARAL/AltiKa mission has been developed in the frame of a cooperation between CNES (French Space Agency) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). AltiKa is a single frequency Ka-band altimeter with a bi-frequency radiometer embedded. Both altimeter and radiometer share the same antenna. Altimeter expertise and routine calibrations performed during assessment phase demonstrate the stability of the instrument. Moreover the performance assessed over ocean are noteworthy such as 0.9 cm on epoch 1 Hz noise for 2 m of SWH, which is fully consistent with simulations and ground pre-flight tests results. The data availability is also very good and very few altimeter measurements are lost due to rain attenuation. Radiometer data analysis shows that the instrument is very stable and its performances are consistent with pre-flight tests results.

  11. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Reusable surface insulation flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.; Smith, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The first two flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter have provided the initial data required for operational certification of the Thermal Protection System (TPS). The flight performance characteristics of the TPS reusable surface insulation (RSI) will be discussed. The discussion will be based on post-flight inspections of the RSI and post-flight interpretations of the flight instrumentation data. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and mechanical design requirements for the RSI system were met or exceeded.

  12. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  13. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  14. Tethered satellite system deployer flight thermal performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapter, John J.

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is a Space Shuttle payload that was flown on July 31, 1992. Though anomalies prevented full deployment, the duration of the mission was approximately as planned, so it was possible to assess system thermal performance. The deployer, which supports the satellite and controls tether movement, has a thermal design that includes multilayer insulation, heaters, and the Spacelab Freon Loop. The deployer Thermal Subsystem met all requirements, and there were no anomalies during the flight. This paper summarizes the TSS deployer thermal design and compares pre- and post-flight thermal analyses. It also decribes simplified personal-computer thermal models of the TSS-1 and presents analysis results for the as-flown timeline.

  15. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1992-01-01

    Various engine related performance and health monitoring techniques developed in support of flight research are described. Techniques used during flight to enhance safety and to increase flight test productivity are summarized. A description of the NASA range facility is given along with a discussion of the flight data processing. Examples of data processed and the flight data displays are shown. A discussion of current trends and future capabilities is also included.

  16. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  17. IRAS cryogenic system flight performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbach, A. R.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is the first telescope to perform observations in the far infrared from orbit. IRAS was launched on January 25, 1983 into a 900 km orbit. The use of the first large superfluid helium dewar in space makes it possible to provide a 2 K telescope environment for an anticipated period of one year. A description of the cryogenic system of IRAS is presented, taking into account the superfluid helium tank, the insulation system, the vacuum shell, the aperture cover, and the fluid management system. The dynamic performance of the cryogenic system is considered along with aspects of prelaunch preparations. Details of flight performance are also discussed, giving attention to transient performance, and steady state performance.

  18. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  19. Flight test of takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) is a computer software and hardware graphics system that visually displays current runway position, acceleration performance, engine status, and other situation advisory information to aid pilots in their decision to continue or to abort a takeoff. The system was developed at the Langley Research Center using the fixed-base Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator. (The TSRV is a highly modified Boeing 737-100 research airplane.) Several versions of the TOPMS displays were evaluated on the TSRV B-737 simulator by more than 40 research, United States Air Force, airline and industry and pilots who rated the system satisfactory and recommended further development and testing. In this study, the TOPMS was flight tested on the TSRV. A total of 55 takeoff and 30 abort situations were investigated at 5 airfields. TOPMS displays were observed on the navigation display screen in the TSRV research flight deck during various nominal and off-nominal situations, including normal takeoffs; reduced-throttle takeoffs; induced-acceleration deficiencies; simulated-engine failures; and several gross-weight, runway-geometry, runway-surface, and ambient conditions. All tests were performed on dry runways. The TOPMS software executed accurately during the flight tests and the displays correctly depicted the various test conditions. Evaluation pilots found the displays easy to monitor and understand. The algorithm provides pretakeoff predictions of the nominal distances that are needed to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed and to brake it to a stop; these predictions agreed reasonably well with corresponding values measured during several fully executed and aborted takeoffs. The TOPMS is operational and has been retained on the TSRV for general use and demonstration.

  20. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  1. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

  2. Does medical students’ clinical performance affect their actual performance during medical internship?

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study examines the relationship between the clinical performance of medical students and their performance as doctors during their internships. METHODS This retrospective study involved 63 applicants of a residency programme conducted at Chonnam National University Hospital, South Korea, in November 2012. We compared the performance of the applicants during their internship with their clinical performance during their fourth year of medical school. The performance of the applicants as interns was periodically evaluated by the faculty of each department, while their clinical performance as fourth-year medical students was assessed using the Clinical Performance Examination (CPX) and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). RESULTS The performance of the applicants as interns was positively correlated with their clinical performance as fourth-year medical students, as measured by the CPX and OSCE. The performance of the applicants as interns was moderately correlated with the patient-physician interaction items addressing communication and interpersonal skills in the CPX. CONCLUSION The clinical performance of medical students during their fourth year in medical school was related to their performance as medical interns. Medical students should be trained to develop good clinical skills through actual encounters with patients or simulated encounters using manikins, to enable them to become more competent doctors. PMID:26768172

  3. Apollo 14 flight support and system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 13 incident and subsequent oxygen tank redesign for Apollo 14 placed unique requirements on the flight support activity. A major part of this activity was the integration of the various analytical efforts into a single team function. Additionally, the first flight of the redesigned system without an orbital test required an extensive analytical base. The support team philosophy, objectives, and organization are presented. Various analytical tools that were used during the flight are discussed. Investigations made during the postflight period are considered and their impact upon subsequent flights shown.

  4. Effect of Supervisor Actually Writing Performance Reports, Sex, and Communication between Workers on Organizational Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    SUPERVISOR ACTUALLY WRITING PERFORMANCE AU-APIT-LS Technical REPORTS, SEX, AND COMUNICATION BETWEEN WORKERS Report ON ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS 6...Technolcy (ATC Interpersonal comunication flterwfl A L 4.... Supervisory performance evalaution 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide It necesry and

  5. Post-Flight Analysis of GPSR Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John

    2016-01-01

    On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.

  6. Summary of shuttle data processing and aerodynamic performance comparisons for the first 11 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research is but one part of the most comprehensive end-to-end flight test program ever undertaken considering: the extensive pre-flight experimental data base development; the multitude of spacecraft and remote measurements taken during entry flight; the complexity of the Orbiter aerodynamic configuration; the variety of flight conditions available across the entire speed regime; and the efforts devoted to flight data reduction throughout the aerospace community. Shuttle entry flights provide a wealth of research quality data, in essence a veritable flying wind tunnel, for use by researchers to verify and improve the operational capability of the Orbiter and provide data for evaluations of experimental facilities as well as computational methods. This final report merely summarizes the major activities conducted by the AMA, Inc. under NASA Contract NAS1-16087 as part of that interesting research. Investigators desiring more detailed information can refer to the glossary of AMA publications attached herein as Appendix A. Section I provides background discussion of software and methodology development to enable Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) generation. Actual products generated are summarized in Section II as tables which completely describe the post-flight products available from the first three-year Shuttle flight history. Summary results are presented in Section III, with longitudinal performance comparisons included as Appendices for each of the flights.

  7. Calculating Launch Vehicle Flight Performance Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Pinson, Robin M.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses different methods for determining the amount of extra propellant (flight performance reserve or FPR) that is necessary to reach orbit with a high probability of success. One approach involves assuming that the various influential parameters are independent and that the result behaves as a Gaussian. Alternatively, probabilistic models may be used to determine the vehicle and environmental models that will be available (estimated) for a launch day go/no go decision. High-fidelity closed-loop Monte Carlo simulation determines the amount of propellant used with each random combination of parameters that are still unknown at the time of launch. Using the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, several methods were used to calculate the FPR. The final chosen solution involves determining distributions for the pertinent outputs and running a separate Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a best estimate of the required FPR. This result differs from the result obtained using the other methods sufficiently that the higher fidelity is warranted.

  8. Performance trade-offs in the flight initiation of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Card, Gwyneth; Dickinson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster performs at least two distinct types of flight initiation. One kind is a stereotyped escape response to a visual stimulus that is mediated by the hard-wired giant fiber neural pathway, and the other is a more variable ;voluntary' response that can be performed without giant fiber activation. Because the simpler escape take-offs are apparently successful, it is unclear why the fly has multiple pathways to coordinate flight initiation. In this study we use high-speed videography to observe flight initiation in unrestrained wild-type flies and assess the flight performance of each of the two types of take-off. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of take-off sequences indicates that wing use during the jumping phase of flight initiation is essential for stabilizing flight. During voluntary take-offs, early wing elevation leads to a slower and more stable take-off. In contrast, during visually elicited escapes, the wings are pulled down close to the body during take-off, resulting in tumbling flights in which the fly translates faster but also rotates rapidly about all three of its body axes. Additionally, we find evidence that the power delivered by the legs is substantially greater during visually elicited escapes than during voluntary take-offs. Thus, we find that the two types of Drosophila flight initiation result in different flight performances once the fly is airborne, and that these performances are distinguished by a trade-off between speed and stability.

  9. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  10. Flight performance of the largest volant bird.

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T

    2014-07-22

    Pelagornithidae is an extinct clade of birds characterized by bizarre tooth-like bony projections of the jaws. Here, the flight capabilities of pelagornithids are explored based on data from a species with the largest reported wingspan among birds. Pelagornis sandersi sp. nov. is represented by a skull and substantial postcranial material. Conservative wingspan estimates (∼6.4 m) exceed theoretical maximums based on extant soaring birds. Modeled flight properties indicate that lift:drag ratios and glide ratios for P. sandersi were near the upper limit observed in extant birds and suggest that pelagornithids were highly efficient gliders, exploiting a long-range soaring ecology.

  11. Flight performance of the largest volant bird

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Pelagornithidae is an extinct clade of birds characterized by bizarre tooth-like bony projections of the jaws. Here, the flight capabilities of pelagornithids are explored based on data from a species with the largest reported wingspan among birds. Pelagornis sandersi sp. nov. is represented by a skull and substantial postcranial material. Conservative wingspan estimates (∼6.4 m) exceed theoretical maximums based on extant soaring birds. Modeled flight properties indicate that lift:drag ratios and glide ratios for P. sandersi were near the upper limit observed in extant birds and suggest that pelagornithids were highly efficient gliders, exploiting a long-range soaring ecology. PMID:25002475

  12. Research on flight stability performance of rotor aircraft based on visual servo control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    control method based on visual servo feedback is proposed, which is used to improve the attitude of a quad-rotor aircraft and to enhance its flight stability. Ground target images are obtained by a visual platform fixed on aircraft. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorism is used to extract image feature information. According to the image characteristic analysis, fast motion estimation is completed and used as an input signal of PID flight control system to realize real-time status adjustment in flight process. Imaging tests and simulation results show that the method proposed acts good performance in terms of flight stability compensation and attitude adjustment. The response speed and control precision meets the requirements of actual use, which is able to reduce or even eliminate the influence of environmental disturbance. So the method proposed has certain research value to solve the problem of aircraft's anti-disturbance.

  13. Flight Test Techniques Used to Evaluate Performance Benefits During Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Vachon, M. Jake; SaintJohn, Clinton

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Formation Flight research project has been implemented at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to demonstrate the benefits of formation flight and develop advanced technologies to facilitate exploiting these benefits. Two F/A-18 aircraft have been modified to precisely control and monitor relative position, and to determine performance of the trailing airplane. Flight test maneuvers and analysis techniques have been developed to determine the performance advantages, including drag and fuel flow reductions and improvements in range factor. By flying the trailing airplane through a matrix of lateral, longitudinal, and vertical offset positions, a detailed map of the performance benefits has been obtained at two flight conditions. Significant performance benefits have been obtained during this flight test phase. Drag reductions of more than 20 percent and fuel flow reductions of more than 18 percent have been measured at flight conditions of Mach 0.56 and an altitude of 25,000 ft. The results show favorable agreement with published theory and generic predictions. An F/A-18 long-range cruise mission at Mach 0.8 and an altitude of 40,000 ft has been simulated in the optimum formation position and has demonstrated a 14-percent fuel reduction when compared with a controlled chase airplane of similar configuration.

  14. Performance assessment in a flight simulator test—Validation of a space psychology methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, B.; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Maschke, Peter; Stelling, Dirk; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk

    2007-02-01

    The objective assessment of operator performance in hand controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station has 30 years of tradition and is well established. In the last years the performance assessment was successfully combined with a psycho-physiological approach for the objective assessment of the levels of physiological arousal and psychological load. These methods are based on statistical reference data. For the enhancement of the statistical power of the evaluation methods, both were actually implemented into a comparable terrestrial task: the flight simulator test of DLR in the selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for civil airlines. In the first evaluation study 134 male subjects were analysed. Subjects underwent a flight simulator test including three tasks, which were evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardised rating scales. The principles of the performance algorithms of the docking training were adapted for the automated flight performance assessment. They are presented here. The increased human errors under instrument flight conditions without visual feedback required a manoeuvre recognition algorithm before calculating the deviation of the flown track from the given task elements. Each manoeuvre had to be evaluated independently of former failures. The expert rated performance showed a highly significant correlation with the automatically calculated performance for each of the three tasks: r=.883, r=.874, r=.872, respectively. An automated algorithm successfully assessed the flight performance. This new method will possibly provide a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  15. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  16. First-Grade Retention: Effects on Children's Actual and Perceived Performance throughout Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeating first grade on children's further academic growth, by tracking the actual performance and the teacher-rated performance of a cohort of Flemish first-graders until the end of elementary school. Two research questions are raised: (1) How do first-grade repeaters, at the cost of one extra year of…

  17. ISOPHOT: in-flight performance report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Dietrich; Klaas, Ulrich; Abraham, P.; Acosta Pulido, J. A.; Castaneda, H.; Cornwall, L.; Gabriel, C.; Groezinger, Ulrich; Haas, M.; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Herbstmeier, Uwe; Schubert, Josef; Schulz, Bernhard; Stickel, Manfred; Toth, L. V.

    1998-08-01

    The imaging photopolarimeter ISOPHOT on-board the European satellite ISO houses 144 background detectors of Si:Ga, Si:P, Ge:Ga and stressed Ge:Ga, all sampled by newly developed cold read-out electronics. There is large temporal radiation damage to most of these detectors on the daily passage through the earth's radiation belts. In addition the Ge:Ga detectors exhibit a continuous responsivity increase caused by the cosmic radiation far off the earth. Effective curing procedure shave been developed to heat out these effects. The in-flight sensitivities achieved are close to the pre-flight predictions for most channels. At 100-200 micrometers cirrus confusion is a serious limit for the detection of faint objects on large parts of the sky. The cold filter wheel carrying 56 optical elements, such as filters, apertures and polarizers, as well as the focal plane chopper, operate with high precision and very low power consumption. Due to an effective cold internal baffle system the measured near-field straylight was close to the pre- flight theoretical prediction based on APART simulations. THe sun and moon straylight at 25 and 175 micrometers was measured during several solar eclipses. Drift and transients of the detectors, non-linearities of the preamplifiers, ionizing radiation effects and a complex optical path make the photometric calibration of this instrument challenging. Because most of these effects are reproducible, a calibration accuracy of < 30 percent is already available for most photometric modes. Examples of observations, including the 175 micrometers Serendipitous Sky Survey, will highlight the capabilities of the instrument.

  18. Human Respiratory Responses during High Performance Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    of walking in chemical defence clothing. RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine Aircrew Equipment Group Report No 347 , 1975. 95 Gibson T M, Anton D...1.05 1.01 1.15 1.07 0.0391 0.6223 0.C243 2 Taxy (pre-flight) . 1.00 1.01 1.05 1.08 1.02 0.0296 0.4187 0.0124 1 Jako -oft . 1.09 - 1.13 1.15 1.55 1.14

  19. ATS-6 - Flight performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on ATS-6 was designed to demonstrate the thermal control capability of a thermal diode (one-way) heat pipe, a phase-change material for thermal storage, and a feedback-controlled heat pipe. Flight data for the different operational modes are compared to ground test data, and the performance of the components is evaluated on an individual basis and as an integrated temperature-control system.

  20. The On-Site Mentor of Counseling Interns: Perceptions of Ideal Role and Actual Role Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazovsky, Rivka; Shimoni, Aviva

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of the ideal on-site mentor and the actual mentor's role performance, as perceived by 158 mentor counselors and 171 school counseling interns. Results indicated that the ideal mentor's professional traits were given priority by both groups and that the teacher role was the most salient among role domains. In the actual…

  1. Effects of pyridostigmine bromide on in-flight aircrew performance.

    PubMed

    Gawron, V J; Schiflett, S G; Miller, J C; Slater, T; Ball, J F

    1990-02-01

    The effects of a chemical defense pretreatment drug, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), on in-flight aircrew performance were assessed using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft. TIFS was used to supply appropriate control dynamics, handling characteristics, and cockpit instrumentation for a tactical transport airdrop simulation. Twenty-one C-130 pilots flew two familiarization and four data flights. During two data flights PB was given to both members of the aircrew using the dosage regimen of 30 mg/8 h prescribed by the U.S. Air Force surgeon general. The drug was administered using a double-blind technique. The results indicated that (1) aircrews successfully completed their assigned mission, (2) airdrop inaccuracies and navigation errors in time and distance were not specifically related to PB, (3) performance and crew coordination were not affected by PB, (4) PB and pilot/copilot not discriminate beyond chance between PB and placebo conditions.

  2. The role of flight planning in aircrew decision performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepitone, Dave; King, Teresa; Murphy, Miles

    1989-01-01

    The role of flight planning in increasing the safety and decision-making performance of the air transport crews was investigated in a study that involved 48 rated airline crewmembers on a B720 simulator with a model-board-based visual scene and motion cues with three degrees of freedom. The safety performance of the crews was evaluated using videotaped replays of the flight. Based on these evaluations, the crews could be divided into high- and low-safety groups. It was found that, while collecting information before flights, the high-safety crews were more concerned with information about alternative airports, especially the fuel required to get there, and were characterized by making rapid and appropriate decisions during the emergency part of the flight scenario, allowing these crews to make an early diversion to other airports. These results suggest that contingency planning that takes into account alternative courses of action enhances rapid and accurate decision-making under time pressure.

  3. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  4. Challenges in modeling the X-29 flight test performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Kania, Jan; Pearce, Robert; Mills, Glen

    1987-01-01

    Presented are methods, instrumentation, and difficulties associated with drag measurement of the X-29A aircraft. The initial performance objective of the X-29A program emphasized drag polar shapes rather than absolute drag levels. Priorities during the flight envelope expansion restricted the evaluation of aircraft performance. Changes in aircraft configuration, uncertainties in angle-of-attack calibration, and limitations in instrumentation complicated the analysis. Limited engine instrumentation with uncertainties in overall in-flight thrust accuracy made it difficult to obtain reliable values of coefficient of parasite drag. The aircraft was incapable of tracking the automatic camber control trim schedule for optimum wing flaperon deflection during typical dynamic performance maneuvers; this has also complicated the drag polar shape modeling. The X-29A was far enough off the schedule that the developed trim drag correction procedure has proven inadequate. However, good drag polar shapes have been developed throughout the flight envelope. Preliminary flight results have compared well with wind tunnel predictions. A more comprehensive analysis must be done to complete performance models. The detailed flight performance program with a calibrated engine will benefit from the experience gained during this preliminary performance phase.

  5. Challenges in modeling the X-29A flight test performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Kania, Jan; Pearce, Robert; Mills, Glen

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the methods, instrumentation, and difficulties associated with drag measurement of the X-29A aircraft. The initial performance objective of the X-29A program emphasized drag polar shapes rather than absolute drag levels. Priorities during the flight envelope expansion restricted the evaluation of aircraft performance. Changes in aircraft configuration, uncertainties in angle-of-attack calibration, and limitations in instrumentation complicated the analysis. Limited engine instrumentation with uncertainties in overall in-flight thrust accuracy made it difficult to obtain reliable values of coefficient of parasite drag. The aircraft was incapable of tracking the automatic camber control trim schedule for optimum wing flaperon deflection during typical dynamic performance maneuvers; this has also complicated the drag polar shape modeling. The X-29A was far enough off the schedule that the developed trim drag correction procedure has proven inadequate. Despite these obstacles, good drag polar shapes have been developed throughout the flight envelope. Preliminary flight results have compared well with wind tunnel predictions. A more comprehensive analysis must be done to complete the performance models. The detailed flight performance program with a calibrated engine will benefit from the experience gained during this preliminary performance phase.

  6. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, G

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance-at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small.

  7. Turbulence-driven instabilities limit insect flight performance

    PubMed Central

    Combes, Stacey A.; Dudley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Environmental turbulence is ubiquitous in natural habitats, but its effect on flying animals remains unknown because most flight studies are performed in still air or artificially smooth flow. Here we show that variability in external airflow limits maximum flight speed in wild orchid bees by causing severe instabilities. Bees flying in front of an outdoor, turbulent air jet become increasingly unstable about their roll axis as airspeed and flow variability increase. Bees extend their hindlegs ventrally at higher speeds, improving roll stability but also increasing body drag and associated power requirements by 30%. Despite the energetic cost, we observed this stability-enhancing behavior in 10 euglossine species from 3 different genera, spanning an order of magnitude in body size. A field experiment in which we altered the level of turbulence demonstrates that flight instability and maximum flight speed are directly related to flow variability. The effect of environmental turbulence on flight stability is thus an important and previously unrecognized determinant of flight performance. PMID:19458254

  8. Oogenesis-flight syndrome in crickets: age-dependent egg production, flight performance, and biochemical composition of the flight muscles in adult female Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Matthias W

    2007-08-01

    Age-dependent changes in flight performance, biochemical composition of flight muscles, and fresh mass of the flight muscles and ovaries were analysed in adult female two-spotted crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus. After the final moult the flight muscle mass increased significantly to a maximum at days 2 and 3. On day 2 the highest flight activity was also observed. Between days 2 and 3 the ovary weight started to rapidly increase due to vitellogenic egg growth, which continued at a high rate until day 10. With the onset of ovarial growth, flight performance decreased and the flight muscles started to histolyse. A high correlation between flight muscle mass and the content of protein, lipid, glycogen, and free carbohydrate in the flight muscle indicated that energy-rich substrates from the degrading flight muscles were used to fuel oogenesis, although flight muscle histolysis can provide only a small fraction of the substrates needed for egg production. In general, there was a clear trade-off between egg production and flight ability. Surprisingly, however, some females possessed well-developed ovaries but displayed no signs of flight muscle histolysis. This observation was corroborated by flight experiments which revealed that, although most flying females had small ovaries, some of them carried an appreciable amount of mature eggs, and thus, somehow managed to evade the oogenesis-flight syndrome.

  9. Preliminary supersonic flight test evaluation of performance seeking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1993-01-01

    Digital flight and engine control, powerful onboard computers, and sophisticated controls techniques may improve aircraft performance by maximizing fuel efficiency, maximizing thrust, and extending engine life. An adaptive performance seeking control system for optimizing the quasi-steady state performance of an F-15 aircraft was developed and flight tested. This system has three optimization modes: minimum fuel, maximum thrust, and minimum fan turbine inlet temperature. Tests of the minimum fuel and fan turbine inlet temperature modes were performed at a constant thrust. Supersonic single-engine flight tests of the three modes were conducted using varied after burning power settings. At supersonic conditions, the performance seeking control law optimizes the integrated airframe, inlet, and engine. At subsonic conditions, only the engine is optimized. Supersonic flight tests showed improvements in thrust of 9 percent, increases in fuel savings of 8 percent, and reductions of up to 85 deg R in turbine temperatures for all three modes. The supersonic performance seeking control structure is described and preliminary results of supersonic performance seeking control tests are given. These findings have implications for improving performance of civilian and military aircraft.

  10. Working memory and acquisition of implicit knowledge by imagery training, without actual task performance.

    PubMed

    Helene, A F; Xavier, G F

    2006-04-28

    This study investigated acquisition of a mirror-reading skill via imagery training, without the actual performance of a mirror-reading task. In experiment I, healthy volunteers simulated writing on an imaginary, transparent screen placed at eye level, which could be read by an experimenter facing the subject. Performance of this irrelevant motor task required the subject to imagine the letters inverted, as if seen in a mirror from their own point of view (imagery training). A second group performed the same imagery training interspersed with a complex, secondary spelling and counting task. A third, control, group simply wrote the words as they would normally appear from their own point of view. After training with 300 words, all subjects were tested in a mirror-reading task using 60 non-words, constructed according to acceptable letter combinations of the Portuguese language. Compared with control subjects, those exposed to imagery training, including those who switched between imagery and the complex task, exhibited shorter reading times in the mirror-reading task. Experiment II employed a 2 x 3 design, including two training conditions (imagery and actual mirror-reading) and three competing task conditions (a spelling and counting switching task, a visual working memory concurrent task, and no concurrent task). Training sessions were interspersed with mirror-reading testing sessions for non-words, allowing evaluation of the mirror-reading acquisition process during training. The subjects exposed to imagery training acquired the mirror-reading skill as quickly as those exposed to the actual mirror-reading task. Further, performance of concurrent tasks together with actual mirror-reading training severely disrupted mirror-reading skill acquisition; this interference effect was not seen in subjects exposed to imagery training and performance of the switching and the concurrent tasks. These results unequivocally show that acquisition of implicit skills by top

  11. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  12. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance

    PubMed Central

    Iosilevskii, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance—at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small. PMID:26064548

  13. High performance flight simulation at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II; Sudik, Steven J.; Grove, Randall D.

    1992-01-01

    The use of real-time simulation at the NASA facility is reviewed specifically with regard to hardware, software, and the use of a fiberoptic-based digital simulation network. The network hardware includes supercomputers that support 32- and 64-bit scalar, vector, and parallel processing technologies. The software include drivers, real-time supervisors, and routines for site-configuration management and scheduling. Performance specifications include: (1) benchmark solution at 165 sec for a single CPU; (2) a transfer rate of 24 million bits/s; and (3) time-critical system responsiveness of less than 35 msec. Simulation applications include the Differential Maneuvering Simulator, Transport Systems Research Vehicle simulations, and the Visual Motion Simulator. NASA is shown to be in the final stages of developing a high-performance computing system for the real-time simulation of complex high-performance aircraft.

  14. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the

  15. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  16. Optimizing aircraft performance with adaptive, integrated flight/propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.; Chisholm, J. D.; Stewart, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The Performance-Seeking Control (PSC) integrated flight/propulsion adaptive control algorithm presented was developed in order to optimize total aircraft performance during steady-state engine operation. The PSC multimode algorithm minimizes fuel consumption at cruise conditions, while maximizing excess thrust during aircraft accelerations, climbs, and dashes, and simultaneously extending engine service life through reduction of fan-driving turbine inlet temperature upon engagement of the extended-life mode. The engine models incorporated by the PSC are continually upgraded, using a Kalman filter to detect anomalous operations. The PSC algorithm will be flight-demonstrated by an F-15 at NASA-Dryden.

  17. Preliminary flight evaluation of an engine performance optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, H. H.; Gilyard, G. B.; Chisholm, J. D.; Kerr, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    A performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm has undergone initial flight test evaluation in subsonic operation of a PW 1128 engined F-15. This algorithm is designed to optimize the quasi-steady performance of an engine for three primary modes: (1) minimum fuel consumption; (2) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT); and (3) maximum thrust. The flight test results have verified a thrust specific fuel consumption reduction of 1 pct., up to 100 R decreases in FTIT, and increases of as much as 12 pct. in maximum thrust. PSC technology promises to be of value in next generation tactical and transport aircraft.

  18. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  19. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increases in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.

  20. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    SciTech Connect

    Lévèque, T. Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Grosjean, O.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P.; Bomer, T.; Pichon, A.; Béraud, P.; Lelay, J. P.; Thomin, S.; Laurent, Ph.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.

  1. Hypersonic flight performance improvements by overfueled ramjet combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, G.; Bayer, R.; Lederer, R.; Schaber, R.

    1991-12-01

    The performance characteristics of hypersonic airbreathing engines are examined with emphasis on the effect of overfueled combustion on thrust and specific fuel-consumption, as well as on the combustion temperature, real gas effects, and pollution due to exhaust gas. It is shown that overfueled ramjet combustion can provide a means for improving flight performance at hypersonic speed and, consequently, reduce the mission fuel burn and the propulsion system weight. It is also shown that, in the separation flight maneuver, the separation condition for the upper stage can be improved by overfueled ramjet combustion of the first stage, making it possible to increase the payload which the upper stage can deliver into orbit. The flight mechanics modeling considerations are presented.

  2. Hypoxia and Flight Performance of Military Instructor Pilots in a Flight Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    aircraft or flight simulators a LinkGAT-l instrument trainer ronttcl~d ~ quent report accuracy and the occurrence of errors during cross- country Hights ...in procedural errors due to hypoxia, but no ronvincing evidence for any impact on primary Hight performance, i.e., the pilot’s stick and rudder...control of the aircraft. Most recently, a presentation reported a de- crease in simulated Hight performance that correlated with a decrease in cognitive

  3. Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Demosthenes, T.; White, T. R.; O'Hara, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.

  4. Jump-Down Performance Alterations after Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, changes to those strategies within a test session, and recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS: Seven astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high onto a force plate that measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Neuromuscular activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS: Postural settling time was significantly increased on the first postflight test session and many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which performance improvements could be attributed to adjustments in takeoff or landing strategy. Jump strategy changes were evident in reduced air time (time between takeoff and landing) and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. CONCLUSIONS: The test results revealed significant decrements

  5. Update of the IUE battery in-flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    The in-flight performance data of two 17-cell, 6-ampere-hour nickel cadmium spacecraft batteries are presented covering 22 months of operation. Fluctuations in the battery voltage and the battery temperature are presented for spacecraft movement throughout a beta range of 0 to 130 deg. The battery discharge voltages during the peak eclipse seasons, daily seasons, and daily eclipse periods are noted. Finally, the spacecraft data are compared to data from a 6-ampere-hour test pack and test flight data.

  6. Effects of wing flexibility on aerodynamic performance in hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Wei, Mingjun

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we use a strong-coupling approach to simulate three dimensional flexible flapping wings in hovering flight. The approach is based on a uniform description of both fluid and solid in global Eulerian framework. There has been extensive validation of the current approach with other numerical simulation and experiments. Then we apply our approach to simulate flapping wings with different flexibility and other control parameters. The simulation results allow us to study directly the effects of wing flexibility on the aerodynamic performance of hovering flight. Supported by ARL.

  7. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Flight Performance Data and Computational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA was launched to Mir in November 1995 and installed on the Kvant-1 module in May 1996. Since the MCSA photovoltaic panel modules (PPMs) are nearly identical to those of the International Space Station (ISS) photovoltaic arrays, MCSA operation offered an opportunity to gather multi-year performance data on this technology prior to its implementation on ISS. Two specially designed test sequences were executed in June and December 1996 to measure MCSA performance. Each test period encompassed 3 orbital revolutions whereby the current produced by the MCSA channels was measured. The temperature of MCSA PPMs was also measured. To better interpret the MCSA flight data, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. Flight data compared very favorably with computational performance predictions. This indicated that the MCSA electrical performance was fully meeting pre-flight expectations. There were no measurable indications of unexpected or precipitous MCSA performance degradation due to contamination or other causes after 7 months of operation on orbit. Power delivered to the Mir bus was lower than desired as a consequence of the retrofitted power distribution cabling. The strong correlation of experimental and computational results further bolsters the confidence level of performance codes used in critical ISS electric power forecasting. In this paper, MCSA flight performance tests are described as well as the computational modeling behind the performance predictions.

  8. Mir Cooperative Solar Array flight performance data and computational analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerslake, T.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA was launched to Mir in November 1995 and installed on the Kvant-1 module in May 1996. Since the MCSA photovoltaic panel modules (PPMs) are nearly identical to those of the International Space Station (ISS) photovoltaic arrays, MCSA operation offered an opportunity to gather multi-year performance data on this technology prior to its implementation on ISS. Two specially designed test sequences were executed in June and December 1996 to measure MCSA performance. Each test period encompassed 3 orbital revolutions whereby the current produced by the MCSA channels was measured. The temperature of MCSA PPMs was also measured. To better interpret the MCSA flight data, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. Flight data compared very favorably with computational performance predictions. This indicated that the MCSA electrical performance was fully meeting pre-flight expectations. There were no measurable indications of unexpected or precipitous MCSA performance degradation due to contamination or other causes after 7 months of operation on orbit. Power delivered to the Mir bus was lower than desired as a consequence of the retrofitted power distribution cabling. The strong correlation of experimental and computational results further bolsters the confidence level of performance codes used in critical ISS electric power forecasting. In this paper, MCSA flight performance tests are described as well as the computational modeling behind the performance predictions.

  9. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-06-01

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack.

  10. Performance of a blood chemistry analyzer during parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Spooner, B S; Claassen, D E; Guikema, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have tested the performance of the VISION System Blood Analyzer, produced by Abbott Laboratories, during parabolic flight on a KC-135 aircraft (NASA 930). This fully automated instrument performed flawlessly in these trials, demonstrating its potential for efficient, reliable use in a microgravity environment. In addition to instrument capability, we demonstrated that investigators could readily fill specially modified test packs with fluid during zero gravity, and that filled test packs could be easily loaded into VISION during an episode of microgravity.

  11. Performance of a blood chemistry analyzer during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, Brian S.; Claassen, Dale E.; Guikema, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the Vision System Blood Analyzer during parabolic flight on a KC-135 aircraft (NASA 930) has been tested. This fully automated instrument performed flawlessly in these trials, demonstrating its potential for efficient, reliable use in a microgravity environment. In addition to instrument capability, it is demonstrated that investigators could readily fill specially modified test packs with fluid during zero gravity, and that filled test packs could be easily loaded into VISION during an episode of microgravity.

  12. In-Flight Performance of Wide Field Camera 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a powerful new UVNisible/IR imager, was installed into HST during Servicing Mission 4. After a successful commissioning in the Servicing Mission Orbital Verification program, WFC3 has been engaged in an exciting program of scientific observations. I review here the in-flight scientific performance of the instrument, addressing such topics as image quality, sensitivity, detector performance, and stability.

  13. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accurately indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these findings are

  14. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accuratelymore » indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these

  15. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  16. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  17. Cassini Main Engine Assembly Cover Flight Management and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Millard, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has performed its four year Prime Mission at Saturn and is currently in orbit at Saturn performing a two year extended mission. 12Its main engine nozzles are susceptible to impact damage from micrometeoroids and on-orbit dust. The spacecraft has an articulating device known as the Main Engine Assembly (MEA) cover which can close and shield the main engines from these threats. The cover opens to allow for main engine burns that are necessary to maintain the trajectory. Periodically updated analyses of potential on-orbit dust hazard threats have resulted in the need to continue to use the MEA cover beyond its intended use and beyond its design life. This paper provides a detailed Systems-level overview of the flight management of the MEA cover device and its flight performance to date.

  18. Juveniles exposed to embryonic corticosterone have enhanced flight performance

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Eunice H.; Love, Oliver P.; Verspoor, Jan J.; Williams, Tony D.; Rowley, Kyle; Burness, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to maternally derived glucocorticoids during embryonic development impacts offspring phenotype. Although many of these effects appear to be transiently ‘negative’, embryonic exposure to maternally derived stress hormones is hypothesized to induce preparative responses that increase survival prospects for offspring in low-quality environments; however, little is known about how maternal stress influences longer-term survival-related performance traits in free-living individuals. Using an experimental elevation of yolk corticosterone (embryonic signal of low maternal quality), we examined potential impacts of embryonic exposure to maternally derived stress on flight performance, wing loading, muscle morphology and muscle physiology in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Here we report that fledglings exposed to experimentally increased corticosterone in ovo performed better during flight performance trials than control fledglings. Consistent with differences in performance, individuals exposed to elevated embryonic corticosterone fledged with lower wing loading and had heavier and more functionally mature flight muscles compared with control fledglings. Our results indicate that the positive effects on a survival-related trait in response to embryonic exposure to maternally derived stress hormones may balance some of the associated negative developmental costs that have recently been reported. Moreover, if embryonic experience is a good predictor of the quality or risk of future environments, a preparative phenotype associated with exposure to apparently negative stimuli during development may be adaptive. PMID:18842541

  19. APMS 3.0 Flight Analyst Guide: Aviation Performance Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, Griff; Prothero, Gary; Romanowski, Timothy; Lynch, Robert; Lawrence, Robert; Rosenthal, Loren

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) is a method-embodied in software-that uses mathematical algorithms and related procedures to analyze digital flight data extracted from aircraft flight data recorders. APMS consists of an integrated set of tools used to perform two primary functions: a) Flight Data Importation b) Flight Data Analysis.

  20. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  1. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures for real time evaluation of the inflight health and performance of gas turbine engines and related systems were developed to enhance flight test safety and productivity. These techniques include the monitoring of the engine, the engine control system, thrust vectoring control system health, and the detection of engine stalls. Real time performance techniques were developed for the determination and display of inflight thrust and for aeroperformance drag polars. These new methods were successfully shown on various research aircraft at NASA-Dryden. The capability of NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range and the advanced data acquisition systems were key factors for implementation and real time display of these methods.

  2. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  3. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to

  4. Space shuttle orbiter leading-edge flight performance compared to design goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, D. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Kelly, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Thermo-structural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia's leading-edge structural subsystem for the first five (5) flights is compared with the design goals. Lessons learned from thse initial flights of the first reusable manned spacecraft are discussed in order to assess design maturity, deficiencies, and modifications required to rectify the design deficiencies. Flight data and post-flight inspections support the conclusion that the leading-edge structural subsystem hardware performance was outstanding for the initial five (5) flights.

  5. Optimization of CCGT power plant and performance analysis using MATLAB/Simulink with actual operational data.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Naimul; Rai, Jitendra Nath; Arora, Bharat Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    In the Modern scenario, the naturally available resources for power generation are being depleted at an alarming rate; firstly due to wastage of power at consumer end, secondly due to inefficiency of various power system components. A Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) integrates two cycles- Brayton cycle (Gas Turbine) and Rankine cycle (Steam Turbine) with the objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. This is accomplished by utilising the exhaust of Gas Turbine through a waste-heat recovery boiler to run a Steam Turbine. The efficiency of a gas turbine which ranges from 28% to 33% can hence be raised to about 60% by recovering some of the low grade thermal energy from the exhaust gas for steam turbine process. This paper is a study for the modelling of CCGT and comparing it with actual operational data. The performance model for CCGT plant was developed in MATLAB/Simulink.

  6. S-NPP OMPS Nadir In-Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; Flynn, L. E.; Niu, J.; Grotenhuis, M.; Beck, C. T.; Beach, E.; Zhang, Z.; Tolea, A.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes the results of in-flight characterization of the S-NPP Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) charge-coupled device (CCD) performance during the first nearly three years of the OMPS mission in orbit. Data from OMPS's three two-dimension CCD arrays have been collected to characterize in-flight detector behaviors. Our results show that offset, gain, and dark current rate trends remain within sensor requirement limits. System linearity performance trends are stable. The distribution of individual pixel dark rates is slowly growing as expected from pre-launch analyses. The current in-flight dark and linearity calibration corrections provide Sensor Data Records (SDRs) with insignificant error after correction of less than an average of ~0.1% in the Earth radiance retrieval. The instrument optics is less stable than predicted leading to intra-orbit wavelength scale variations as the temperature gradients vary across the instrument. Measurement-based estimates of these effects are as large a ±0.02 nm and are used to make corrections to within +-0.005 nm on a granule by granule basis. Examination of reflectivity, aerosol and ozone EDRs provide evidence of absolute calibration errors with a significant cross track variation. A soft calibration adjustment is under development to remove them.

  7. Flight Performance of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; Gsell, Valerie; Miller, Nathanael; Olds, Aaron; Bruce, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on a Black Brant XI suborbital sounding rocket and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) in the reentry heating environment and also illustrating the effect of an offset center of gravity on the HIAD's lift-to-drag ratio. IRVE-3 was a follow-on to 2009's IRVE-II mission, which demonstrated exo-atmospheric inflation, reentry survivability - without significant heating - and the aerodynamic stability of a HIAD down to subsonic flight conditions. NASA Langley Research Center is leading the development of HIAD technology for use on future interplanetary and Earth reentry missions.

  8. Flight Test Performance of a High Precision Navigation Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockard, George

    2009-01-01

    A navigation Doppler Lidar (DL) was developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for high precision velocity measurements from a lunar or planetary landing vehicle in support of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. A unique feature of this DL is that it has the capability to provide a precision velocity vector which can be easily separated into horizontal and vertical velocity components and high accuracy line of sight (LOS) range measurements. This dual mode of operation can provide useful information, such as vehicle orientation relative to the direction of travel, and vehicle attitude relative to the sensor footprint on the ground. System performance was evaluated in a series of helicopter flight tests over the California desert. This paper provides a description of the DL system and presents results obtained from these flight tests.

  9. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  10. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  11. Cognition and the Placebo Effect – Dissociating Subjective Perception and Actual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Katharina A.; Büchel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The influence of positive or negative expectations on clinical outcomes such as pain relief or motor performance in patients and healthy participants has been extensively investigated for years. Such research promises potential benefit for patient treatment by deliberately using expectations as means to stimulate endogenous regulation processes. Especially regarding recent interest and controversies revolving around cognitive enhancement, the question remains whether mere expectancies might also yield enhancing or impairing effects in the cognitive domain, i.e., can we improve or impair cognitive performance simply by creating a strong expectancy in participants about their performance? Moreover, previous literature suggests that especially subjective perception is highly susceptible to expectancy effects, whereas objective measures can be affected in certain domains, but not in others. Does such a dissociation of objective measures and subjective perception also apply to cognitive placebo and nocebo effects? In this study, we sought to investigate whether placebo and nocebo effects can be evoked in cognitive tasks, and whether these effects influence objective and subjective measures alike. To this end, we instructed participants about alleged effects of different tone frequencies (high, intermediate, low) on brain activity and cognitive functions. We paired each tone with specific success rates in a Flanker task paradigm as a preliminary conditioning procedure, adapted from research on placebo hypoalgesia. In a subsequent test phase, we measured reaction times and success rates in different expectancy conditions (placebo, nocebo, and control) and then asked participants how the different tone frequencies affected their performance. Interestingly, we found no effects of expectation on objective measures, but a strong effect on subjective perception, i.e., although actual performance was not affected by expectancy, participants strongly believed that the placebo

  12. Cognition and the Placebo Effect--Dissociating Subjective Perception and Actual Performance.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Büchel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The influence of positive or negative expectations on clinical outcomes such as pain relief or motor performance in patients and healthy participants has been extensively investigated for years. Such research promises potential benefit for patient treatment by deliberately using expectations as means to stimulate endogenous regulation processes. Especially regarding recent interest and controversies revolving around cognitive enhancement, the question remains whether mere expectancies might also yield enhancing or impairing effects in the cognitive domain, i.e., can we improve or impair cognitive performance simply by creating a strong expectancy in participants about their performance? Moreover, previous literature suggests that especially subjective perception is highly susceptible to expectancy effects, whereas objective measures can be affected in certain domains, but not in others. Does such a dissociation of objective measures and subjective perception also apply to cognitive placebo and nocebo effects? In this study, we sought to investigate whether placebo and nocebo effects can be evoked in cognitive tasks, and whether these effects influence objective and subjective measures alike. To this end, we instructed participants about alleged effects of different tone frequencies (high, intermediate, low) on brain activity and cognitive functions. We paired each tone with specific success rates in a Flanker task paradigm as a preliminary conditioning procedure, adapted from research on placebo hypoalgesia. In a subsequent test phase, we measured reaction times and success rates in different expectancy conditions (placebo, nocebo, and control) and then asked participants how the different tone frequencies affected their performance. Interestingly, we found no effects of expectation on objective measures, but a strong effect on subjective perception, i.e., although actual performance was not affected by expectancy, participants strongly believed that the placebo

  13. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  14. Flight controller alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Dinges, David F.; Miller, Donna L.; Gillen, Kelly A.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Aguilar, Ronald D.; Smith, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations. During STS operations, MOD personnel provide 24 hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint JSC and ARC project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during STS-53 in Dec. 1992. The study measures included a background questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24 hr. basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen Flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further extended duration orbiters, timelines and planning for 24 circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment.

  15. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  16. Defining Exercise Performance Metrics for Flight Hardware Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahon M.

    2004-01-01

    The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space

  17. Performance of NICER flight x-ray concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Balsamo, Erin R.; Enoto, Teruaki; Olsen, Larry; Koenecke, Richard; Lozipone, Larry; Kearney, John; Fitzsimmons, Sean; Numata, Ai; Kenyon, Steven J.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is a NASA instrument to be onboard International Space Station, which is equipped with 56 pairs of an X-ray concentrator (XRC) and a silicon drift detector for high timing observations. The XRC is based on an epoxy replicated thin aluminum foil X-ray mirror, similar to those of Suzaku and ASTRO-H (Hitomi), but only a single stage parabolic grazing incidence optic. Each has a focal length of 1.085m and a diameter of 105 mm, with 24 confocally aligned parabolic shells. Grazing incident angles to individual shells range from 0.4 to 1.4 deg. The flight 56 XRCs have been completed and successfully delivered to the payload integration. All the XRC was characterized at the NASA/GSFC 100-m X-ray beamline using 1.5 keV X-rays (some of them are also at 4.5 keV). The XRC performance, effective area and point spread function, was measured by a CCD camera and a proportional counter. The average effective area is about 44 cm2 at 1.5 keV and about 18 cm2 at 4.5 keV, which is consistent with a micro-roughness of 0.5nm from individual shell reflectivity measurements. The XRC focuses about 91% of X-rays into a 2mm aperture at the focal plane, which is the NICER detector window size. Each XRC weighs only 325 g. These performance met the project requirement. In this paper, we will present summary of the flight XRC performance as well as co-alignment results of the 56 XRCs on the flight payload as it is important to estimate the total effective for astronomical observations.

  18. Habitability and performance issues for long duration space flights.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, M; McQuilkin, M L; Woolford, B J

    1998-09-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is threefold: 1) to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload, 2) to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements, and 3) to propose an implementation plan to address these habitability, performance and workload issues.

  19. Habitability and Performance Issues for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McQuilkin, Meredith L.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1997-01-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

  20. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  1. Wing Flexion and Aerodynamics Performance of Insect Free Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Ren, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Wing flexion in flapping flight is a hallmark of insect flight. It is widely thought that wing flexibility and wing deformation would potentially provide new aerodynamic mechanisms of aerodynamic force productions over completely rigid wings. However, there are lack of literatures on studying fluid dynamics of freely flying insects due to the presence of complex shaped moving boundaries in the flow domain. In this work, a computational study of freely flying insects is being conducted. High resolution, high speed videos of freely flying dragonflies and damselflies is obtained and used as a basis for developing high fidelity geometrical models of the dragonfly body and wings. 3D surface reconstruction technologies are used to obtain wing topologies and kinematics. The wing motions are highly complex and a number of different strategies including singular vector decomposition of the wing kinematics are used to examine the various kinematical features and their impact on the wing performance. Simulations are carried out to examine the aerodynamic performance of all four wings and understand the wake structures of such wings.

  2. Perception and performance in flight simulators: The contribution of vestibular, visual, and auditory information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.

  3. Flight controller alertness and performance during spaceflight shiftwork operations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S M; Rosekind, M R; Dinges, D F; Miller, D L; Gillen, K A; Gregory, K B; Aguilar, R D; Smith, R M

    1998-09-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations personnel. During Space Transportation System (STS) operations, Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) personnel provide 24-hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Ames Research Center project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during the STS-53 mission in December 1992. The study measures included a Background Questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24-hour basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support the need for further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. Countermeasure strategies specific to the MOD environment are being developed to minimize the adverse effects of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption engendered by shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further EDO (extended duration orbiters), and timelines and planning for 24-hour Space Station operations continue, alertness and performance issues related to sleep and circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment.

  4. ATM solar array in-flight performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J. P.; Crabtree, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    The physical and electrical characteristics of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) solar array are described and in-flight performance data are analyzed and compared with predicted results. Two solar cell module configurations were used. Type I module consists of 228 2 x 6 cm solar cells with two cells in parallel and 114 cells in series. Type II modules contain 684 2 x 2 cm cells with six cells in parallel and 114 cells in series. A different interconnection scheme was used for each type. Panels using type II modules with mesh interconnect system performed marginally better than those using type I module with loop interconnect system. The average degradation rate for the ATM array was 8.2% for a 271-day mission.

  5. Stability and Performance Metrics for Adaptive Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan; VanEykeren, Luarens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of verifying adaptive control techniques for enabling safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions. Since the adaptive systems are non-linear by design, the existing control verification metrics are not applicable to adaptive controllers. Moreover, these systems are in general highly uncertain. Hence, the system's characteristics cannot be evaluated by relying on the available dynamical models. This necessitates the development of control verification metrics based on the system's input-output information. For this point of view, a set of metrics is introduced that compares the uncertain aircraft's input-output behavior under the action of an adaptive controller to that of a closed-loop linear reference model to be followed by the aircraft. This reference model is constructed for each specific maneuver using the exact aerodynamic and mass properties of the aircraft to meet the stability and performance requirements commonly accepted in flight control. The proposed metrics are unified in the sense that they are model independent and not restricted to any specific adaptive control methods. As an example, we present simulation results for a wing damaged generic transport aircraft with several existing adaptive controllers.

  6. Flight Performance of the HEROES Solar Aspect System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Rodriguez, Marcello; Gregory, Kyle; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Connor, Brian; Sobey, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Furthermore, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration in the non-flaring corona. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. The HEROES Solar Aspect System (SAS) was developed and built to provide pointing knowledge during solar observations to better than the ~20 arcsec FWHM angular resolution of the HXR instrument. The SAS consists of two separate systems: the Pitch-Yaw aspect System (PYAS) and the Roll Aspect System (RAS). The PYAS compares the position of an optical image of the Sun relative to precise fiducials to determine the pitch and yaw pointing offsets from the desired solar target. The RAS images the Earth's horizon in opposite directions simultaneously to determine the roll of the gondola. HEROES launched in September 2013 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the performance of the SAS for that flight.

  7. Flight Performance of UV Filters on the ALEXIS Satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Starin, S.

    1999-07-08

    The ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors) mission, serving as the first dedicated all-sky monitor in the extreme UV, has been collecting data since its launch in 1993. ALEXIS operates in a 70{degree} inclination orbit at an altitude of 800 km. The ALEXIS science mission is to observe the cosmic UV background and to study variability of EUV sources. The ALEXIS experiment is composed of six telescopes. Although the telescopes were only designed for a one-year technology verification mission, they are still functioning with much the same effectiveness as at the beginning of the mission. The telescopes comprise: (1) layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) spherical mirrors, (2) thin foil filters, and (3) microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, all enshrouded within the telescope body. The LSM mirrors select the bandpass for each telescope, while rejecting some of the HeII 304{angstrom} geocoronal radiation. The filters, constructed either from aluminum/carbon or Lexan/titanium/boron, serve to strongly reject the geocoronal radiation, as well as longer wavelength emission from bright OB stars. Each telescope detector consists of two plates, the outermost of which is curved to accurately match the spherical focal surface of the mirror. By reviewing the ground and flight histories, this paper analyzes the flight performance of the filters, including the effects of long term exposure and the formation of pinholes.

  8. Performances of the SAC-D NIRST flight model radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Mélanie R.; Marchese, Linda; Côté, Patrice; Châteauneuf, François; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Ngo Phong, Linh

    2009-08-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales of Argentina. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency, the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared and two bands in the thermal infrared. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on microbolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. This paper will first present an overview of the design of the NIRST camera module. The manufacturing and qualification activities for the Flight Model will be described and key performance parameters, as measured during the verification campaign, will be reported.

  9. High performance target measurement flights from Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfant, C. P.; Rosen, H.; Jerger, J. H.

    A description is presented of a new launch facility which is being prepared for the High Performance Target Measurement (HPTEM) booster at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). A deactivated Atlas launch complex is currently being modified to allow the rocket to be launched from a semisilo. The underground launch operations building will contain a new control center and instrumentation room. Attention is given to the Multi-Spectral Measurement Program (MSMP), details concerning the launch facility, and a target and flight safety trajectory analysis. Construction and modification of the facility is scheduled to be completed in mid-1983. The first HPTEM launch is planned to occur in April 1984. The HPTEM launch facility can also be utilized to launch Aries I (single stage) and Aries II (two-stage) probes with minor modification.

  10. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-04-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  11. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  12. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: post-flight debriefing questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Jennings, Sion; Craig, Gregory; Stuart, Geoffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs have faced persistent head-supported mass and center of mass (CM) problems, especially HMD designs like night vision goggles (NVG) that utilize image intensification (I2) sensors mounted forward in front of the user's eyes. Relocating I2 sensors from the front to the sides of the helmet, at or below the transverse plane through the user's head CM, can resolve most of the CM problems. However, the resulting increase in the separation between the two I2 channels effectively increases the user's interpupillary distance (IPD). This HMD design is referred to as a hyperstero design and introduces the phenomenon of hyperstereopsis, a type of visual distortion where stereoscopic depth perception is exaggerated, particularly at distances under 200 feet (~60 meters). The presence of hyperstereopsis has been a concern regarding implementation of hyperstereo HMDs for rotary-wing aircraft. To address this concern, a flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on aircraft handling proficiency and pilot acceptance. Three rated aviators with differing levels of I2 and hyperstereo HMD experience conducted a series of flights that concentrated on low-level maneuvers over a two-week period. Initial and final flights were flown with a standard issue I2 device and a production hyperstereo design HMD. Interim flights were flown only with the hyperstereo HMD. Two aviators accumulated 8 hours of flight time with the hyperstereo HMD, while the third accumulated 6.9 hours. This paper presents data collected via written questionnaires completed by the aviators during the post-flight debriefings. These data are compared to questionnaire data from a previous flight investigation in which aviators in a copilot capacity, hands not on the flight controls, accumulated 8 flight hours of flight time using a hyperstereo HMD.

  13. Flight test evaluation of a method to determine the level flight performance propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure is developed for deriving the level flight drag and propulsive efficiency of propeller-driven aircraft. This is a method in which the overall drag of the aircraft is expressed in terms of the measured increment of power required to overcome a corresponding known increment of drag. The aircraft is flown in unaccelerated, straight and level flight, and thus includes the effects of the propeller drag and slipstream. Propeller efficiency and airplane drag are computed on the basis of data obtained during flight test and do not rely on the analytical calculations of inadequate theory.

  14. 43 CFR 3137.112 - What happens if I am prevented from performing actual or constructive drilling or reworking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if I am prevented from... prevented from performing actual or constructive drilling or reworking operations? (a) If you demonstrate to BLM that reasons beyond your control prevent you, despite reasonable diligence, from starting...

  15. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera.

    PubMed

    Peng, Q; Choong, W-S; Vu, C; Huber, J S; Janecek, M; Wilson, D; Huesman, R H; Qi, Jinyi; Zhou, Jian; Moses, W W

    2015-02-01

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the ~ 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon's detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 × 25 mm(2) side of 6.15 × 6.15 × 25 mm(3) LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/- ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. The results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3.

  16. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Q.; Choong, W.-S.; Vu, C.; Huber, J. S.; Janecek, M.; Wilson, D.; Huesman, R. H.; Qi, Jinyi; Zhou, Jian; Moses, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the ~ 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon’s detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 × 25 mm2 side of 6.15 × 6.15 × 25 mm3 LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/− ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. The results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3. PMID:26594057

  17. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Q.; Choong, W. -S.; Vu, C.; ...

    2015-01-23

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the ~ 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon's detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 ×25 mm2 side of 6.15 ×6.15 ×25 mm3 LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according to the NEMAmore » NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/- 20 ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. We find that the results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3.« less

  18. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Q.; Choong, W. -S.; Vu, C.; Huber, J. S.; Janecek, M.; Wilson, D.; Huesman, R. H.; Qi, Jinyi; Zhou, Jian; Moses, W. W.

    2015-01-23

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the ~ 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon's detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 ×25 mm2 side of 6.15 ×6.15 ×25 mm3 LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/- 20 ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. We find that the results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3.

  19. In-Flight Performance of the OCO-2 Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na-Nakornpanom, Arthur; Naylor, Bret J.; Lee, Richard A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will have completed its first year in space on July 2, 2015. The OCO-2 instrument incorporates three bore-sighted, high-resolution grating spectrometers, designed to measure the near-infrared absorption of reflected sunlight by carbon dioxide and molecular oxygen. The cryocooler system design is coupled with the instrument's thermal control design to maximize the instrument's performance. A single-stage NGAS pulse tube cryocooler provides refrigeration to three focal plane arrays to ∼120 K via a high conductance flexible thermal strap. A variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) based heat rejection system (HRS) transports waste heat from the instrument located inside the spacecraft to the space-viewing radiators. The HRS provides tight temperature control of the optics to 267 K and maintains the cryocooler at 300 K. Soon after entering the A-Train on August 3, 2014, the optics and focal planes were cooled to their operating temperatures. This paper provides a general overview of the cryogenic system design and reviews the in-flight cryogenic performance during the Observatory's first year.

  20. Development of flight performance in the brown booby.

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Ken; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    How do birds acquire flight skills after fledging? This issue is important, as it is closely related to variation in the duration of offspring care, the causes of which remain unknown. In this study, we raised hatchling brown boobies, Sula leucogaster, and attached an acceleration data logger to each bird at fledging to record its movements. This allowed us to quantify precisely the time spent flapping, gliding and resting. The duration of foraging trips and proportion of time spent gliding during flight increased with the number of days since fledging, whereas the proportion of time spent in flight decreased. This indicates that brown boobies gradually acquire efficient flight skills during the post-fledging period, which might be the proximate cause of the long postfledging care period in this species. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to record precisely the ontogeny of flight behaviour in birds. PMID:15252995

  1. Orion Launch Abort System Jettison Motor Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel J.; Davidson, John B.; Winski, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System performing Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. Although the Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Selected Launch Abort System flight test data is presented and discussed in the paper. Through flight test data, Launch Abort System performance trends have been derived that will prove valuable to future flights as well as the manned space program.

  2. NEP Early Flight program: System performance and development considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; George, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A mission/system study of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for early robotic planetary science mission applications has been conducted. Subject missions considered included a Mars orbiter with a Phobos and Deimos Rendezvous; a Comet Kopff Rendezvous; a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous (MMBAR); an Asteroid (Vesta) Sample Return; a Trojan Asteroid (Odysseus) Rendezvous; and a Jupiter mini Grand Tour. The purpose of the study was to determine if 'near-term' NEP technology could be used on an early NEP flight to demonstrate the technologies while conducting a useful science mission. The analysis shows that, depending upon technology readiness date, the missions could be performed with low power NEP. The technology and system development costs associated with vehicle/stage development for a candidate mission are presented. The study assumed relatively mature space electric power and space electric propulsion technologies (more advanced technologies have been already shown by others to be enabling for many outer planetary missions). Thus, a very important first step in using NEP would be taken, which would contribute valuable solar system science, as well as reduce the risks associated with using NEP for more demanding outer planetary science mission applications.

  3. Mars Exploration Rover surface mission flight thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Keith S.; Phillips, Charles J.; Sunada, Eric T.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA launched two rovers in June and July of 2003 as a part of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. MER-A (Spirit) landed on Mars in Gusev Crater at 15 degrees South latitude and 175 degree East longitude on January 4, 2004 (Squyres, et al., Dec. 2004)). MER-B (Opportunity) landed on Mars in Terra Meridiani at 2 degrees South latitude and 354 degrees East longitude on January 25, 2004 (Squyres, et al., August 2004) Both rovers have well exceeded their design lifetime (90 Sols) by more than a factor of 4. Spirit and Opportunity are still healthy and continue to execute their roving science missions at the time of this writing. This paper discusses rover flight thermal performance during the surface missions of both vehicles, covering roughly the time from the MER-A landing in late Southern Summer (Ls = 328, Sol 1A) through the Southern Winter solstice (Ls = 90, Sol 255A) to nearly Southern Vernal equinox (Ls = 160 , Sol 398A).

  4. IBIS/PICsIT in-flight performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cocco, G.; Caroli, E.; Celesti, E.; Foschini, L.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Malaguti, G.; Mauri, A.; Rossi, E.; Schiavone, F.; Spizzichino, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Traci, A.; Trifoglio, M.

    2003-11-01

    PICsIT (Pixellated Imaging CaeSium Iodide Telescope) is the high energy detector of the IBIS telescope on-board the INTEGRAL satellite. PICsIT operates in the gamma-ray energy range between 175 keV and 10 MeV, with a typical energy resolution of 10% at 1 MeV, and an angular resolution of 12 arcmin within a ~ 100 square degree field of view, with the possibility to locate intense point sources in the MeV region at the few arcmin level. PICsIT is based upon a modular array of 4096 independent CsI(Tl) pixels, ~ 0.70 cm2 in cross-section and 3 cm thick. In this work, the PICsIT on-board data handling and science operative modes are described. This work presents the in-flight performances in terms of background count spectra, sensitivity limit, and imaging capabilities. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  5. MAP Attitude Control System Design and Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, S. F.; ODonnell, J. R.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. To make a full-sky map of cosmic microwave background fluctuations, a combination fast spin and slow precession motion will be used that will cover the entire celestial sphere in six months. The spin rate should be an order of magnitude higher than the precession rate, and each rate should be tightly controlled. The sunline angle should be 22.5 +/- 0.25 deg. Sufficient attitude knowledge must be provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation of 1.3 arc-minutes RSS three axes. In addition, the spacecraft must be able to acquire and hold the sunline at initial acquisition, and in the event of a failure. Finally. the spacecraft must be able to slew to the proper burn orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. The design and flight performance of the Attitude Control System on MAP that meets these requirements will be discussed.

  6. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  7. Predictability of Pilot Performance from Simulated to Real Flight in the UH-60 (Black Hawk) Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Army civilians (DACs) whose salary , currently at over $40.00/hr, must be included. Weather and safety concerns when conducting actual flight increase...instrument landing system) radio, and setting the Automatic Direction Finder (ADF). The subject will select the inbound course for ILS into the HSI and

  8. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  9. Frontoparietal cortex and cerebellum contribution to the update of actual and mental motor performance during the day

    PubMed Central

    Bonzano, Laura; Roccatagliata, Luca; Ruggeri, Piero; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Bove, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Actual and imagined movement speed increases from early morning until mid-afternoon. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of these daily changes. Fifteen subjects performed actual and imagined right finger opposition movement sequences at 8 am and 2 pm. Both actual and imagined movements were significantly faster at 2 pm than 8 am. In the morning, actual movements significantly activated the left primary somatosensory and motor areas, and bilaterally the cerebellum; in the afternoon activations were similar but reduced. Contrast analysis revealed greater activity in the cerebellum, the left primary sensorimotor cortex and parietal lobe in the morning than in the afternoon. Imagined movements in the morning significantly activated the parietal association cortices bilaterally, the left supplementary and premotor areas, and the right orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum. In the afternoon, the frontal lobe was significantly activated with the right cerebellum. Contrast analysis revealed increased activity in the left parietal lobe in the morning than in the afternoon. For both tasks, speed in the morning was significantly related to the BOLD signal in the brain areas resulted more active. These findings suggest that motor performance is continuously updated on a daily basis with a predominant role of the frontoparietal cortex and cerebellum. PMID:27444783

  10. Enroute flight-path planning - Cooperative performance of flight crews and knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Galdes, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Interface design issues associated with the introduction of knowledge-based systems into the cockpit are discussed. Such issues include not only questions about display and control design, they also include deeper system design issues such as questions about the alternative roles and responsibilities of the flight crew and the computer system. In addition, the feasibility of using enroute flight path planning as a context for exploring such research questions is considered. In particular, the development of a prototyping shell that allows rapid design and study of alternative interfaces and system designs is discussed.

  11. Instrumentation and Performance Analysis Plans for the HIFiRE Flight 2 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Mark; Barhorst, Todd; Jackson, Kevin; Eklund, Dean; Hass, Neal; Storch, Andrea M.; Liu, Jiwen

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic combustion performance of a bi-component gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture is one of the primary aspects under investigation in the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In-flight instrumentation and post-test analyses will be two key elements used to determine the combustion performance. Pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses provide valuable information that can be used to optimize the placement of a constrained set of wall pressure instrumentation in the experiment. The simulations also allow pre-flight assessments of performance sensitivities leading to estimates of overall uncertainty in the determination of combustion efficiency. Based on the pre-flight CFD results, 128 wall pressure sensors have been located throughout the isolator/combustor flowpath to minimize the error in determining the wall pressure force at Mach 8 flight conditions. Also, sensitivity analyses show that mass capture and combustor exit stream thrust are the two primary contributors to uncertainty in combustion efficiency.

  12. How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Research has shown students' beliefs regarding their own abilities in math and science can influence their performance in these disciplines. I investigated the relationship between students' estimated performance and actual performance on five exams in a second semester calculus-based physics class. Students in a second-semester calculus-based physics class were given about 72 hours after the completion of each of five exams, to estimate their individual and class mean score on each exam. Students were given extra credit worth 1% of the exam points for estimating their score correct within 2% of the actual score and another 1% extra credit for estimating the class mean score within 2% of the correct value. I compared students' individual and mean score estimations with the actual scores to investigate the relationship between estimation accuracies and exam performance of the students as well as trends over the semester.

  13. Bumblebee flight performance in cluttered environments: effects of obstacle orientation, body size and acceleration.

    PubMed

    Crall, James D; Ravi, Sridhar; Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2015-09-01

    Locomotion through structurally complex environments is fundamental to the life history of most flying animals, and the costs associated with movement through clutter have important consequences for the ecology and evolution of volant taxa. However, few studies have directly investigated how flying animals navigate through cluttered environments, or examined which aspects of flight performance are most critical for this challenging task. Here, we examined how body size, acceleration and obstacle orientation affect the flight of bumblebees in an artificial, cluttered environment. Non-steady flight performance is often predicted to decrease with body size, as a result of a presumed reduction in acceleration capacity, but few empirical tests of this hypothesis have been performed in flying animals. We found that increased body size is associated with impaired flight performance (specifically transit time) in cluttered environments, but not with decreased peak accelerations. In addition, previous studies have shown that flying insects can produce higher accelerations along the lateral body axis, suggesting that if maneuvering is constrained by acceleration capacity, insects should perform better when maneuvering around objects laterally rather than vertically. Our data show that bumblebees do generate higher accelerations in the lateral direction, but we found no difference in their ability to pass through obstacle courses requiring lateral versus vertical maneuvering. In sum, our results suggest that acceleration capacity is not a primary determinant of flight performance in clutter, as is often assumed. Rather than being driven by the scaling of acceleration, we show that the reduced flight performance of larger bees in cluttered environments is driven by the allometry of both path sinuosity and mean flight speed. Specifically, differences in collision-avoidance behavior underlie much of the variation in flight performance across body size, with larger bees

  14. Self-appraised social problem solving abilities, emotional reactions and actual problem solving performance.

    PubMed

    Shewchuk, R M; Johnson, M O; Elliott, T R

    2000-07-01

    Self-report measures of social problem solving abilities have yet to be associated with objective problem solving performance in any consistent manner. In the present study, we investigated the relation of social problem solving abilities--as measured by the Social Problem Solving Skills Inventory--Revised (SPSI-R [Maydeu-Olivares, A. & D'Zurilla, T. J. (1996). A factor analytic study of the Social Problem Solving Inventory: an integration of theory and data. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 115-133])--to performance on a structured problem solving task. Unlike previous studies, we examined the relation of problem solving skills to performance curves observed in repeated trials, while controlling for affective reactions to each trial. Using hierarchical modeling techniques, a negative problem orientation was significantly predictive of performance and this effect was not mediated by negative affectivity. Results are discussed as they pertain to contemporary models of social problem solving.

  15. Can medical students accurately predict their learning? A study comparing perceived and actual performance in neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Samuel R; Stephens, Jonny R; Seaby, Eleanor G; Andrade, Matheus Gesteira; Lowry, Andrew F; Parton, Will J C; Smith, Claire F; Border, Scott

    2016-10-01

    It is important that clinicians are able to adequately assess their level of knowledge and competence in order to be safe practitioners of medicine. The medical literature contains numerous examples of poor self-assessment accuracy amongst medical students over a range of subjects however this ability in neuroanatomy has yet to be observed. Second year medical students attending neuroanatomy revision sessions at the University of Southampton and the competitors of the National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition were asked to rate their level of knowledge in neuroanatomy. The responses from the former group were compared to performance on a ten item multiple choice question examination and the latter group were compared to their performance within the competition. In both cohorts, self-assessments of perceived level of knowledge correlated weakly to their performance in their respective objective knowledge assessments (r = 0.30 and r = 0.44). Within the NUNC, this correlation improved when students were instead asked to rate their performance on a specific examination within the competition (spotter, rS = 0.68; MCQ, rS = 0.58). Despite its inherent difficulty, medical student self-assessment accuracy in neuroanatomy is comparable to other subjects within the medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 9: 488-495. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Predicted versus Actual Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry and Implications for Student Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursell, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Performance as measured by grades in the first and second semesters of organic chemistry was predicted using pre-college measures (SAT scores, high school rank, validation exams) and college measures (general chemistry GPA, overall college GPA prior to beginning organic chemistry, first-semester organic chemistry GPA). Data indicate that overall…

  17. Flight performance effects of thermal stress and two aviator uniforms in a UH-60 helicopter simulator.

    PubMed

    Reardon, M J; Fraser, E B; Omer, J M

    1998-06-01

    The effects on flight performance of the four combinations of an unencumbered mission oriented protective posture (MOPP) aviator battle dress uniform (ABDU) and encumbered MOPP4 over ABDU flight ensemble in cool (70 degrees F or 21.1 degrees C, 50% relative humidity [RH]) and hot (100 degrees F or 37.8 degrees C, 50% RH) UH-60 simulator cockpit conditions were evaluated with a repeated measures, 2 x 2 factorial study using nine crews. The encumbered MOPP4 uniform had the most frequent adverse effect on flight performance followed by heat stress, with less frequent effects from the combination or interaction of these two factors. This study confirmed that heat stress and wearing an encumbered U.S. Army MOPP4 flight uniform significantly reduced endurance and flight performance in a UH-60 simulator.

  18. Optimum Wing Shape Determination of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60,...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60,...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60,...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60,...

  3. How does sport psychology actually improve athletic performance? A framework to facilitate athletes' and coaches' understanding.

    PubMed

    Gee, Chris J

    2010-09-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a competitive contest. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that many athletes, coaches, and sporting administrators are still quite reluctant to seek out the services of a qualified sport psychologist, even if they believe it could help. One of the primary reasons for this hesitation appears to be a lack of understanding about the process and the mechanisms by which these mental skills affect performance. Unlike the "harder sciences" of sport physiology and biochemistry where athletes can see the tangible results in themselves or other athletes (e.g., he or she lifted weights, developed larger muscles, and is now stronger/faster as a result), the unfamiliar and often esoteric nature of sport psychology appears to be impeding a large number of athletes from soliciting these important services. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a simple framework depicting how mental skills training translates into improved within-competition performance. This framework is intended to help bridge the general "understanding gap" that is currently being reported by a large number of athletes and coaches, while also helping sport psychology practitioners sell their valuable services to individual athletes and teams.

  4. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  5. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-22

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  6. Verification and Validation Plan for Flight Performance Requirements on the CEV Parachute Assembly System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Olson, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is engaged in a multi-year design and test campaign aimed at qualifying a parachute recovery system for human use on the Orion Spacecraft. Orion has parachute flight performance requirements that will ultimately be verified through the use of Monte Carlo multi-degree of freedom flight simulations. These simulations will be anchored by real world flight test data and iteratively improved to provide a closer approximation to the real physics observed in the inherently chaotic inflation and steady state flight of the CPAS parachutes. This paper will examine the processes necessary to verify the flight performance requirements of the human rated spacecraft. The focus will be on the requirements verification and model validation planned on CPAS.

  7. Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

    2015-03-01

    The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-naïve participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training.

  8. Propensity-matched analysis of the gap between capacity and actual performance of dressing in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Sone, Toshimasa; Midorikawa, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Bumsuk, Lee; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Dressing is an activity of daily living for which stroke patients often show discrepancies between capacity and actual performance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical function and unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients that reduce their level of actual performance despite having the capacity for dressing independently. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 60 first-time stroke patients judged by occupational therapists as able to dress independently. The patients were divided into two groups according to their FIM(®) instrument scores for dressing the upper and lower body: an independent group with both scores ≥6 and an assistance group with one or both scores ≤5. After adjusting for confounding factors through propensity score matching, the groups were compared by using Stroke Impairment Assessment Set items, the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function of both upper limbs, and the Berg balance scale. [Results] The assistance group had a significantly lower score for the Berg balance scale than the independent dressing group (31.0 ± 12.3 vs. 47.8 ± 7.4). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggested that the balance function has an effect on the discrepancy between dressing capacity and performance.

  9. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  10. An Improved Method for Accurate and Rapid Measurement of Flight Performance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Daniel T.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila has proven to be a useful model system for analysis of behavior, including flight. The initial flight tester involved dropping flies into an oil-coated graduated cylinder; landing height provided a measure of flight performance by assessing how far flies will fall before producing enough thrust to make contact with the wall of the cylinder. Here we describe an updated version of the flight tester with four major improvements. First, we added a "drop tube" to ensure that all flies enter the flight cylinder at a similar velocity between trials, eliminating variability between users. Second, we replaced the oil coating with removable plastic sheets coated in Tangle-Trap, an adhesive designed to capture live insects. Third, we use a longer cylinder to enable more accurate discrimination of flight ability. Fourth we use a digital camera and imaging software to automate the scoring of flight performance. These improvements allow for the rapid, quantitative assessment of flight behavior, useful for large datasets and large-scale genetic screens. PMID:24561810

  11. Flight test report of the NASA icing research airplane: Performance, stability, and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. L.; Platz, S. J.; Schinstock, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Flight test results are presented documenting the effect of airframe icing on performance and stability and control of a NASA DHC-6 icing research aircraft. Kohlman System Research, Inc., provided the data acquisition system and data analysis under contract to NASA. Performance modeling methods and MMLE techniques were used to determine the effects of natural ice on the aircraft. Results showed that ice had a significant effect on the drag coefficient of the aircraft and a modest effect on the MMLE derived longitudinal stability coefficients (code version MMLE). Data is also presented on asymmetric power sign slip maneuvers showing rudder floating characteristics with and without ice on the vertical stabilizer.

  12. LPV Antiwindup Compensation for Enhanced Flight Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Bei; Wu, Fen; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a saturation control scheme for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems from an antiwindup control perspective. The proposed control approach is advantageous because it can be thought of as an augmented control algorithm from the existing control system. Moreover, the synthesis condition for an antiwindup compensator is formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem and can be solved efficiently. We have applied the LPV antiwindup controller to an F-16 longitudinal autopilot control system design to enhance aircraft safety and improve flight quality in a high angle of attack region.

  13. Comparison of analytical predictions and verification flight test results for the performance of the Spacelab environmental control and life support subsystem as obtained during the 1st mission.

    PubMed

    Loser, H

    1985-12-01

    The environmental control and life support subsystem (ECLS) of the Spacelab module provides various functions which can be assigned to its various branches as follows: Thermal insulation from the external environment is achieved by the passive thermal control subsystem (PTCS). Rejection of the heat produced by the Spacelab subsystem equipment and by the various experiments is the task of the active thermal control subsystem (ATCS). Life support in the form of cabin air ventilation, oxygen/carbon dioxide partial pressure control; total pressure and air temperature/humidity control is achieved by the life support subsystem (LSS). In the first part of the paper a brief description of the various elements and loops forming the Spacelab ECLS will be given by discussing the PTCS, ATCS and LSS in some detail. Objective of the verification flight test program--as implied in the title already--is the verification of major requirements the ECLS has to comply with. Those requirements will then be comprehensively discussed in the second part of the paper. A description of the analytical approach is given in the third part of the paper. However, only those areas will be addressed which were included in the verification flight test program. A brief description of the flight instrumentation, the data transmission and collection follows then in the fourth part of the paper. In the fifth part of the paper the approach to select and compile flight test data obtained during the first mission (Shuttle flight STS 9) from November 28 till December 8, 1983 is illustrated. Flight test data are compared with the analytical predictions in form of examples. In the sixth and last portion of the paper the actual/measured performance is compared with the requirements, and conclusions are drawn with respect to comprehensiveness/accuracy of the flight test verification and the compliance of the Spacelab actual performance with the requirements.

  14. The relationship between academic performanceand pilot performance in a collegiate flight training environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carolyn A.

    While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.

  15. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  16. Male bumblebees perform learning flights on leaving a flower but not when leaving their nest.

    PubMed

    Robert, Théo; Frasnelli, Elisa; Collett, Thomas S; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Female bees and wasps demonstrate, through their performance of elaborate learning flights, when and where they memorise features of a significant site. An important feature of these flights is that the insects look back to fixate the site that they are leaving. Females, which forage for nectar and pollen and return with it to the nest, execute learning flights on their initial departure from both their nest and newly discovered flowers. To our knowledge, these flights have so far only been studied in females. Here, we describe and analyse putative learning flights observed in male bumblebees Bombus terrestris L. Once male bumblebees are mature, they leave their nest for good and fend for themselves. We show that, unlike female foragers, males always fly directly away from their nest, without looking back, in keeping with their indifference to their natal nest. In contrast, after males have drunk from artificial flowers, their flights on first leaving the flowers resemble the learning flights of females, particularly in their fixation of the flowers. These differences in the occurrence of female and male learning flights seem to match the diverse needs of the two sexes to learn about disparate, ecologically relevant places in their surroundings.

  17. Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCluskey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no significant linear correlations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  18. SFDT-1 Camera Pointing and Sun-Exposure Analysis and Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Joseph; Dutta, Soumyo; Striepe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle was developed to advance and test technologies of NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Technology Demonstration Mission. The first flight test (SFDT-1) occurred on June 28, 2014. In order to optimize the usefulness of the camera data, analysis was performed to optimize parachute visibility in the camera field of view during deployment and inflation and to determine the probability of sun-exposure issues with the cameras given the vehicle heading and launch time. This paper documents the analysis, results and comparison with flight video of SFDT-1.

  19. Aerodynamic performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor and the evolution of feathered flight.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Gareth; de Kat, Roeland; Palmer, Colin; van der Kindere, Jacques; Naish, Darren; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the aerodynamic performance of feathered, non-avialan dinosaurs is critical to reconstructing the evolution of bird flight. Here we show that the Early Cretaceous five-winged paravian Microraptor is most stable when gliding at high-lift coefficients (low lift/drag ratios). Wind tunnel experiments and flight simulations show that sustaining a high-lift coefficient at the expense of high drag would have been the most efficient strategy for Microraptor when gliding from, and between, low elevations. Analyses also demonstrate that anatomically plausible changes in wing configuration and leg position would have made little difference to aerodynamic performance. Significant to the evolution of flight, we show that Microraptor did not require a sophisticated, 'modern' wing morphology to undertake effective glides. This is congruent with the fossil record and also with the hypothesis that symmetric 'flight' feathers first evolved in dinosaurs for non-aerodynamic functions, later being adapted to form lifting surfaces.

  20. Effects of Terfenadine and Diphenhydramine on Brain Activity and Performance in a UH-60 Flight Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b- TELýPHONE (include Area I2c. OFFICE SYMBOL Chief, Scientiflc Information Center (205,) 255-6902 7 SCRD-UAX-SI DD Form 1473...1. Flight performance measures ...................... 32 Table 2. Drug dosage schedule ............................ 33 Table 3. Flight profile...currently available antihistamines, does not appear to appreciably distribute into the CNS at usual dosages . The introduction of terfenadine as a new

  1. Flight Performance of Gravity Probe B Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, D. O.; Taber, M. A.; Burns, K. M.

    2006-04-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a cryogenic and space-based test of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by means of precision gyroscopes, The GP-B spacecraft was launched into a polar orbit from Vandenberg AFB on April 20, 2004. The launch and operation of GP-B represented the culmination of forty years of planning, technology development, hardware fabrication, and testing. The superfluid liquid helium became depleted on September 29, 2005, giving a lifetime of 17.3 months compared to the requirement of 16.5 months and a thermal model prediction of 16.6 months. The flight dewar contained 2320 liters of ~1.8 K superfluid helium at launch and housed the science instrument consisting of four precision gyroscopes and a telescope. A porous plug phase separator effected the venting of the helium boiloff gas. This venting helium was used to operate 16 thrusters, which are the actuators that effect precision pointing on a fixed star and adjust the orbit to be drag free or close to true zero-g.

  2. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1988-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic R and D chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing have been the crucible in which aeronautical concepts have advanced and been proven to the point that engineers and companies have been willing to stake their future to produce and design new aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress made and the challenges to come.

  3. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  4. Comparing Aerodynamic Efficiency in Birds and Bats Suggests Better Flight Performance in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  5. Flight performance of actively foraging honey bees is reduced by a common pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Trish; Wolf, Stephan; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Groll, Helga; Lim, Ka S.; Clark, Suzanne J.; Swain, Jennifer; Osborne, Juliet L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sudden and severe declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony health in the US and Europe have been attributed, in part, to emergent microbial pathogens, however, the mechanisms behind the impact are unclear. Using roundabout flight mills, we measured the flight distance and duration of actively foraging, healthy‐looking honey bees sampled from standard colonies, before quantifying the level of infection by Nosema ceranae and Deformed Wing Virus complex (DWV) for each bee. Neither the presence nor the quantity of N. ceranae were at low, natural levels of infection had any effect on flight distance or duration, but presence of DWV reduced flight distance by two thirds and duration by one half. Quantity of DWV was shown to have a significant, but weakly positive relation with flight distance and duration, however, the low amount of variation that was accounted for suggests further investigation by dose‐response assays is required. We conclude that widespread, naturally occurring levels of infection by DWV weaken the flight ability of honey bees and high levels of within‐colony prevalence are likely to reduce efficiency and increase the cost of resource acquisition. Predictions of implications of pathogens on colony health and function should take account of sublethal effects on flight performance. PMID:27337097

  6. Effects of visual flight display dynamics on altitude tracking performance in a flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weener, E. F.; Howe, R. M.; Pew, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The effects were studied of visual display dynamics on pilot tracking performance in a simulator. The tracking task consisted of maintaining the piloted aircraft at the same altitude as two aircraft positioned three-hundred feet ahead; as would be required in level formation flying. The two leading aircraft were represented symbolically along with the horizon on a CRT display. Vertical position of these aircraft with respect to the horizon indicated the altitude of the subject's aircraft, which was disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. Various bandwidths of second-order dynamics were interposed between the true aircraft altitude and the displayed altitude, whereas no dynamics were interposed in the attitude display. Experiments were run using two experienced pilots and two substantially different longitudinal dynamics for the piloted aircraft. Preliminary results indicate a significant decrease in altitude tracking performance for display dynamics with natural frequencies below ten radians per second.

  7. Performance analysis of mini-propellers based on FlightGear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeltanz, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of three mini-propellers based on the FlightGear flight simulator. Although a basic propeller analysis has to be performed before the use of FlightGear, for a complex and more practical performance analysis, it is advantageous to use a propeller model in cooperation with a particular aircraft model. This approach may determine whether the propeller has sufficient quality in respect of aircraft requirements. In the first section, the software used for the analysis is illustrated. Then, the parameters of the analyzed mini-propellers and the tested UAV are described. Finally, the main section shows and discusses the results of the performance analysis of the mini-propellers.

  8. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  9. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations.

  10. Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Winckler, Ciro; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Veríssimo, Amaury W; Pereira, Lucas A; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the magnitude of variability and progression in actual competitive and field vertical jump test performances in elite Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment in the year leading up to the 2015 Parapan American Games, and to investigate the relationships between loaded and unloaded vertical jumping test results and actual competitive sprinting performance. Fifteen Brazilian Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment attended seven official competitions (four national, two international and the Parapan American Games 2015) between April 2014 and August 2015, in the 100- and 200-m dash. In addition, they were tested in five different periods using loaded (mean propulsive power [MPP] in jump squat [JS] exercise) and unloaded (squat jump [SJ] height) vertical jumps within the 3 weeks immediately prior to the main competitions. The smallest important effect on performances was calculated as half of the within-athlete race-to-race (or test-to-test) variability and a multiple regression analysis was performed to predict the 100- and 200-m dash performances using the vertical jump test results. Competitive performance was enhanced during the Parapan American Games in comparison to the previous competition averages, overcoming the smallest worthwhile enhancement in both the 100- (0.9%) and 200-m dash (1.43%). In addition, The SJ and JS explained 66% of the performance variance in the competitive results. This study showed that vertical jump tests, in loaded and unloaded conditions, could be good predictors of the athletes' sprinting performance, and that during the Parapan American Games the Brazilian team reached its peak competitive performance.

  11. Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Winckler, Ciro; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C.; Kitamura, Katia; Veríssimo, Amaury W.; Pereira, Lucas A.; Nakamura, Fábio Y.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the magnitude of variability and progression in actual competitive and field vertical jump test performances in elite Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment in the year leading up to the 2015 Parapan American Games, and to investigate the relationships between loaded and unloaded vertical jumping test results and actual competitive sprinting performance. Fifteen Brazilian Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment attended seven official competitions (four national, two international and the Parapan American Games 2015) between April 2014 and August 2015, in the 100- and 200-m dash. In addition, they were tested in five different periods using loaded (mean propulsive power [MPP] in jump squat [JS] exercise) and unloaded (squat jump [SJ] height) vertical jumps within the 3 weeks immediately prior to the main competitions. The smallest important effect on performances was calculated as half of the within-athlete race-to-race (or test-to-test) variability and a multiple regression analysis was performed to predict the 100- and 200-m dash performances using the vertical jump test results. Competitive performance was enhanced during the Parapan American Games in comparison to the previous competition averages, overcoming the smallest worthwhile enhancement in both the 100- (0.9%) and 200-m dash (1.43%). In addition, The SJ and JS explained 66% of the performance variance in the competitive results. This study showed that vertical jump tests, in loaded and unloaded conditions, could be good predictors of the athletes' sprinting performance, and that during the Parapan American Games the Brazilian team reached its peak competitive performance. PMID:26594181

  12. The Effects of Ultra-Long-Range Flights on the Alertness and Performance of Aviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, John A.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Colletti, Laura M.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Brandt, Summer L.; Arsintescu, Lucia; DeRoshia, Charlie W.; Reduta-Rojas, Dinah D.; Chapman, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation assessed the impact of ultra-long-range (ULR) simulator flights, departing either in the morning or late evening, on the alertness and performance of 17 commercial aviators. Immediately prior to and throughout each flight, alertness and performance were assessed via a computerized test of sustained attention, subjective questionnaires, and "hand-flying" tasks. There were fatigue-related effects on the majority of assessments, and the nature of these effects was consistent across the vigilance and self-report measures. However, the operational "hand-flying" manuevers proved insensitive to the impact of fatigue probably due to procedural factors. Regardless, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue associated with prolonged wakefulness in ULR flight operations will interact with flight schedules due to circadian and homeostatic influences. In this study, the pilots departing at night were at a greater initial disadvantage (during cruise) than pilots who departed earlier in the day; whereas those who departed earlier tended to be most impaired towards the end of the flight prior to landing. In real-world operations, airlines should consider the ramifications of flight schedules and what is known about human sleep and circadian rhythms to optimize safety.

  13. The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrew K.; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

  14. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew K; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  15. Foraging in an unsteady world: bumblebee flight performance in field-realistic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Crall, J D; Chang, J J; Oppenheimer, R L; Combes, S A

    2017-02-06

    Natural environments are characterized by variable wind that can pose significant challenges for flying animals and robots. However, our understanding of the flow conditions that animals experience outdoors and how these impact flight performance remains limited. Here, we combine laboratory and field experiments to characterize wind conditions encountered by foraging bumblebees in outdoor environments and test the effects of these conditions on flight. We used radio-frequency tags to track foraging activity of uniquely identified bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) workers, while simultaneously recording local wind flows. Despite being subjected to a wide range of speeds and turbulence intensities, we find that bees do not avoid foraging in windy conditions. We then examined the impacts of turbulence on bumblebee flight in a wind tunnel. Rolling instabilities increased in turbulence, but only at higher wind speeds. Bees displayed higher mean wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude in these conditions, as well as increased asymmetry in stroke amplitude-suggesting that bees employ an array of active responses to enable flight in turbulence, which may increase the energetic cost of flight. Our results provide the first direct evidence that moderate, environmentally relevant turbulence affects insect flight performance, and suggest that flying insects use diverse mechanisms to cope with these instabilities.

  16. Static performance tests of a flight-type STOVL ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.

    1991-01-01

    The design and development of thrust augmenting STOVL ejectors has typically been based on experimental iteration (i.e., trial and error). Static performance tests of a full scale vertical lift ejector were performed at primary flow temperatures up to 1560 R (1100 F). Flow visualization (smoke generators and yarn tufts) were used to view the inlet air flow, especially around the primary nozzle and end plates. Performance calculations are presented for ambient temperatures close to 480 R (20 F) and 535 R (75 F) which simulate seasonal aircraft operating conditions. Resulting thrust augmentation ratios are presented as functions of nozzle pressure ratio and temperature.

  17. InP homojunction solar cell performance on the LIPS 3 flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving; Smith, Brian S.

    1988-01-01

    Performance data for the NASA Lewis Research Center indium phosphide n+p homojunction solar cell module on the LIPS 3 Flight Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment is to measure the performance of InP cells in the natural radiation environment of the 1100 km altitude, 60+ deg inclination orbit. Analysis of flight data indicates that the performance of the four cells throughout the first year is near expected values. No degradation in short-circuit current was seen, as was expected from radiation tolerance studies of similar cells. Details of the cell structure and flight module design are discussed. The results of the temperature dependency and radiation tolerance studies necessary for normalization and analysis of the data are included.

  18. In-Flight Performance of the Cassini Hemispherical Quartz Resonator Gyro Inertial Reference Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Todd S.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a flagship class NASA/ESA mission to the planet Saturn. Launched in 1997, Cassini is still successfully operating after 16 years of flight and the telemetry from the attitude control hardware on Cassini has produced an immense dataset that allows the Cassini operations team to report on the long-term performance of several commercially available GNC hardware components in the space environment. This investigation summarizes the in-flight performance of the two inertial reference units aboard Cassini. Each of the two Cassini inertial reference units contains four hemispherical quartz resonator gyros. The Cassini operations team previously reported on the performance of the inertial reference units in 2007, and this paper provides an update with an additional 6 years of flight experience at Saturn.

  19. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  20. Analyses of flight model spacecraft performance during thermal-vacuum tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmins, A. R.; Heuser, R. E.; Strain, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Malfunction data from the thermal-vacuum tests of 39 flight-model spacecraft were analyzed. The results are interpreted in terms of the test variables, and in terms of the spacecraft performance. The malfunction data are correlated with the test time as a single variable, and also with the composite variable of time plus temperature. The improvement in spacecraft performance is examined by means of malfunction rates, malfunctions per spacecraft, and the probability of no failure related to test time. The minimum thermal-vacuum test profile required for Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft is verified, and the probability of a defect remaining undetected is estimated.

  1. Planck early results. III. First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Davis, R. J.; Dick, J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Lowe, S.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Meinhold, P. R.; Morgante, G.; Pearson, D.; Perrotta, F.; Polenta, G.; Poutanen, T.; Sandri, M.; Seiffert, M. D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valiviita, J.; Villa, F.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.; Aja, B.; Artal, E.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaglia, P.; Bennett, K.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cappellini, B.; Chen, X.; Colombo, L.; Cruz, M.; Danese, L.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davies, R. D.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; George, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Herranz, D.; Herreros, J. M.; Hoyland, R. J.; Hughes, N.; Jewell, J.; Jukkala, P.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kilpia, V.-H.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Laaninen, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leutenegger, P.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Malaspina, M.; Marinucci, D.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Miccolis, M.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moss, A.; Natoli, P.; Nesti, R.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pettorino, V.; Pietrobon, D.; Pospieszalski, M.; Prézeau, G.; Prina, M.; Procopio, P.; Puget, J.-L.; Quercellini, C.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roddis, N.; Rubino-Martín, J. A.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Silvestri, R.; Simonetto, A.; Sjoman, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Sozzi, C.; Stringhetti, L.; Tauber, J. A.; Tofani, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Watson, C.; White, S. D. M.; Winder, F.

    2011-12-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main systematic effects is presented. For each of the performance parameters, we outline the methods used to obtain them from the flight data and provide a comparison with pre-launch ground assessments, which are essentially confirmed in flight. Corresponding author: A. Mennella, e-mail: aniello.mennella@fisica.unimi.it

  2. Analyses of flight model spacecraft performance during thermal-vacuum tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmins, A. R.; Heuser, R. E.; Strain, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Malfunction data from the thermal-vacuum tests of 39 flight-model spacecraft have been analyzed. The results are interpreted in terms of the test variables and the spacecraft performance. The malfunction data are correlated with the test time as a single variable, and also with the composite variable of time plus temperature. The improvement in spacecraft performance is examined by means of malfunction rates, malfunctions per spacecraft, and the probability of no failure related to test time. The minimum thermal-vacuum test profile required for Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft is verified, and the probability of a defect remaining undetected is estimated.

  3. Evaluating Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts with Validated Human Performance Models: Flight Deck Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Gore, Brian Francis; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current research were to develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and land operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and draw conclusions regarding flight deck display design and pilot-ATC roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSPO concepts. This document presents guidelines and implications for flight deck display designs and candidate roles and responsibilities. A companion document (Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, & Foyle, 2013) provides complete scenario descriptions and results including predictions of pilot workload, visual attention and time to detect off-nominal events.

  4. Cryogenic Optical Performance of the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) Flight Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losch, Patricia; Lyons, James J., III; Hagopian, John

    1998-01-01

    The CIRS half-meter diameter beryllium flight telescope's optical performance was tested at the instrument operating temperature of 170 Kelvin. The telescope components were designed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) but fabricated out of house and then assembled, aligned and tested upon receipt at GSFC. A 24 inch aperture cryogenic test facility utilizing a 1024 x 1024 CCD array was developed at GSFC specifically for this test. The telescope,s image quality (measured as encircled energy), boresight stability and focus stability were measured. The gold coated beryllium design exceeded the cold image performance requirement of 80% encircled energy within a 460 micron diameter circle.

  5. Combustor Operability and Performance Verification for HIFiRE Flight 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storch, Andrea M.; Bynum, Michael; Liu, Jiwen; Gruber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Direct-Connect Rig (HDCR) test and analysis activity, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using two Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes solvers. Measurements obtained from ground testing in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) were used to specify inflow conditions for the simulations and combustor data from four representative tests were used as benchmarks. Test cases at simulated flight enthalpies of Mach 5.84, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0 were analyzed. Modeling parameters (e.g., turbulent Schmidt number and compressibility treatment) were tuned such that the CFD results closely matched the experimental results. The tuned modeling parameters were used to establish a standard practice in HIFiRE combustor analysis. Combustor performance and operating mode were examined and were found to meet or exceed the objectives of the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In addition, the calibrated CFD tools were then applied to make predictions of combustor operation and performance for the flight configuration and to aid in understanding the impacts of ground and flight uncertainties on combustor operation.

  6. Performance deterioration due to acceptance testing and flight loads; JT90 jet engine diagnostic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a flight loads test of the JT9D-7 engine are presented. The goals of this test program were to: measure aerodynamic and inertia loads on the engine during flight, explore the effects of airplane gross weight and typical maneuvers on these flight loads, simultaneously measure the changes in engine running clearances and performance resulting from the maneuvers, make refinements of engine performance deterioration prediction models based on analytical results of the tests, and make recommendations to improve propulsion system performance retention. The test program included a typical production airplane acceptance test plus additional flights and maneuvers to encompass the range of flight loads in revenue service. The test results indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-induced deterioration in the cold sectin of the engine. Differential thermal expansion between rotating and static parts plus aerodynamic loads combined to cause blade-to-seal rubs in the turbine.

  7. Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Luigi; Meixner, Hilda; Sancho, Francisco; Damiano, Antimo; Lazaro, David

    2007-01-01

    The 19th of October 2006 at 16:28 UTC the first MetOp satellite (MetOp A) was successfully launched from the Baykonur cosmodrome by a Soyuz/Fregat launcher. After only three days of LEOP operations, performed by ESOC, the satellite was handed over to EUMETSAT, who is since then taking care of all satellite operations. MetOp A is the first European operational satellite for meteorology flying in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), all previous satellites operated by EUMETSAT, belonging to the METEOSAT family, being located in the Geo-stationary orbit. To ensure safe operations for a LEO satellite accurate and continuous commanding from ground of the on-board AOCS is required. That makes the operational transition at the end of the LEOP quite challenging, as the continuity of the Flight Dynamics operations is to be maintained. That means that the main functions of the Flight Dynamics have to be fully validated on-flight during the LEOP, before taking over the operational responsibility on the spacecraft, and continuously monitored during the entire mission. Due to the nature of a meteorological operational mission, very stringent requirements in terms of overall service availability (99 % of the collected data), timeliness of processing of the observation data (3 hours after sensing) and accuracy of the geo-location of the meteorological products (1 km) are to be fulfilled. That translates in tight requirements imposed to the Flight Dynamics facility (FDF) in terms of accuracy, timeliness and availability of the generated orbit and clock solutions; a detailed monitoring of the quality of these products is thus mandatory. Besides, being the accuracy of the image geo-location strongly related with the pointing performance of the platform and with the on-board timing stability, monitoring from ground of the behaviour of the on-board sensors and clock is needed. This paper presents an overview of the Flight Dynamics operations performed during the different phases of the MetOp A

  8. Closed-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Closed-loop HIRF experiments were performed on a fault tolerant flight control computer (FCC) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The FCC used in the experiments was a quad-redundant flight control computer executing B737 Autoland control laws. The FCC was placed in one of the mode-stirred reverberation chambers in the HIRF Laboratory and interfaced to a computer simulation of the B737 flight dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators, and atmosphere in the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory. Disturbances to the aircraft associated with wind gusts and turbulence were simulated during tests. Electrical isolation between the FCC under test and the simulation computer was achieved via a fiber optic interface for the analog and discrete signals. Closed-loop operation of the FCC enabled flight dynamics and atmospheric disturbances affecting the aircraft to be represented during tests. Upset was induced in the FCC as a result of exposure to HIRF, and the effect of upset on the simulated flight of the aircraft was observed and recorded. This paper presents a description of these closed- loop HIRF experiments, upset data obtained from the FCC during these experiments, and closed-loop effects on the simulated flight of the aircraft.

  9. Ground-to-Flight Handling Qualities Comparisons for a High Performance Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in conjunction with a ground-based piloted simulation study to enable a comparison of handling qualities ratings for a variety of maneuvers between flight and simulation of a modern high performance airplane. Specific objectives included an evaluation of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) tendencies and a determination of maneuver types which result in either good or poor ground-to-flight pilot handling qualities ratings. A General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was used for the flight evaluations, and the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator was employed for the ground based evaluations. Two NASA research pilots evaluated both the airplane and simulator characteristics using tasks developed in the simulator. Simulator and flight tests were all conducted within approximately a one month time frame. Maneuvers included numerous fine tracking evaluations at various angles of attack, load factors and speed ranges, gross acquisitions involving longitudinal and lateral maneuvering, roll angle captures, and an ILS task with a sidestep to landing. Overall results showed generally good correlation between ground and flight for PIO tendencies and general handling qualities comments. Differences in pilot technique used in simulator evaluations and effects of airplane accelerations and motions are illustrated.

  10. Flight Simulator: Field of View Utilized in Performing Tactical Maneuvers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    were taken in the Simulator for Air-to-Air Combat (SAAC) and the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). During the air-to-ground data collection...ground maneuvers were performed In the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). The data collected provided an estimate of the FOV dimensions that a...tactical maneuvers were conducted in the AFHIRL ASPT located at Williams AFB. The ASPT had a fully instrumnted F-16 cockpit. The g-cueing was available

  11. Effects of Modality on Interrupted Flight Deck Performance: Implications for Data Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1997-01-01

    Externally-imposed tasks frequently interrupt ongoing task performance in the commercial flight deck. While normally managed without consequence, basic research as well as aviation accident and incident investigations show that interruptions can negatively affect performance and safety. This research investigates the influence of interruption and interrupted task modality on pilot performance in a simulated commercial flight deck. Fourteen current commercial airline pilots performed approach scenarios in a fixed-base flight simulator. Air traffic control instructions, conveyed either aurally or visually (via a data link system) interrupted a visual task (obtaining information from the Flight Management System) and an auditory task (listening to the automated terminal information service recording). Some results confirm the hypothesized performance advantage of cross-modality conditions, more compelling nature of auditory interruptions, and interruption-resistance of auditory ongoing tasks. However, taken together, results suggest the four interaction conditions had different effects on pilot performance. These results have implications for the design of data link systems, and for facilitating interruption management through interface design, aiding, and training programs.

  12. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334 N (300 lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. This paper describes and summarizes the development and in-flight performance of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicted upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling are also discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data.

  13. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented in this article from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Redshift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced, spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (Oct. 1989) and Nov. 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in Aug. 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  14. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Red-shift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (October 1989) and November 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in August 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  15. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-05-01

    Results are presented in this article from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Redshift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced, spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (Oct. 1989) and Nov. 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in Aug. 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  16. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-08-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Red-shift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (October 1989) and November 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in August 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  17. Cold rearing improves cold-flight performance in Drosophila via changes in wing morphology.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Melanie R; Harrison, Jon F; Kirkton, Scott D; Roberts, Stephen P

    2008-07-01

    We use a factorial experimental design to test whether rearing at colder temperatures shifts the lower thermal envelope for flight of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen to colder temperatures. D. melanogaster that developed in colder temperatures (15 degrees C) had a significant flight advantage in cold air compared to flies that developed in warmer temperatures (28 degrees C). At 14 degrees C, cold-reared flies failed to perform a take-off flight approximately 47% of the time whereas warm-reared flies failed approximately 94% of the time. At 18 degrees C, cold- and warm-reared flies performed equally well. We also compared several traits in cold- and warm-developing flies to determine if cold-developing flies had better flight performance at cold temperatures due to changes in body mass, wing length, wing loading, relative flight muscle mass or wing-beat frequency. The improved ability to fly at low temperatures was associated with a dramatic increase in wing area and an increase in wing length (after controlling for wing area). Flies that developed at 15 degrees C had approximately 25% more wing area than similarly sized flies that developed at 28 degrees C. Cold-reared flies had slower wing-beat frequencies than similarly sized flies from warmer developmental environments, whereas other traits did not vary with developmental temperature. These results demonstrate that developmental plasticity in wing dimensions contributes to the improved flight performance of D. melanogaster at cold temperatures, and ultimately, may help D. melanogaster live in a wide range of thermal environments.

  18. Space-flight experience and life test performance of a synthetic hydrocarbon lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, Bill

    1995-01-01

    An alternative wet lubricant known as Pennzane(TM) SHF X-2000 is recommended for some spaceflight bearing systems. The performance characteristics between Pennzane(TM) SHF X-2000 and Bray 815Z were compared. The life tests showed excellent performances with continuous operation approaching three years in conservative operating environments. Space flight performance data are provided for several of the tested mechanisms which are operating in-orbit since February 1994.

  19. In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

  20. The calibration and flight test performance of the space shuttle orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, A. S.; Mena, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air data system (ADS) is used by the guidance, navigation and control system (GN&C) to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. In addition, postflight aerodynamic analysis requires a precise knowledge of flight conditions. Since the orbiter is essentially an unpowered vehicle, the conventional methods of obtaining the ADS calibration were not available; therefore, the calibration was derived using a unique and extensive wind tunnel test program. This test program included subsonic tests with a 0.36-scale orbiter model, transonic and supersonic tests with a smaller 0.2-scale model, and numerous ADS probe-alone tests. The wind tunnel calibration was further refined with subsonic results from the approach and landing test (ALT) program, thus producing the ADS calibration for the orbital flight test (OFT) program. The calibration of the Space Shuttle ADS and its performance during flight are discussed in this paper. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the calibration methodology, and then by a review of the wind tunnel and flight test programs. Finally, the flight results are presented, including an evaluation of the system performance for on-board systems use and a description of the calibration refinements developed to provide the best possible air data for postflight analysis work.

  1. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  2. Design and Flight Performance of NOAA-K Spacecraft Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Chetty, P. R. K.; Spitzer, Tom; Chilelli, P.

    1999-01-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the POES series of spacecraft, named as NOAA-KLMNN, is in orbit and four more are in various phases of development. The NOAA-K spacecraft was launched on May 13, 1998. Each of these spacecraft carry three Nickel-Cadmium batteries designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. The battery, which consists of seventeen 40 Ah cells manufactured by SAFT, provides the spacecraft power during the ascent phase, orbital eclipse and when the power demand is in excess of the solar array capability. The NOAA-K satellite is in a 98 degree inclination, 7:30AM ascending node orbit. In this orbit the satellite experiences earth occultation only 25% of the year. This paper provides a brief overview of the power subsystem, followed by the battery design and qualification, the cell life cycle test data, and the performance during launch and in orbit.

  3. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature, thermal protection materials (TPM), is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heatshield of Orbiter 105, Endeavor.

  4. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  5. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.; Jordan, J. L.; Schinstock, W. C.; Platz, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degration in lift and drag.

  6. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  7. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334-newton (300-lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. The development and in-flight performance are described and summarized of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicated upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling of the Mariner 9 subsystem are discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data. The flight performance of the subsystem was excellent, as were the performance prediction correlations. These correlations are presented.

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Performance Modeling Flight Test Approach Based on Quasi Steady-State Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yechout, T. R.; Braman, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    The development, implementation and flight test evaluation of a performance modeling technique which required a limited amount of quasisteady state flight test data to predict the overall one g performance characteristics of an aircraft. The concept definition phase of the program include development of: (1) the relationship for defining aerodynamic characteristics from quasi steady state maneuvers; (2) a simplified in flight thrust and airflow prediction technique; (3) a flight test maneuvering sequence which efficiently provided definition of baseline aerodynamic and engine characteristics including power effects on lift and drag; and (4) the algorithms necessary for cruise and flight trajectory predictions. Implementation of the concept include design of the overall flight test data flow, definition of instrumentation system and ground test requirements, development and verification of all applicable software and consolidation of the overall requirements in a flight test plan.

  9. Markov Jump-Linear Performance Models for Recoverable Flight Control Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong; Gray, W. Steven; Gonzalez, Oscar R.

    2004-01-01

    Single event upsets in digital flight control hardware induced by atmospheric neutrons can reduce system performance and possibly introduce a safety hazard. One method currently under investigation to help mitigate the effects of these upsets is NASA Langley s Recoverable Computer System. In this paper, a Markov jump-linear model is developed for a recoverable flight control system, which will be validated using data from future experiments with simulated and real neutron environments. The method of tracking error analysis and the plan for the experiments are also described.

  10. Effect of wing loading, aspect ratio, and span loading of flight performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gothert, B

    1940-01-01

    An investigation is made of the possible improvements in maximum, cruising, and climbing speeds attainable through increase in the wing loading. The decrease in wing area was considered for the two cases of constant aspect ratio and constant span loading. For a definite flight condition, an investigation is made to determine what loss in flight performance must be sustained if, for given reasons, certain wing loadings are not to be exceeded. With the aid of these general investigations, the trend with respect to wing loading is indicated and the requirements to be imposed on the landing aids are discussed

  11. Biplane wing planform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R. Jack

    2007-01-01

    Microraptor gui, a four-winged dromaeosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China, provides strong evidence for an arboreal-gliding origin of avian flight. It possessed asymmetric flight feathers not only on the manus but also on the pes. A previously published reconstruction shows that the hindwing of Microraptor supported by a laterally extended leg would have formed a second pair of wings in tetrapteryx fashion. However, this wing design conflicts with known theropod limb joints that entail a parasagittal posture of the hindlimb. Here, we offer an alternative planform of the hindwing of Microraptor that is concordant with its feather orientation for producing lift and normal theropod hindlimb posture. In this reconstruction, the wings of Microraptor could have resembled a staggered biplane configuration during flight, where the forewing formed the dorsal wing and the metatarsal wing formed the ventral one. The contour feathers on the tibia were positioned posteriorly, oriented in a vertical plane for streamlining that would reduce the drag considerably. Leg feathers are present in many fossil dromaeosaurs, early birds, and living raptors, and they play an important role in flight during catching and carrying prey. A computer simulation of the flight performance of Microraptor suggests that its biplane wings were adapted for undulatory “phugoid” gliding between trees, where the horizontal feathered tail offered additional lift and stability and controlled pitch. Like the Wright 1903 Flyer, Microraptor, a gliding relative of early birds, took to the air with two sets of wings. PMID:17242354

  12. Biplane wing planform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R Jack

    2007-01-30

    Microraptor gui, a four-winged dromaeosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China, provides strong evidence for an arboreal-gliding origin of avian flight. It possessed asymmetric flight feathers not only on the manus but also on the pes. A previously published reconstruction shows that the hindwing of Microraptor supported by a laterally extended leg would have formed a second pair of wings in tetrapteryx fashion. However, this wing design conflicts with known theropod limb joints that entail a parasagittal posture of the hindlimb. Here, we offer an alternative planform of the hindwing of Microraptor that is concordant with its feather orientation for producing lift and normal theropod hindlimb posture. In this reconstruction, the wings of Microraptor could have resembled a staggered biplane configuration during flight, where the forewing formed the dorsal wing and the metatarsal wing formed the ventral one. The contour feathers on the tibia were positioned posteriorly, oriented in a vertical plane for streamlining that would reduce the drag considerably. Leg feathers are present in many fossil dromaeosaurs, early birds, and living raptors, and they play an important role in flight during catching and carrying prey. A computer simulation of the flight performance of Microraptor suggests that its biplane wings were adapted for undulatory "phugoid" gliding between trees, where the horizontal feathered tail offered additional lift and stability and controlled pitch. Like the Wright 1903 Flyer, Microraptor, a gliding relative of early birds, took to the air with two sets of wings.

  13. Enhanced flight performance by genetic manipulation of wing shape in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Robert P.; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Insect wing shapes are remarkably diverse and the combination of shape and kinematics determines both aerial capabilities and power requirements. However, the contribution of any specific morphological feature to performance is not known. Using targeted RNA interference to modify wing shape far beyond the natural variation found within the population of a single species, we show a direct effect on flight performance that can be explained by physical modelling of the novel wing geometry. Our data show that altering the expression of a single gene can significantly enhance aerial agility and that the Drosophila wing shape is not, therefore, optimized for certain flight performance characteristics that are known to be important. Our technique points in a new direction for experiments on the evolution of performance specialities in animals. PMID:26926954

  14. Assessing impact of dual sensor enhanced flight vision systems on departure performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Severance, Kurt; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic Vision (SV) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) may serve as game-changing technologies to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System and the envisioned Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept - that is, the ability to achieve the safety and operational tempos of current-day Visual Flight Rules operations irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. One significant obstacle lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. A motion-base simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility and pilot workload of conducting departures and approaches on runways without centerline lighting in visibility as low as 300 feet runway visual range (RVR) by use of onboard vision system technologies on a Head-Up Display (HUD) without need or reliance on natural vision. Twelve crews evaluated two methods of combining dual sensor (millimeter wave radar and forward looking infrared) EFVS imagery on pilot-flying and pilot-monitoring HUDs. In addition, the impact of adding SV to the dual sensor EFVS imagery on crew flight performance and workload was assessed. Using EFVS concepts during 300 RVR terminal operations on runways without centerline lighting appears feasible as all EFVS concepts had equivalent (or better) departure performance and landing rollout performance, without any workload penalty, than those flown with a conventional HUD to runways having centerline lighting. Adding SV imagery to EFVS concepts provided situation awareness improvements but no discernible improvements in flight path maintenance.

  15. Assessing Impact of Dual Sensor Enhanced Flight Vision Systems on Departure Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Severance, Kurt; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Vision (SV) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) may serve as game-changing technologies to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System and the envisioned Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept - that is, the ability to achieve the safety and operational tempos of current-day Visual Flight Rules operations irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. One significant obstacle lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. A motion-base simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility and pilot workload of conducting departures and approaches on runways without centerline lighting in visibility as low as 300 feet runway visual range (RVR) by use of onboard vision system technologies on a Head-Up Display (HUD) without need or reliance on natural vision. Twelve crews evaluated two methods of combining dual sensor (millimeter wave radar and forward looking infrared) EFVS imagery on pilot-flying and pilot-monitoring HUDs. In addition, the impact of adding SV to the dual sensor EFVS imagery on crew flight performance and workload was assessed. Using EFVS concepts during 300 RVR terminal operations on runways without centerline lighting appears feasible as all EFVS concepts had equivalent (or better) departure performance and landing rollout performance, without any workload penalty, than those flown with a conventional HUD to runways having centerline lighting. Adding SV imagery to EFVS concepts provided situation awareness improvements but no discernible improvements in flight path maintenance.

  16. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2011-11-15

    The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula (PIF) on industrial batch-scale for both a recalled batch as well a reference batch. Additionally, local spatial occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter cells was assessed, as well as the performance of typical sampling strategies to determine the presence of the microorganisms. The concentration of Cronobacter spp. was assessed in the course of the filling time of each batch, by taking samples of 333 g using the most probable number (MPN) enrichment technique. The occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter spp. cells was investigated by plate counting. From the recalled batch, 415 MPN samples were drawn. The expected heterogeneous distribution of Cronobacter spp. could be quantified from these samples, which showed no detectable level (detection limit of -2.52 log CFU/g) in 58% of samples, whilst in the remainder concentrations were found to be between -2.52 and 2.75 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the recalled batch was -2.78 log CFU/g and a standard deviation of 1.10 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the reference batch was -4.41 log CFU/g, with 99% of the 93 samples being below the detection limit. In the recalled batch, clusters of cells occurred sporadically in 8 out of 2290 samples of 1g taken. The two largest clusters contained 123 (2.09 log CFU/g) and 560 (2.75 log CFU/g) cells. Various sampling strategies were evaluated for the recalled batch. Taking more and smaller samples and keeping the total sampling weight constant, considerably improved the performance of the sampling plans to detect such a type of contaminated batch. Compared to random sampling

  17. Functional Sensory-Motor Performance Following Long Term Space Flight: The First Results of "Field Test" Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kofman, I. S.; Kitov, V. V.; Grishin, A. P.; Yu, N.; Lysova.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Reschke, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect that extended-duration space flights may have on human space travelers, including exploration missions, is widely discussed at the present time. Specifically, there is an increasing amount of evidence showing that the physical capacity of cosmonauts is significantly reduced after long-duration space flights. It is evident that the most impaired functions are those that rely on gravity, particularly up right posture and gait. Because of the sensorimotor disturbances manifested in the neurology of the posture and gait space flight and postflight changes may also be observed in debilitating motion sickness. While the severity of particular symptoms varies, disturbances in spatial orientation and alterations in the accuracy of voluntary movements are persistently observed after long-duration space flights. At this time most of the currently available data are primarily descriptive and not yet suitable for predicting operational impacts of most sensorimotor decrements observed upon landing on planetary surfaces or asteroids. In particular there are no existing data on the recovery dynamics or functionality of neurological, cardiovascular or muscle performance making it difficult to model or simulate the cosmonauts' activity after landing and develop the appropriate countermeasure that will ensure the rapid and safe recovery of crewmembers immediately after landing in what could be hostile environments. However and as a starting position, the videos we have acquired during recent data collection following the long duration flights of cosmonauts and astronauts walking and performing other tasks shortly after return from space flight speak volumes about their level of deconditioning. A joint Russian-American team has developed a new study specifically to address the changes in crewmembers performance and the recovery of performance with the intent of filling the missing data gaps. The first (pilot) phase of this study includes recording body kinematics and

  18. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  19. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Flight Performance, Instrument Scanning, and Physiological Arousal in Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    evaluation of eye movement and mental workload in aircraft pilots . Ergonomics, 33, 719–733. Jones, R. E., Milton, J. L., & Fitts, P. M. (1949). Eye...performance, instrument scanning, subjective fatigue , and EEG activity were measured . Ten fixed-wing military pilots flew a series of 10 simulator profiles...continuous wakefulness on flight performance, instrument scanning, subjective fatigue , and EEG activity were measured . Ten fixed-wing mili- tary pilots

  20. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  1. Use of the Marshall Space Flight Center solar simulator in collector performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Actual measured values from simulator checkout tests are detailed. Problems encountered during initial startup are discussed and solutions described. Techniques utilized to evaluate collector performance from simulator test data are given. Performance data generated in the simulator are compared to equivalent data generated during natural outdoor testing. Finally, a summary of collector performance parameters generated to date as a result of simulator testing are given.

  2. Performance improvements of an F-15 airplane with an integrated engine-flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on the NASA Ames-Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The highly integrated digital control (HIDEC) system provides additional engine thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power. The amount of EPR uptrim is modulated based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. Engine thrust was increased as much as 10.5 percent at subsonic flight conditions by uptrimming EPR. The additional thrust significantly improved aircraft performance. Rate of climb was increased 14 percent at 40,000 ft and the time to climb from 10,000 to 40,000 ft was reduced 13 percent. A 14 and 24 percent increase in acceleration was obtained at intermediate and maximum power, respectively. The HIDEC logic performed fault free. No engine anomalies were encountered for EPR increases up to 12 percent and for angles of attack and sideslip of 32 and 11 degrees, respectively.

  3. Powered Flight Design and Reconstructed Performance Summary for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sell, Steven; Chen, Allen; Davis, Jody; San Martin, Miguel; Serricchio, Frederick; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Flight segment of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system extends from backshell separation through landing. This segment is responsible for removing the final 0.1% of the kinetic energy dissipated during EDL and culminating with the successful touchdown of the rover on the surface of Mars. Many challenges exist in the Powered Flight segment: extraction of Powered Descent Vehicle from the backshell, performing a 300m divert maneuver to avoid the backshell and parachute, slowing the descent from 85 m/s to 0.75 m/s and successfully lowering the rover on a 7.5m bridle beneath the rocket-powered Descent Stage and gently placing it on the surface using the Sky Crane Maneuver. Finally, the nearly-spent Descent Stage must execute a Flyaway maneuver to ensure surface impact a safe distance from the Rover. This paper provides an overview of the powered flight design, key features, and event timeline. It also summarizes Curiosity's as flown performance on the night of August 5th as reconstructed by the flight team.

  4. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  5. Flight electronics for vibration cancellation in cryogenic refrigerators: performance and environmental testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burriesci, Lawrence G.; Cook, Eric I.; Hackett, John P.; Drummond, James R.; Mand, Gurpreet S.

    1996-10-01

    Space flight optical instruments and their support hardware must reliably operate in stressing environments for the duration of their mission. They must also survive the mechanical and thermal stresses of transportation, storage and launch. It is necessary to qualify the hardware design through environmental testing and to verify the hardware's ability to perform properly during and/or after some selected environmental tests on the ground. As a rule, flight electronics are subjected to thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic environmental testing. Thermal testing takes the form of temperature cycling over a temperature difference range (Delta) T of up to 100 degrees C for a minimum of six cycles, with additional performance verification testing at the hot and cold extremes. Mechanical testing takes the form of exposure to random vibration, sine sweep vibration, shock spectra and static loading on a centrifuge or by sine burst on a vibration table. A standard series of electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility testing is also performed.

  6. F/A-18 Performance Benefits Measured During the Autonomous Formation Flight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, M. Jake; Ray, Ronald J.; Walsh, Kevin R.; Ennix, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) investigated performance benefits resulting from formation flight, such as reduced aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption. To obtain data on performance benefits, a trailing F/A-18 airplane flew within the wing tip-shed vortex of a leading F/A-18 airplane. The pilot of the trail airplane used advanced station-keeping technology to aid in positioning the trail airplane at precise locations behind the lead airplane. The specially instrumented trail airplane was able to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to calculate engine thrust and vehicle drag. A maneuver technique developed for this test provided a direct comparison of performance values while flying in and out of the vortex. Based on performance within the vortex as a function of changes in vertical, lateral, and longitudinal positioning, these tests explored design-drivers for autonomous stationkeeping control systems. Observations showed significant performance improvements over a large range of trail positions tested. Calculations revealed maximum drag reductions of over 20 percent, and demonstrated maximum reductions in fuel flow of just over 18 percent.

  7. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  8. Modeling of airplane performance from flight-test results and validation with an F-104G airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. T.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A technique of defining an accurate performance model of an airplane from limited flight-test data and predicted aerodynamic and propulsion system characteristics is developed. With the modeling technique, flight-test data from level accelerations are used to define a 1g performance model for the entire flight envelope of an F-104G airplane. The performance model is defined in terms of the thrust and drag of the airplane and can be varied with changes in ambient temperature or airplane weight. The model predicts the performance of the airplane within 5 percent of the measured flight-test data. The modeling technique could substantially reduce the time required for performance flight testing and produce a clear definition of the thrust and drag characteristics of an airplane.

  9. Entry Atmospheric Flight Control Authority Impacts on GN and C and Trajectory Performance for Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Luke W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key design objectives of NASA's Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) is to execute a guided entry trajectory demonstrating GN&C capability. The focus of this paper is the ight control authority of the vehicle throughout the atmospheric entry ight to the target landing site and its impacts on GN&C, parachute deployment, and integrated performance. The vehicle's attitude control authority is obtained from thrusting 12 Re- action Control System (RCS) engines, with four engines to control yaw, four engines to control pitch, and four engines to control roll. The static and dynamic stability derivatives of the vehicle are determined to assess the inherent aerodynamic stability. The aerodynamic moments at various locations in the entry trajectory are calculated and compared to the available torque provided by the RCS system. Interaction between the vehicle's RCS engine plumes and the aerodynamic conditions are considered to assess thruster effectiveness. This document presents an assessment of Orion's ight control authority and its effectiveness in controlling the vehicle during critical events in the atmospheric entry trajectory.

  10. Methods of Constructing a Blended Performance Function Suitable for Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two methods for constructing an approximate performance function of a desired parameter using correlated parameters. The methods are useful when real-time measurements of a desired performance function are not available to applications such as extremum-seeking control systems. The first method approximates an a priori measured or estimated desired performance function by combining real-time measurements of readily available correlated parameters. The parameters are combined using a weighting vector determined from a minimum-squares optimization to form a blended performance function. The blended performance function better matches the desired performance function mini- mum than single-measurement performance functions. The second method expands upon the first by replacing the a priori data with near-real-time measurements of the desired performance function. The resulting blended performance function weighting vector is up- dated when measurements of the desired performance function are available. Both methods are applied to data collected during formation- flight-for-drag-reduction flight experiments.

  11. AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season: An AVIRIS project assessment and summary of the NASA-sponsored performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Porter, Wallace M.; Reimer, John H.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of the assessment of AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season by the AVIRIS project and the earth scientists who were chartered by NASA to conduct an independent data quality and sensor performance evaluation. The AVIRIS evaluation program began in late June 1987 with the sensor meeting most of its design requirements except for signal-to-noise ratio in the fourth spectrometer, which was about half of the required level. Several events related to parts failures and design flaws further reduced sensor performance over the flight season. Substantial agreement was found between the assessments by the project and the independent investigators of the effects of these various factors. A summary of the engineering work that is being done to raise AVIRIS performance to its required level is given. In spite of degrading data quality over the flight season, several exciting scientific results were obtained from the data. These include the mapping of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water, detection of environmentally-induced shifts in the spectral red edge of stressed vegetation, detection of spectral features related to pigment, leaf water and ligno-cellulose absorptions in plants, and the identification of many diagnostic mineral absorption features in a variety of geological settings.

  12. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  13. Performance Testing of the Astro-H Flight Model 3-Stage ADR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; DiPirro, Michael; Bialas, Tom G.

    2014-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments that will be flown on the Japanese Astro-H satellite, planned for launch in late 2015early 2016. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon micro calorimeters operated at 50 mK, cooled by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). NASAGSFC is providing the detector array and ADR, and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. is providing the remainder of the cryogenic system (superfluid helium dewar (1.3 K), Stirling cryocoolers and a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler). The ADR is unique in that it is designed to use both the liquid helium and the JT cryocooler as it heat sink. The flight detector and ADR assembly have successfully undergone vibration and performance testing at GSFC, and have now undergone initial performance testing with the flight dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. in Japan. This presentation summarizes the performance of the flight ADR in both cryogen-based and cryogen-free operating modes.

  14. Performance Testing of the Astro-H Flight Model 3-stage ADR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments that will be flown on the Japanese Astro-H satellite, planned for launch in late 2015/early 2016. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon microcalorimeters operated at 50 mK, cooled by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). NASA/GSFC is providing the detector array and ADR, and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. is providing the remainder of the cryogenic system (superfluid helium dewar (<1.3 K), Stirling cryocoolers and a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler). The ADR is unique in that it is designed to use both the liquid helium and the JT cryocooler as it heat sink. The flight detector and ADR assembly have successfully undergone vibration and performance testing at GSFC, and have now undergone initial performance testing with the flight dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. in Japan. This paper summaries the performance of the flight ADR in both cryogen-based and cryogen-free operating modes.

  15. Challenges and perspectives of transport cargo vehicles utilization for performing research in free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, T. V.; Belyaev, M. Yu.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Russian Progress transport cargo vehicles have successfully been used in different space station programs since 1978. At present time, they play an important role in the International Space Station (ISS) project. Main tasks performed by the transport cargo vehicle (TCV) in the station program are the following: refueling of the station, delivery of consumables and equipment, waste removal, station attitude control and orbit correction maneuver execution. At the same time, the cargo vehicle basic systems still retain unused resources after the vehicle finishes its work with the station. It makes sense to use these resources to perform research in free flight of TCV after departure from the ISS when possible. The fields of research can be determined not only on the basis of the vehicle capabilities as a research platform but also taking into account needs of the research community. Possible fields could be the following: flight tests, validation and certification of various equipment, materials, systems in the interests of other spacecraft, Execution of experiments on the Earth or other objects remote sensing using additional equipment, Microgravity research aboard TCV, Launch of small satellites and probes after TCV undocking from the station and transfer to the specified orbit, etc. Solution of research tasks using the Progress TCV resources helps to increase efficiency of the ISS research program performance. The paper considers the TCV flight control features and the methods of the solution of the problems arising when various experiments are performed aboard the vehicle.

  16. LiPo battery energy studies for improved flight performance of unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Rammos, P.; Wilkerson, S. A.; Bundy, M.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage is one of the most important determinants of how long and far a small electric powered unmanned aerial system (UAS) can fly. For years, most hobby and experimentalists used heavy fuels to power small drone-like systems. Electric motors and battery storage prior to the turn of the century were either too heavy or too inefficient for flight times of any usable duration. However, with the availability of brushless electric motors and lithium-based batteries everything has changed. Systems like the Dragon Eye, Pointer, and Raven are in service performing reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) for more than an hour at a time. More recently, multi-rotor vehicles have expanded small UAS capabilities to include activities with hovering and persistent surveillance. Moreover, these systems coupled with the surge of small, low-cost electronics can perform autonomous and semi-autonomous missions not possible just ten years ago. This paper addresses flight time limitation issues by proposing an experimental method with procedures for system identification that may lead to modeling of energy storage in electric UAS'. Consequently, this will allow for energy storage to be used more effectively in planning autonomous missions. To achieve this, a set of baseline experiments were designed to measure the energy consumption of a mid-size UAS multi-rotor. Several different flight maneuvers were considered to include different lateral velocities, climbing, and hovering. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to create baseline flight data for each maneuver to be characterized with a certain rate of energy usage. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. Future work will include the development of mission planning algorithms that provide realistic estimates of possible mission flight times and distances given specific mission parameters.

  17. An Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation of the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an aerodynamic performance evaluation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), conducted in association with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics, are presented. The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight systems and aircrew performance. The propulsion and flight dynamics models were evaluated using classical flight test techniques. The aerodynamic performance model of the ACFS was found to realistically represent that of current day, medium range transport aircraft. Recommendations are provided to enhance the capabilities of the ACFS to a level forecast for 1995 transport aircraft. The graphical and tabular results of this study will establish a performance section of the ACFS Operation's Manual.

  18. Comparative Flight Performance with an NACA Roots Supercharger and a Turbocentrifugal Supercharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the comparative flight results of a roots supercharger and a turbocentrifugal supercharger. The tests were conducted using a modified DH-4M2 airplane. The rate of climb and the high speed in level flight of the airplane were obtained for each supercharger from sea level to the ceiling. The unsupercharged performance with each supercharger mounted in place was also determined. The results of these tests show that the ceiling and rate of climb obtained were nearly the same for each supercharger, but that the high speed obtained with the turbocentrifugal was better than that obtained with the roots. The high-speed performance at 21,000 feet was 122 and 142 miles per hour for the roots and turbocentrifugal, respectively.

  19. The LPSP instrument on OSO 8. II - In-flight performance and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Lemaire, P.; Vial, J. C.; Artzner, G.; Gouttebroze, P.; Jouchoux, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Leibacher, J. W.; Skumanich, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the in-flight performance for the first 18 months of operation of the LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire) instrument incorporated in the OSO 8 launched June 1975. By means of the instrument, an absolute pointing accuracy of nearly one second was achieved in orbit during real-time operations. The instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope and a spectrometer simultaneously observing six wavelengths. In-flight performance is discussed with attention to angular resolution, spectral resolution, dispersion and grating mechanism (spectral scanner) stability, scattered light background and dark current, photometric standardization, and absolute calibration. Real-time operation and problems are considered with reference to pointing system problems, target acquisition, and L-alpha modulation. Preliminary results involving the observational program, quiet sun and chromospheric studies, quiet chromospheric oscillation and transients, sunspots and active regions, prominences, and aeronomy investigations are reported.

  20. Pose Measurement Performance of the Argon Relative Navigation Sensor Suite in Simulated Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Eepoel, John Van; Strube, Matt; Gill, Nat; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Hyslop, Andrew; Patrick, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Argon is a flight-ready sensor suite with two visual cameras, a flash LIDAR, an on- board flight computer, and associated electronics. Argon was designed to provide sensing capabilities for relative navigation during proximity, rendezvous, and docking operations between spacecraft. A rigorous ground test campaign assessed the performance capability of the Argon navigation suite to measure the relative pose of high-fidelity satellite mock-ups during a variety of simulated rendezvous and proximity maneuvers facilitated by robot manipulators in a variety of lighting conditions representative of the orbital environment. A brief description of the Argon suite and test setup are given as well as an analysis of the performance of the system in simulated proximity and rendezvous operations.

  1. In-Flight Performance of the Water Vapor Monitor Onboard the Sofia Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; Yuen, Lunming; Sisson, David; Hang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne observatory flies in a modified B747-SP aircraft in the lower stratosphere above more than 99.9% of the Earth's water vapor. As low as this residual water vapor is, it will still affect SOFIA's infrared and sub-millimeter astronomical observations. As a result, a heterodyne instrument has been developed to observe the strength and shape of the 1830Hz rotational line of water, allowing measurements of the integrated water vapor overburden in flight. In order to be useful in correcting the astronomical signals, the required measured precipitable water vapor accuracy must be 2 microns or better, 3 sigma, and measured at least once a minute. The Water Vapor Monitor has flown 22 times during the SOFIA Early Science shared-risk period. The instrument water vapor overburden data obtained were then compared with concurrent data from GOES-V satellites to perform a preliminary calibration of the measurements. This presentation will cover the.results of these flights. The final flight calibration necessary to reach the required accuracy will await subsequent flights following the SOFIA observatory upgrade that is taking place during the spring and summer of 2012.

  2. Use of high performance networks and supercomputers for real-time flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1993-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be consistent in processing time and be completed in as short a time as possible. These operations include simulation mathematical model computation and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) technology which resulted in a factor of ten increase in the effective bandwidth and reduced latency of modules necessary for simulator communication. This technology extension is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC are completing the development of the use of supercomputers for mathematical model computation to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and development of specialized software and hardware for the simulator network. This paper describes the data acquisition technology and the development of supercomputing for flight simulation.

  3. Development of low-shock pyrotechnic separation nuts. [design performance of flight type nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Neubert, V. H.

    1973-01-01

    Performance demonstrations and comparisons were made on six flight type pyrotechnic separation nut designs, two of which are standard designs in current use, and four of which were designed to produce low shock on actuation. Although the shock performances of the four low shock designs are considerably lower than the standard designs, some penalties may be incurred in increased volume, weight, or complexity. These nuts, and how they are installed, can significantly influence the pyrotechnic shock created in spacecraft structures. A high response monitoring system has been developed and demonstrated to provide accurate performance comparisons for pyrotechnic separation nuts.

  4. What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

  5. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  6. The Primary Flight Display and Its Pathway Guidance: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.; Hardy, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments carried out in a high fidelity general aviation flight simulator, 42 instrument rated pilots flew a pathway-in-the-sky (tunnel) display through a series of multi-leg curved stepdown approaches through mountainous terrain. Both experiments examined how properties of the tunnel influenced flight path tracking performance, traffic awareness, terrain awareness and workload (assessed both by subjective and secondary task performance measures). Experiment 1, flown in simulated VMC, compared high and low intensity tunnels, with a less cluttered follow-me-airplane (FMA). The results revealed that both tunnels supported better flight path tracking than the FMA, because of the availability of more preview information. Increasing tunnel intensity, while reducing subjective workload, had no benefit on tracking, and degraded traffic detection performance. In Experiment 2, flown mostly in IMC, the low intensity tunnel was flown with a large (10 inch x 8 inch) and small (8 inch x 6.5 inch) display, representing a geometric field of view (GFOV) of either 30 degrees or 60 degrees. Most measures of flight path tracking performance favored the smaller display, and particularly the 60 degree GFOV, which presented a smaller appearing tunnel, and a wider range of terrain depiction. The larger GFOV also supported better terrain awareness, and yielded a lower secondary task assessment of workload. In both experiments, the final landing approach was terminated by a runway obstruction, and the tunnel guided pilots on a missed approach. In nearly all cases, pilots failed to notice an air hazard that lay in the missed approach path, but was only depicted in the outside view.

  7. Performance-Based Testing and Success in Naval Advanced Flight Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    tabulation tables that the failure rate for women is comparable to that for 15 the men . Of course, the overall number of women in the data base is...association between a dual-task performance test and success in advanced flight training. These results are presented using a different method, as compared to...Tracking test, the Absolute Difference test, and the combined Absolute Difference -Horizontal Tracking test because these tests exbibited an association

  8. The Role of Teacher and Family Opinions in Identifying Gifted Kindergarten Children and the Consistence of These Views with Children's Actual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglioglu, H. Elif; Suveren, Senem

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to identify gifted children attending kindergartens of elementary schools, determine how successful families and teachers were in selecting these children, and see how consistent their opinions were with children's actual performance. Participants were children attending kindergartens of elementary schools, their…

  9. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-509 Apollo 14 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 flight is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight failures are identified, their causes are determined and corrective actions are recommended. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  10. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment is to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer concept as well as investigate the effect of microgravity on water electrolysis performance. The scope of the experiment includes variations in microstructural characteristics of electrodes and current densities in a static feed electrolysis cell configuration. The results of the flight experiment will be used to improve efficiency of the static feed electrolysis process and other electrochemical regenerative life support processes by reducing power and expanding the operational range. Specific technologies that will benefit include water electrolysis for propulsion, energy storage, life support, extravehicular activity, in-space manufacturing and in-space science in addition to other electrochemical regenerative life support technologies such as electrochemical carbon dioxide and oxygen separation, electrochemical oxygen compression and water vapor electrolysis. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment design incorporates two primary hardware assemblies: the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly and the Control/Monitor Instrumentation. The Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly contains three separate integrated electrolysis cells along with supporting pressure and temperature control components. The Control/Monitor Instrumentation controls the operation of the experiment via the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly components and provides for monitoring and control of critical parameters and storage of experimental data.

  11. Expanded study of feasibility of measuring in-flight 747/JT9D loads, performance, clearance, and thermal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.; Martin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The JT9D jet engine exhibits a TSFC loss of about 1 percent in the initial 50 flight cycles of a new engine. These early losses are caused by seal-wear induced opening of running clearances in the engine gas path. The causes of this seal wear have been identified as flight induced loads which deflect the engine cases and rotors, causing the rotating blades to rub against the seal surfaces, producing permanent clearance changes. The real level of flight loads encountered during airplane acceptance testing and revenue service and the engine's response in the dynamic flight environment were investigated. The feasibility of direct measurement of these flight loads and their effects by concurrent measurement of 747/JT9D propulsion system aerodynamic and inertia loads and the critical engine clearance and performance changes during 747 flight and ground operations was evaluated. A number of technical options were examined in relation to the total estimated program cost to facilitate selection of the most cost effective option. It is concluded that a flight test program meeting the overall objective of determining the levels of aerodynamic and inertia load levels to which the engine is exposed during the initial flight acceptance test and normal flight maneuvers is feasible and desirable. A specific recommended flight test program, based on the evaluation of cost effectiveness, is defined.

  12. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  13. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  14. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM...

  19. Predicted and flight test results of the performance, stability and control of the space shuttle from reentry to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, P. W.; Richardson, D. F.; Wilson, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynaic performance, stability and control data obtained from the first five reentries of the Space Shuttle orbiter are given. Flight results are compared to pedicted data from Mach 26.4 to Mach 0.4. Differences between flight and predicted data as well as probable causes for the discrepancies are given.

  20. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; Platts, Steven H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Reschke, Millard F.; Ryder, Jeff W.; Stenger, Michael B.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  1. A new raptorial dinosaur with exceptionally long feathering provides insights into dromaeosaurid flight performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Chiappe, Luis M; Ji, Shu-An; Habib, Michael; Turner, Alan H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Liu, Xueling; Han, Lizhuo

    2014-07-15

    Microraptorines are a group of predatory dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaurs with aerodynamic capacity. These close relatives of birds are essential for testing hypotheses explaining the origin and early evolution of avian flight. Here we describe a new 'four-winged' microraptorine, Changyuraptor yangi, from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. With tail feathers that are nearly 30 cm long, roughly 30% the length of the skeleton, the new fossil possesses the longest known feathers for any non-avian dinosaur. Furthermore, it is the largest theropod with long, pennaceous feathers attached to the lower hind limbs (that is, 'hindwings'). The lengthy feathered tail of the new fossil provides insight into the flight performance of microraptorines and how they may have maintained aerial competency at larger body sizes. We demonstrate how the low-aspect-ratio tail of the new fossil would have acted as a pitch control structure reducing descent speed and thus playing a key role in landing.

  2. Open-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Daniel M.

    1997-01-01

    During the third quarter of 1996, the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory was established at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to study the effects of High Intensity Radiated Fields on complex avionic systems and control system components. This new facility provided a link and expanded upon the existing capabilities of the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory at LaRC that were constructed and certified during 1995-96. The scope of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory is to place highly integrated avionics instrumentation into a high intensity radiated field environment, interface the avionics to a real-time flight simulation that incorporates aircraft dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators and atmospheric turbulence, and collect, analyze, and model aircraft performance. This paper describes the layout and functionality of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory, and the open-loop calibration experiments that led up to the commencement of closed-loop real-time flight experiments.

  3. Lift and Drag Characteristics and Gliding Performance of an Autogiro as Determined in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B

    1933-01-01

    This report presents the results of flight test of the Pitcairn "PCA-2" autogiro. Lift and drag coefficients with the propeller stopped have been determined over approximately a 90 degree range of angles of attack. Based on the sum of fixed-wing and swept-disk areas, the maximum lift coefficient is 0.895, the minimum drag coefficient with propeller stopped is 0.015, and the maximum l/d with propeller stopped is 4.8. Lift coefficients were found also with the propeller delivering positive thrust and did not differ consistently from those found with propeller stopped. Curves of gliding performance included in this report show a minimum vertical velocity of 15 feet per second at an air speed of 36 miles per hour and a flight-path angle of -17 degrees. In vertical descent the vertical velocity is 35 feet per second.

  4. Simulation, flight performance and control of Dynamics Explorers-A and -B spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellappan, R. G.; Sen, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study conducted to evaluate the dynamic behavior of Dynamics Explorers-A and -B spacecraft. The effects of environmental torques on the spacecraft motion, momentum buildup due to these torques, and the long appendages on the main body motion are studied using numerical simulations. The numerical results are compared with flight data and are found to be in good agreement. A control philosophy for DE-B to minimize the pitch axis drift is developed. The performance of DE-B in inverted mode and during the inversion maneuver as well as in the normal mode are studied. The spin ripple effect on DE-A due to the long appendages is analyzed and the results are correlated with flight data.

  5. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during an instrument flight rules proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Simola, Petteri

    2016-09-01

    Increased task demand will increase the pilot mental workload (PMWL). When PMWL is increased, mental overload may occur resulting in degraded performance. During pilots' instrument flight rules (IFR) proficiency test, PMWL is typically not measured. Therefore, little is known about workload during the proficiency test and pilots' potential to cope with higher task demands than those experienced during the test. In this study, fighter pilots' performance and PMWL was measured during a real IFR proficiency test in an F/A-18 simulator. PMWL was measured using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV). Performance was rated using Finnish Air Force's official rating scales. Results indicated that HR and HRV differentiate varying task demands in situations where variations in performance are insignificant. It was concluded that during a proficiency test, PMWL should be measured together with the task performance measurement.

  6. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: The influence of age, gender, mating status and body size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to the rich diversity of Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring an...

  7. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors.

  8. GRAINE 2011 balloon-borne experiment: flight data analysis and detector performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokujo, Hiroki

    2012-07-01

    Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion (GRAINE) is the balloon-born experiment project to observe gamma-ray sources precisely in the 10MeV-100GeV region. A new generation detector "emulsion gamma-ray telescope" has one order higher angular resolution compared with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. As the first step in GRAINE, a technical flight was performed by employing a small-scale prototype (125 cm ^{2} aperture). On June 8, 2011, the balloon was launched from Taiki Aerospace Research Field and realized the level flight at the altitude of 34.8 km for 1.5 hours. Tracks recorded in emulsion chambers were read by the fully automated scanning system and gamma-ray events in field of view in 2.2 sr were reconstructed. Event time stamps were done by "multi-stage shifter" mechanism, which gives sub-second time resolution to tracks using their position displacements caused by shifting multiple chambers during the flight. As an initial result, we succeeded in pointing gamma-ray directions on celestial coordinates, and demonstrated feasibility of each component of the detector for future experiments with larger apertures.

  9. A Modified Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) High Gain Antenna (HGA) Controller Based on Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched on June 18, 2009 and is currently in a 50 km mean altitude polar orbit around the Moon. LRO was designed and built by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized via the attitude control system (ACS), which is composed of various control modes using different sets of sensors and actuators. In addition to pointing the spacecraft, the ACS is responsible for pointing LRO s two appendages, the Solar Array (SA) and the High Gain Antenna (HGA). This study reviews LRO s HGA control system. Starting with an overview of the HGA system, the paper delves into the single input single output (SISO) linear analysis followed by the controller design. Based on flight results, an alternate control scheme is devised to address inherent features in the flight control system. The modified control scheme couples the HGA loop with the spacecraft pointing control loop, and through analysis is shown to be stable and improve transient performance. Although proposed, the LRO project decided against implementing this modification.

  10. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a performance seeking control algorithm on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1992-01-01

    The subsonic flight test evaluation phase of the NASA F-15 (powered by F 100 engines) performance seeking control program was completed for single-engine operation at part- and military-power settings. The subsonic performance seeking control algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the propulsion system for three modes of operation. The minimum fuel flow mode minimizes fuel consumption. The minimum thrust mode maximizes thrust at military power. Decreases in thrust-specific fuel consumption of 1 to 2 percent were measured in the minimum fuel flow mode; these fuel savings are significant, especially for supersonic cruise aircraft. Decreases of up to approximately 100 degree R in fan turbine inlet temperature were measured in the minimum temperature mode. Temperature reductions of this magnitude would more than double turbine life if inlet temperature was the only life factor. Measured thrust increases of up to approximately 15 percent in the maximum thrust mode cause substantial increases in aircraft acceleration. The system dynamics of the closed-loop algorithm operation were good. The subsonic flight phase has validated the performance seeking control technology, which can significantly benefit the next generation of fighter and transport aircraft.

  11. TOF plotter—a program to perform routine analysis time-of-flight mass spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippel, Brad C.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2004-03-01

    The main article discusses the operation and application of the program to mass spectral data files. This laboratory has recently reported the construction and characterization of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToF-MS) utilizing a radio frequency glow discharge ionization source. Data acquisition and analysis was performed using a digital oscilloscope and Microsoft Excel, respectively. Presently, no software package is available that is specifically designed for time-of-flight mass spectral analysis that is not instrument dependent. While spreadsheet applications such as Excel offer tremendous utility, they can be cumbersome when repeatedly performing tasks which are too complex or too user intensive for macros to be viable. To address this situation and make data analysis a faster, simpler task, our laboratory has developed a Microsoft Windows-based software program coded in Microsoft Visual Basic. This program enables the user to rapidly perform routine data analysis tasks such as mass calibration, plotting and smoothing on x- y data sets. In addition to a suite of tools for data analysis, a number of calculators are built into the software to simplify routine calculations pertaining to linear ToF-MS. These include mass resolution, ion kinetic energy and single peak identification calculators. A detailed description of the software and its associated functions is presented followed by a characterization of its performance in the analysis of several representative ToF-MS spectra obtained from different GD-ToF-MS systems.

  12. Initial Flight Test Evaluation of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Vectoring Nozzle Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Hathaway, Ross; Ferguson, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A full envelope database of a thrust-vectoring axisymmetric nozzle performance for the Pratt & Whitney Pitch/Yaw Balance Beam Nozzle (P/YBBN) is being developed using the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) aircraft. At this time, flight research has been completed for steady-state pitch vector angles up to 20' at an altitude of 30,000 ft from low power settings to maximum afterburner power. The nozzle performance database includes vector forces, internal nozzle pressures, and temperatures all of which can be used for regression analysis modeling. The database was used to substantiate a set of nozzle performance data from wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Findings from initial flight research at Mach 0.9 and 1.2 are presented in this paper. The results show that vector efficiency is strongly influenced by power setting. A significant discrepancy in nozzle performance has been discovered between predicted and measured results during vectoring.

  13. An in-flight investigation of the efficacy of dextroamphetamine for sustaining helicopter pilot performance.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J A; Caldwell, J L

    1997-12-01

    A promising countermeasure for fatigue in sustained aviation operations is stimulant administration. However, well-controlled, aviation-relevant studies of the efficacy of medications such as Dexedrine are virtually nonexistent. In this investigation, flight performance, mood, and alertness were evaluated in 10 UH-60 pilots during sleep deprivation periods under Dexedrine or placebo. Relative to placebo, Dexedrine improved flight performance during straight-and-levels, climbs, descents, right turns, and a left-descending turn, with tendencies toward better performance during the left turns and the instrument landing system approach. Dexedrine markedly reduced subjective feelings of fatigue, confusion, and depression while increasing feelings of vigor. Central nervous system arousal was enhanced by Dexedrine relative to placebo. No significant side effects occurred, although Dexedrine was associated with mild asymptomatic increases in heart rate and BP. Thus, Dexedrine appears effective for the short-term sustainment of aviator performance during sustained operations. However, future work should investigate the efficacy of stimulants for longer-term use (e.g., more than 40 h of continuous wakefulness).

  14. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (p<0.05). Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. Results for ISS crew were not analyzed due to the current small sample size. DISCUSSION: Significant reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely

  15. Effects of within-generation thermal history on the flight performance of Ceratitis capitata: colder is better.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen, Nanike; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; van Daalen, Corne E; Schoombie, Ruben E; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2014-10-01

    The influence of thermal history on temperature-dependent flight performance was investigated in an invasive agricultural pest insect, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flies were exposed to one of four developmental acclimation temperatures (Tacc: 15, 20, 25, 30°C) during their pupal stage and tested at these temperatures (Ttest) as adults using a full-factorial study design. Major factors influencing flight performance included sex, body mass, Ttest and the interaction between Ttest and Tacc. Successful flight performance increased with increasing Ttest across all acclimation groups (from 10% at 15°C to 77% at 30°C). Although Tacc did not affect flight performance independently, it did have a significant interaction effect with Ttest. Multiple comparisons showed that flies which had been acclimated to 15°C and 20°C performed better than those acclimated to 25°C and 30°C when tested at cold temperatures, but warm-acclimated flies did not outperform cold-acclimated flies at warmer temperatures. This provides partial support for the 'colder is better' hypothesis. To explain these results, several flight-related traits were examined to determine whether Tacc influenced flight performance as a consequence of changes in body or wing morphology, whole-animal metabolic rate or cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity. Although significant effects of Tacc could be detected in several of the traits examined, with an emphasis on sex-related differences, increased flight performance could not be explained solely on the basis of changes in any of these traits. Overall, these results are important for understanding dispersal physiology despite the fact that the mechanisms of acclimation-related changes in flight performance remain unresolved.

  16. Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the launch vehicle and lunar roving vehicle performance for the Apollo 17 flight is presented. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  17. Intelligent adaptive nonlinear flight control for a high performance aircraft with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Savran, Aydogan; Tasaltin, Ramazan; Becerikli, Yasar

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a neural network (NN) based adaptive flight control system for a high performance aircraft. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed control system is able to compensate the system uncertainties, adapt to the changes in flight conditions, and accommodate the system failures. The underlying study can be considered in two phases. The objective of the first phase is to model the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear F-16 model using NNs. Therefore a NN-based adaptive identification model is developed for three angular rates of the aircraft. An on-line training procedure is developed to adapt the changes in the system dynamics and improve the identification accuracy. In this procedure, a first-in first-out stack is used to store a certain history of the input-output data. The training is performed over the whole data in the stack at every stage. To speed up the convergence rate and enhance the accuracy for achieving the on-line learning, the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method with a trust region approach is adapted to train the NNs. The objective of the second phase is to develop intelligent flight controllers. A NN-based adaptive PID control scheme that is composed of an emulator NN, an estimator NN, and a discrete time PID controller is developed. The emulator NN is used to calculate the system Jacobian required to train the estimator NN. The estimator NN, which is trained on-line by propagating the output error through the emulator, is used to adjust the PID gains. The NN-based adaptive PID control system is applied to control three angular rates of the nonlinear F-16 model. The body-axis pitch, roll, and yaw rates are fed back via the PID controllers to the elevator, aileron, and rudder actuators, respectively. The resulting control system has learning, adaptation, and fault-tolerant abilities. It avoids the storage and interpolation requirements for the too many controller parameters of a typical flight control

  18. Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, G. Merritt; Blackman, Calvin C.

    1948-01-01

    A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted by the NACA to determine the effect of ice accretion on airplane performance. The maximum loss in propeller efficiency encountered due to ice formation on the propeller blades was 19 percent. During 87 percent of the propeller icing encounters, losses of 10 percent or less were observed. Ice formations on all of the components of the airplane except the propellers during one icing encounter resulted in an increase in parasite drag of the airplane of 81 percent. The control response of the airplane in this condition was marginal.

  19. Closed-Loop Performance Measures for Flight Controllers Subject to Neutron-Induced Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. Steven; Zhang, Hong; Gonzalex, Oscar R.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed that atmospheric neutrons can produce single event upsets in digital flight control hardware. The phenomenon has been studied extensively at the chip level, and now system level experiments are underway. In this paper analytical closed-loop performance measures for the tracking error are developed for a plant that is stabilized by a recoverable computer system subject to neutron induced upsets. The underlying model is a Markov jump-linear system with process noise. The steady-state tracking error is expressed in terms of a generalized observability Gramian.

  20. A Flight Prediction for Performance of the SWAS Solar Array Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneiderman, Gary; Daniel, Walter K.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a comparison of ground-based solar array deployment tests with the on-orbit deployment. The discussion includes a summary of the mechanisms involved and the correlation of a dynamics model with ground based test results. Some of the unique characteristics of the mechanisms are explained through the analysis of force and angle data acquired from the test deployments. The correlated dynamics model is then used to predict the performance of the system in its flight application.

  1. A high performance Time-of-Flight detector applied to isochronous mass measurement at CSRe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Bo; Tu, Xiaolin; Wang, Meng; Xu, Hushan; Mao, Ruishi; Hu, Zhengguo; Ma, Xinwen; Yuan, Youjin; Zhang, Xueying; Geng, Peng; Shuai, Peng; Zang, Yongdong; Tang, Shuwen; Ma, Peng; Lu, Wan; Yan, Xinshuai; Xia, Jiawen; Xiao, Guoqing; Guo, Zhongyan; Zhang, Hongbin; Yue, Ke

    2010-12-01

    A high performance Time-of-Flight detector has been designed and constructed for isochronous mass spectrometry at the experimental Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe). The detector has been successfully used in an experiment to measure the masses of the N≈ Z≈33 nuclides near the proton drip-line. Of particular interest is the mass of 65As. A maximum detection efficiency of 70% and a time resolution of 118±8 ps (FWHM) have been achieved in the experiment. The dependence of detection efficiency and signal average pulse height (APH) on atomic number Z has been studied. The potential of APH for Z identification has been discussed.

  2. Flight model performances of HISUI hyperspectral sensor onboard ISS (International Space Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanii, Jun; Kashimura, Osamu; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI) is a next-generation Japanese sensor that will be mounted on Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of ISS (International Space Station) in 2019 as timeframe. HISUI hyperspectral sensor obtains spectral images of 185 bands with the ground sampling distance of 20x31 meter from the visible to shortwave-infrared region. The sensor system is the follow-on mission of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) in the visible to shortwave infrared region. The critical design review of the instrument was accomplished in 2014. Integration and tests of an flight model of HISUI hyperspectral sensor is being carried out. Simultaneously, the development of JEM-External Facility (EF) Payload system for the instrument started. The system includes the structure, the thermal control system, the electrical system and the pointing mechanism. The development status and the performances including some of the tests results of Instrument flight model, such as optical performance, optical distortion and radiometric performance are reported.

  3. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D J; Neri, D F; Wyatt, J K; Ronda, J M; Riel, E; Ritz-De Cecco, A; Hughes, R J; Elliott, A R; Prisk, G K; West, J B; Czeisler, C A

    2001-11-01

    Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.

  4. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, D. J.; Neri, D. F.; Wyatt, J. K.; Ronda, J. M.; Riel, E.; Ritz-De Cecco, A.; Hughes, R. J.; Elliott, A. R.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.

  5. Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance of high altitude balloon ascending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Dongxu

    2015-08-01

    Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance are addressed for the high altitude balloon ascending process. A novel dynamic model was established to describe thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of balloon which consists of atmospheric, thermal and dynamic submodels. Based on the model, ascending processes of a high altitude balloon under different initial launch conditions were simulated. The initial launch conditions were classified into three types: inflating quantity, launch time and launch position. The ascending velocity and the differential pressure were defined and used as evaluation parameters of flight performance. Results showed that the inflating quantity is the most effective factor for ascending process, and the upper and lower limits were also proposed separately from safety and performance perspectives. For both launch time and launch location conditions, different solar radiation is the main effect approach during ascending process. Specifically, the influence mechanism of launch time in one day and launch longitude are completely identical due to the Earth's rotation. Results also showed that the sunset process is the optimal selection for safety of balloon and efficient utilization of solar energy. Due to the Earth's revolution, the influence mechanism of launch date and launch latitude are identical and the effects are more seasonal and less effective. Launch time and location should be considered comprehensively in practical operation of ballooning.

  6. Performance of Swashplateless Ultralight Helicopter Rotor with Trailing-edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Jin-Wei; Chopra, Inderjit

    2003-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the rotor performance, trailing-edge deflections and actuation requirement of a helicopter rotor with trailing-edge flap system for primary flight control. The swashplateless design is implemented by modifying a two-bladed teetering rotor of an production ultralight helicopter through the use of plain flaps on the blades, and by replacing the pitch link to fixed system control system assembly with a root spring. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis based on UMARC is carried out to obtain the results for both the swashplateless and a conventional baseline rotor configuration. The predictions show swashplateless configuration achieve superior performance than the conventional rotor attributed from reduction of parasite drag by eliminating swashplate mechanic system. It is indicated that optimal selection of blade pitch index angle, flap location, length, and chord ratio reduces flap deflections and actuation requirements, however, has virtually no effect on rotor performance.

  7. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange,, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide CIA code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets [Bull, ION-GPS-2000]. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance [Montenbruck et al., ION-GPS-2000]. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly 17g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached a maximum altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data will be given in the paper together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  8. Linking biomechanics and ecology through predator-prey interactions: flight performance of dragonflies and their prey.

    PubMed

    Combes, S A; Rundle, D E; Iwasaki, J M; Crall, J D

    2012-03-15

    Aerial predation is a highly complex, three-dimensional flight behavior that affects the individual fitness and population dynamics of both predator and prey. Most studies of predation adopt either an ecological approach in which capture or survival rates are quantified, or a biomechanical approach in which the physical interaction is studied in detail. In the present study, we show that combining these two approaches provides insight into the interaction between hunting dragonflies (Libellula cyanea) and their prey (Drosophila melanogaster) that neither type of study can provide on its own. We performed >2500 predation trials on nine dragonflies housed in an outdoor artificial habitat to identify sources of variability in capture success, and analyzed simultaneous predator-prey flight kinematics from 50 high-speed videos. The ecological approach revealed that capture success is affected by light intensity in some individuals but that prey density explains most of the variability in success rate. The biomechanical approach revealed that fruit flies rarely respond to approaching dragonflies with evasive maneuvers, and are rarely successful when they do. However, flies perform random turns during flight, whose characteristics differ between individuals, and these routine, erratic turns are responsible for more failed predation attempts than evasive maneuvers. By combining the two approaches, we were able to determine that the flies pursued by dragonflies when prey density is low fly more erratically, and that dragonflies are less successful at capturing them. This highlights the importance of considering the behavior of both participants, as well as their biomechanics and ecology, in developing a more integrative understanding of organismal interactions.

  9. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide C/A code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly l7g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached an altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data is given together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  10. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  11. Effects of helicopter noise and vibration on pilot performance (as measured in a fixed-base flight simulator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stave, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on pilot performance are described. Pilot subjects were required to fly VTOL commercial IFR schedules using the computer simulation facilities. The routes flown simulated closely metropolitan routes flown currently by a helicopter airline. The duration of simulator flights ranged from 3 to 8 hours. Subjects were exposed to noise sound pressure levels ranging from 74dB (ambient) to 100dB and 17 Hz vibration stimuli ranging from .1 g to .3 g measured at the floor directly beneath the pilot's seat. Despite subject reports of extreme fatigue in these long flights, performance did not degrade. A curve of performance shows a slow improvement for the first three hours of exposure and a slight loss in performance during the remainder of the flight. As environmental stress conditions (noise, vibration, and time in the simulator) increased, subject performance improved. Within the limits of this study, the higher the stress the better the performance.

  12. On-Orbit Constraints Test - Performing Pre-Flight Tests with Flight Hardware, Astronauts and Ground Support Equipment to Assure On-Orbit Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    On-Orbit Constraints Test (OOCT's) refers to mating flight hardware together on the ground before they will be mated on-orbit. The concept seems simple but it can be difficult to perform operations like this on the ground when the flight hardware is being designed to be mated on-orbit in a zero-g and/or vacuum environment of space. Also some of the items are manufactured years apart so how are mating tasks performed on these components if one piece is on-orbit before its mating piece is planned to be built. Both the Internal Vehicular Activity (IVA) and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) OOCT's performed at Kennedy Space Center will be presented in this paper. Details include how OOCT's should mimic on-orbit operational scenarios, a series of photographs will be shown that were taken during OOCT's performed on International Space Station (ISS) flight elements, lessons learned as a result of the OOCT's will be presented and the paper will conclude with possible applications to Moon and Mars Surface operations planned for the Constellation Program.

  13. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  14. Alternative splicing, muscle calcium sensitivity, and the modulation of dragonfly flight performance

    PubMed Central

    Marden, James H.; Fitzhugh, Gail H.; Wolf, Melisande R.; Arnold, Kristina D.; Rowan, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and that the mixture of TnT splice variants explains significant portions of the variation in muscle calcium sensitivity, wing-beat frequency, and an index of aerodynamic power output during free flight. Two size-distinguishable morphs differ in their maturational pattern of TnT splicing, yet they show the same relationship between TnT transcript mixture and calcium sensitivity and between calcium sensitivity and aerodynamic power output. This consistency of effect in different developmental and physiological contexts strengthens the hypothesis that TnT isoform variation modulates muscle calcium sensitivity and whole-organism locomotor performance. Modulating muscle power output appears to provide the ecologically important ability to operate at different points along a tradeoff between performance and energetic cost. PMID:10611380

  15. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  16. Effect of blade planform variation on the forward-flight performance of small-scale rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W.; Althoff, Susan L.; Samak, Dhananjay K.; Green, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel to determine the effect of blade planform variation on the forward-flight performance of four small-scale rotors. The rotors were 5.417 ft in diameter and differed only in blade planform geometry. The four planforms were: (1) rectangular; (2) 3:1 linear taper starting at 94 percent radius; (3) 3:1 linear taper starting at 75 percent radius; and (4) 3:1 linear taper starting at 50 percent radius. Each planform had a thrust-weighted solidity of 0.098. The investigation included forward-flight simulation at advance ratios from 0.14 to 0.43 for a range of rotor lift and drag coefficients. Among the four rotors, the rectangular rotor required the highest torque for the entire range of rotor drag coefficients attained at advanced ratios greater than 0.14 for rotor lift coefficients C sub L from 0.004 to 0.007. Among the rotors with tapered blades and for C sub L = 0.004 to 0.007, either the 75 percent tapered rotor or the 50 percent tapered rotor required the least amount of torque for the full range of rotor drag coefficients attained at each advance ratio. The performance of the 94 percent tapered rotor was generally between that of the rectangular rotor and the 75 and 50 percent tapered rotors at each advance ratio for this range of rotor lift coefficients.

  17. Is less really more: Does a prefrontal efficiency genotype actually confer better performance when working memory becomes difficult?

    PubMed

    Ihne, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps the most widely studied effect to emerge from the combination of neuroimaging and human genetics is the association of the COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism with prefrontal activity during working memory. COMT-Val is a putative risk factor in schizophrenia, which is characterized by disordered prefrontal function. Work in healthy populations has sought to characterize mechanisms by which the valine (Val) allele may lead to disadvantaged prefrontal cognition. Lower activity in methionine (Met) carriers has been interpreted as advantageous neural efficiency. Notably, however, studies reporting COMT effects on neural efficiency have generally not reported working memory performance effects. Those studies have employed relatively low/easy working memory loads. Higher loads are known to elicit individual differences in working memory performance that are not visible at lower loads. If COMT-Met confers greater neural efficiency when working memory is easy, a reasonable prediction is that Met carriers will be better able to cope with increasing demand for neural resources when working memory becomes difficult. To our knowledge, this prediction has thus far gone untested. Here, we tested performance on three working memory tasks. Performance on each task was measured at multiple levels of load/difficulty, including loads more demanding than those used in prior studies. We found no genotype-by-load interactions or main effects of COMT genotype on accuracy or reaction time. Indeed, even testing for performance differences at each load of each task failed to find a single significant effect of COMT genotype. Thus, even if COMT genotype has the effects on prefrontal efficiency that prior work has suggested, such effects may not directly impact high-load working memory ability. The present findings accord with previous evidence that behavioral effects of COMT are small or nonexistent and, more broadly, with a growing consensus that substantial effects on phenotype will

  18. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  19. The roles of COMT val158met status and aviation expertise in flight simulator performance and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Q; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Adamson, M; Murphy, G M; Zeitzer, J M; Yesavage, J A

    2011-09-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41-69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task.

  20. The Roles of COMT val158met Status and Aviation Expertise in Flight Simulator Performance and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. L.; Noda, A.; Adamson, M.; Murphy, G. M.; Zeitzer, J. M.; Yesavage, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41–69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task. PMID:21193954

  1. Status and performance of the ALICE MRPC-based Time-Of-Flight detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alici, A.

    2012-10-01

    ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the CERN LHC. One of the main detectors devoted to charged hadron identification in the ALICE central barrel is a large Time-Of-Flight (TOF) array; it allows separation among pions, kaons and protons up to a few GeV/c, covering the full azimuthal angle and -0.9 < η < 0.9. The very good performance required for such a system has been achieved by means of the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) whose intrinsic time resolution is better than 50 ps with an overall efficiency close to 100% and a large operational plateau; the full array consists of 1593 MRPCs covering a cylindrical surface of 141 m2. In this report, the status of the TOF detector and the performance achieved during the 2010 and 2011 data taking periods are reported together with selected physics results obtained with pp and Pb-Pb collisions.

  2. ECMWF MACC-II evaluation of performances with MPLNET Lidar network at NASA Goddard Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Benedetti, Angela; Lewis, Jasper

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol vertical distribution is a critical parameter for most of the common aerosol forecast models. In this study are evaluated the performances of the MACC-II ECMWF aerosol model in forecasting aerosol extinction profiles and planetary boundary layer height versus the new V3 measured MPLNET Lidar extinction retrievals taken as reference at continuous operational site Goddard Space Flight Center, MD, USA. The model is evaluated at different assimilation stages: no assimilation, MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) assimilation and MODIS AOD plus lidar CALIPSO assimilation. The sensitivity study of the model is also investigated respect to the assimilation process..Assessing the model performances it is the first step for future near-real time lidar data assimilation into MACC-II aerosol model forecast.

  3. Flight operations and performance of Skylab life support and environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    The design and performance of the Skylab thermal and environmental control systems is considered. The Orbital Workshop had a combined active and passive thermal control system. The refrigeration system was designed to store food and biomedical samples and to cool drinking water. The atmosphere control system included active humidity control, molecular sieves and charcoal canisters to control carbon dioxide, odor, and contaminants, and the gas supply system. Mission support preparation, including instrumentation, ground data system, system troubleshooting, and training, is surveyed. Major in-flight anomalies occurred with the thermal control system when the meteoroid shield was lost during SL-1 ascent and when the Airlock Module coolant loop malfunctioned during SL-2 manned operations. The atmosphere control system performed without major anomaly throughout the manned missions.

  4. Crew Alertness Management on the Flight Deck: Cognitive and Vigilance Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.

    1998-01-01

    This project had three broad goals: (1) to identify environmental and organismic risks to performance of long-haul cockpit crews; (2) to assess how cognitive and psychomotor vigilance performance, and subjective measures of alertness, were affected by work-rest schedules typical of long-haul cockpit crews; and (3) to determine the alertness-promoting effectiveness of behavioral and technological countermeasures to fatigue on the flight deck. During the course of the research, a number of studies were completed in cooperation with the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The publications emerging from this project are listed in a bibliography in the appendix. Progress toward these goals will be summarized below according to the period in which it was accomplished.

  5. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  6. In-flight performance and calibration of SPICAV SOIR onboard Venus Express.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, Arnaud; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Clairquin, Roland; Fussen, Didier; Mateshvili, Nina; Neefs, Eddy; Nevejans, Dennis; Ristic, Bojan; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Wilquet, Valérie; Belyaev, Denis; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Villard, Eric; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2008-05-01

    Solar occultation in the infrared, part of the Spectoscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) instrument onboard Venus Express, combines an echelle grating spectrometer with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). It performs solar occultation measurements in the IR region at high spectral resolution. The wavelength range probed allows a detailed chemical inventory of Venus's atmosphere above the cloud layer, highlighting the vertical distribution of gases. A general description of the instrument and its in-flight performance is given. Different calibrations and data corrections are investigated, in particular the dark current and thermal background, the nonlinearity and pixel-to-pixel variability of the detector, the sensitivity of the instrument, the AOTF properties, and the spectral calibration and resolution.

  7. Flight performance of bumble bee as a possible pollinator in space agriculture under partial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Mitsuhata, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masami; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support concept for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies based on biological and ecological function. Flowering plant species are core member of space agriculture to produce food and revitalize air and water. Selection of crop plant species is made on the basis of nutritional requirements to maintain healthy life of space crew. Species selected for space agriculture have several mode of reproduction. For some of plant species, insect pollination is effective to increase yield and quality of food. In terrestrial agriculture, bee is widely introduced to pollinate flower. For pollinator insect on Mars, working environment is different from Earth. Magnitude of gravity is 0.38G on Mars surface. In order to confirm feasibility of insect pollination for space agriculture, capability of flying pollinator insect under such exotic condition should be examined. Even bee does not possess evident gravity sensory system, gravity dominates flying performance and behavior. During flight or hovering, lifting force produced by wing beat sustains body weight, which is the product of body mass and gravitational acceleration. Flying behavior of bumble bee, Bombus ignitus, was documented under partial or micro-gravity produced by parabolic flight of jet plane. Flying behavior at absence of gravity differed from that under normal gravity. Ability of bee to fly under partial gravity was examined at the level of Mars, Moon and the less, to determine the threshold level of gravity for bee flying maneuver. Adaptation process of bee flying under different gravity level was evaluated as well by successive documentation of parabolic flight experiment.

  8. X-ray and optical performance of the flight filters for the JET-X telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Christian M.; Watson, D. J.; Wells, Alan A.; Kent, Barry J.; Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Bavdaz, Marcos

    1997-10-01

    The optical filters on board the JET-X telescope comprise thin foils of aluminum coated Lexan. During ground calibration of the filters, narrow spectral regions of high UV leakage, with peak levels of up to a few percent, were observed in broad band optical measurements in the 1000 to 10,000 angstrom range. Furthermore, transmission values were typically up to two orders of magnitude higher than calculated for the aluminum thickness. Investigation showed that these effects were attributed to a combination of aluminum oxidation, which reduces the opacity, and the use of a double sided aluminum layer in the filter design which behaves as a Fabry-Perot interference filter. These effects were verified by a multi- layer model of the filter UV response. Recent redesign of the filters for the flight program eliminated the UV leakage by adopting a single aluminum layer configuration, thus eliminating interference effects, and increasing the thickness by 30% to compensate for oxidation levels. The integrated x- ray transmission below 1 keV was found to be only reduced by 3%. In parallel with the production of the new Lexan flight filters, a set of qualification model filters was produced by the Luxel Corporation in the USA. These filters use polyimide as a substrate material which has the advantage that it is optically opaque to wavelengths below 3000 angstroms, unlike Lexan which is transparent. These new filters were found to have superior mechanical strength, being able to survive extended qualification vibration without any visible degradation in performance, and had a higher cosmetic quality and attenuation levels. As a result, these filters have now been included in the JET-X flight program. We report on the optical tests results from both Lexan and polyimide filters along with high resolution x-ray transmission results carried out at the BESSY synchrotron facility in Germany. Results of the mapping of the filter edge structures, global transmission values and

  9. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: aircraft handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Gregory L.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.

    2009-05-01

    A flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on helicopter handling proficiency, workload and pilot acceptance. Three pilots with varying levels of night vision goggle and hyperstereo helmet-mounted display experience participated in the test. The pilots carried out a series of flights consisting of low-level maneuvers over a period of two weeks. Four of the test maneuvers, The turn around the tail, the hard surface landing, the hover height estimation and the tree-line following were analysed in detail. At the end of the testing period, no significant difference was observed in the performance data, between maneuvers performed with the TopOwl helmet and maneuvers performed with the standard night vision goggle. This study addressed only the image intensification display aspects of the TopOwl helmet system. The tests did not assess the added benefits of overlaid symbology or head slaved infrared camera imagery. These capabilities need to be taken into account when assessing the overall usefulness of the TopOwl system. Even so, this test showed that pilots can utilize the image intensification imagery displayed on the TopOwl to perform benign night flying tasks to an equivalent level as pilots using ANVIS. The study should be extended to investigate more dynamic and aggressive low level flying, slope landings and ship deck landings. While there may be concerns regarding the effect of hyperstereopsis on piloting, this initial study suggests that pilots can either adapt or compensate for hyperstereo effects with sufficient exposure and training. Further analysis and testing is required to determine the extent of training required.

  10. Review of actual proficiency-testing performance under CLIA '67 (March 14, 1990) rules: perspective from the first year's data.

    PubMed

    Lanphear, B J; Burmeister, B J; Ehrmeyer, S S; Laessig, R H; Hassemer, D J

    1992-07-01

    Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1967 the Health Care Financing Administration's proficiency-testing requirement applies to approximately 12,000 hospital, reference, and large-clinic laboratories in the United States. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene is approved by the Health Care Financing Administration to provide proficiency testing in all specialties and subspecialties. The focus of the program is to provide highly specialized service and support to a limited number of participants in order to assess intralaboratory performance correctly. We report the findings over the four proficiency-testing events in 1991 for the subspecialty of routine chemistry, which serves approximately 470 participants. Failure rates for individual analytes on single proficiency testing events ranged from 0% to 13%. After four events or one year, if the mandated evaluation criteria and failure rules were strictly applied, as many as 11% of the laboratories could have found themselves involuntarily suspended from offering all routine chemistry testing.

  11. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload Development and Performance in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Shirley, Mark; Colaprete, Anthony; Osetinsky, Leonid

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region (PSR) at a lunar pole. LCROSS was classified as a NASA Class D mission. Its payload, the subject of this article, was designed, built, tested and operated to support a condensed schedule, risk tolerant mission approach, a new paradigm for NASA science missions. All nine science instruments, most of them ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), successfully collected data during all in-flight calibration campaigns, and most importantly, during the final descent to the lunar surface on October 9, 2009, after 112 days in space. LCROSS demonstrated that COTS instruments and designs with simple interfaces, can provide high-quality science at low-cost and in short development time frames. Building upfront into the payload design, flexibility, redundancy where possible even with the science measurement approach, and large margins, played important roles for this new type of payload. The environmental and calibration approach adopted by the LCROSS team, compared to existing standard programs, is discussed. The description, capabilities, calibration and in-flight performance of each instrument are summarized. Finally, this paper goes into depth about specific areas where the instruments worked differently than expected and how the flexibility of the payload team, the knowledge of instrument priority and science trades, and proactive margin maintenance, led to a successful science measurement by the LCROSS payload's instrument complement.

  12. Mars Express and Venus Express Data Retention In-Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrédonchel, J.; Rombeck, F.-J.

    2007-08-01

    Venus, Mars and Earth, three out of the four inner or 'rocky' planets of the Solar System, have a lot in common: a solid surface you could walk on, a comparable surface composition, an atmosphere and a weather system. European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express (MEx) and Venus Express (VEx) pioneer scientific missions aim at exploring these two neighbours of the Earth, in order to enrich our knowledge of our planet and of the Solar System. Both projects are based on the same spacecraft bus, and in particular on 'sister' Solid State Mass Memory (SSMM) units, in charge of the acquisition, storage and retrieval of all on board data, relevant both to the platform and to the instruments. This paper recalls the common SSMM design and the inner fault tolerant memory array module architecture based on Computer Off The Shelf (COTS) Samsung 64 Mbit Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) chips, and presents the comparative in-flight data retention performance for both MEx and Vex units, since their respective June 2003 and November 2005 launches. Both units have shown to successfully withstand the radiative deep space environment, including during the outstanding October 2003 solar flare, and no uncorrectable data corruption was ever reported. Beyond this stable retention performance over time, the memory scrubbing correctable error accounting feedback allows evaluating the deep space Single Event Upset (SEU) rates, to be compared with the theoretical SSMM radiation assessment as well as with other previous missions in-flight qualitative reference performance records, and finally enables to derive a couple of recommendations from the lessons' learnt.

  13. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  14. Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course: The relationships between self-rated ability, satisfaction, and actual performance.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Barbara A; Kothe, Emily J

    2010-11-01

    Effective communication is a vital component of nursing care, however, nurses often lack the skills to communicate with patients, carers and other health care professionals. Communication skills training programs are frequently used to develop these skills. However, there is a paucity of data on how best to evaluate such courses. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between student self rating of their own ability and their satisfaction with a nurse training course as compared with an objective measure of communication skills. 209 first year nursing students completed a communication skills program. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and associations between measures were investigated. Paired samples t-tests showed significant improvement in self-rated ability over the course of the program. Students generally were very satisfied with the course which was reflected in both qualitative and quantitative measures. However, neither self-rated ability nor satisfaction was significantly correlated with the objective measure of performance, but self-rated ability and satisfaction were highly correlated with one another. The importance of these findings is discussed and implications for nurse education are proposed.

  15. A computational study of the aerodynamic performance of a dragonfly wing section in gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Abel; Mittal, Rajat; Dong, Haibo

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive computational fluid-dynamics-based study of a pleated wing section based on the wing of Aeshna cyanea has been performed at ultra-low Reynolds numbers corresponding to the gliding flight of these dragonflies. In addition to the pleated wing, simulations have also been carried out for its smoothed counterpart (called the 'profiled' airfoil) and a flat plate in order to better understand the aerodynamic performance of the pleated wing. The simulations employ a sharp interface Cartesian-grid-based immersed boundary method, and a detailed critical assessment of the computed results was performed giving a high measure of confidence in the fidelity of the current simulations. The simulations demonstrate that the pleated airfoil produces comparable and at times higher lift than the profiled airfoil, with a drag comparable to that of its profiled counterpart. The higher lift and moderate drag associated with the pleated airfoil lead to an aerodynamic performance that is at least equivalent to and sometimes better than the profiled airfoil. The primary cause for the reduction in the overall drag of the pleated airfoil is the negative shear drag produced by the recirculation zones which form within the pleats. The current numerical simulations therefore clearly demonstrate that the pleated wing is an ingenious design of nature, which at times surpasses the aerodynamic performance of a more conventional smooth airfoil as well as that of a flat plate. For this reason, the pleated airfoil is an excellent candidate for a fixed wing micro-aerial vehicle design.

  16. Acute and subchronic effects of bilastine (20 and 40 mg) and hydroxyzine (50 mg) on actual driving performance in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Conen, Silke; Theunissen, Eef L; Van Oers, Anita C M; Valiente, Román; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2011-11-01

    Bilastine is a new second-generation H1 antagonist. Although bilastine has been demonstrated to produce little or no performance impairment in laboratory tests, it cannot be excluded that it produces impairments in real-life performance such as driving. This study aims to assess the effects of two doses of bilastine (20 and 40 mg) on actual driving after single and repeated administration. Hydroxyzine 50 mg was included as an active control. Twenty-two participants (11 females, 11 males) were tested in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, four-way cross-over design. Participants were treated with once-daily doses for eight consecutive days. On day 1 and 8 of each treatment period participants performed an actual highway driving test. The primary variable was standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), a measure of weaving. Results demonstrated that hydroxyzine significantly increased SDLP on days 1 and 8 of treatment. Bilastine did not affect SDLP. It is concluded that hydroxyzine produces severe driving impairment after single doses and that this impairment only partly mitigates over time due to a lack of complete tolerance. Bilastine did not produce any driving impairment after single and repeated doses and can be safely used in traffic in doses up to 40 mg.

  17. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-511 Apollo 16 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 16 mission is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are deet determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are provide in tabular form.

  18. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks.

  19. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from five simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by FAA proficiency ratings). We developed a new STEP (Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice) model to: (1) model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the five flights, and (2) examine the effects of selected covariates (age, flight expertise, and three composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intra-individual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with either practice or interval. Results indicate that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real world tasks. PMID:26280383

  20. Insight into mechanisms of reduced orthostatic performance after exposure to microgravity: comparison of ground-based and space flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    assess the adequacy of ground analogs of actual flight for the study of human physiological adaptation to microgravity. Specifically, results from ground and spaceflight will be used to provide insight into mechanisms underlying adaptations of blood pressure regulation and reduced orthostatic performance to the microgravity environment.

  1. Insight into mechanisms of reduced orthostatic performance after exposure to microgravity: comparison of ground-based and space flight data.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A

    1998-07-01

    assess the adequacy of ground analogs of actual flight for the study of human physiological adaptation to microgravity. Specifically, results from ground and spaceflight will be used to provide insight into mechanisms underlying adaptations of blood pressure regulation and reduced orthostatic performance to the microgravity environment.

  2. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  3. THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  4. The Performance of a Miniature Plant Cultivation System Designed for Space Flight Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, Gerard; Kliss, Mark; Blackford, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    Constraints in both launch opportunities and the availability of in-flight resources for Shuttle and Space Station life science habitat facilities has presented a compelling impetus to improve the operational flexibility, efficiency and miniaturization of many of these systems. Such advances would not only invigorate the level of research being conducted in low Earth orbit but also present the opportunity to expand life science studies to outer space and planetary bodies. Work has been directed towards the development of a miniature plant cultivation module (PCM) capable of supporting the automated and controlled growth and spectral monitoring of small plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. This paper will present data on the operational performance and efficiency of the cultivation module, and the extent to which such a system may be used to support plant growth studies in low Earth orbit and beyond.

  5. Design and Early In-flight Performance of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Power Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Vickie Eakin; Flatley, Thomas P.; Shue, John; Gaddy, Edward M.; Manzer, Dominic; Hicks, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Maryland built the spacecraft in-house with four U.S. instruments and one Japanese instrument, the first space flown Precipitation Radar (PR). The TRMM Observatory was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan on an H-2 Expendable Launch Vehicle on November 27, 1997. This paper presents an overview of the TRMM Power System including its design, testing, and in flight performance for the first 70 days. Finally, key lessons learned are presented. The TRMM power system consists of an 18.1 square meter deployed solar array fabricated by TRW with Tecstar GaAs/Ge cells, two (2) Hughes 50 Ampere-Hour (Ah) Super NiCd' batteries, each with 22 Eagle-Picher cells, and three (3) electronics boxes designed to provide power regulation, battery charge control, and command and telemetry interface.

  6. Flight performance of radiant coolers onboard FengYun-2 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulin; Zhou, Xiyan

    2014-11-01

    The IR detectors of optical instruments onboard FengYun-2 (FY-2) meteorological satellites are cooled by passive radiant coolers (RC). The operation principles, characteristics and flight performance of the radiant coolers installed on four FengYun-2 satellites (FY-2C/D/E/F) are presented. The orbiting data from the four satellites (FY-2C/D/E/F) are tabulated and compared. It is concluded that the radiant coolers (FY-2E/F) can operate stably at 93 K in the sunshine and have a long service lifetime. The major technologies of FY-2 radiant coolers are mainly discussed in terms of thin-walled structure design and optical coating of the sun shield. The problem of contamination control in orbit is solved.

  7. Some Aspects of Psychophysiological Support of Crew Member's Performance Reliability in Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, A. P.; Myasnikov, V. I.; Stepanova, S. I.; Isaev, G. F.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    The history of cosmonautics demonstrates many instances in which only crewmembers' intervention allowed critical situations to be resolved, or catastrophes to be prevented. However, during "crew-spacecraft" system operation human is exposed by influence of numerous flight factors, and beforehand it is very difficult to predict their effects on his functional state and work capacity. So, the incidents are known when unfavorable alterations of crewmember's psychophysiological state (PPS) provoked errors in task performance. The objective of the present investigation was to substantiate the methodological approach directed to increase reliability of a crewmember performance (human error prevention) by means of management of his/her PPS. The specific aims of the investigation were: 1) to evaluate the statistical significance of the interrelation between crew errors (CE) and crewmember's PPS, and 2) to develop the way of PPS management. At present, there is no conventional method to assess combined effect of flight conditions (microgravity, confinement, psychosocial factors, etc.) on crewmembers' PPS. For this purpose experts of the Medical Support Group (psychoneurologists and psychologists) at the Moscow Mission Control Center analyze information received during radio and TV contacts with crew. Peculiarities of behavior, motor activity, sleep, speech, mood, emotional reactions, well-being and sensory sphere, trend of dominant interests and volitional acts, signs of deprivation phenomena are considered as separate indicators of crewmember's PPS. The set of qualitative symptoms reflecting PPS alterations and corresponding to them ratings (in arbitrary units) was empirically stated for each indicator. It is important to emphasize that symptoms characterizing more powerful PPS alterations have higher ratings. Quantitative value of PPS integral parameter is calculating by adding up the ratings of all separate indicators over a day, a week, or other temporal interval (in

  8. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Intergration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Dick; Byrd, Don; Christensen, Wynn; Henson, Tammy; Krumel, Les; Rappoport, William; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1999-06-08

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82° along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38° across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 µm. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than ± 20 µm over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA.

  9. Determination of washout performance of various monochrome displays under simulated flight ambient and solar lighting conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Robertson, James B.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    The aircraft cockpit ambient lighting simulation system (ACALSS) has been developed to study display readability and associated pilot/vehicle performance effects in a part-task simulator cockpit. In the study reported here, the ACALSS was used to determine the illumination levels at which subjects lose the ability to maintain aircraft states when using three display technologies as display media for primary flight displays: a standard monochrome EL (electroluminescent) flat-panel, a laboratory-class monochrome CRT, and an enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel. The multivariate statistical technique of modified profile analysis was used to test for performance differences between display devices as functions of illumination levels. The standard monochrome EL flat-panel display began to washout after the 2500 foot-candle level of illumination. The monochrome CRT began to washout after the 5500 foot-candle level of illumination. No performance decrements by increased illumination up to the 12,000 foot-candle level were found for the enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel display. What was not anticipated was that half the subjects would subjectively prefer the CRT over the enhanced-brightness EL, even though their performance errors would have indicated the opposite.

  10. Flight Stability and Control and Performance Results from the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Conners, Timothy R.; Iliff, Kenneth W.; Powers, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) is presently being conducted to test a 20-percent-scale version of the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This rocket engine has been chosen to power the X-33 Single Stage to Orbit Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. The rocket engine was integrated into a lifting body configuration and mounted to the upper surface of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper presents stability and control results and performance results from the envelope expansion flight tests of the LASRE configuration up to Mach 1.8 and compares the results with wind tunnel predictions. Longitudinal stability and elevator control effectiveness were well-predicted from wind tunnel tests. Zero-lift pitching moment was mispredicted transonically. Directional stability, dihedral stability, and rudder effectiveness were overpredicted. The SR-71 handling qualities were never significantly impacted as a result of the missed predictions. Performance results confirmed the large amount of wind-tunnel-predicted transonic drag for the LASRE configuration. This drag increase made the performance of the vehicle so poor that acceleration through transonic Mach numbers could not be achieved on a hot day without depleting the available fuel.

  11. Determining a free flight performance surface by mathematical optimization techniques utilizing an air speed indicator, MEMS inertial sensors and a variomete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teskey, Wesley J. E.; Chow, Jacky C. K.

    2010-09-01

    Paragliding is unpowered flight in which pilots rely on their ability to navigate rising currents of air to remain airborne. Paraglider flight performance is an important measure of the capabilities of a particular design of a canopy. Most often, the performance characteristics of a canopy are measured as horizontal velocity vs. vertical velocity for steady state flight in still air. The performance curve created using this approach neglects to take into account the effect which turning has on flight. In contrast, the performance surface created from the research carried out in this paper demonstrates the effect of turning on canopy flight; such a representation of performance is novel to the authors' knowledge. To produce this surface, a flight was conducted in which a paraglider's performance was measured for various steady state velocities and turning rates; the data were then analyzed utilizing mathematical optimization after appropriate calibration corrections were applied.

  12. Flight assessment of the onboard propulsion system model for the Performance Seeking Control algorithm on an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Schkolnik, Gerard S.

    1995-01-01

    Performance Seeking Control (PSC), an onboard, adaptive, real-time optimization algorithm, relies upon an onboard propulsion system model. Flight results illustrated propulsion system performance improvements as calculated by the model. These improvements were subject to uncertainty arising from modeling error. Thus to quantify uncertainty in the PSC performance improvements, modeling accuracy must be assessed. A flight test approach to verify PSC-predicted increases in thrust (FNP) and absolute levels of fan stall margin is developed and applied to flight test data. Application of the excess thrust technique shows that increases of FNP agree to within 3 percent of full-scale measurements for most conditions. Accuracy to these levels is significant because uncertainty bands may now be applied to the performance improvements provided by PSC. Assessment of PSC fan stall margin modeling accuracy was completed with analysis of in-flight stall tests. Results indicate that the model overestimates the stall margin by between 5 to 10 percent. Because PSC achieves performance gains by using available stall margin, this overestimation may represent performance improvements to be recovered with increased modeling accuracy. Assessment of thrust and stall margin modeling accuracy provides a critical piece for a comprehensive understanding of PSC's capabilities and limitations.

  13. Performance results from in-flight commissioning of the Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Walther, B. C.; Winters, G. S.; Persyn, S. C.; Eterno, J. S.

    2013-09-01

    We present a description of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS) and results from its in-flight commissioning performed between December 5th and 13th 2011 and its first periodic maintenance between October 10th and 12th 2012. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, unlike the other Alice spectrographs, Juno-UVS sits aboard a spin stabilized spacecraft. The Juno-UVS scan mirror allows for pointing of the slit approximately +/-30° from the spacecraft spin plane. This ability gives Juno-UVS access to half the sky at any given spacecraft orientation. The planned 2 rpm spin rate for the primary mission results in integration times per 0.2° spatial resolution element per spin of only ~17 ms. Thus, for calibration purposes, data were retrieved from many spins and then remapped and co-added to build up exposure times on bright stars to measure the effective area, spatial resolution, scan mirror pointing positions, etc. The primary job of Juno-UVS will be to characterize Jupiter's UV auroral emissions and relate them to in-situ particle measurements. The ability to point the slit will make operations more flexible, allowing Juno-UVS to observe the atmospheric footprints of magnetic field lines through which Juno flies, giving a direct connection between energetic particle measurements on the spacecraft and the far-ultraviolet emissions produced by Jupiter's atmosphere in response to those particles.

  14. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems.

    PubMed

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr3 crystals respectively.

  15. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, W.-S.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Turko, B. T.; Moses, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr3 crystals respectively.

  16. Circadian Entrainment, Sleep-Wake Regulation and Neurobehavioral Performance During Extended Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned space flight requires crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. However, the reduction in the strength of environmental synchronizers in the space environment leads to misalignment of circadian phase among crew members, coupled with restricted time available to sleep, results in sleep deprivation and consequent deterioration of neurobehavioral function. Crew members are provided, and presently use, long-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics on board the current, relatively brief space shuttle missions to counteract such sleep disruption, a situation that is only likely to worsen during extended duration missions. Given the known carry-over effects of such compounds on daytime performance, together with the reduction in emergency readiness associated with their use at night, NASA has recognized the need to develop effective but safe countermeasures to allow crew members to obtain an adequate amount of sleep. Over the past eight years, we have successfully implemented a new technology for shuttle crew members involving bright light exposure during the pre-launch period to facilitate adaptation of the circadian timing system to the inversions of the sleep-wake schedule often required during dual shift missions. However for long duration space station missions it will be necessary to develop effective and attainable countermeasures that can be used chronically to optimize circadian entrainment. Our current research effort is to study the effects of light-dark cycles with reduced zeitgeber strength, such as are anticipated during long-duration space flight, on the entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system and to study the effects of a countermeasure that consists of scheduled brief exposures to bright light on the human circadian timing system. The proposed studies are designed to address the following Specific Aims: (1) test the hypothesis that

  17. The effects of moon illumination, moon angle, cloud cover, and sky glow on night vision goggle flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loro, Stephen Lee

    This study was designed to examine moon illumination, moon angle, cloud cover, sky glow, and Night Vision Goggle (NVG) flight performance to determine possible effects. The research was a causal-comparative design. The sample consisted of 194 Fort Rucker Initial Entry Rotary Wing NVG flight students being observed by 69 NVG Instructor Pilots. The students participated in NVG flight training from September 1992 through January 1993. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Observations were analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a Wilcox matched pairs signed-ranks test for difference. Correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. The analyses results indicated that performance at high moon illumination levels is superior to zero moon illumination, and in most task maneuvers, superior to >0%--50% moon illumination. No differences were found in performance at moon illumination levels above 50%. Moon angle had no effect on night vision goggle flight performance. Cloud cover and sky glow have selective effects on different maneuvers. For most task maneuvers, cloud cover does not affect performance. Overcast cloud cover had a significant effect on seven of the 14 task maneuvers. Sky glow did not affect eight out of 14 task maneuvers at any level of sky glow.

  18. Flight performance of the International Space Station active rack isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, Glenn S.; Fialho, Ian J.; Allen, James L.; Quraishi, Naveed

    2003-10-01

    Space flight experiment test results of a Space Station Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) are presented. The purpose of ARIS is to isolate microgravity sensitive science experiments mounted in Space Station racks from structural vibrations present on the large Space Station orbital structure. The ARIS is shown to solve the very difficult and challenging low frequency isolation problem by providing over an order of magnitude reduction in the acceleration at 0.1 Hz. The Station displacement response to crew motion is discussed along with the control method that ARIS employs to maintain microgravity performance while limiting the motion between the Station and the isolated rack. The dramatic difference between the Station acceleration levels during crew awake and sleep periods are presented. Some microgravity experiments are sensitive to angular acceleration, so both the translational and angular accelerations of the isolated rack are presented. The performance at frequencies up to 300 Hz was measured by exciting the Station structure with a proof-mass shaker and a hammer and these results, and the impacts from payload fans are presented. ARIS has been in operation for two years and three Zeolite Crystal Growth Experiments have been supported.

  19. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems.

  20. Predicting Radiation Induced Performance Decrements of AH-1 Helicopter Crews. Volume 1. Predicted Versus Actual Performance of AH-1 Crews Induced with Symptons Simulating Radiation Sickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    principal method under study was the Performance Decrement Questionnaire, developed as part of DNA’s Intermediate Dose Program. A secondary aspect of...3) Develop MicroSAINT models of AH-1 crew performance based on simulation data and PDQ estimates, and (4) Evaluate the relationship between Walter...48 5.2 Approach ...................................................................................................... 49 5.3 Model Development

  1. Circadian pattern of simulated flight performance of pilots is derived from ultradian components.

    PubMed

    Shub, Y; Lewy, H; Ashkenazi, I E

    2001-11-01

    Studies suggest some physiologic, cognitive, and behavioral 24h rhythms are generated by cyclic components that are shorter in period than circadian. The aim of this study was (1) to examine the hypothesis that 24h human performance rhythms arise from the integration of high-frequency endogenous components and (2) to quantify the contribution of each higher frequency component to the phenotype of the rhythm. We monitored the performance of 9 experienced pilots by employing an array of cognitive-based tests conducted in a flight simulator so that, over the 6-day experiment, data were obtained for each 2h interval of the 24h. The activity-rest schedule of the subjects, no matter the exact clock time schedule of sleep and activity, always consisted of 14h activity (when they carried out regular professional duties) and 10h rest, with at least 8h of sleep. The simulated combat scenarios consisted of simple and complex tasks associated with target interception, aircraft maneuvering, and target shooting and downing. The results yielded two indices: the number of prominent periodicities in the time series and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of each relative to the construction of the composite 24h waveform. Three cyclic components (8h, 12h, and 24h) composed the observed 24h performance pattern. The dominant period and acrophase (peak time) of the compound output rhythm were determined by the interplay between the amplitudes of the various individual ultradian components. Task complexity (workload) increases the expression of the ultradian entities in the 24h pattern. We constructed a model composed of the multiple ultradian components; the composite output defined a "time span" (of 2h-4h duration) as opposed to an exact "time point" of high and low performance, endowing elevated functional capability.

  2. Avionics performance analysis: A historical review and a current assessment of flight instrumentation and control systems in civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The role of flight instrumentation and control systems in the advancement of civil aviation to the safest form of commercial transportation is discussed. Safety, cost reduction, and increased capabilities provided by recent developments are emphasized. Cost/performance considerations are considered in terms of determining the relative values of comparable systems or the absolute worth of a system.

  3. Examining the Pilot and Controller Performance Data When in a Free Flight with Weather Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nituen, Celestine A.; Lozito, Sandra C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of weather related factors on the performance of pilots under free flight. A weather scenario was defined by a combination of precipitation factors (light rain, moderate rain, and heavy rain or snow), visibility (1,4,8 miles), wind conditions (light, medium, or heavy), cloud ceiling (800ft. below, 1800ft above, and 4000ft horizontal). The performance of the aircraft self-separation was evaluated in terms of detection accuracy and detection times for student- and commercial (expert) pilots. Overall, the results obtained from a behavioral analysis showed that in general, the ability to recognize intruder aircraft conflict incidents, followed by the ability to acquire the spatial location of the intruder aircraft relative to ownership aircraft were judged to be the major cognitive tasks as perceived by the participants during self-separation. Further, the participants rarely used cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) during conflict management related to aircraft separation, but used CDTI highly during decision-making tasks. In all weather scenarios, there were remarkable differences between expert and student pilots in detection times. In summary, weather scenarios were observed to affect intruder aircraft detection performance accuracies. There was interaction effects between weather Scenario-1 and Scenario-2 for climbing task data generated by both expert- and student- pilots at high traffic density. Scenario-3 weather condition provided an opportunity for poor detection accuracy as well as detection time increase. This may be attributed to low visibility. The intruder aircraft detection times were not affected by the weather conditions during climbing and descending tasks. The decision of pilots to fly into certain weather condition was dependent in part on the warning distance to the location of the weather. When pilots were warned of the weather conditions, they were more likely to fly their aircraft into it, but

  4. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; McGrew, Lynn Craig

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory was the first successful Mars mission to attempt a guided entry which safely delivered the rover to a final position approximately 2 km from its target within a touchdown ellipse of 19.1 km x 6.9 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range error while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Key dispersions driving deploy ellipse and altitude performance are identified. Performance sensitivities including attitude initialization error and the velocity of transition from range control to heading alignment are presented. Just prior to the entry and landing of MSL in August 2012, the EDL team examined minute tuning of the reference trajectory for the selected landing site, analyzed whether adjustment of bank reversal deadbands were necessary, the heading alignment velocity trigger was in union with other parameters to balance the EDL risks, and the vertical L/D command limits. This paper details a preliminary postflight assessment of the telemetry and trajectory reconstruction that is being performed, and updates the information presented in the former paper Entry Guidance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission (AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference; 8-11 Aug. 2011; Portland, OR; United States)

  5. The SWAP EUV Imaging Telescope. Part II: In-flight Performance and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Berghmans, D.; Seaton, D. B.; Nicula, B.; De Groof, A.; Mierla, M.; Mazzoli, A.; Defise, J.-M.; Rochus, P.

    2013-08-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope was launched on 2 November 2009 onboard the ESA PROBA2 technological mission and has acquired images of the solar corona every one to two minutes for more than two years. The most important technological developments included in SWAP are a radiation-resistant CMOS-APS detector and a novel onboard data-prioritization scheme. Although such detectors have been used previously in space, they have never been used for long-term scientific observations on orbit. Thus SWAP requires a careful calibration to guarantee the science return of the instrument. Since launch we have regularly monitored the evolution of SWAP's detector response in-flight to characterize both its performance and degradation over the course of the mission. These measurements are also used to reduce detector noise in calibrated images (by subtracting dark-current). Because accurate measurements of detector dark-current require large telescope off-points, we also monitored straylight levels in the instrument to ensure that these calibration measurements are not contaminated by residual signal from the Sun. Here we present the results of these tests and examine the variation of instrumental response and noise as a function of both time and temperature throughout the mission.

  6. In-flight Far-Infrared Performance of the CIRS Instrument on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Brasunas, John C.; Lakew, Brook; Fettig, Rainer; Jennings, Donald E.; Carlson, Ronald; Kunde, Virgil G.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini consists of two interferometers: a conventional Michelson for the mid-infrared; and a Martin-Puplett type in the far-infrared employing wire grid polarizers to split, recombine and analyze the radiation. The far-IR focal plane (FP1) assembly uses two thermopile detectors to measure the final transmitted and reflected beams at the polarizer-analyzer: if one fails, the interferometer can still operate, albeit with a lower efficiency. The combined effect is for good response from 10 to 300/cm, and declining response to 600/cm. This paper will examine in-flight performance of the far-IR interferometer, including NESR and response. Regular noise spikes, resulting from pickup from other electrical sub-systems has been found on the CIRS interferograms, and the removal of these effects is discussed. The radiometric calibration is described, and then we show how the calibration was applied to science data taken during the Jupiter flyby of December 2000. Finally, we discuss signal-to-noise on the calibrated spectra, emphasizing limitations of the current instrument and the potential for improvement in future missions.

  7. Pre-Flight Testing and Performance of a Ka-Band Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a space-qualified, reprogrammable, Ka-band Software Defined Radio (SDR) to be utilized as part of an on-orbit, reconfigurable testbed. The testbed will operate on the truss of the International Space Station beginning in late 2012. Three unique SDRs comprise the testbed, and each radio is compliant to the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. The testbed provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop communications, navigation, and networking applications in the laboratory and space environment, while at the same time advancing SDR technology, reducing risk, and enabling future mission capability. Designed and built by Harris Corporation, the Ka-band SDR is NASA's first space-qualified Ka-band SDR transceiver. The Harris SDR will also mark the first NASA user of the Ka-band capabilities of the Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for on-orbit operations. This paper describes the testbed's Ka-band System, including the SDR, travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), and antenna system. The reconfigurable aspects of the system enabled by SDR technology are discussed and the Ka-band system performance is presented as measured during extensive pre-flight testing.

  8. Design and Performance of the NASA SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Patterson, Michael D.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Moore, Mark D.; Clarke, Sean; Redifer, Matthew E.; Christie, Robert J.; Stoll, Alex M.; Dubois, Arthur; Bevirt, JoeBen; Gibson, Andrew R.; Foster, Trevor J.; Osterkamp, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) technology uses multiple propulsors driven by electric motors distributed about the airframe to yield beneficial aerodynamic-propulsion interaction. The NASA SCEPTOR flight demonstration project will retrofit an existing internal combustion engine-powered light aircraft with two types of DEP: small "high-lift" propellers distributed along the leading edge of the wing which accelerate the flow over the wing at low speeds, and larger cruise propellers co-located with each wingtip for primary propulsive power. The updated high-lift system enables a 2.5x reduction in wing area as compared to the original aircraft, reducing drag at cruise and shifting the velocity for maximum lift-to-drag ratio to a higher speed, while maintaining low-speed performance. The wingtip-mounted cruise propellers interact with the wingtip vortex, enabling a further efficiency increase that can reduce propulsive power by 10%. A tradespace exploration approach is developed that enables rapid identification of salient trades, and subsequent creation of SCEPTOR demonstrator geometries. These candidates were scrutinized by subject matter experts to identify design preferences that were not modeled during configuration exploration. This exploration and design approach is used to create an aircraft that consumes an estimated 4.8x less energy at the selected cruise point when compared to the original aircraft.

  9. SOLAR/SOLSPEC mission on ISS: In-flight performance for SSI measurements in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Gillotay, D.; Pandey, P.; Cessateur, G.; Foujols, T.; Bekki, S.; Hauchecorne, A.; Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Hersé, M.; Michel, A.; Jacobs, C.; Sela, A.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The SOLar SPECtrum (SOLSPEC) experiment is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, and has been externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) since 2008. SOLAR/SOLSPEC combines three absolutely calibrated double monochromators with concave gratings for measuring the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from 166 nm to 3088 nm. This physical quantity is a key input for studies of climatology, planetary atmospheres, and solar physics. Aims: A general description of the instrument is given, including in-flight operations and performance of the ultraviolet (UV) channel from 175 nm to 340 nm. Methods: We developed a range of processing and correction methods, which are described in detail. For example, methods for correcting thermal behavior effects, instrument linearity, and especially the accuracy of the wavelength and absolute radiometric scales have been validated by modeling the standard uncertainties. Results: The deliverable is a quiet Sun UV reference solar spectrum as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC during the minimum of solar activity prior to cycle 24. Comparisons with other instruments measuring SSI are also presented. The quiet Sun UV spectrum (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A21

  10. DC-9 Flight Demonstration Program with Refanned JT8D Engines. Volume 3; Performance and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The JT8D-109 engine has a sea level static, standard day bare engine takeoff thrust of 73,840 N. At sea level standard day conditions the additional thrust of the JT8D-109 results in 2,040 kg additional takeoff gross weight capability for a given field length. Range loss of the DC-9 Refan airplane for long range cruise was determined. The Refan airplane demonstrated stall, static longitudinal stability, longitudinal control, longitudinal trim, minimum control speeds, and directional control characteristics similar to the DC-9-30 production airplane and complied with airworthiness requirements. Cruise, climb, and thrust reverser performance were evaluated. Structural and dynamic ground test, flight test and analytical results substantiate Refan Program requirements that the nacelle, thrust reverser hardware, and the airplane structural modifications are flightworthy and certifiable and that the airplane meets flutter speed margins. Estimated unit cost of a DC-9 Refan retrofit program is 1.338 million in mid-1975 dollars with about an equal split in cost between airframe and engine.

  11. Saccadic flight strategy facilitates collision avoidance: closed-loop performance of a cyberfly.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Jens Peter; Weiss, Holger; Möller, Ralf; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2008-03-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological experiments suggest that blowflies employ an active saccadic strategy of flight and gaze control to separate the rotational from the translational optic flow components. As a consequence, this allows motion sensitive neurons to encode during translatory intersaccadic phases of locomotion information about the spatial layout of the environment. So far, it has not been clear whether and how a motor controller could decode the responses of these neurons to prevent a blowfly from colliding with obstacles. Here we propose a simple model of the blowfly visual course control system, named cyberfly, and investigate its performance and limitations. The sensory input module of the cyberfly emulates a pair of output neurons subserving the two eyes of the blowfly visual motion pathway. We analyse two sensory-motor interfaces (SMI). An SMI coupling the differential signal of the sensory neurons proportionally to the yaw rotation fails to avoid obstacles. A more plausible SMI is based on a saccadic controller. Even with sideward drift after saccades as is characteristic of real blowflies, the cyberfly is able to successfully avoid collisions with obstacles. The relative distance information contained in the optic flow during translatory movements between saccades is provided to the SMI by the responses of the visual output neurons. An obvious limitation of this simple mechanism is its strong dependence on the textural properties of the environment.

  12. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with 10-64C main rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation produced data on performance and rotor loads for a teetering rotor, AH-1G helicopter flown with a main rotor that had the NLR-1T airfoil as the blade section contour. The test envelope included hover, forward flight speeds from 34 to 83 m/sec (65 to 162 knots), and collective fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip speed ratio. The data set for each test point describes vehicle flight state, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements, and blade motions. Rotor loads are reviewed primarily in terms of peak to peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor. Detailed data for an advanced airfoil on an AH-1G are presented.

  13. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  14. Noise Attenuation Performance of the HGU-25/P Flight Deck Helmet Integrated with the Argonaut Headset and CEP-Custom Communication Earplugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0099 Noise Attenuation Performance of the HGU-25/P Flight Deck Helmet Integrated with the Argonaut ...SUBTITLE Noise Attenuation Performance of the HGU-25/P Flight Deck Helmet Integrated with the Argonaut Headset and CEP-Custom Communication Earplugs...with the HGU- 25/P flight deck helmet integrated with the Argonaut headset and CEP-custom communication earplugs. The noise attenuation results for

  15. Operation and performance of the Ciba-Corning 512 coagulation monitor during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gocke, Robyn; Lloyd, Charles W.; Greenthaner, Nancy K.

    1991-01-01

    The goal was to assess the functionality and evaluate the procedures and operations required to operate the Ciba-Corning 512 Coagulation Monitor during parabolic flight. This monitor determines the clotting characteristics of blood. The analyzer operates by laser detection of the cessation of blood flow in a capillary channel within a test cartridge. Test simulator results were excellent for both pre-and post-flight. In-flight results were not obtained due to the warm-up time required for the simulator. Since this is an electronic function only, the expected results on the simulator would be the same in zero-g.

  16. Flight Performance Handbook for Orbital Operations: Orbital Mechanics and Astrodynamics Formulae, Theorems, Techniques, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosio, Alphonso; Blitzer, Leon; Conte, S.D.; Cooper, Donald H.; Dergarabedian, P.; Dethlefsen, D.G.; Lunn, Richard L.; Ireland, Richard O.; Jensen, Arnold A.; Kang, Garfield; Levy, Ezra C.; Liu, Anthony; Marcus, Silvia R.; Mickelwait, A.B.; Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.; Pitton, A.R.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Tompkins, E.H.; Weiser, Peter B.; Whitford, R.K.; Wolverton, R.W.

    1961-01-01

    This handbook provides parametric data useful both to the space vehicle designer and mission analyst. It provides numerical and analytical relationships between missions and gross vehicle characteristics as a function of performance parameters. The effects of missile constraints and gross guidance limitations plus operational constraints such as launch site location, tracking net location, orbit visibility and mission on trajectory and orbit design parameters are exhibited. The influence of state-of- the-art applications of solar power as compared to future applications of nuclear power on orbit design parameters, such as eclipse time, are among the parameters included in the study. The principal aim, however, is in providing the analyst with useful parametric design information to cover the general area of earth satellite missions in the region of near-earth to cislunar space and beyond and from injection to atmospheric entry and controlled descent. The chapters are organized around the central idea of orbital operations in the 1961-1969 era with emphasis on parametric flight mechanics studies for ascent phase and parking orbits, transfer maneuvers, rendezvous maneuver, operational orbit considerations, and operational orbit control. The results are based almost entirely on the principles of flight and celestial mechanics. Numerous practical examples have been worked out in detail. This is especially important where it has been difficult or impossible to represent all possible variations of the parameters. The handbook contains analytical formulae and sufficient textual material to permit their proper use. The analytic methods consist of both exact and rapid, approximate methods. Scores of tables, working graphs and illustrations amplify the mathematical models which, together with important facts and data, cover the engineering and scientific applications of orbital mechanics. Each of the five major chapters are arranged to provide a rapid review of an entire

  17. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single-Event Effect (SEE) Performance on X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Solid-state Recorders (SSRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Gee, George; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Barth, Janet L.

    2004-01-01

    We present multi-year Single Event Upset (SEU) flight data on Solid State Recorder (SSR) memories for the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) NASA mission. Actual SEU rates are compared to the predicted rates based on ground test data and environment models.

  18. Wind tunnel performance results of an aeroelastically scaled 2/9 model of the PTA flight test prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Rose, Gayle E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    High speed wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests of the SR-7A advanced prop-fan have been completed in support of the Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. The test showed that the SR-7A model performed aerodynamically very well. At the cruise design condition, the SR-7A prop fan had a high measured net efficiency of 79.3 percent.

  19. Honeybees perform optimal scale-free searching flights when attempting to locate a food source.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew M; Smith, Alan D; Reynolds, Don R; Carreck, Norman L; Osborne, Juliet L

    2007-11-01

    The foraging strategies used by animals are key to their success in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments. We hypothesise that when a food source at a known location ceases to be available, flying insects will exhibit search patterns that optimise the rediscovery of such resources. In order to study these searching patterns, foraging honeybees were trained to an artificial feeder that was then removed, and the subsequent flight patterns of the bees were recorded using harmonic radar. We show that the flight patterns have a scale-free (Lévy-flight) characteristic that constitutes an optimal searching strategy for the location of the feeder. It is shown that this searching strategy would remain optimal even if the implementation of the Lévy-flights was imprecise due, for example, to errors in the bees' path integration system or difficulties in responding to variable wind conditions. The implications of these findings for animal foraging in general are discussed.

  20. Human Factors Affecting Pilot Performance in Vertical and Translational Instrument Flight.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Corl, and Jensen, 1981). These advances in avionics capabilities, especially the explosion in low-cost, light-weight, and highly reliable computing...waypoints, VOR and TACAN information, course lines, deviation from desired course (and flight path prediction in some cases), time and distance to...display was developed such tizat control and display dynamics are directionally compatible. He als) provided flight prediction in both the horizontal

  1. Effects of UAV Supervisory Control on F-18 Formation Flight Performance in a Simulator Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    when treated with the futuristic task distraction. Knowledge gained from the results could contribute to improved crew resource management ( CRM ) and...crew resource management ( CRM ) and pilot workload management as well as flight safety resulting from the modification of flight procedures based on...BN Bombardier Navigator CAS Close Air Support COP Common Operational Picture CRM Cockpit Resource Management FAC(A) Forward Air Controller

  2. Flight performance, energetics and water turnover of tippler pigeons with a harness and dorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  3. The role of visual perception measures used in sports vision programmes in predicting actual game performance in Division I collegiate hockey players.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Biberdorf, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the growing field of sports vision little is still known about unique attributes of visual processing in ice hockey and what role visual processing plays in the overall athlete's performance. In the present study we evaluated whether visual, perceptual and cognitive/motor variables collected using the Nike SPARQ Sensory Training Station have significant relevance to the real game statistics of 38 Division I collegiate male and female hockey players. The results demonstrated that 69% of variance in the goals made by forwards in 2011-2013 could be predicted by their faster reaction time to a visual stimulus, better visual memory, better visual discrimination and a faster ability to shift focus between near and far objects. Approximately 33% of variance in game points was significantly related to better discrimination among competing visual stimuli. In addition, reaction time to a visual stimulus as well as stereoptic quickness significantly accounted for 24% of variance in the mean duration of the player's penalty time. This is one of the first studies to show that some of the visual skills that state-of-the-art generalised sports vision programmes are purported to target may indeed be important for hockey players' actual performance on the ice.

  4. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  5. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  6. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  7. The CoRoT satellite in flight: description and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvergne, M.; Bodin, P.; Boisnard, L.; Buey, J.-T.; Chaintreuil, S.; Epstein, G.; Jouret, M.; Lam-Trong, T.; Levacher, P.; Magnan, A.; Perez, R.; Plasson, P.; Plesseria, J.; Peter, G.; Steller, M.; Tiphène, D.; Baglin, A.; Agogué, P.; Appourchaux, T.; Barbet, D.; Beaufort, T.; Bellenger, R.; Berlin, R.; Bernardi, P.; Blouin, D.; Boumier, P.; Bonneau, F.; Briet, R.; Butler, B.; Cautain, R.; Chiavassa, F.; Costes, V.; Cuvilho, J.; Cunha-Parro, V.; de Oliveira Fialho, F.; Decaudin, M.; Defise, J.-M.; Djalal, S.; Docclo, A.; Drummond, R.; Dupuis, O.; Exil, G.; Fauré, C.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gamet, P.; Gavalda, P.; Grolleau, E.; Gueguen, L.; Guivarc'h, V.; Guterman, P.; Hasiba, J.; Huntzinger, G.; Hustaix, H.; Imbert, C.; Jeanville, G.; Johlander, B.; Jorda, L.; Journoud, P.; Karioty, F.; Kerjean, L.; Lafond, L.; Lapeyrere, V.; Landiech, P.; Larqué, T.; Laudet, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Leporati, L.; Leruyet, B.; Levieuge, B.; Llebaria, A.; Martin, L.; Mazy, E.; Mesnager, J.-M.; Michel, J.-P.; Moalic, J.-P.; Monjoin, W.; Naudet, D.; Neukirchner, S.; Nguyen-Kim, K.; Ollivier, M.; Orcesi, J.-L.; Ottacher, H.; Oulali, A.; Parisot, J.; Perruchot, S.; Piacentino, A.; Pinheiro da Silva, L.; Platzer, J.; Pontet, B.; Pradines, A.; Quentin, C.; Rohbeck, U.; Rolland, G.; Rollenhagen, F.; Romagnan, R.; Russ, N.; Samadi, R.; Schmidt, R.; Schwartz, N.; Sebbag, I.; Smit, H.; Sunter, W.; Tello, M.; Toulouse, P.; Ulmer, B.; Vandermarcq, O.; Vergnault, E.; Wallner, R.; Waultier, G.; Zanatta, P.

    2009-10-01

    Context: CoRoT is a space telescope dedicated to stellar seismology and the search for extrasolar planets. The mission is led by the CNES in association with French laboratories and has a large international participation. The European Space Agency (ESA), Austria, Belgium, and Germany contribute to the payload, and Spain and Brazil contribute to the ground segment. Development of the spacecraft, which is based on a PROTEUS low earth orbit (LEO) recurrent platform, commenced in October 2000, and the satellite was launched on December 27, 2006. Aims: The instrument and platform characteristics prior to launch have been described in ESA publication (SP-1306). In the present paper we explain the behaviour in flight, based on raw and corrected data. Methods: Five runs have been completed since January 2007. The data used here are essentially those acquired during the commissioning phase and from a long run that lasted 146 days. These enable us to give a complete overview of the instrument and platform behaviour for all environmental conditions. The ground based data processing is not described in detail because the most important method has been published elsewhere. Results: We show that the performance specifications are easily satisfied when the environmental conditions are favourable. Most of the perturbations, hence data corrections, are related to LEO perturbations: high energy particles inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), eclipses and temperature variations, and line of sight fluctuations due to the attitude control system. Straylight due to the reflected light from the earth, which is controlled by the telescope and baffle design, appears to be negligible. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with contributions from Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA, Germany and Spain. Four French laboratories associated with the CNRS (LESIA, LAM, IAS, OMP) collaborate with CNES on the satellite development. The

  8. A Full Mission Simulator Study of Aircrew Performances: the Measurement of Crew Coordination and Decisionmaking Factors and Their Relationships to Flight Task Performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Tanner, T. A.; Frankel, R. M.; Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen three man crews flew a full mission scenario in an airline flight simulator. A high level of verbal interaction during instances of critical decision making was located. Each crew flew the scenario only once, without prior knowledge of the scenario problem. Following a simulator run and in accord with formal instructions, each of the three crew members independently viewed and commented on a videotape of their performance. Two check pilot observers rated pilot performance across all crews and, following each run, also commented on the video tape of the crew's performance. A linguistic analysis of voice transcript is made to provide assessment of crew coordination and decision making qualities. Measures of crew coordination and decision making factors are correlated with flight task performance measures.

  9. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  10. Flight performance energetics and water turnovers of Tippler Pigeons with a harness and doorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, James A.; Workman, Gar W.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a birda??s mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Plight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO, production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measurements precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  11. Flight Crew Workload, Acceptability, and Performance When Using Data Comm in a High-Density Terminal Area Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. Michael; Baxley, Brian T.; Adams, Cathy A.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a collaborative FAA/NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Data Comm to issue messages during busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage: Voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, and Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route. Each condition was used in an arrival and a departure scenario at Boston Logan Airport. Of particular interest was the flight crew response to D-TAXI, the use of Data Comm by Air Traffic Control (ATC) to send taxi instructions. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time, flight technical error, operational errors, and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload, situation awareness, and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. Results showed that 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute and 97% of the messages within two minutes. However, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Flight crews reported that Expected D-TAXI messages were useful, and employment of these messages acceptable at all altitude bands evaluated during arrival scenarios. Results also indicate that the use of Data Comm for all evaluated message types in the terminal area was acceptable during surface operations, and during arrivals at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix, in terms of response time, workload, situation awareness, and flight technical performance. The flight crew reported the use of Data Comm as implemented in this experiment as unacceptable in two instances: in clearances to cross an active runway, and D-TAXI messages between the Final Approach Fix and 80 knots during landing roll. Critical cockpit tasks and the urgency of out-the window scan made the

  12. Flight performance of a navigation, guidance, and control system concept for automatic approach and landing of space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Smith, D. W.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Wingrove, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle vehicle. The flight tests were performed in a Convair 990 aircraft equipped with a digital flight control computer connected to the aircraft control system and displays. The tests were designed to evaluate the performance of a navigation and guidance concept that utilized blended radio/inertial navigation with VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. Results from 36 automatic approaches and landings from 11,300 m (37,000 ft) to touchdown are presented. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines.

  13. Performance of the Components of the XJ34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine over a Range of Engine and Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, John E; Sobolewski, Adam E; Smith, Ivan D

    1952-01-01

    Performance of the compressor, combustor, and turbine operating as integral parts of the XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine was determined in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel over a range of altitudes from 5000 to 55,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.05. Data were obtained for each of four exhaust-nozzle areas and are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  14. Ecotypic differentiation matters for latitudinal variation in energy metabolism and flight performance in a butterfly under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Hans; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Life histories of organisms may vary with latitude as they experience different thermal constraints and challenges. This geographic, intraspecific variation could be of significance for range dynamics under climate change beyond edge-core comparisons. In this study, we did a reciprocal transplant experiment between the temperature-regimes of two latitudes with an ectotherm insect, examining the effects on energy metabolism and flight performance. Pararge aegeria expanded its ecological niche from cool woodland (ancestral) to warmer habitat in agricultural landscape (novel ecotype). Northern males had higher standard metabolic rates than southern males, but in females these rates depended on their ecotype. Southern males flew for longer than northern ones. In females, body mass-corrected flight performance depended on latitude and thermal treatment during larval development and in case of the southern females, their interaction. Our experimental study provides evidence for the role of ecological differentiation at the core of the range to modulate ecophysiology and flight performance at different latitudes, which in turn may affect the climatic responsiveness of the species. PMID:27845372

  15. SOFIA's secondary mirror assembly: in-flight performance and control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinacher, Andreas; Lammen, Yannick; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    dependent non-linearity the underlying model of the Kalman filter adapts in real-time to those two parameters. This highly specialized controller was developed over the course of years and only the final design is introduced here. The main intention of this contribution is to present the currently achieved performance of the SOFIA chopper over the full amplitude, frequency, and temperature range. Therefore a range of data gathered during in-flight tests aboard SOFIA is displayed and explained. The SMM's three main performance parameters are the transition time between two chop positions, the stability of the Secondary Mirror when exposed to the low pressures, low temperatures, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic excitations present when the SOFIA observatory operates in the stratosphere at speeds of up to 850 km/h, and finally the closed-loop bandwidth available for fast pointing corrections.

  16. In-Flight Anomalies and Radiation Performance of NASA Missions - Selected Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation addresses in-flight electronic disturbances and radiation, specifically anomaly resolution. The process for anomaly review takes into account the environment, selected parts and design, existing and/or new radiation test data, risk probability and actions to be taken. Noise spikes and the meaning of upset in a fiber optic link are also discussed.

  17. A Fuzzy Technique for Performing Lateral-Axis Formation Flight Navigation Using Wingtip Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2003-01-01

    Close formation flight involving aerodynamic coupling through wingtip vortices shows significant promise to improve the efficiency of cooperative aircraft operations. Impediments to the application of this technology include internship communication required to establish precise relative positioning. This report proposes a method for estimating the lateral relative position between two aircraft in close formation flight through real-time estimates of the aerodynamic effects imparted by the leading airplane on the trailing airplane. A fuzzy algorithm is developed to map combinations of vortex-induced drag and roll effects to relative lateral spacing. The algorithm is refined using self-tuning techniques to provide lateral relative position estimates accurate to 14 in., well within the requirement to maintain significant levels of drag reduction. The fuzzy navigation algorithm is integrated with a leader-follower formation flight autopilot in a two-ship F/A-18 simulation with no intership communication modeled. It is shown that in the absence of measurements from the leading airplane the algorithm provides sufficient estimation of lateral formation spacing for the autopilot to maintain stable formation flight within the vortex. Formation autopilot trim commands are used to estimate vortex effects for the algorithm. The fuzzy algorithm is shown to operate satisfactorily with anticipated levels of input uncertainties.

  18. A flight-test and simulation evaluation of the longitudinal final approach and landing performance of an automatic system for a light wing loading STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.; Hardy, G. H.; Hindson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive flight-test program of STOL operating systems for the terminal area, an automatic landing system was developed and evaluated for a light wing loading turboprop aircraft. The aircraft utilized an onboard advanced digital avionics system. Flight tests were conducted at a facility that included a STOL runway site with a microwave landing system. Longitudinal flight-test results were presented and compared with available (basically CTOL) criteria. These comparisons were augmented by results from a comprehensive simulation of the controlled aircraft which included representations of navigation errors that were encountered in flight and atmospheric disturbances. Acceptable performance on final approach and at touchdown was achieved by the autoland (automatic landing) system for the moderate winds and turbulence conditions encountered in flight. However, some touchdown performance goals were marginally achieved, and simulation results suggested that difficulties could be encountered in the presence of more extreme atmospheric conditions. Suggestions were made for improving performance under those more extreme conditions.

  19. [Evaluation of condition and factors affecting activity effectiveness and visual performance of pilots who use night vision goggles during the helicopter flights].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A S; Davydov, V V; Lapa, V V; Minakov, A A; Sukhanov, V V; Chistov, S D

    2014-07-01

    According to analysis of questionnaire authors revealed factors, which affect activity effectiveness, and visual performance of pilots who use night vision goggles during the helicopter flights. These are: difficulty of flight tasks, flying conditions, illusion of attitude. Authors gave possible ways to reduce an impact of these factors.

  20. Visual Performance Challenges to Low-Frequency Perturbations After Long-Duration Space Flight, and Countermeasure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Kulecz, Walter B.; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances after long-duration space flight. After a water landing, crewmembers may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons in various sea state conditions. Exposure to even low-frequency motions induced by sea conditions surrounding a vessel can cause significant motor control problems affecting critical functions. The first objective of this study was to document human visual performance during simulated wave motion below 2.0 Hz. We examined the changes in accuracy and reaction time when subjects performed a visual target acquisition task in which the location of the target was offset vertically during horizontal rotation at an oscillating frequency of 0.8 Hz. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements occurring when vertical targets were acquired at perturbing frequencies of 0.8 Hz in the horizontal plane. A second objective was to develop a countermeasure, base d on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance sensorimotor capabilities with the aim of facilitating rapid adaptation to gravitational transitions after long-duration space flight. SR is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Recent studies have shown that applying imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation to the vestibular system (SVS) significantly improved balance and oculomotor responses. This study examined the effectiveness of SVS on improving balance performance. Subjects performed a standard balance task while bipolar SVS was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process. The main finding of this study was that balance performance with the application of SR showed significant improvement in the range of 10%-25%. Ultimately an SR-based countermeasure might be fielded either as preflight training

  1. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; Christiansen, Eric; Schneider, Todd; Edwards, Dave

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  2. Flight system design for a receiver aircraft to perform autonomous aerial refueling provided with relative position data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awni, Kahtan A.

    An automatic aerial refueling system was developed that is capable of controlling the receiving aircraft to rendezvous, dock and station keep the receiver refueling probe in the tanker refueling probe. The automatic refueling system consisted of an active trajectory generator, a guidance system and a control system. The active trajectory generator continuously updated the commanded rendezvous trajectory to be flown by the receiver aircraft. This active trajectory generator concept incorporated design variables that the designer could use to specify the time sequence of the rendezvous and docking maneuver. The output of the trajectory generator was then the command to the flight systems guidance and control systems. To demonstrate this automatic aerial refueling system concept, a detailed design of the flight system algorithms was done for typical aerial refueling mission with a heavy jet tanker aircraft similar to the KC135 and the SIAI-Marchetti S-211 Jet Trainer as a receiver aircraft. The systems gains were selected to minimize the control surface activity while achieving adequate tracking. A simulation was developed that included the flight system algorithms, linear models of the receiver aircraft, atmospheric and tanker wake disturbance models. The performance of the aerial refueling system design was then evaluated in a batch computer simulator. The simulation study demonstrated results showed better disturbance rejection relative to the controller performance while minimizing the utilization of the control surfaces. Results also demonstrated the ability to schedule rendezvous.

  3. Application of a Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter for In-Flight Estimation of Aircraft Engine Performance Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    An approach based on the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) technique is investigated for the in-flight estimation of non-measurable performance parameters of aircraft engines. Performance parameters, such as thrust and stall margins, provide crucial information for operating an aircraft engine in a safe and efficient manner, but they cannot be directly measured during flight. A technique to accurately estimate these parameters is, therefore, essential for further enhancement of engine operation. In this paper, a CGEKF is developed by combining an on-board engine model and a single Kalman gain matrix. In order to make the on-board engine model adaptive to the real engine s performance variations due to degradation or anomalies, the CGEKF is designed with the ability to adjust its performance through the adjustment of artificial parameters called tuning parameters. With this design approach, the CGEKF can maintain accurate estimation performance when it is applied to aircraft engines at offnominal conditions. The performance of the CGEKF is evaluated in a simulation environment using numerous component degradation and fault scenarios at multiple operating conditions.

  4. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with NLR-1T main-rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    Data on performance and rotor loads for a teetering-rotor, AH-1G helicopter flown with a main rotor that had the NLR-1T airfoil as the blade-section contour are presented. The test envelope included hover, forward-flight speed sweeps from 35 to 85 m/sec, and collective-fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip-speed ratio. The data set for each test point described vehicle flight state, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements, and blade motions. Rotor loads are reviewed primarily in terms of peak-to-peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor.

  5. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success

    PubMed Central

    Combes, S. A.; Crall, J. D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop–escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival. PMID:20236968

  6. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success.

    PubMed

    Combes, S A; Crall, J D; Mukherjee, S

    2010-06-23

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop-escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival.

  7. Personalized medicine in human space flight: using Omics based analyses to develop individualized countermeasures that enhance astronaut safety and performance.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Space flight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans. Advances in Omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have revealed that unique differences exist between individuals. These differences can be amplified in extreme conditions, such as space flight. A better understanding of individual differences may allow us to develop personalized countermeasure packages that optimize the safety and performance of each astronaut. In this review, we explore the role of "Omics" in advancing our ability to: (1) more thoroughly describe the biological response of humans in space; (2) describe molecular attributes of individual astronauts that alter the risk profile prior to entering the space environment; (3) deploy Omics techniques in the development of personalized countermeasures; and (4) develop a comprehensive Omics-based assessment and countermeasure platform that will guide human space flight in the future. In this review, we advance the concept of personalized medicine in human space flight, with the goal of enhancing astronaut safety and performance. Because the field is vast, we explore selected examples where biochemical individuality might significantly impact countermeasure development. These include gene and small molecule variants associated with: (1) metabolism of therapeutic drugs used in space; (2) one carbon metabolism and DNA stability; (3) iron metabolism, oxidative stress and damage, and DNA stability; and (4) essential input (Mg and Zn) effects on DNA repair. From these examples, we advance the case that widespread Omics profiling should serve as the foundation for aerospace medicine and research, explore methodological considerations to advance the field, and suggest why personalized medicine may become the standard of care for humans in space.

  8. Linear-Parameter-Varying Antiwindup Compensation for Enhanced Flight Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Bei; Wu, Fen; Kim, Sung Wan

    2005-01-01

    Actuator saturation is one of the major issues of flight control in the high angle-of-attack region. This paper presents a saturation control scheme for linear parameter varyjing (LPV) systems from an antiwindup control perspective. The proposed control approach is advantageous from the implementation standpoint because it can be thought of as an augmented control algorithm to the existing control system. Moreover, the synthesis condition for an antiwindup compensator is formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem and can be solved efficiently. We have applied te LPV antiwindup controller to an F-16 longitudinal autopilot control system design and compared it with the thrust vectoring control scheme. The nonlinear simulations show that an LPV antiwindup controller improves flight quality and offers advantages over thrust vectoring in a high angle-of-attack region.

  9. From Research to Flight: Thinking About Implementation While Performing Fundamental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation calls for a strategy to implement new technologies. Such a strategy would allow advanced space transportation technologies to mature for exploration beyond Earth orbit. It discusses the difference between technology push versus technology pull. It also reviews the three basic technology readiness levels (TRL). The presentation traces examples of technology development to flight application: the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System, the Friction Stir Welding technology the (auto-adjustable pin tool). A couple of technologies currently not in flight, but are being reviewed for potential use are: cryogenic fluid management (CFM), and solar sail propulsion. There is also an attempt to explain why new technologies are so difficult to field.

  10. Flight test evaluation of predicted light aircraft drag, performance, and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed which permits simultaneous extraction of complete lift, drag, and thrust power curves from time histories of a single aircraft maneuver such as a pull up (from V max to V stall) and pushover (to V max for level flight). The technique, which is an extension of nonlinear equations of motion of the parameter identification methods of Iliff and Taylor and includes provisions for internal data compatibility improvement as well, was shown to be capable of correcting random errors in the most sensitive data channel and yielding highly accurate results. Flow charts, listings, sample inputs and outputs for the relevant routines are provided as appendices. This technique was applied to flight data taken on the ATLIT aircraft. Lack of adequate knowledge of the correct full throttle thrust horsepower true airspeed variation and considerable internal data inconsistency made it impossible to apply the trajectory matching features of the technique.

  11. The flight experiment ANITA—a high performance air analyser for manned space cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuffler, T.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Honne, A.; Tan, G.

    2004-08-01

    Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air (ANITA) is a flight experiment as precursor for a permanent continuous trace gas monitoring system on the International Space Station (ISS). For over 10 years, under various ESA contracts the flight experiment was defined, designed, breadboarded and set up. For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi on-line and simultaneously 32 trace gases with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The self-standing measurement system is based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) technology. The system represents a versatile air monitor allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics of a spacecraft atmosphere. It is envisaged to accommodate ANITA in a Destiny (US LAB) Express Rack on the ISS. The transportation to the ISS is planned with the first ATV 'Jules Verne'. The options are either the Space Shuttle or the Automated Transfer Vehicle.

  12. Physiologic and anti-G suit performance data from YF-16 flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillingham, K. K.; Winter, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    Biomedical data were collected during high-G portions of 11 YF-16 test flights. Test pilots monitored revealed increased respiratory rate and volume, decreased tidal volume, and increased heart rate at higher G levels, with one pilot exhibiting various cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-G suit inflation and pressurization lags varied inversely with G-onset rate, and suit pressurization slope was near the design value.

  13. Time-of-Flight Detector System with Low Background Performance for the IBEX-lo Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Granoff, M.; King, B.; Longworth, S.; Saul, L.; Fuselier, S.; Hertzberg, E.; Livi, S.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C.; Scheer, J.; Wurz, P.; Wieser, M.

    2006-12-01

    Over the course of the IBEX Mission the IBEX-lo sensor will provide images of energetic neutral H atoms (ENA) from the termination shock in the energy range 10 2000 eV as well as the directional flow distribution of interstellar neutral O in spring and fall. The sensor combines a mechanical collimator to restrict the detectable arrival directions, an atom to negative ion conversion surface, an electrostatic analyzer, post-acceleration of up to 20 keV, and time-of-flight (TOF) mass analysis. In this combination the TOF system provides the necessary mass separation to distinguish different species and effective background suppression through coincidence detection techniques. Because the flux of the heliospheric ENAs is very low and generates rather low count rates a triple coincidence system is used with secondary electrons produced in two consecutive carbon foils, followed by the final detection of the ions in a micro-channelplate. These three signals are combined into three independent TOF measurements. A flight-like engineering test unit of the IBEX-lo TOF subsystem has been built and tested. Meanwhile the flight model of the sensor is in fabrication. It will be shown that the combination of several TOF measurements provides very effective means to suppress background and to identify minor species, whose fluxes are several orders of magnitude below the main species. Results from the testing of the engineering unit will be discussed in the light of the IBEX science objectives.

  14. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  15. Effect of different flight conditions at the release of a small spacecraft from a high performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, L.; Pontani, M.; Teofilatto, P.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, mainly due to miniaturization of electronics as well as to the improvement of computer performance, small spacecraft have increased their capabilities. More and more frequently specific mission objectives can be achieved with cheap satellites of reduced size. The growing use of small satellites stimulates the development of systems specifically dedicated to orbit injection of small payloads. In this context, one option is represented by air-launched rockets. The use of an air-launched rocket for delivering a small payload into the desired orbit has several advantages. First of all, payload release is much more flexible, because the delivery conditions are directly related to the dynamics of the aircraft and can be viewed as independent of ground facilities. In addition, reduced costs are associated with higher efficiency of an aircraft in the lower layers of the atmosphere with respect to traditional ground-launched rockets. To date, air-launched rockets separate from the aircraft in a horizontal flight condition. Then they maneuver in order to achieve the correct flight path angle for injecting into a gravity-turn arc of trajectory. Relevant losses are associated to this pitch maneuver; in addition, in this phase the rocket usually needs an aerodynamic control. Hence, the release of a rocket departing with a high flight path angle from the aircraft would avoid these losses and would simplify the control system, because in such a situation the pitch maneuver becomes unnecessary. This paper is aimed at investigating the dynamic behavior and performance of a payload delivered from a high performance aircraft, which flies with a high flight path angle. In particular, this work is concerned with showing the differences and tradeoffs among different starting conditions of a multistage air-launched rocket related to several flight path angles of the aircraft at release. An optimal system configuration, which allows placing a micro-satellite into a

  16. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  17. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  18. Flight evaluation of the effect of winglets on performance and handling qualities of a single-engine general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Vandam, C. P.; Brown, P. W.; Deal, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight evaluation was conducted to determine the effects of winglets on the performance and handling qualities of a light, single-engine general aviation airplane. The performance measurements were made with a pace airplane to provide calibrated airspeeds; uncalibrated panel instruments in the test airplane were used to provide additional quantitative performance data. These tests were conducted with winglets on and off during the same day to measure relative performance effects. Handling qualities were evaluated by means of pilot comments. Winglets increased cruise speed 8 knots (5.6 percent) at 3962 m (13,000 ft) density altitude and 51 percent maximum continuous power setting. Maximum speed at 3962 m was virtually unchanged. Rate of climb increased approximately 6 percent, or 0.25 m/sec (50 ft/min), at 1524 m (5000 ft). Stall speed was virtually unchanged. Handling qualities were favorably affected.

  19. Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R)-Post Flight (STS-75) Engineering Performance Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    1996-01-01

    The first mission of the Tethered Satellite deployer was flown onboard Atlantis in 1992 during the Space Transportation System (STS) flight STS-46. Due to a mechanical interference with the level wind mechanism the satellite was only Deployed to 256 m rather than the planned 20,000 m. Other problems were also experienced during the STS-46 flight and several modifications were made to the Deployer and Satellite. STS-75 was a reflight of the Tethered Satellite System 1 (TSS-1) designated as Tethered Satellite System 1 Reflight (TSS-1 R) onboard Columbia. As on STS-46, the TSS payload consisted of the Deployer, the Satellite, 3 cargo bay mounted experiments: Shuttle Electrodynamic Tether System (SETS), Shuttle Potential and Return Electron Experiment (SPREE), Deployer Core Equipment (DCORE) 4 Satellite mounted experiments: Research on Electrodynamics Tether Effects (RETE), Research on Orbital Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE), Satellite Core Instruments (SCORE), Tether Magnetic Field Experiment (TEMAG) and an aft flight deck camera: Tether Optical Phenomena Experiment (TOP). Following successful pre-launch, launch and pre-deployment orbital operations, the Deployer deployed the Tethered Satellite to 19,695 m at which point the tether broke within the Satellite Deployment Boom (SDB). The planned length for On-Station I (OST1) was 20,700 m The Satellite flew away from the Orbiter with the tether attached. The satellite was "safed" and placed in a limited power mode via the RF link. The Satellite was contacted periodically during overflights of ground stations. Cargo bay science activities continued for the period of time allocated to TSS-1 R operations.

  20. Improving Performance of the System Safety Function at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiessling, Ed; Tippett, Donald D.; Shivers, Herb

    2004-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that organizational and management issues were significant contributors to the loss of Space Shuttle Columbia. In addition, the CAIB observed similarities between the organizational and management climate that preceded the Challenger accident and the climate that preceded the Columbia accident. To prevent recurrence of adverse organizational and management climates, effective implementation of the system safety function is suggested. Attributes of an effective system safety program are presented. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system safety program is analyzed using the attributes. Conclusions and recommendations for improving the MSFC system safety program are offered in this case study.

  1. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  2. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  3. Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report, AS-510, Apollo 15 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 15 flight is presented. The performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and lunar roving vehicle are discussed. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are tabulated.

  4. Optimization and simulation of flight control laws under parameter uncertainty and external disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Several tasks pertinent to flight control in parameter uncertainty and wind-gust loading were successfully completed. Identification algorithms for extracting stability and control derivatives from flight data taking gust loading into account were developed. They were verified by simulation and evaluated throughly on actual flight data taken on a Lockheed Jet Star flying in turbulence. In particular the need for automatically generated dither-like inputs was studied. Criteria for performance evaluation using stochastic models were developed for gust alleviation as well as handling quantities. Algorithms for assessing degradation in performance due to parameter uncertainty were developed and evaluated using flight test data.

  5. Aircraft flight path angle display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A display system for use in an aircraft control wheel steering system provides the pilot with a single, quickened flight path angle display to overcome poor handling qualities due to intrinsic flight path angle response lags, while avoiding multiple information display symbology. The control law for the flight path angle control system is designed such that the aircraft's actual flight path angle response lags the pilot's commanded flight path angle by a constant time lag .tau., independent of flight conditions. The synthesized display signal is produced as a predetermined function of the aircraft's actual flight path angle, the time lag .tau. and command inputs from the pilot's column.

  6. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.

  7. Performance Measurements of the Flight Detector for SPICE on SolarOrbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; Caldwell, M.; Siegmund, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment (SPICE) instrument for theSolar Orbiter mission will make spectroscopic observations of the Sun's lowcorona to characterize the plasma properties of the source regions of the solarwind. The detector package for SPICE, provided by the NASA Goddard SpaceFLight Center, consists of two microchannel-plate (MCP) intensified ActivePixel Sensor (APS) detectors covering the short (702-792 Angstroms) and long(972-1050 Angstroms) wavelength bandpasses. The long wavelength detector willalso provide coverage in second order between 485-525 Angstroms. We previouslyreported on measurements of the engineering model detector. Here, we report onmeasurements made on the flight SPICE detector in the same vacuum tank facilityat the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Harwell, UK. These measurementsinclude the detector flat field, sensitivity, resolution, linearity, andstatistical noise. A krypton resonance lamp operating at 1236 Angstroms wasused to stimulate the detector. Results at this wavelength are combined withthe quantum efficiency measurements of the individual MCPs at this and otherwavelengths covering the entire wavelength range to provide a completecalibration curve for the instrument. A calibrated NIST photodiode was used todetermine the absolute brightness of the lamp.

  8. Flight test evaluation of predicted light aircraft drag, performance, and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed which permits simultaneous extraction of complete lift, drag, and thrust power curves from time histories of a single aircraft maneuver such as a pullup (from V sub max to V sub stall) and pushover (to sub V max for level flight.) The technique is an extension to non-linear equations of motion of the parameter identification methods of lliff and Taylor and includes provisions for internal data compatibility improvement as well. The technique was show to be capable of correcting random errors in the most sensitive data channel and yielding highly accurate results. This technique was applied to flight data taken on the ATLIT aircraft. The drag and power values obtained from the initial least squares estimate are about 15% less than the 'true' values. If one takes into account the rather dirty wing and fuselage existing at the time of the tests, however, the predictions are reasonably accurate. The steady state lift measurements agree well with the extracted values only for small values of alpha. The predicted value of the lift at alpha = 0 is about 33% below that found in steady state tests while the predicted lift slope is 13% below the steady state value.

  9. TOFPET 2: A high-performance circuit for PET time-of-flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Agostino; Bugalho, Ricardo; Oliveira, Luis; Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel; Silva, Jose C.; Varela, Joao

    2016-07-01

    We present a readout and digitization ASIC featuring low-noise and low-power for time-of flight (TOF) applications using SiPMs. The circuit is designed in standard CMOS 110 nm technology, has 64 independent channels and is optimized for time-of-flight measurement in Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET). The input amplifier is a low impedance current conveyor based on a regulated common-gate topology. Each channel has quad-buffered analogue interpolation TDCs (time binning 20 ps) and charge integration ADCs with linear response at full scale (1500 pC). The signal amplitude can also be derived from the measurement of time-over-threshold (ToT). Simulation results show that for a single photo-electron signal with charge 200 (550) fC generated by a SiPM with (320 pF) capacitance the circuit has 24 (30) dB SNR, 75 (39) ps r.m.s. resolution, and 4 (8) mW power consumption. The event rate is 600 kHz per channel, with up to 2 MHz dark counts rejection.

  10. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-05-06

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces.

  11. The In-flight Spectroscopic Performance of the Swift XRT CCD Camera During 2006-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godet, O.; Beardmore, A.P.; Abbey, A.F.; Osborne, J.P.; Page, K.L.; Evans, P.; Starling, R.; Wells, A.A.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D.N.; Kennea, J.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Capalbi, M.; Tamburelli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Comparison of observed spectra with models folded through the instrument response produces negative residuals around and below the Oxygen edge. We discuss several possible causes for such residuals. Traps created by proton damage on the CCD increase the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) over time. We describe the evolution of the CTI since the launch and its effect on the CCD spectral resolution and the gain.

  12. Utilizing Commercial Hardware and Open Source Computer Vision Software to Perform Motion Capture for Reduced Gravity Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Brad; Bellisario, Brian; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts. To perform validation of these models and to support the Advanced Exercise Concepts Project, several candidate devices have been flown onboard NASAs Reduced Gravity Aircraft. In terrestrial laboratories, researchers typically have available to them motion capture systems for the measurement of subject kinematics. Onboard the parabolic flight aircraft it is not practical to utilize the traditional motion capture systems due to the large working volume they require and their relatively high replacement cost if damaged. To support measuring kinematics on board parabolic aircraft, a motion capture system is being developed utilizing open source computer vision code with commercial off the shelf (COTS) video camera hardware. While the systems accuracy is lower than lab setups, it provides a means to produce quantitative comparison motion capture kinematic data. Additionally, data such as required exercise volume for small spaces such as the Orion capsule can be determined. METHODS: OpenCV is an open source computer vision library that provides the

  13. [Psychophysiological aspects of piloted flights to space].

    PubMed

    Kozarenko, O P; Ponomareva, I P

    2008-01-01

    The paper illuminates some issues of the psychophysiological support (PPS) of piloted flights to space discussed with academician O.G. Gazenko. Already in initial space flights monitoring and assessment of the psychic state and mental performance of crew members were the key PPS component that needed all-round investigations and development of associated methods. The poly-effect method of registering the physiological functions (ECG, EEG, GSR) was recognized as a potent tool for gathering information to be used in actual state assessment. Starting from the 96-d flight of Yu. Romanenko and G. Grechko, the enhanced PPS system has been an indispensable component of long-term missions to orbital complexes Salyut, Mir, and the International space station. The practical experience with the PPS system showed its major contribution to maintenance of space crew mental health and performance.

  14. B747/JT9D flight loads and their effect on engine running clearances and performance deterioration; BCAC NAIL/P and WA JT9D engine diagnostics programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Flight loads on the 747 propulsion system and resulting JT9D blade to outer airseal running clearances during representative acceptance flight and revenue flight sequences were measured. The resulting rub induced clearance changes, and engine performance changes were then analyzed to validate and refine the JT9D-7A short term performance deterioration model.

  15. Crew factors in flight operations 9: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Dinges, David F.; Connell, Linda J.; Rountree, Michael S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Gillen, Kelly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period to improve alertness and performance in long-haul flight operations. The Rest Group (12 crew members) was allowed a planned 40 minute rest period during the low workload, cruise portion of the flight, while the No-Rest Group (9 crew members) had a 40 minute planned control period when they maintained usual flight activities. Measures used in the study included continuous ambulatory recordings of brain wave and eye movement activity, a reaction time/vigilance task, a wrist activity monitor, in-flight fatigue and alertness ratings, a daily log for noting sleep periods, meals, exercise, flight and duty periods, and the NASA Background Questionnaire. The Rest Group pilots slept on 93 percent of the opportunities, falling asleep in 5.6 minutes and sleeping for 25.8 minutes. This nap was associated with improved physiological alertness and performance compared to the No-Rest Group. The benefits of the nap were observed through the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The nap did not affect layover sleep or the cumulative sleep debt. The nap procedures were implemented with minimal disruption to usual flight operations and there were no reported or identified concerns regarding safety.

  16. Performance evaluation of 24 ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated N-Reactor storage basin water

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the evaluation of 24 organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated waters from the 100 Area 105 N-Reactor fuel storage basin. The data described in this report can be applied for developing and evaluating ion exchange pre-treatment process flowsheets. Cesium and strontium batch distribution ratios (K{sub d}`s), decontamination factors (DF), and material loadings (mmol g{sup -1}) are compared as a function of ion exchange material and initial cesium concentration. The actual and simulated N-Basin waters contain relatively low levels of aluminum, barium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium (ranging from 8.33E-04 to 6.40E-05 M), with slightly higher levels of boron (6.63E-03 M) and sodium (1.62E-03 M). The {sup 137}Cs level is 1.74E-06 Ci L-{sup 1} which corresponds to approximately 4.87E-10 M Cs. The initial Na/Cs ratio was 3.33E+06. The concentration of total strontium is 4.45E-06 M, while the {sup 90}Sr radioactive component was measured to be 6.13E-06 Ci L{sup -1}. Simulant tests were conducted by contacting 0.067 g or each ion exchange material with approximately 100 mL of either the actual or simulated N-Basin water. The simulants contained variable initial cesium concentrations ranging from 1.00E-04 to 2.57E- 10 M Cs while all other components were held constant. For all materials, the average cesium K{sub d} was independent of cesium concentration below approximately 1.0E-06 M. Above this level, the average cesium K{sub d} values decreased significantly. Cesium K{sub d} values exceeding 1.0E+07 mL g{sup -1} were measured in the simulated N-Basin water. However, when measured in the actual N-Basin water the values were several orders of magnitude lower, with a maximum of 1.24E+05 mL g{sup -1} observed.

  17. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  18. Development of an antimicrobial susceptibility testing method suitable for performance during space flight.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Skweres, J A; Mishra, S K; McElmeel, M L; Maher, L A; Mulder, R; Lancaster, M V; Pierson, D L

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the effects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a space shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMérieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.) were designed to include 6 to 11 serial twofold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color end points in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue; Accumed International, Westlake, Ohio). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results in the testing of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, group A Streptococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined by a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the space shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the space shuttle until experiment initiation, and then incubation of the cards for 18 to 48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4 to 8 degrees C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronaut's activities. For comparison, ground-based control (normal gravity

  19. Development of an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method Suitable for Performing During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, James H.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Mishra S. K.; McElmeel, M. Letticia; Maher, Louise A.; Mulder, Ross; Lancaster, Michael V.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a Space Shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, MO) were designed to include 6-11 serial two-fold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a Beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color endpoints in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue(Trademark), Accumed International, Westlake, OH). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results when testing isolates of Staphylococcus aurezis, Group A Streptococcus, Enterococcusfaecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomoiias aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined using a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values, that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the Space Shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the Space Shuttle until experiment initiation, then incubation of the cards for 18-48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4-8 C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronauts' activities. For comparison, ground-based control

  20. Performance Modeling of a Pilot in a Free Flight Mode. 1; A Free Flight Self-Separation Cancellations Due to the Requirement for Procedural Intervention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1999-01-01

    Developments are being made that allow pilots to have more flexibility over the control of their aircraft. This new concept is called Free Flight. Free Flight strives to move the current air traffic system into an age where space technology is used to its fullest potential. Self-separation is one part of the Free Flight system. Self-separation provides pilots the opportunity to choose their own route to reach a specified destination provided that they maintain the 'minimum required separation distance between airplanes. In the event that pilots are unable to maintain separation, controllers will need to have the aircraft separation authority passed back to them. This situation is known as a procedural intervention point. This project attempted to examine and diagnose those particular situations in an effort to avoid reaching a procedural intervention point in the near future. Crews that reached procedural intervention points were compared with crews that made similar maneuver types in the same scenario, but did not reach procedural intervention points. Results showed that there were no significant differences between crews in a high-density acute angle flight conditions. However, significant differences in maneuver times, following the detection of an intruder aircraft and following the time the intruder aircraft came into view, were found in a low-density, acute angle scenario.

  1. Vision-based range estimation using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Hussien, Bassam

    1992-01-01

    Pilot aiding during low-altitude flight depends on the ability to detect and locate obstacles near the helicopter's intended flightpath. Computer-vision-based methods provide one general approach for obstacle detection and range estimation. Several algorithms have been developed for this purpose, but have not been tested with actual flight data. This paper presents results obtained using helicopter flight data with a feature-based range estimation algorithm. A method for recursively estimating range using a Kalman filter with a monocular sequence of images and knowledge of the camera's motion is described. The helicopter flight experiment and four resulting datasets are discussed. Finally the performance of the range estimation algorithm is explored in detail based on comparison of the range estimates with true range measurements collected during the flight experiment.

  2. Vision-based range estimation using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Hussein, Bassam

    1992-01-01

    Pilot aiding during low-altitude flight depends on the ability to detect and locate obstacles near the helicopter's intended flightpath. Computer-vision-based methods provide one general approach for obstacle detection and range estimation. Several algorithms have been developed for this purpose, but have not been tested with actual flight data. This paper presents results obtained using helicopter flight data with a feature-based range estimation algorithm. A method for recursively estimating range using a Kalman filter with a monocular sequence of images and knowledge of the camera's motion is described. The helicopter flight experiment and one of four resulting datasets is briefly discussed. Finally the performance of the range estimation algorithm is explored based on comparison of the range estimates with true range measurements collected during the flight experiment.

  3. The Performance of a Subsonic Diffuser Designed for High Speed Turbojet-Propelled Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor); Wendt, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    An initial-phase subsonic diffuser has been designed for the turbojet flowpath of the hypersonic x43B flight demonstrator vehicle. The diffuser fit into a proposed mixed-compression supersonic inlet system and featured a cross-sectional shape transitioning flowpath (high aspect ratio rectangular throat-to-circular engine face) and a centerline offset. This subsonic diffuser has been fabricated and tested at the W1B internal flow facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. At an operating throat Mach number of 0.79, baseline Pitot pressure recovery was found to be just under 0.9, and DH distortion intensity was about 0.4 percent. The diffuser internal flow stagnated, but did not separate on the offset surface of this initial-phase subsonic diffuser. Small improvements in recovery (+0.4 percent) and DH distortion (-32 percent) were obtained from using vane vortex generator flow control applied just downstream of the diffuser throat. The optimum vortex generator array patterns produced inflow boundary layer divergence (local downwash) on the offset surface centerline of the diffuser, and an inflow boundary layer convergence (local upwash) on the centerline of the opposite surface.

  4. Future dedicated Venus-SGG flight mission: Accuracy assessment and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Houtse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Meijuan

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates principally on the systematic requirements analysis for the future dedicated Venus-SGG (spacecraft gravity gradiometry) flight mission in China in respect of the matching measurement accuracies of the spacecraft-based scientific instruments and the orbital parameters of the spacecraft. Firstly, we created and proved the single and combined analytical error models of the cumulative Venusian geoid height influenced by the gravity gradient error of the spacecraft-borne atom-interferometer gravity gradiometer (AIGG) and the orbital position error and orbital velocity error tracked by the deep space network (DSN) on the Earth station. Secondly, the ultra-high-precision spacecraft-borne AIGG is propitious to making a significant contribution to globally mapping the Venusian gravitational field and modeling the geoid with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution through weighing the advantages and disadvantages among the electrostatically suspended gravity gradiometer, the superconducting gravity gradiometer and the AIGG. Finally, the future dedicated Venus-SGG spacecraft had better adopt the optimal matching accuracy indices consisting of 3 × 10-13/s2 in gravity gradient, 10 m in orbital position and 8 × 10-4 m/s in orbital velocity and the preferred orbital parameters comprising an orbital altitude of 300 ± 50 km, an observation time of 60 months and a sampling interval of 1 s.

  5. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  6. A strategy for in-flight measurements of physiology of pilots of high-performance fighter aircraft.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2013-07-01

    Some pilots flying modern high-performance fighter aircraft develop "hypoxia-like" incidents characterized by short periods of confusion and cognitive impairment. The problem is serious and recently led to the grounding of a fleet of aircraft. Extensive discussions of the incidents have taken place but some people believe that there is inadequate data to determine the cause. There is a tremendous disconnect between what is known about the function of the aircraft and the function of the pilot. This paper describes a plan for measuring the inspired and expired Po2 and Pco2 in the pilot's mask, the inspiratory flow rate, and pressure in the mask. A critically important requirement is that the interference with the function of the pilot is minimal. Although extensive physiological measurements were previously made on pilots in ground-based experiments such as rapid decompression in an altitude chamber and increased acceleration on a centrifuge, in-flight measurements of gas exchange have not been possible until now primarily because of the lack of suitable equipment. The present paper shows how the recent availability of small, rapidly responding oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers make sophisticated in-flight measurements feasible. The added information has the potential of greatly improving our knowledge of pilot physiology, which could lead to an explanation for the incidents.

  7. Performance of a Towed, 48-Inch-Diameter (121.92) Ballute Decelerator Tested in Free-Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Performance of a Towed, 48-Inch-Diameter (121.92) Ballute Decelerator Tested in Free-Flight Mach Numbers from 4.2 to 0.4. A ballute decelerator inflated by ram air was tested in free flight to determine the inflation, drag, and stability characteristics. The decelerator had a 40-inch (101.6-cm) envelope equatorial diameter and a 10-percent burble fence. It was towed 13.5 feet (4.12 m) aft of a cone-cylinder-flare payload with a maximum diameter of 18.21 inches (46.25 cm). The decelerator was deployed at an altitude of 115,000 feet (35.1 km) at a velocity of 4400 ft/sec (1342 m/sec) and inflated at a Mach number of 4.2 and a freestream dynamic pressure of 163 lb/ft(exp 2) (7.8 kN/m(exp 2)). [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030990. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  8. First inductively coupled plasma-distance-of-flight mass spectrometer: instrument performance with a microchannel plate/phosphor imaging detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Dennis, Elise; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2013-09-01

    Here we describe the first combination of a Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (DOFMS) instrument and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source. DOFMS is a velocity-based MS technique in which ions of a range of mass-to-charge (m/z) values are detected simultaneously along the length of a spatially selective detector. As a relative of time-of-flight (TOF) MS, DOFMS leverages benefits fromboth TOFMS and spatially dispersive MS. The simultaneous detection of groups of m/z values improves dynamic range by spreading ion signal across many detector elements and reduces correlated noise by signal ratioing. To ascertain the performance characteristics of the ICP-DOFMS instrument, we have employed a microchannel-plate/phosphor detection assembly with a scientific CCD to capture images of the phosphor plate. With this simple (and commercially available) detection scheme, elemental detection limits from 2–30 ng L*1 and a linear dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude (10–106 ng L1) have been demonstrated. Additionally, a competitive isotope-ratio precision of 0.1% RSD has been achieved with only a 6 s signal integration period. In addition to first figures of merit, this paper outlines technical considerations for the design of the ICP-DOFMS.

  9. High-precision cryogenic wheel mechanisms of the JWST/MIRI instrument: performance of the flight models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, O.; Müller, F.; Birkmann, S.; Böhm, A.; Ebert, M.; Grözinger, U.; Henning, Th.; Hofferbert, R.; Huber, A.; Lemke, D.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Scheithauer, S.; Gross, T.; Fischer, T.; Luichtel, G.; Merkle, H.; Übele, M.; Wieland, H.-U.; Amiaux, J.; Jager, R.; Glauser, A.; Parr-Burman, P.; Sykes, J.

    2010-07-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) aboard JWST is equipped with one filter wheel and two dichroic-grating wheel mechanisms to reconfigure the instrument between observing modes such as broad/narrow-band imaging, coronagraphy and low/medium resolution spectroscopy. Key requirements for the three mechanisms with up to 18 optical elements on the wheel include: (1) reliable operation at T = 7 K, (2) high positional accuracy of 4 arcsec, (3) low power dissipation, (4) high vibration capability, (5) functionality at 7 K < T < 300 K and (6) long lifetime (5-10 years). To meet these requirements a space-proven wheel concept consisting of a central MoS2-lubricated integrated ball bearing, a central torque motor for actuation, a ratchet system with monolithic CuBe flexural pivots for precise and powerless positioning and a magnetoresistive position sensor has been implemented. We report here the final performance and lessons-learnt from the successful acceptance test program of the MIRI wheel mechanism flight models. The mechanisms have been meanwhile integrated into the flight model of the MIRI instrument, ready for launch in 2014 by an Ariane 5 rocket.

  10. Methods of Constructing a Blended Performance Function Suitable for Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Two methods for constructing performance functions for formation fight-for-drag-reduction suitable for use with an extreme-seeking control system are presented. The first method approximates an a prior measured or estimated drag-reduction performance function by combining real-time measurements of readily available parameters. The parameters are combined with weightings determined from a minimum squares optimization to form a blended performance function.

  11. Technical Seminar: "Flight Deck Technologies"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Reduced visibility affects the safety and efficiency of nearly all flight operations. As a result, researchers are improving ways to give pilots a vision capability that is independent of actual vi...

  12. Flight tests for the assessment of task performance and control activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausder, H. J.; Hummes, D.

    1982-01-01

    The tests were performed with the helicopters BO 105 and UH-1D. Closely connected with tactical demands the six test pilots' task was to minimize the time and the altitude over the obstacles. The data reduction yields statistical evaluation parameters describing the control activity of the pilots and the achieved task performance. The results are shown in form of evaluation diagrams. Additionally dolphin tests with varied control strategy were performed to get more insight into the influence of control techniques. From these test results recommendations can be derived to emphasize the direct force control and to reduce the collective to pitch crosscoupling for the dolphin.

  13. Time and motion, experiment M151. [human performance and space flight stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Mcbride, G. H.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut work performance during the preparation and execution of experiments in simulated Skylab tests was analyzed according to time and motion in order to evaluate the efficiency and consistency of performance (adaptation function) for several different types of activity over the course of the mission; to evaluate the procedures to be used by the same experiment in Skylab; to generate characteristic adaptation functions for later comparison with Skylab data; and to examine astronaut performance for any behavioral stress due to the environment. The overall results indicate that the anticipated adaptation function was obtained both for individual and for averaged data.

  14. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  15. Resolution and Mass Range Performance in Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with a Multichannel Focal-Plane Camera Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alexander W.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Felton, Jeremy A.; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2011-10-05

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based mass-separation technique in which ions are separated in space along the plane of a spatially selective detector. In the present work, a solid-state charge-detection array, the focal-plane camera (FPC), was incorporated into the DOFMS platform. Use of the FPC with our DOFMS instrument resulted in improvements in analytical performance, usability, and versatility over a previous generation instrument that employed a microchannel-plate/phosphor DOF detector. Notably, FPC detection provided resolution improvements of at least a factor of two, with typical DOF linewidths of 300 {micro}m (R(FWHM)=1000). Merits of solid-state detection for DOFMS are evaluated and methods to extend the DOFMS mass range are considered.

  16. Resolution and Mass Range Performance in Distance-of-flight Mass Spectrometry with a Multichannel Focal-Plane Camera Detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alexander W.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Felton, Jeremy A.; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2011-11-15

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based mass-separation technique in which ions are separated in space along the plane of a spatially selective detector. In the present work, a solid-state charge-detection array, the focal-plane camera (FPC), was incorporated into the DOFMS platform. Use of the FPC with our DOFMS instrument resulted in improvements in analytical performance, usability, and versatility over a previous generation instrument that employed a microchannel-plate/phosphor DOF detector. Notably, FPC detection provided resolution improvements of at least a factor of 2, with typical DOF linewidths of 300 μm (R((fwhm)) = 1000). The merits of solid-state detection for DOFMS are evaluated, and methods to extend the DOFMS mass range are considered.

  17. Updated cryogenic performance test results for the flight model JWST fine guidance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Neil; Beaton, Alexander; Chayer, Pierre; Haley, Craig; Midwinter, Calvin; Volk, Kevin; Warner, Gerry; Zhou, Julia

    2016-07-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has successfully completed its final cryogenic performance verification tests. The performance of the newly upgraded Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) / Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrometer (NIRISS) was evaluated in these tests. We describe some of the key guider performance results which have been obtained and compare them to previous results with an older generation of H2RG infrared detector arrays. The identification mode sensitivity improvement is described along with noise equivalent angle (NEA) sensitivity performance improvements in tracking and fine guiding modes. Tracking mode allows the Observatory line of sight to settle in advance of the fine guidance mode and also facilitates moving target observing. The NEA of the FGS-Guiders will in part determine the ultimate image quality of the JWST Observatory.

  18. Performance test on PELICAN - a multi-purpose time of flight cold neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dehong; Mole, Richard. A.; Kearley, Gordon J.

    2015-01-01

    Pelican, a direct geometry multi-purpose cold neutron spectrometer has recently been commissioned at the Bragg Institute, ANSTO. The energy resolution and flux at the sample position as a function of neutron wavelength has been evaluated and time focusing at selected energy transfers has also been demonstrated. Several test experiments of quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scatterings have been performed and these have indicated the realisation of the design specifications and performance of the instrument.

  19. The International Space Station's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Thermal Performance of the First Five Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Cho, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Logistics Module is the primary carrier for transport of pressurized payload to the International Space Station. Performing five missions within a thirteen month span provided a unique opportunity to gather a great deal of information toward understanding and verifying the orbital performance of the vehicle. This paper will provide a brief overview of the hardware history and design capabilities followed by a summary of the missions flown, resource requirements and possibilities for the future.

  20. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  1. Stereoscopic layout of a perspective flight guidance display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Matthias; Muecke, Stephan K. M.; Mayer, Udo

    1997-05-01

    Analyses of aviation accidents ascribe about 75% of all incidents to human (pilot) behavior. A strong effort is being made to improve ergonomic cockpit layout, because of dramatic changes in the airspace structure, the increase in air traffic, and larger aircraft. One part of an interdisciplinary research project investigates the potential of stereoscopic flight-guidance displays in order to improve pilots' situation awareness. This experimental approach, which aims to research and apply ergonomic design recommendations for stereoscopic flight displays, is based upon a new type of perspective flight-guidance display. The examination of existing research regarding stereoscopic flight displays reveals a lack of basic knowledge, as well as a need for further systematic research into cockpit application. Thus the project contains experiments on different levels of abstraction, ranging from classic parameter experiments to flight simulator tests. Both current knowledge and recent discoveries are applied to superimposed 2-D flight parameters and to real and synthetic 3-D elements, such as a perspective landscape, other airplanes or flight prediction. The stereoscopic layout takes into consideration specific informational needs within different flight phases and is evaluated by means of pilot performance and pilot strain. Selected symbols of the flight guidance display and actual results are presented as examples of the research approach.

  2. Investigation of possible causes for human-performance degradation during microgravity flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, James E.; Tuttle, Megan L.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the first year of a three year study of the effects of microgravity on human performance are given. Test results show support for the hypothesis that the effects of microgravity can be studied indirectly on Earth by measuring performance in an altered gravitational field. The hypothesis was that an altered gravitational field could disrupt performance on previously automated behaviors if gravity was a critical part of the stimulus complex controlling those behaviors. In addition, it was proposed that performance on secondary cognitive tasks would also degrade, especially if the subject was provided feedback about degradation on the previously automated task. In the initial experimental test of these hypotheses, there was little statistical support. However, when subjects were categorized as high or low in automated behavior, results for the former group supported the hypotheses. The predicted interaction between body orientation and level of workload in their joint effect on performance in the secondary cognitive task was significant for the group high in automatized behavior and receiving feedback, but no such interventions were found for the group high in automatized behavior but not receiving feedback, or the group low in automatized behavior.

  3. Advanced flight software reconfiguraton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcher, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on advanced flight software reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is defined as identifying mission and configuration specific requirements, controlling mission and configuration specific data, binding this information to the flight software code to perform specific missions, and the release and distribution of the flight software. The objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced software reconfiguration tools and techniques; to demonstrate reconfiguration approaches on Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard systems displays; and to interactively test onboard systems displays, flight software, and flight data.

  4. Measures of Time-Sharing Skill and Gender as Predictors of Flight Simulator Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    psychomotor task. USAF: Research Bulletin 53-49, Perceptual and Motor Skills Research Laboratory, Lackland AFB, San Antonio , Tx. December, 1953. Adams...N. Motor learning and human performance. New York; Mac- millan , 1975. Sluchak, T. J. Secondary loading tasks and fundamentals of skill. Psy 545 term

  5. Physical and clinical performance of the mCT time-of-flight PET/CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakoby, B. W.; Bercier, Y.; Conti, M.; Casey, M. E.; Bendriem, B.; Townsend, D. W.

    2011-04-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement capability promises to improve PET image quality. We characterized the physical and clinical PET performance of the first Biograph mCT TOF PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) in comparison with its predecessor, the Biograph TruePoint TrueV. In particular, we defined the improvements with TOF. The physical performance was evaluated according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 standard with additional measurements to specifically address the TOF capability. Patient data were analyzed to obtain the clinical performance of the scanner. As expected for the same size crystal detectors, a similar spatial resolution was measured on the mCT as on the TruePoint TrueV. The mCT demonstrated modestly higher sensitivity (increase by 19.7 ± 2.8%) and peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) (increase by 15.5 ± 5.7%) with similar scatter fractions. The energy, time and spatial resolutions for a varying single count rate of up to 55 Mcps resulted in 11.5 ± 0.2% (FWHM), 527.5 ± 4.9 ps (FWHM) and 4.1 ± 0.0 mm (FWHM), respectively. With the addition of TOF, the mCT also produced substantially higher image contrast recovery and signal-to-noise ratios in a clinically-relevant phantom geometry. The benefits of TOF were clearly demonstrated in representative patient images.

  6. Method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system such as a flight vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert H. (Inventor); Ribbens, William B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system having sensors for measuring state variables and providing corresponding output signals in response to one or more system input signals are provided. The method includes calculating estimated gains of a filter and selecting an appropriate linear model for processing the output signals based on the input signals. The step of calculating utilizes one or more models of the dynamic system to obtain estimated signals. The method further includes calculating output error residuals based on the output signals and the estimated signals. The method also includes detecting one or more hypothesized failures or performance degradations of a component or subsystem of the dynamic system based on the error residuals. The step of calculating the estimated values is performed optimally with respect to one or more of: noise, uncertainty of parameters of the models and un-modeled dynamics of the dynamic system which may be a flight vehicle or financial market or modeled financial system.

  7. Flight model performance test results of a helium dewar for the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Kanao, Ken'ichi; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Hoshika, Shunji; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Yoichi; DiPirro, Mike; Shirron, Peter

    2016-03-01

    ASTRO-H is a Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite, scheduled to be launched in fiscal year 2015. The mission includes a soft X-ray spectrometer instrument (SXS), which contains an X-ray micro calorimeter operating at 50 mK by using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The heat sink of the ADR is superfluid liquid helium below 1.3 K. The required lifetime of the superfluid helium is 3 years or more. In order to realize this lifetime, we have improved the thermal performance from the engineering model (EM) while maintaining the mechanical performance. Then, we have performed a thermal test of the flight model (FM). The results were that the heat load to the helium tank was reduced to below 0.8 mW in the FM from 1.2 mW in the EM. Therefore, the lifetime of the superfluid helium is more than 3 years with 30 L of liquid helium. In this paper, the thermal design and thermal test results are described.

  8. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is

  9. Experimental quadrotor flight performance using computationally efficient and recursively feasible linear model predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffery, Mujtaba H.; Shead, Leo; Forshaw, Jason L.; Lappas, Vaios J.

    2013-12-01

    A new linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm in a state-space framework is presented based on the fusion of two past MPC control laws: steady-state optimal MPC (SSOMPC) and Laguerre optimal MPC (LOMPC). The new controller, SSLOMPC, is demonstrated to have improved feasibility, tracking performance and computation time than its predecessors. This is verified in both simulation and practical experimentation on a quadrotor unmanned air vehicle in an indoor motion-capture testbed. The performance of the control law is experimentally compared with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controllers in an unconstrained square manoeuvre. The use of soft control output and hard control input constraints is also examined in single and dual constrained manoeuvres.

  10. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  11. Soaring and non-soaring bats of the family pteropodidae (flying foxes, Pteropus spp.): wing morphology and flight performance.

    PubMed

    Lindhe-Norberg, U M; Brooke, A P; Trewhella, W J

    2000-02-01

    On oceanic islands, some large diurnal megachiropteran bat species (flying foxes; Pteropus spp.) frequently use thermal or slope soaring during foraging flights to save energy. We compared the flight morphology and gliding/soaring performance of soaring versus non-soaring Pteropus species, one pair on American Samoa and one pair on the Comoro Islands, and two other soaring/flap-gliding species and one non-soaring species. We predicted that the soaring species should have a lower body mass, longer wings and, hence, lower wing loadings than those species that use mainly flapping flight. This would give a lower sinking speed during gliding, a higher glide ratio, and enable the bats to make tighter turns with lower sinking speeds than in the non-soaring species. We theoretically calculated the gliding and circling performances of both the soaring and non-soaring species. Our results show that there are tendencies towards longer wings and lower wing loadings in relation to body size in the gliding/soaring flying foxes than in the non-soaring ones. In the species-pair comparison of the soaring and non-soaring species on American Samoa and the Comoro Islands, the soarers on both islands turn out to have lower wing loadings than their non-soaring partners in spite of opposite size differences among the pairs. These characteristics are in accordance with our hypothesis on morphological adaptations. Most differences are, however, only significant at a level of P<0.1, which may be due to the small sample size, but overlap also occurs. Therefore, we must conclude that wing morphology does not seem to be a limiting factor preventing the non-soarers from soaring. Instead, diurnality in the soaring species seems to be the ultimate determinant of soaring behaviour. The morphological differences cause visible differences in soaring and gliding performance. The glider/soarers turn out to have lower minimum sinking speeds, lower best glide speeds and smaller turning radii than the

  12. Optimized Performance of FlightPlan during Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Importance of the Proportion of Segmented Tumor Area

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Seung-Moon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Yum, Tae Jun; Eun, Na Lae; Lee, Dahye

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate retrospectively the clinical effectiveness of FlightPlan for Liver (FPFL), an automated tumor-feeding artery detection software in cone-beam CT angiography (CBCTA), in identifying tumor-feeding arteries for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using three different segmentation sensitivities. Materials and Methods The study included 50 patients with 80 HCC nodules who received transarterial chemoembolization. Standard digital subtracted angiography (DSA) and CBCTA were systematically performed and analyzed. Three settings of the FPFL software for vascular tree segmentation were tested for each tumor: the default, Group D; adjusting the proportion of segmented tumor area between 30 to 50%, Group L; and between 50 to 80%, Group H. Results In total, 109 feeder vessels supplying 80 HCC nodules were identified. The negative predictive value of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 56.8%, 87.7%, 94.2%, 98.5%, respectively. The accuracy of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 62.6%, 86.8%, 93.4%, 95.6%, respectively. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of FPFL were higher in Group H than in Group D (p = 0.041, 0.034, 0.005). All three segmentation sensitivity groups showed higher specificity, positive predictive value, NPV, and accuracy of FPFL, as compared to DSA. Conclusion FlightPlan for Liver is a valuable tool for increasing detection of HCC tumor feeding vessels, as compared to standard DSA analysis, particularly in small HCC. Manual adjustment of segmentation sensitivity improves the accuracy of FPFL. PMID:27587967

  13. In-Flight Performance of the Mercury Laser Altimeter Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Steven X.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which was launched on August 3, 2004. MLA maps Mercury's shape and topographic landforms and other surface characteristics using a diode-pumped solid-state laser transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode receiver that measures the round-trip time of individual laser pulses. The laser transmitter has been operating nominally during planetary flyby measurements and in orbit about Mercury since March 2011. In this paper, we review the MLA laser transmitter telemetry data and evaluate the performance of solid-state lasers under extended operation in a space environment.

  14. Initial observations of GeSe-xenon transport experiments performed on the D1 space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.; Trivedi, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    GeSe-xenon experiments performed aboard the D1 mission at xenon pressures of 2 and 6 atm confirm the crystal growth pattern, sizes, and surface morphology of crystals previously grown aboard STS-7 for different pressures. Besides the deposition and growth of GeSe crystals on the ampoule wall, several large single-crystalline GeSe platelets with lateral dimensions much greater than those of crystals on the wall and obtained on the ground are found. The present results reemphasize the question concerning the nucleation phenomena in microgravity.

  15. Performance of an optimized rotor blade at off-design flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is made of the dynamic and aerodynamic performance of a helicopter rotor previously optimized for minimum 4/rev vertical shear and blade weight subject to certain dynamic and structural constraints. The program CAMRAD which was used in designing the optimized blade is used for both dynamic and aerodynamic analaysis. The behavior of the optimized rotor is analyzed over a wide range of operating conditions and for a larger number of rotor characteristics than those considered in designing the blade. To assess the dynamic behavior, the blade root vibratory shears and moments that are transmitted to the rotor hub are calculated. The aerodynamic performance assessments are made based on the power required by the rotor for a given rotor task, the rotor lifting efficiencies, maximum rotor thrust envelopes and the control margins. Results are presented for the optimized blade and the control margins. Results are presented for the optimized blade and the reference blade, which was used as the baseline for the optimized blade, for two rotor tasks.

  16. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Tri-gas Thruster Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorado, Vanessa; Grunder, Zachary; Schaefer, Bryce; Sung, Meagan; Pedersen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft reaction control systems have primarily utilized cold gas thrusters because of their inherent simplicity and reliability. However, cold gas thrusters typically have a low specific impulse. It has been determined that a higher specific impulse can be achieved by passing a monopropellant fluid mixture through a catalyst bed prior to expulsion through the thruster nozzle. This research analyzes the potential efficiency improvements from using tri-gas, a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and an inert gas, which in this case is helium. Passing tri-gas through a catalyst causes the hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water vapor, ultimately heating the exiting fluid and generating a higher specific impulse. The goal of this project was to optimize the thruster performance by characterizing the effects of varying several system components including catalyst types, catalyst lengths, and initial catalyst temperatures.

  17. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; McGrew, Lynn Craig

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory was the first Mars guided entry which safely delivered the rover to a landing within a touchdown ellipse of 19.1 km x 6.9 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. The guided entry performed as designed without any significant exceptions. The Curiosity rover was delivered about 2.2 km from the expected touchdown. This miss distance is attributed to little time to correct the downrange drift from the final bank reversal and a suspected tailwind during heading alignment. The successful guided entry for the Mars Science Laboratory lays the foundation for future Mars missions to improve upon.

  18. Pre-flight performance and radiation hardness of the Tokyo Tech pico-satellite Cute-1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotoku, J.; Kataoka, J.; Kuramoto, Y.; Tsubuku, Y.; Yatsu, Y.; Sato, R.; Ikagawa, T.; Saito, T.; Kawai, N.; Konoue, K.; Miyashita, N.; Iai, M.; Omagari, K.; Kashiwa, M.; Yabe, H.; Imai, K.; Miyamoto; Fujiwara, K.; Masumoto, S.; Usuda, T.; Iljic, T.; Konda, A.; Sugita, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Matsuura, D.; Sagami, T.; Kajiwara, S.; Funaki, Y.; Matsunaga, S.; Shima, T.; Kishimoto, S.

    2006-09-01

    The Cute-1.7 was launched successfully in February 2006 as a piggyback satellite of the Astro-F mission. The Cute-1.7 dimensions are 10×10×20cm box with a total mass of 3.6 kg. It is the second pico-satellite to have been developed completely by students of the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.) after the successful launch of the CUTE-I in June 2003. The goals of the Cute-1.7 mission are two-fold: (1) to validate high-performance, commercially available products for the first time in space. We particularly use personal digital assistants (PDAs) as a main computer in orbit (2) to demonstrate new potential uses for small satellites in various space studies, as proposed by the “satellite-core” concept. For the Cute-1.7 mission, we will carry avalanche photo diodes (APDs) as a high-count particle monitor in low-Earth orbit. Here we present details of various ground tests and pre-flight performance of the Cute-1.7 immediately before the launch. Results of the Cute-1.7 mission will provide quick feedback for space applications of APDs in Japan's future X-ray astronomy mission NeXT.

  19. In-Flight Performance of the Polarization Modulator in the CLASP Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non-uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  20. In-flight performance of the polarization modulator in the CLASP rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-07-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non- uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  1. Endocrine responses to space flights.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Fickova, M; Kolena, J; Knopp, J; Tigranian, R A; Popova, I A; Grogoriev, A I

    2001-07-01

    Simultaneously with human space flights several series of observations were performed by using experimental animals--mainly rats--exposed to space flights on board of special satellites BION-COSMOS or in Shuttle Transportation Systems (STS). The aims of these experiments were to study in more details: the mechanisms of the changes in bones and skeletal muscle, the alterations of the function of immune system, the radiation effects on organism, the mechanism of the changes of endocrine functions, the evaluation of the role of hormones in alteration of metabolic processes in organism. The advantages of these animal experiments were the possibilities to analyze not only the plasma samples, but it was possible to obtain samples of organs or tissues: for morphological and biochemical analysis for studies of the changes in enzyme activities and in gene expressions, for measurement of metabolic processes and for investigation of the hormone production in endocrine glands and estimation of the response of tissues to hormones. It was also possible to compare the endocrine response to spaceflight and to other stress stimuli. These animal studies are interesting for verification of some hypothesis in the mechanism of adaptation of human organism to the changes of gravity. The disadvantage was, however, that the animals in almost all experiments could be examined only after space flight. The actual inflight changes were investigated only in two SLS flights. In this short review it is not possible to evaluate all hormonal data available on the response of endocrine system to the conditions of space flights. Therefore we will concentrate on the response of pituitary adrenocortical system, pituitary thyroid and pituitary gonadal functions.

  2. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  3. Flight performance and teneral energy reserves of two genetically-modified and one wild-type strain of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bargielowski, Irka; Kaufmann, Christian; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul; Koella, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    The ability of sterile males to survive, disperse, find, and mate with wild females is key to the success of sterile insect technique (SIT). The Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL) system is a genetics-based SIT strategy for Aedes aegypti. We examine two aspects of insect performance, flight potential (dispersal ability) and teneral energy reserves, by comparing wild-type (WT) males with genetically-modified lines carrying the tetracycline-repressible constructs OX513A and OX3604C. Our results show significant differences in the flight capacity of the modified lines. OX513A males bred with tetracycline covered 38% less distance, while OX3604C males reared without tetracycline spent 21% less time in flight than their WT counterparts. Such differences in flight performance should be considered when designing release programs (e.g., by placing release sites sufficiently close together to achieve adequate coverage). All mosquito lines had similar teneral carbohydrate contents, though males of the OX3604C line contained more lipids. The addition of tetracycline to the larval diet did not influence the flight potential of the males; however, it did change the teneral sugar reserves of the WT and the lipid reserves of both the WT and the OX3604C lines.

  4. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single Event Effect(SEE)Performance on Orbview-2 and Xray Timing Explorer(XTE)Solid State Recorders (SSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Ken A.; Gee, George; Safren, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Single Event Effect (SEE) in-flight data on Solid State Recorders (SSR) that have been collected over a long period of time for two NASA spacecraft: Orbview-2 and XTE. SEE flight data on solid-state memories give an opportunity to study the behavior in space of SEE sensitive commercial devices. The actual Single Event Upset (SEU) rates can be compared with the calculated rates based on environment models and ground test data. The SEE mitigation schemes can also be evaluated in actual implementation. A significant amount of data has already been published concerning observed SEE effects on memories in space. However, most of the data presented cover either a short period of time or a small number of devices. The data presented here has been collected on a large number of devices during several years. This allows statistically significant information about the effect of space weather fluctuations on SEU rates, and the effectiveness of SEE countermeasures used to be analyzed. Only Orbview-2 data is presented in this summary. XTE data will be included in the final paper.

  5. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C.; Coldwell, R. L.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.; Eichhorn, G.

    1990-01-01

    The GRAD (Gamma-Ray Advanced Detector) gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988, where it was used to make observations of SN 1987A. The performance of the bismuth germanate (BGO) active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined. The promised effectiveness of this shielding in the suppression of unwanted background has been demonstrated. The BGO-shielded GRAD spectrometer detected gamma-ray lines with fluxes of 0.002/sq cm sec from SN 1987A in a radiation background approximately a factor of 4 more intense than that over Alice Springs, Australia. This level of sensitivity indicates that BGO is at least as effective as CsI when used as active shielding. Isomerism is common, both in the bismuth and germanium regions of the nuclear chart, but is found to be less of a problem for background suppression in the latter region than in the former.

  6. Performance Verification of the Astro-E2 X-ray spectrometer in the flight configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, N; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Cottam, J; Fujimoto, R; Furusho, T; Ishisaki, Y; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; McCammon, D; Mitsuda, K; Morita, U; Porter, F S; Takei, Y; Yamamoto, M

    2005-09-12

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) is a high resolution, non-dispersive cryogenic detector on board the X-ray satellite, Astro-E2 (Suzaku), which was successfully launched on July 10, 2005. The XRS achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV (FWHM) and covers a broad energy range of {approx} 0.07-10 keV. The XRS will enable powerful plasma diagnostics of a variety of astrophysical objects such as the dynamics of gas in clusters of galaxies. The XRS was integrated to the spacecraft in September 2004, and took a series of spacecraft tests until April 2005. We describe results of the XRS performance verification in the spacecraft configuration. First, the noise level was extremely low on the spacecraft, and most of the pixels achieved an energy resolution of 5-6 eV at 5.9 keV. Microphonics from the mechanical cooler was one of the concerns, but they did not interfere with the detector, when the dewar was integrated to the spacecraft and filled with solid neon. To attain the best energy resolution, however, correction of gain drift is mandatory. The XRS has a dedicated calibration pixel for that purpose, and drift correction using the calibration pixel is very effective when the gain variation is due to changes in the {approx} 60-mK heat sink temperature. On the other hand, the calibration pixel and the other pixels do not respond in the same way to variations of the helium and neon bath temperatures, and this effect requires further study.

  7. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  8. Chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule by double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiong; Ye, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yingyi; Li, Hua; Song, Fenyun

    2015-06-01

    A method incorporating double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the investigation of the chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule. The chromatographic separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) at 30°C using gradient elution with water/formic acid (1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. A total of 11 chemical constituents of Ganmaoling granule were identified from their molecular weight, UV spectra, tandem mass spectrometry data, and retention behavior by comparing the results with those of the reference standards or literature. And 25 peaks were selected as the common peaks for fingerprint analysis to evaluate the similarities among 25 batches of Ganmaoling granule. The results of principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis showed that the important chemical markers that could distinguish the different batches were revealed as 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. This is the first report of the ultra high performance liquid chromatography chemical fingerprint and component identification of Ganmaoling granule, which could lay a foundation for further studies of Ganmaoling granule.

  9. Rapid Analysis of Components in Coptis chinensis Franch by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peng-peng; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Wang, Hong-ping; Li, Pu-ling; Liu, Yu-xin; Li, Shao-jing

    2017-01-01

    Background: Coptis chinensis Franch is a traditional Chinese medical herb. Objective: In this article, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to rapidly, qualitatively, and comprehensively identify the components in Coptis chinensis Franch. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid water (A) and 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile (B) with a gradient program. Qualitative analysis was performed on an Agilent 6540 quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which was equipped with a Dual AJS ESI source operating in negative mode. Results: A total of 30 alkaloid and non-alkaloid components of Coptis chinensis Franch were identified in only 14 min. Conclusion: This study helped to provide a basis for the quality control of Coptis chinensis Franch. SUMMARY Qualitative analysis method of chlorogenic alkaloids and non-alkaloids in Coptis chinensis Franch is developed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method.Established UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis method is validated with rapidness and accuracy.The developed method was successfully applied for qualitative analysis of Coptis chinensis Franch sample collected from cultivation place in China. Abbreviations used: Q-TOF-MS: quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, UPLC: ultra-performance liquid chromatography, pos: positive, neg: negative. Q-TOF-MS: quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, UPLC: ultra-performance liquid chromatography, pos: positive, neg: negative. UPLC: ultra-performance liquid chromatography, pos: positive, neg: negative. pos: positive, neg: negative. neg: negative. PMID:28216903

  10. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  11. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P. W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Learned, J. G.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  12. 'I've used the word cancer but it's actually good news': discursive performativity of cancer and the identity of urological cancer services.

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, Karolina Agata; Skea, Zoe

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on the ethnographic study of urological cancer services, this article explores how a set of particular discourses embedded in the everyday clinical work in a large teaching hospital in the UK helps materialise particular configurations of cancer and related professional identities. Emerging on the intersection of specific socio-material arrangements (cancer survival rates, treatment regimens, cancer staging classifications, metaphors, clinical specialities) and operating across a number of differential relations (curable/incurable, treatable/untreatable, aggressive/nonaggressive), these configurations help constitute the categories of 'good' and 'bad' cancers as separate and contrasting entities. These categories help materialise particular distributions of power and are thus implicated in the making of specific claims about the identity of urological cancer services as unique and privileged. Exploring these issues in view of feminist and material-semiotic approaches to studying science, technology and medicine, this article seeks to move away from the understanding of cancer discourses as primarily linguistic performances, proposing to see them instead as arrangements of practices and relations simultaneously material and semiotic through which particular categories, entities and phenomena acquire their determinate nature. In doing so, it seeks to contribute to sociology's broader concern with discursive performativity of cancer.

  13. Digital Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Validation Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Jarvis, C. R.; Krier, G. E.; Megna, V. A.; Brock, L. D.; Odonnell, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    The experience gained in digital fly-by-wire technology through a flight test program being conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in an F-8C aircraft is described. The system requirements are outlined, along with the requirements for flight qualification. The system is described, including the hardware components, the aircraft installation, and the system operation. The flight qualification experience is emphasized. The qualification process included the theoretical validation of the basic design, laboratory testing of the hardware and software elements, systems level testing, and flight testing. The most productive testing was performed on an iron bird aircraft, which used the actual electronic and hydraulic hardware and a simulation of the F-8 characteristics to provide the flight environment. The iron bird was used for sensor and system redundancy management testing, failure modes and effects testing, and stress testing in many cases with the pilot in the loop. The flight test program confirmed the quality of the validation process by achieving 50 flights without a known undetected failure and with no false alarms.

  14. Performance measurements of a dual-rotor arm mechanism for efficient flight transition of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Karen Ashley Jean

    Reconfigurable systems are a class of systems that can be transformed into different configurations, generally to perform unique functions or to maintain operational efficiency under distinct conditions. A UAV can be considered a reconfigurable system when coupled with various useful features such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), hover capability, long-range, and relatively large payload. Currently, a UAV having these capabilities is being designed by the UTSA Mechanical Engineering department. UAVs such as this one have the following potential uses: emergency response/disaster relief, hazard-critical missions, offshore oil rig/wind farm delivery, surveillance, etc. The goal of this thesis is to perform experimental thrust and power measurements for the propulsion system of this fixed-wing UAV. Focus was placed on a rotating truss arm supporting two brushless motors and rotors that will later be integrated to the ends of the UAV wing. These truss arms will rotate via a supporting shaft from 0° to 90° to transition the UAV between a vertical take-off, hover, and forward flight. To make this hover/transition possible, a relationship between thrust, arm angle, and power drawn was established by testing the performance of the arm/motor assembly at arm angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°. Universal equations for this system of thrust as a function of the arm angle were created by correlating data collected by a load cell. A Solidworks model was created and used to conduct fluid dynamics simulations of the streamlines over the arm/motor assembly.

  15. Design and Performance Calculations of a Propeller for Very High Altitude Flight. Degree awarded by Case Western Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    1998-01-01

    Reported here is a design study of a propeller for a vehicle capable of subsonic flight in Earth's stratosphere. All propellers presented were required to absorb 63.4 kW (85 hp) at 25.9 km (85,000 ft) while aircraft cruise velocity was maintained at Mach 0.40. To produce the final design, classic momentum and blade-element theories were combined with two and three-dimensional results from the Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Code (ADPAC), a numerical Navier-Stokes analysis code. The Eppler 387 airfoil was used for each of the constant section propeller designs compared. Experimental data from the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel was used in the strip theory design and analysis programs written. The experimental data was also used to validate ADPAC at a Reynolds numbers of 60,000 and a Mach number of 0.20. Experimental and calculated surface pressure coefficients are compared for a range of angles of attack. Since low Reynolds number transonic experimental data was unavailable, ADPAC was used to generate two-dimensional section performance predictions for Reynolds numbers of 60,000 and 100,000 and Mach numbers ranging from 0.45 to 0.75. Surface pressure coefficients are presented for selected angles of attack. in addition to the variation of lift and drag coefficients at each flow condition. A three-dimensional model of the final design was made which ADPAC used to calculated propeller performance. ADPAC performance predictions were compared with strip-theory calculations at design point. Propeller efficiency predicted by ADPAC was within 1.5% of that calculated by strip theory methods, although ADPAC predictions of thrust, power, and torque coefficients were approximately 5% lower than the strip theory results. Simplifying assumptions made in the strip theory account for the differences seen.

  16. Operational performance of vapor-screen systems for in-flight visualization of leading-edge vortices on the F-106B aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Bruce, Robert A.; Bruce, Robert A.; Bruce, Robert A.; Bruce, Robert A.; Bruce, Robert A.; Bruce, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    A flight research program was undertaken at the NASA Langley Research Center to apply the vapor-screen technique, widely used in wind tunnels, to an aircraft. The purpose was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about near-field vortex flows above the wings of fighter aircraft and ascertain the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers over the angle-of-attack range. The hardware for the systems required for flight application of the vapor-screen technique was successfully developed and integrated. Details of each system, its operational performance on the F-106B aircraft, and pertinent aircraft and environmental data collected are presented.

  17. Intra-specific variation in wing morphology and its impact on take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) during escape flights.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Laura; Altringham, John D; Askew, Graham N

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal increases in body mass and seasonal reductions in wing area may compromise a bird's ability to escape, as less of the power available from the flight muscles can be used to accelerate and elevate the animal's centre of mass. Here, we investigated the effects of intra-specific variation in wing morphology on escape take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Flights were recorded using synchronised high-speed video cameras and take-off performance was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the kinetic and potential energies of the centre of mass. Individuals with a lower wing loading, WL (WL=body weight/wing area) had higher escape take-off performance, consistent with the increase in lift production expected from relatively larger wings. Unexpectedly, it was found that the total power available from the flight muscles (estimated using an aerodynamic analysis) was inversely related to WL. This could simply be because birds with a higher WL have relatively smaller flight muscles. Alternatively or additionally, variation in the aerodynamic load on the wing resulting from differences in wing morphology will affect the mechanical performance of the flight muscles via effects on the muscle's length trajectory. Consistent with this hypothesis is the observation that wing beat frequency and relative downstroke duration increase with decreasing WL; both are factors that are expected to increase muscle power output. Understanding how wing morphology influences take-off performance gives insight into the potential risks associated with feather loss and seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in body mass.

  18. Intra-specific variation in wing morphology and its impact on take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) during escape flights

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Laura; Altringham, John D.; Askew, Graham N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diurnal and seasonal increases in body mass and seasonal reductions in wing area may compromise a bird's ability to escape, as less of the power available from the flight muscles can be used to accelerate and elevate the animal's centre of mass. Here, we investigated the effects of intra-specific variation in wing morphology on escape take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Flights were recorded using synchronised high-speed video cameras and take-off performance was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the kinetic and potential energies of the centre of mass. Individuals with a lower wing loading, WL (WL=body weight/wing area) had higher escape take-off performance, consistent with the increase in lift production expected from relatively larger wings. Unexpectedly, it was found that the total power available from the flight muscles (estimated using an aerodynamic analysis) was inversely related to WL. This could simply be because birds with a higher WL have relatively smaller flight muscles. Alternatively or additionally, variation in the aerodynamic load on the wing resulting from differences in wing morphology will affect the mechanical performance of the flight muscles via effects on the muscle's length trajectory. Consistent with this hypothesis is the observation that wing beat frequency and relative downstroke duration increase with decreasing WL; both are factors that are expected to increase muscle power output. Understanding how wing morphology influences take-off performance gives insight into the potential risks associated with feather loss and seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in body mass. PMID:26994175

  19. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify acidic drugs in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Herrera, Mercedes; Honda, Luis; Richter, Pablo

    2015-12-04

    A novel analytical approach involving an improved rotating-disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) procedure and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an ultraspray electrospray ionization source (UESI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS), in trap mode, was developed to identify and quantify four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and two anti-cholesterol drugs (ACDs) (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil) that are widely used and typically found in water samples. The method reduced the amount of both sample and reagents used and also the time required for the whole analysis, resulting in a reliable and green analytical strategy. The analytical eco-scale was calculated, showing that this methodology is an excellent green analysis, increasing its ecological worth. The detection limits (LOD) and precision (%RSD) were lower than 90ng/L and 10%, respectively. Matrix effects and recoveries were studied using samples from the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). All the compounds exhibited suppression of their signals due to matrix effects, and the recoveries were approximately 100%. The applicability and reliability of this methodology were confirmed through the analysis of influent and effluent samples from a WWTP in Santiago, Chile, obtaining concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 20.5μg/L and from 0.5 to 8.6μg/L, respectively.

  20. Flight tests of Viking parachute system in three Mach number regimes. 1: Vehicle description, test operations, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, R. R.; Raper, J. L.; Bendura, R. J.; Shields, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    Flight qualifications for parachutes were tested on full-scale simulated Viking spacecraft at entry conditions for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars. The vehicle was carried to an altitude of 36.6 km for the supersonic and transonic tests by a 980.000 cu m balloon. The vehicles were released and propelled to test conditions with rocket engines. A 117,940 cu m balloon carried the test vehicle to an altitude of 27.5 km and the conditions for the subsonic tests were achieved in free fall. Aeroshell separation occurred on all test vehicles from 8 to 14 seconds after parachute deployment. This report describes: (1) the test vehicle; (2) methods used to insure that the test conditions were achieved; and (3) the balloon system design and operations. The report also presents the performance data from onboard and ground based instruments and the results from a statistical trajectory program which gives a continuous history of test-vehicle motions.

  1. A review of technologies applicable to low-speed flight of high-performance aircraft investigated in the Langley 14- x 22-foot subsonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Quinto, P. Frank; Banks, Daniel W.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive research program has been underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to define and develop the technologies required for low-speed flight of high-performance aircraft. This 10-year program has placed emphasis on both short takeoff and landing (STOL) and short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) operations rather than on regular up and away flight. A series of NASA in-house as well as joint projects have studied various technologies including high lift, vectored thrust, thrust-induced lift, reversed thrust, an alternate method of providing trim and control, and ground effects. These technologies have been investigated on a number of configurations ranging from industry designs for advanced fighter aircraft to generic wing-canard research models. Test conditions have ranged from hover (or static) through transition to wing-borne flight at angles of attack from -5 to 40 deg at representative thrust coefficients.

  2. Free-flight Performance of a Rocket-boosted, Air-launched 16-inch-diameter Ram-jet Engine at Mach Numbers up to 2.20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, John H; Kohl, Robert C; Jones, Merle L

    1953-01-01

    The investigation of air-launched ram-jet engines has been extended to include a study of models with a nominal design free-stream Mach number of 2.40. These models require auxiliary thrust in order to attain a flight speed at which the ram jet becomes self-accelerating. A rocket-boosting technique for providing this auxiliary thrust is described and time histories of two rocket-boosted ram-jet flights are presented. In one flight, the model attained a maximum Mach number of 2.20 before a fuel system failure resulted in the destruction of the engine. Performance data for this model are presented in terms of thrust and drag coefficients, diffuser pressure recovery, mass-flow ratio, combustion efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and over-all engine efficiency.

  3. JT9D engine diagnostics. Task 2: Feasibility study of measuring in-service flight loads. [747 aircraft performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafka, P. G.; Skibo, M. A.; White, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring JT9D propulsion system flight inertia loads on a 747 airplane is studied. Flight loads background is discussed including the current status of 747/JT9D loads knowledge. An instrumentation and test plan is formulated for an airline-owned in-service airplane and the Boeing-owned RA001 test airplane. Technical and cost comparisons are made between these two options. An overall technical feasibility evaluation is made and a cost summary presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in regard to using existing inertia loads data versus conducting a flight test to measure inertia loads.

  4. Development and flight test evaluation of a pitch stability augmentation system for a relaxed stability L-1011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rising, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The L-1011 has been flight tested to demonstrate the relaxed static stability concept as a means of obtaining significant drag benefits to achieve a more energy efficient transport. Satisfactory handling qualities were maintained with the design of an active control horizontal tail for stability and control augmentation to allow operation of the L-1011 at centers of gravity close to the neutral point. Prior to flight test, a motion base visual flight simulator program was performed to optimize the augmentation system. The system was successfully demonstrated in a test program totaling forty-eight actual flight hours.

  5. Assessing the performance of two models on calculating maize actual evapotranspiration in a semi-humid and drought-prone region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wang, J. L.; Zhao, C. X.; McGiffen, M. E.; Liu, J. B.; Wang, G. D.

    2017-01-01

    The two-step and one-step models for calculating evapotranspiration of maize were evaluated in a semi-humid and drought-prone region of northern China. Data were collected in the summers of 2013 and 2014 to determine relative model accuracy in calculating maize evaopotranspiration. The two-step model predicted daily evaoptranspiration with crop coefficients proposed by FAO and crop coefficient calibrated by local field data; the one-step model predicted daily evapotranspiration with coefficients derived by other researcher and coefficients calibrated by local field data. The predicted daily evapotranspiration in 2013 and 2014 growing seasons with the above two different models was both compared with the observed evapotranspiration with eddy covariance method. Furthermore, evapotranspiration in different growth stages of 2013 and 2014 maize growing seasons was predicted using the models with the local calibrated coefficients. The results indicated that calibration of models was necessary before using them to predict daily evapotranspiration. The model with the calibrated coefficients performed better with higher coefficient of determination and index of agreement and lower mean absolute error and root mean square error than before. And the two-step model better predicted daily evapotranspiration than the one-step model in our experimental field. Nevertheless, as to prediction ET of different growth stages, there still had some uncertainty when predicting evapotranspiration in different year. So the comparisons suggested that model prediction of crop evapotranspiration was practical, but requires calibration and validation with more data. Thus, considerable improvement is needed for these two models to be practical in predicting evapotranspiration for maize and other crops, more field data need to be measured, and an in-depth study still needs to be continued.

  6. In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Audard, Marc; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haas, Daniel; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Koyama, Shu; Kurashima, Sho; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Markevitch, Maxim; McCammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mori, Hideyuki; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Okajima, Takashi; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; de Vries, Cor P.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre- flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

  7. Spacecraft separation systems mechanisms: Characteristics/performance during high altitude flight test from NASA Wallops Station, Va.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The applications of various separation mechanisms to meet flight mission goals within the physical and environmental constraints of a single stage rocket test vehicle are considered. Each separation concept was selected from the numerous choices available on the basis of its unique requirement and the flight test vehicle incorporated several different concepts. Attention to specific requirements and thoroughness in design and testing were essential to success since there is no specific single answer to separation problems.

  8. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. B.; Sims, Herb; Martin, James; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond; Fant, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    The significant energy density of matter-antimatter annihilation is attractive to the designers of future space propulsion systems, with the potential to offer a highly compact source of power. Many propulsion concepts exist that could take advantage of matter-antimatter reactions, and current antiproton production rates are sufficient to support basic proof-of-principle evaluation of technology associated with antimatter- derived propulsion. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, allowing antiprotons to be trapped, stored, and transported for use at an experimental facility. To address this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center is developing a storage system referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. The HiPAT makes use of an electromagnetic system (Penning- Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Telsa superconductor, high voltage electrode structure, radio frequency (RF) network, and ultra high vacuum system. To evaluate the system normal matter sources (both electron guns and ion sources) are used to generate charged particles. The electron beams ionize gas within the trapping region producing ions in situ, whereas the ion sources produce the particles external to the trapping region and required dynamic capture. A wide range of experiments has been performed examining factors such as ion storage lifetimes, effect of RF energy on storage lifetime, and ability to routinely perform dynamic ion capture. Current efforts have been focused on improving the FW rotating wall system to permit longer storage times and non-destructive diagnostics of stored ions. Typical particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and destructively colliding them with a micro-channel plate detector (providing number and energy information). This improved RF system has been used to detect various

  9. Rapid isolation of new furostanol saponins from fenugreek seeds based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Kang, Liping; Yu, Heshui; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Chengqi; Zhang, Jie; Shan, Junjie; Ma, Baiping

    2012-06-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method was established to rapidly identify and guide the isolation of target saponins from fenugreek seeds. Based on the online screening performance, totally forty-six furostanol saponins were detected and elucidated. Among them, twenty compounds were predicted to be new. To rapidly obtain new furostanol saponins from these seeds, a further phytochemical study was carried out under the guidance of the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, six new furostanol saponins, named as trigoneosides XIV (1), XV (2), XVI (3), XVIIa (4), XVIIb (5), and XIV (6), together with one known furostanol saponin, parvifloside (7), were rapidly obtained, and their definitive structures were determined by NMR and chemical evidence.

  10. Shuttle avionics software development trials: Tribulations and successes, the backup flight system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    The development and verification of the Backup Flight System software (BFS) is discussed. The approach taken for the BFS was to develop a very simple and straightforward software program and then test it in every conceivable manner. The result was a program that contained approximately 12,000 full words including ground checkout and the built in test program for the computer. To perform verification, a series of tests was defined using the actual flight type hardware and simulated flight conditions. Then simulated flights were flown and detailed performance analysis was conducted. The intent of most BFS tests was to demonstrate that a stable flightpath could be obtained after engagement from an anomalous initial condition. The extention of the BFS to meet the requirements of the orbital flight test phase is also described.

  11. Flight Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5276 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER TOP 7-4-020 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...2 3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS ............................................. 3 3.1...3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS . 3.1 Air Vehicle Flight Test Techniques. Many different flight test techniques are in existence. As technology

  12. YF-17 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator aircraft in flight during a 1976 flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From May 27 to July 14, 1976, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, flew the Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator to test the high-performance U.S. Air Force fighter at transonic speeds. The objectives of the seven-week flight test program included the study of maneuverability of this aircraft at transonic speeds and the collection of in-flight pressure data from around the afterbody of the aircraft to improve wind-tunnel predictions for future fighter aircraft. Also studied were stability and control and buffeting at high angles of attack as well as handling qualities at high load factors. Another objective of this program was to familiarize center pilots with the operation of advanced high-performance fighter aircraft. During the seven-week program, all seven of the center's test pilots were able to fly the aircraft with Gary Krier serving as project pilot. In general the pilots reported no trouble adapting to the aircraft and reported that it was easy to fly. There were no familiarization flights. All 25 research flights were full-data flights. They obtained data on afterbody pressures, vertical-fin dynamic loads, agility, pilot physiology, and infrared signatures. Average flight time was 45 minutes, although two flights involving in-flight refueling lasted approximately one hour longer than usual. Dryden Project Manager Roy Bryant considered the program a success. Center pilots felt that the aircraft was generations ahead of then current active military aircraft. Originally built for the Air Force's lightweight fighter program, the YF-17 Cobra left Dryden to support the Northrop/Navy F-18 Program. The F-18 Hornet evolved from the YF-17.

  13. Quantitative profiling of perfluoroalkyl substances by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-01

    The accurate determination of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFSAs) in water, sediment, fish, meat, and human milk was achieved by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) with an ABSciex Triple TOF®. A group of 21 PFSAs was selected as target to evaluate the quantitative possibilities. Full scan MS acquisition data allows quantification at relevant low levels (0.1-50 ng L(-1) in water, 0.05-2 ng g(-1) in sediments, 0.01-5 ng g(-1) in fish and meat, and 0.005-2 ng g(-1) in human milk depending on the compound). Automatic information dependent acquisition product ion mass spectrometry (IDA-MS/MS) confirms the identity even for those compounds that presented only one product ion. The preparation of a homemade database using the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) Manager of the software based upon retention time, accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and MS/MS library searching achieves not only the successful identification of PFSAs but also of some pharmaceuticals, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and gemfibrozid. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) were 67-99% (9-16% RSD) for water, 62-103% (8-18% RSD) for sediment, 60-95% (8-17% RSD) for fish, 64-95% (8-15% RSD) for meat, and 63-95% (8-16%) for human milk. The quantitative data obtained for 60 samples by UHPLC-QqTOF-MS agree with those obtained by LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole (QqQ).

  14. Analysis of the Flight Motions of a Small Deployable Glider Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the request of the U.S. Air Force Avionics Laboratory to analyze the flight characteristics of a small uncontrolled glider with folding wings. The study consisted of wind-tunnel tests of an actual glider and a theoretical analysis of the performance, stability, and trimmability of the configuration.

  15. 10 day flight performance of the plant generic bioprocessing apparatus (PGBA) plant growth facility aboard STS-77

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, Alex; Chamberlain, Dale J.; Forsyth, Sasha W.; Hanna, David S.; Scovazzo, Paul; Horner, Michael B.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Todd, Paul; Heyenga, A. Gerard; Kliss, Mark H.; Bula, Raymond; Yetka, Robert

    1997-01-01

    PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for space flight biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 30 plants in a closed, multi-crop chamber for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-77). Artemisia annua, Catharanthus roseus, Pinus taeda, Spinacia oleracea and Trifolium repens were the five species studied during this mission. The primary mission objectives were to study the effects of microgravity for commercial and pharmaceutical production purposes. PGBA is a payload that represents a consortium of interests including BioServe Space Technologies (payload sponsor), NASA Ames Research Center (Controlled Ecological Life Support System, CELSS, Flight Program), Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), and industrial affiliates (spaceflight effects on plants and formation of plant products such as pharmaceuticals). Although BioServe is responsible for the flight hardware development and integration of PGBA, NASA Ames, WSCAR and industrial affiliates provide significant hardware subsystems and technical biological expertise support.

  16. 10 day flight performance of the plant generic bioprocessing apparatus (PGBA) plant growth facility aboard STS-77

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehn, A.; Chamberlain, D.J.; Forsyth, S.W.; Hanna, D.S.; Scovazzo, P.; Horner, M.B.; Stodieck, L.S.; Todd, P.; Heyenga, A.G.; Kliss, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for space flight biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 30 plants in a closed, multi-crop chamber for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-77). {ital Artemisia annua, Catharanthus roseus, Pinus taeda, Spinacia oleracea and Trifolium repens} were the five species studied during this mission. The primary mission objectives were to study the effects of microgravity for commercial and pharmaceutical production purposes. PGBA is a payload that represents a consortium of interests including BioServe Space Technologies (payload sponsor), NASA Ames Research Center (Controlled Ecological Life Support System, CELSS, Flight Program), Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), and industrial affiliates (spaceflight effects on plants and formation of plant products such as pharmaceuticals). Although BioServe is responsible for the flight hardware development and integration of PGBA, NASA Ames, WSCAR and industrial affiliates provide significant hardware subsystems and technical biological expertise support. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Evaluation of cloud detection instruments and performance of laminar-flow leading-edge test articles during NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard E.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.; Fisher, David F.; Young, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Summary evaluations of the performance of laminar-flow control (LFC) leading edge test articles on a NASA JetStar aircraft are presented. Statistics, presented for the test articles' performance in haze and cloud situations, as well as in clear air, show a significant effect of cloud particle concentrations on the extent of laminar flow. The cloud particle environment was monitored by two instruments, a cloud particle spectrometer (Knollenberg probe) and a charging patch. Both instruments are evaluated as diagnostic aids for avoiding laminar-flow detrimental particle concentrations in future LFC aircraft operations. The data base covers 19 flights in the simulated airline service phase of the NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test (LEFT) Program.

  18. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  19. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with RC-SC2 main-rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The test envelope included hover, forward-flight speed sweeps from 33 to 74 m/sec (65 to 144 knots), and collective-fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip-speed ratio. The data set for each test point describes vehicle flight states, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements and blade motions. Rotor loads were reviewed primarily in terms of peak-to-peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor.

  20. Helicopter Rotor Wake Geometry and Its Influence in Forward Flight. Volume 1. Generalized Wake Geometry and Wake Effect on Rotor Airloads and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    performance. A first level generalized wake model was developed for a helicopter rotor operating in steady level forward flight based on theoretically...predicted wake geometries. The generalized wake model consists of wake geometry equations in which tip vortex distortions are generalized as displacements...of predicted rotor airloads and related rotor performanceand blade bending moments to various rotor inflow and wake geometry models are demonstrated