Science.gov

Sample records for actual flight unit

  1. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  2. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  3. Caloric balance during simulated and actual space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Reid, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The in-flight caloric intakes of all Apollo astronauts are examined and shown to average about 25 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of weight changes following recovery indicates that about 0.15 kg of fat was lost per man per day in-flight for an average deficit of about 19 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of the caloric intake of astronauts under ground-based conditions and during hypobaric exposure indicated a caloric requirement which was not significantly different from the in-flight requirement adjusted for weight loss. Partial metabolic balance data and measurements of bone loss and body volume revealed that protein and mineral losses also occurred to an extent which would reduce the size of estimated in-flight caloric deficits.

  4. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  5. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  6. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  7. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  8. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  9. Comparisons of pilot performance in simulated and actual flight. [effects of ingested barbiturates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Gerke, R. J.; Wick, R. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Five highly experienced professional pilots performed instrument landing system approaches under simulated instrument flight conditions in a Cessna 172 airplane and in a Link-Singer GAT-1 simulator while under the influence of orally administered secobarbital (0, 100, and 200 mg). Tracking performance in two axes and airspeed control were evaluated continuously during each approach. Error and RMS variability were about half as large in the simulator as in the airplane. The observed data were more strongly associated with the drug level in the simulator than in the airplane. Further, the drug-related effects were more consistent in the simulator. Improvement in performance suggestive of learning effects were seen in the simulator, but not in actual flight.

  10. Orbital flight simulation utility software unit specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    The HP PASCAL source code contained in pages 6 through 104 was developed for the Mission Planning and Analysis Division (MPAD) and takes the place of detailed flow charts defining the specifications for a Utility Software Unit designed to support orbital flight simulators such as MANHANDLE and GREAS (General Research and Engineering Analysis Simulator). Besides providing basic input/output, mathematical, vector, matrix, quaternion, and statistical routines for such simulators, one of the primary functions of the Utility Software Unit is to isolate all system-dependent code in one well-defined compartment, thereby facilitating transportation of the simulations from one computer to another. Directives to the PASCAL compilers of the HP-9000 Series 200 PASCAL 3.0 operating system and the HP-9000 Series 500 HP-UX 5.0 operations systems are also provided.

  11. Alterations in calcium homeostasis and bone during actual and simulated space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal alteration in experimental animals induced by actual and simulated spaceflight are discussed, noting that the main factor contributing to bone loss in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Mechanical unloading is seen as the most obvious cause of bone loss in a state of weightlessness. Reference is made to a study by Roberts et al. (1981), which showed that osteoblast differentiation in the periodontal ligament of the maxilla was suppressed in rats flown in space. Since the maxilla lacks a weight-bearing function, this finding indicates that the skeletal alterations associated with orbital flight may be systemic rather than confined to weight-bearing bones. In addition, the skeletal response to simulated weightlessness may also be systemic (wronski and Morey, 1982). In suspended rats, the hindlimbs lost all weight-bearing functions, while the forelimbs maintained contact with the floor of the hypokinetic model. On this basis, it was to be expected that there would be different responses at the two skeletal sites if the observed abnormalities were due to mechanical unloading alone. The changes induced by simulated weightlessness in the proximal tibia and humerus, however, were generally comparable. This evidence for systemic skeletal responses has drawn attention to endocrine factors.

  12. A three-axis flight simulator. [for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.

  13. Orbital flight test of the manned maneuvering unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the experience provided by the first astronaut maneuvering unit used in the early extravehicular activities missions, a manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was developed that culminated in emergence of the M509 unit. The M509 unit, flown on the STS41-B, is a self-contained propulsive backpack. A flight support station (FSS) provides cargo bay stowage for the MMU, serves as a donning/doffing station, and provides an interface with the Orbiter gaseous nitrogen system for propellant refueling, electrical power for heaters, and temperature instrumentation. The MMU propulsion system, its control system, the electrical system and the flight displays are described. The orbital flight test has demonstrated superior handling and flying qualities of the MMU.

  14. Alterations in calcium homeostasis and bone during actual and simulated space flight.

    PubMed

    Wronski, T J; Morey, E R

    1983-01-01

    The weightlessness experienced in space produces alterations in calcium homeostasis. Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab astronauts exhibited a negative calcium balance due primarily to hypercalciuria. In addition, the bone mineral density of the calcaneus declined by approximately 4% in Skylab crew members after 84 d of orbital flight. The negative calcium balance and loss of calcaneal bone mineral in normal adults subjected to prolonged bed rest was comparable to that observed in space. The pathogenesis of bone loss during space flight and bed rest is not well understood due to the lack of histomorphometric data. It is also uncertain whether osteoporotic changes in astronauts are corrected postflight. The observed bone loss would be reversible and of no long-term consequence if the only abnormality was an increased remodeling rate. However, altered bone cell activity would probably result in irreversible bone loss with the premature development of senile osteoporosis many years after space flight. The main skeletal defect in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Bone resorption was not elevated during weightlessness. Although cortical bone returned to normal postflight, the decline in trabecular bone mass was somewhat persistent. These studies established that the modeling of a growing skeleton was altered in a weightless environment, but do not necessarily imply that a remodeling imbalance occurs in adults during space flight. However, various forms of simulated space flight inhibited bone formation during both skeletal modeling and the remodeling of adult bone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6645871

  15. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  16. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  17. Development of Advanced Plant Habitat Flight Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Curtis J., Jr

    2013-01-01

    With NASA's current goals and resources moving forward to bring the idea of Manned Deep-Space missions from a long-thought concept to a reality, innovative research methods and expertise are being utilized for studies that integrate human needs with that of technology to make for the most efficient operations possible. Through the capability to supply food, provide oxygen from what was once carbon dioxide, and various others which help to make plant research one of the prime factors of future long-duration mission, the Advanced Plant Habitat will be the largest microgravity plant growth chamber on the International Space Station when it is launched in the near future (2014- 2015). Soon, the Advanced Plant Habitat unit will continue on and enrich the discoveries and studies on the long-term effects of microgravity on plants.

  18. A Stewart Platform as a FBW Flight Control Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ömürlü, Vasfi; Yildiz, İbrahim

    2011-07-01

    A variety of flight control units have been put into realization for navigational purposes of spatially moving vehicles (SMV), which is mostly manipulated by 2 or 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) joysticks. Since motion in space consists of three translational motions in forward, side and vertical directions and three rotational motions about these axis; with present joystick interfaces, spatial vehicles has to employ more than one navigational control unit to be able to navigate on all required directions. In this study, a 3 × 3 Stewart-Platform-based FBW (Fly-By-Wire) flight control unit with force feedback is presented which will provide single point manipulation of any SMVs along three translational and about three rotational axis. Within the frame of this paper, design, capability and the advantages of the novel system is mentioned. Kinematics of a Stewart Platform (SP) mechanism employed and its motion potentials is presented by simulations and workspace of the system is evaluated. Dynamic analysis by Bond-Graph approach will be mentioned. Mechatronic design of the complete structure is discussed and force reflection capability of the system with simulations is pointed out using stiffness control. Finally, the possible future work of the subject is discussed which may include the feasible solutions of the SP in terms of size and safety when implementing inside a cockpit.

  19. Orbital flight simulation utility software unit specifications, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    The HP PASCAL source code defines the specifications for a Utility Software Unit (USU) designed to support orbital flight simulators such as MANHANDLE and GREAS (General Research and Engineering Analysis Simulator). Besides providing basic input/output, mathematical, matrix, quaternion, and statistical routines for such simulators, one of the primary functions of the USU is to isolate all system-dependent codes in one well-defined compartment, thereby facilitating transportation of the simulations from one computer to another. Directives are given for the PASCAL compilers of the HP-9000 Series 200 Pascal 3.0 and the HP-9000 Series 500 HP-UX 5.0 operating systems that produce a single file of relocatable code from four separate files of source code. Three of the source code files are common to both operating systems. The fourth source code file (utilspif.I) contains all of the system-dependent PASCAL code for the USU. A fifth file of source code written in C is required to interface utilspif.I with the HP-UX I/O package. The Pascal 3.0 compiler directives and the driver source code for a unit rest program and counterparts for the HP-UX 5.0 operating system are given. The major portion of the unit test program source code is common to both operating systems. Unit test results from the Pascal 3.0 operating system and results from the HP-UX operating system are given.

  20. A comparison of landing maneuver piloting technique based on measurements made in an airline training simulator and in actual flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Schulman, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    An emphasis is placed on developing a mathematical model in order to identify useful metrics, quantify piloting technique, and define simulator fidelity. On the basis of DC-10 flight measurements recorded for 32 pilots, 13 flight-trained and the remainder simulator trained, a revised model of the landing flare is hypothesized which accounts for reduction of sink rate and perference for touchdown point along the runway. The flare maneuver and touchdown point adjustment can be described by a pitch attitude command pilot guidance law consisting of altitude and vertical velocity feedbacks. In flight pilots exhibit a significant vertical velocity feedback which is essential for well controlled sink rate reduction at the desired level of response (bandwidth). In the simulator, however, the vertical velocity feedback appears ineffectual and leads to substantially inferior landing performance.

  1. 14 CFR 91.707 - Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flights between Mexico or Canada and the... Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate a civil aircraft between Mexico...

  2. 14 CFR 91.707 - Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flights between Mexico or Canada and the... Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate a civil aircraft between Mexico...

  3. 14 CFR 91.707 - Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flights between Mexico or Canada and the... Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate a civil aircraft between Mexico...

  4. 14 CFR 91.707 - Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flights between Mexico or Canada and the... Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate a civil aircraft between Mexico...

  5. 14 CFR 91.707 - Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flights between Mexico or Canada and the... Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate a civil aircraft between Mexico...

  6. Flight test results of the strapdown hexad inertial reference unit (SIRU). Volume 2: Test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Results of flight tests of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance. Performance shortcomings are analyzed.

  7. Sub-orbital commercial Human space flight and informed consent in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Maria-Vittoria « Giugi »; Griffith, Doug; Campbell, Mark R.

    2013-12-01

    Commercial space flight is expected to rapidly develop in the near future. This will begin with sub-orbital missions and then progress to orbital flights. In the United States, technical informed consent of space flight participants is required by the commercial space flight operator for regulatory purposes. Additionally, though not required by U.S. regulation, the aerospace medicine professional involved in the medical screening of both space flight participants and crewmembers will be asked to assist operators in obtaining medical informed consent for liability purposes. The various US federal and state regulations regarding informed consent for sub-orbital commercial space flight are evolving and are unfamiliar to most aerospace medical professionals and are reviewed and discussed.

  8. [Work process and workers' health in a food and nutrition unit: prescribed versus actual work].

    PubMed

    Colares, Luciléia Granhen Tavares; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2007-12-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the work process in a food and nutrition unit and workers' health, in the words of the participants themselves. Direct observation, a semi-structured interview, and focus groups were used to collect the data. The reference was the dialogue between human ergonomics and work psychodynamics. The results showed that work organization in the study unit represents a routine activity, the requirements of which in terms of the work situation are based on criteria set by the institution. Variability in the activities is influenced mainly by the available equipment, instruments, and materials, thereby generating improvisation in meal production that produces both a physical and psychological cost for workers. Dissatisfaction during the performance of tasks results mainly from the supervisory style and relationship to immediate superiors. Workers themselves proposed changes in the work organization, based on greater dialogue and trust between supervisors and the workforce. Finally, the study identifies the need for an intervention that encourages workers' participation as agents of change. PMID:18157343

  9. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  10. Current pediatric rheumatology fellowship training in the United States: what fellows actually do

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric Rheumatology (PR) training in the US has existed since the 1970’s. In the early 1990’s, the training was formalized into a three year training program by the American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Board of Pediatrics (ABP). Programs have been evaluated every 5 years by the ACGME to remain credentialed and graduates had to pass a written exam to be certified. There has been no report yet that details not just what training fellows should receive in the 32 US PR training programs but what training the trainees are actually receiving. Methods After a literature search, a survey was constructed by the authors, then reviewed and revised with the help members of the Executive Committee of the Rheumatology Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) using the Delphi technique. IRB approval was obtained from the AAP and Nationwide Children’s Hospital. The list of fellows was obtained from the ABP and the survey sent out to 81 current fellows or fellows just having finished. One repeat e-mail was sent out. Results Forty-seven fellows returned the survey by e-mail (58%) with the majority being 3rd year fellows or fellows who had completed their training. The demographics were as expected with females > males and Caucasians> > non-Caucasians. Training appeared quite appropriate in the number of ½ day continuity clinics per week (1–2, 71%), number of patients per clinic (4–5, 60%), inpatient exposure (2–4 inpatients per week, 40%; 5 or greater, 33%), and weekday/weekend call. Fellows attended more didactic activities than required, had ample time for research (54% 21-60/hours per week), and had multiple teaching opportunities. Seventy-seven percent of the trainees presented abstracts at national meetings, 41% had publication. Disease exposure was excellent and joint injection experience sufficient. Conclusions Most US PR training programs as a whole provide an appropriate training by current

  11. Flight test results of failure detection and isolation algorithms for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, F. R.; Motyka, P. R.; Bailey, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight test results for two sensor fault-tolerant algorithms developed for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit are presented. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) consists of four two-degrees-of-freedom gyros and accelerometers mounted on the faces of a semi-octahedron. Fault tolerance is provided by edge vector test and generalized likelihood test algorithms, each of which can provide dual fail-operational capability for the IMU. To detect the wide range of failure magnitudes in inertial sensors, which provide flight crucial information for flight control and navigation, failure detection and isolation are developed in terms of a multi level structure. Threshold compensation techniques, developed to enhance the sensitivity of the failure detection process to navigation level failures, are presented. Four flight tests were conducted in a commercial transport-type environment to compare and determine the performance of the failure detection and isolation methods. Dual flight processors enabled concurrent tests for the algorithms. Failure signals such as hard-over, null, or bias shift, were added to the sensor outputs as simple or multiple failures during the flights. Both algorithms provided timely detection and isolation of flight control level failures. The generalized likelihood test algorithm provided more timely detection of low-level sensor failures, but it produced one false isolation. Both algorithms demonstrated the capability to provide dual fail-operational performance for the skewed array of inertial sensors.

  12. In-Flight Performance of the Cassini Hemispherical Quartz Resonator Gyro Inertial Reference Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Todd S.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a flagship class NASA/ESA mission to the planet Saturn. Launched in 1997, Cassini is still successfully operating after 16 years of flight and the telemetry from the attitude control hardware on Cassini has produced an immense dataset that allows the Cassini operations team to report on the long-term performance of several commercially available GNC hardware components in the space environment. This investigation summarizes the in-flight performance of the two inertial reference units aboard Cassini. Each of the two Cassini inertial reference units contains four hemispherical quartz resonator gyros. The Cassini operations team previously reported on the performance of the inertial reference units in 2007, and this paper provides an update with an additional 6 years of flight experience at Saturn.

  13. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  14. Flight test results of the inertial upper stage redundant inertial measurement unit redundancy management technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, R.; Tse, B. K.; Winkel, D. J.; Halliday, C.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicles have been deployed once from a Titan T-34D booster and once from Space Shuttle Challenger to carry spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. Telemetry data have been analyzed showing the performance of the failure detection and isolation scheme for the redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU). On the T-34D flight, no built-in test failure events occurred and no failure detection thresholds were exceeded for as long as telemetry was available. On the Space Shuttle flight, considerable failure detection activity took place during which the RIMU indicated continuous proper navigation functioning until gyro maximum rates were exceeded. Adjustments to the algorithm and additional pre-flight tests should reduce the undesired activity while preserving performance on subsequent flights.

  15. Actual and Perceived Units of Alcohol in a Self-Defined “Usual Glass” of Alcoholic Drinks in England

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Sadie; Kneale, James; Shelton, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have found participants pour more than 1 standard drink or unit as their usual glass. This is the first study to measure actual and perceived amounts of alcohol in a self-defined usual glass of wines and spirits in the general population. Methods Participants were a convenience sample of adults who drink alcohol or who pour drinks for other people (n = 283, 54% women) at 6 sites in South East England. The survey was face to face and comprised a self-completion questionnaire and pouring task. Estimation accuracy, categorised as correct (±0.5 units), underestimate (>0.5 units), or overestimate (>0.5 units) was the main outcome. Results The mean number of units poured was 1.90 (SD 0.80; n = 264) for wine and 1.93 (SD 0.78; n = 201) for spirits. The amount of alcohol in a self-defined usual glass was estimated in 440 glasses (248 wine and 192 spirits). Overestimation took place in 42% glasses of spirit poured and 29% glasses of wine poured, and underestimation in 17 and 19%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression found volume poured to be significantly associated with underestimating both wines and spirits, and additionally for wine only, belonging to a non-white ethnic group and being unemployed or retired. Not having a university degree was significantly associated with overestimating both drink types. Conclusions This study is the first in the general population and did not identify systematic underestimation of the amount of alcohol in a self-defined usual glass. Underestimation is significantly associated with volume poured for both drink types; therefore, advocating pouring smaller glasses could reduce underestimation of alcohol consumption. PMID:23278164

  16. Power conditioning unit for low-power arcjet flight application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelly, P. T.; Fisher, J. R.; Golden, C. M.

    1992-07-01

    A power conditioning unit (PCU) has been designed to operate in conjunction with the low-power arcjet thruster for north/south stationkeeping and orbit modification applications on commercial satellites. The major PCU function is to convert direct current input power into a regulated, constant-power output to the arcjet thruster. The PCU is capable of providing a constant power level of 1630 watts to the thruster during steady-state thruster operation despite stochastic variations in arc voltage. The PCU design is based on a push-pull power converter topology and custom-designed power-hybrid microunits for the power-switching function which provide high efficiency and packaging density of the design.

  17. Flight phenology of male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different latitudes in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term trapping studies of the invasive moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) were conducted at various latitudes from Puerto Rico to South Carolina. Three flight periods per year were identified at the five temperate sties studied, which covered the majority of the insects’ mainland United States i...

  18. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed documentation for each flight of the Omega Flight Evaluation study is presented, including flight test description sheets and actual flight data plots. Computer programs used for data processing and flight planning are explained and the data formats utilized by the Custom Interface Unit are summarized.

  19. 24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 81... prospective tenants). In determining whether a dwelling unit is affordable to very-low-, low-, or moderate... prospective tenants is available, income not in excess of the following percentages of area median...

  20. Shuttle Rudder/Speed Brake Power Drive Unit (PDU) Gear Scuffing Tests With Flight Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Krants, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Scuffing-like damage has been found on the tooth surfaces of gears 5 and 6 of the NASA space shuttle rudder/speed brake power drive unit (PDU) number 2 after the occurrence of a transient back-driving event in flight. Tests were conducted using a pair of unused spare flight gears in a bench test at operating conditions up to 2866 rpm and 1144 in.-lb at the input ring gear and 14,000 rpm and 234 in.-lb at the output pinion gear, corresponding to a power level of 52 hp. This test condition exceeds the maximum estimated conditions expected in a backdriving event thought to produce the scuffing damage. Some wear marks were produced, but they were much less severe than the scuffing damaged produced during shuttle flight. Failure to produce scuff damage like that found on the shuttle may be due to geometrical variations between the scuffed gears and the gears tested herein, more severe operating conditions during the flight that produced the scuff than estimated, the order of the test procedures, the use of new hydraulic oil, differences between the dynamic response of the flight gearbox and the bench-test gearbox, or a combination of these. This report documents the test gears, apparatus, and procedures, summarizes the test results, and includes a discussion of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

  1. Architecture-Based Unit Testing of the Flight Software Product Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Slegel, Steve; Medina, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software (CFS) product line team at the NASA GSFC. The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and reconunend strategies for improving the existing unit testing infrastructure as well as to capture lessons learned and best practices that can be used by other product line teams for their unit testing. The CFS unit testing framework is designed and implemented as a set of variation points, and thus testing support is built into the product line architecture. The analysis found that the CFS unit testing approach has many practical and good solutions that are worth considering when deciding how to design the testing architecture for a product line, which are documented in this paper along with some suggested innprovennents.

  2. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  3. The failure analysis, redesign, and final preparation of the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit for flight testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, T.; Whitney, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering thought process behind the failure analysis, redesign, and rework of the flight hardware for the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU) experiment. This experiment was designed to study the zero-g performance of 2-methylpentane as a suitable phase change material. This hydrocarbon served as the cryogenic storage medium for the BETSU experiment which was flown 04 Mar 94 on board Shuttle STS-62. Ground testing had indicated satisfactory performance of the BETSU at the 120 Kelvin design temperature. However, questions remained as to the micro-gravity performance of this unit; potential deviations in ground (1 g) versus space flight (0 g) performance, and how the unit would operate in a realistic space environment undergoing cyclical operation. The preparations and rework performed on the BETSU unit, which failed initial flight qualification, give insight and lessons learned to successfully develop and qualify a space flight experiment.

  4. Inertial measurement unit pre-processors and post-flight STS-1 comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Mcconnell, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The flight results show that the relative tri-redundant Inertial Measurement Unit IMU performance throughout the entire entry flight was within the expected accuracy. Comparisons are presented which show differences in the accumulated sensed velocity changes as measured by the tri-redundant IMUs (in Mean Equator and Equinox of 1950.0), differences in the equivalent inertial Euler angles as measured with respect to the M50 system, and finally, preliminary instrument calibrations determined relative to the ensemble average measurement set. Also, differences in the derived body axes rates and accelerations are presented. Because of the excellent performance of the IMUs during the STS-1 entry, the selection as to which particular IMU would best serve as the dynamic data source for entry reconstruction is arbitrary.

  5. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 1282.17 Section 1282.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals §...

  6. Flight test results of the Strapdown hexad Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU). Volume 3: Appendices A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Results of flight tests of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance. Selected facets of the flight tests are also described in detail and include some of the following: (1) flight test plans and ground track plots; (2) navigation residual plots; (3) effects of approximations in navigation algorithms; (4) vibration spectrum of the CV-340 aircraft; and (5) modification of the statistical FDICR algorithm parameters for the flight environment.

  7. Flight test results of a vector-based failure detection and isolation algorithm for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, F. R.; Bailey, M. L.; Motyka, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    Flight test results of a vector-based fault-tolerant algorithm for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit are presented. Because the inertial sensors provide flight-critical information for flight control and navigation, failure detection and isolation is developed in terms of a multi-level structure. Threshold compensation techniques for gyros and accelerometers, developed to enhance the sensitivity of the failure detection process to low-level failures, are presented. Four flight tests, conducted in a commercial transport type environment, were used to determine the ability of the failure detection and isolation algorithm to detect failure signals, such a hard-over, null, or bias shifts. The algorithm provided timely detection and correct isolation of flight control- and low-level failures. The flight tests of the vector-based algorithm demonstrated its capability to provide false alarm free dual fail-operational performance for the skewed array of inertial sensors.

  8. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  9. Attitude determination using a MEMS-based flight information measurement unit.

    PubMed

    Ma, Der-Ming; Shiau, Jaw-Kuen; Wang, I-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Heng

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining precise attitude information is essential for aircraft navigation and control. This paper presents the results of the attitude determination using an in-house designed low-cost MEMS-based flight information measurement unit. This study proposes a quaternion-based extended Kalman filter to integrate the traditional quaternion and gravitational force decomposition methods for attitude determination algorithm. The proposed extended Kalman filter utilizes the evolution of the four elements in the quaternion method for attitude determination as the dynamic model, with the four elements as the states of the filter. The attitude angles obtained from the gravity computations and from the electronic magnetic sensors are regarded as the measurement of the filter. The immeasurable gravity accelerations are deduced from the outputs of the three axes accelerometers, the relative accelerations, and the accelerations due to body rotation. The constraint of the four elements of the quaternion method is treated as a perfect measurement and is integrated into the filter computation. Approximations of the time-varying noise variances of the measured signals are discussed and presented with details through Taylor series expansions. The algorithm is intuitive, easy to implement, and reliable for long-term high dynamic maneuvers. Moreover, a set of flight test data is utilized to demonstrate the success and practicality of the proposed algorithm and the filter design. PMID:22368455

  10. Attitude Determination Using a MEMS-Based Flight Information Measurement Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Der-Ming; Shiau, Jaw-Kuen; Wang, I.-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Heng

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining precise attitude information is essential for aircraft navigation and control. This paper presents the results of the attitude determination using an in-house designed low-cost MEMS-based flight information measurement unit. This study proposes a quaternion-based extended Kalman filter to integrate the traditional quaternion and gravitational force decomposition methods for attitude determination algorithm. The proposed extended Kalman filter utilizes the evolution of the four elements in the quaternion method for attitude determination as the dynamic model, with the four elements as the states of the filter. The attitude angles obtained from the gravity computations and from the electronic magnetic sensors are regarded as the measurement of the filter. The immeasurable gravity accelerations are deduced from the outputs of the three axes accelerometers, the relative accelerations, and the accelerations due to body rotation. The constraint of the four elements of the quaternion method is treated as a perfect measurement and is integrated into the filter computation. Approximations of the time-varying noise variances of the measured signals are discussed and presented with details through Taylor series expansions. The algorithm is intuitive, easy to implement, and reliable for long-term high dynamic maneuvers. Moreover, a set of flight test data is utilized to demonstrate the success and practicality of the proposed algorithm and the filter design. PMID:22368455

  11. Flight test evaluation of the Stanford University/United Airlines differential GPS Category 3 automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  12. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  18. Water balance-based actual evapotranspiration reconstruction from ground and satellite observations over the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhanming; Zhang, Ke; Xue, Xianwu; Hong, Zhen; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J.

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to produce an observationally based monthly evapotranspiration (ET) product using the simple water balance equation across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We adopted the best quality ground and satellite-based observations of the water budget components, i.e., precipitation, runoff, and water storage change, while ET is computed as the residual. Precipitation data are provided by the bias-corrected PRISM observation-based precipitation data set, while runoff comes from observed monthly streamflow values at 592 USGS stream gauging stations that have been screened by strict quality controls. We developed a land surface model-based downscaling approach to disaggregate the monthly GRACE equivalent water thickness data to daily, 0.125° values. The derived ET computed as the residual from the water balance equation is evaluated against three sets of existing ET products. The similar spatial patterns and small differences between the reconstructed ET in this study and the other three products show the reliability of the observationally based approach. The new ET product and the disaggregated GRACE data provide a unique, important hydro-meteorological data set that can be used to evaluate the other ET products as a benchmark data set, assess recent hydrological and climatological changes, and terrestrial water and energy cycle dynamics across the CONUS. These products will also be valuable for studies and applications in drought assessment, water resources management, and climate change evaluation.

  19. Conversion from Engineering Units to Telemetry Counts on Dryden Flight Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantini, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    Dryden real-time flight simulators encompass the simulation of pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry signals. This paper presents a new method whereby the calibration polynomial (from first to sixth order), representing the conversion from counts to engineering units (EU), is numerically inverted in real time. The result is less than one-count error for valid EU inputs. The Newton-Raphson method is used to numerically invert the polynomial. A reverse linear interpolation between the EU limits is used to obtain an initial value for the desired telemetry count. The method presented here is not new. What is new is how classical numerical techniques are optimized to take advantage of modem computer power to perform the desired calculations in real time. This technique makes the method simple to understand and implement. There are no interpolation tables to store in memory as in traditional methods. The NASA F-15 simulation converts and transmits over 1000 parameters at 80 times/sec. This paper presents algorithm development, FORTRAN code, and performance results.

  20. A Comparison of Two Control Display Unit Concepts on Flight Management System Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for a pilot in the transition to a 'glass' cockpit is understanding the flight management system (FMS). Because of both the complex nature of the FMS and the pilot-FMS interface, a large portion of transition training is devoted to the FMS. The current study examined the impact of the primary pilot-FMS interface, the control display unit (CDU), on FMS training. Based on the hypothesis that the interface design could have a significant impact on training, an FMS simulation with two separate interfaces was developed. One interface was similar to a current-generation design, and the other was a multiwindows CDU based on graphical user interface techniques. For both application and evaluation reasons, constraints were applied to the graphical CDU design to maintain as much similarity as possible with the conventional CDU. This preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the interface effects on training. Sixteen pilots with no FMS experience were used in a between-subjects test. A time-compressed, airline-type FMS training environment was simulated. The subjects were trained to a fixed-time criterion, and performance was measured in a final, full-mission simulation context. This paper describes the technical approach, simulation implementation, and experimental results of this effort.

  1. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  2. [The outlook for improved medical control over the health status of the flight personnel in a military unit].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V; Frolov, N I; Shalimov, P M

    1992-03-01

    The article studies methodological and methodical questions for improving medical control (MC) over the flight personnel. The authors analyse the main components of MC, i.e. basic control which is built on clinicophysiological methods, and dynamic control which is aimed for estimation of performance characteristics in the process of professional activities. The authors substantiate the structure of the perspective computerized automated system for MC consisting of three functional units: terrain complex of medical operational control, on-board equipment for aircrew health monitoring in flight, expert and diagnosis system for estimation and prognostication of professional health status. PMID:1441248

  3. Thermal Testing of Dallas/Maxim iButton Temperature Logger, Model DS1922L, for Flight Qualification on Captive Flight Test Unit?1B (CFTU-1B)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, G

    2005-06-20

    This report documents the flight qualification testing of the Dallas/Maxim iButton temperature logger, model DS1922L, for internal mounting to the W80 Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). A single thermal test was performed utilizing a Thermotron Model S-1.2V, S/N 20330-S, Environmental Chamber, an Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition/Switch unit, S/N MY44002670, with a Agilent 34901A 20 channel multiplexer, S/N MY41038424, and a single J type thermocouple. Start, stop, chamber temperature and temperature profile control of the Themotron was accomplished using a custom LabView VI. Additional chamber thermal data from the Agilent unit, for comparison with the Thermtron thermocouple, was captured using Agilent BenchLink software. The thermal test was performed in Building 131, Room 2273, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. One hundred twenty eight (128) DS1922L temperature loggers were setup and tested simultaneously.

  4. Flight-vehicle structures education in the United States Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Dixon, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment is made of the technical contents of flight-vehicle structures curricula at 41 U.S. universities with accredited aerospace engineering programs. The assessment is based on the technical needs for the new and projected aeronautical and space systems as well as on the likely characteristics of the aerospace engineering work environment. A number of deficiencies and areas of concern are identified and recommendations are presented for enhancing the effectiveness of flight-vehicle structures education. A number of government supported programs that can help aerospace engineering education are listed in the appendix.

  5. 14 CFR 375.32 - Flights incidental to agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... industrial operations outside the United States. 375.32 Section 375.32 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States. Foreign civil aircraft that are engaged in agricultural or industrial operations to be performed wholly outside the United States may be navigated...

  6. 14 CFR 375.32 - Flights incidental to agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... industrial operations outside the United States. 375.32 Section 375.32 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States. Foreign civil aircraft that are engaged in agricultural or industrial operations to be performed wholly outside the United States may be navigated...

  7. 14 CFR 375.32 - Flights incidental to agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... industrial operations outside the United States. 375.32 Section 375.32 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States. Foreign civil aircraft that are engaged in agricultural or industrial operations to be performed wholly outside the United States may be navigated...

  8. 14 CFR 375.32 - Flights incidental to agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... industrial operations outside the United States. 375.32 Section 375.32 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States. Foreign civil aircraft that are engaged in agricultural or industrial operations to be performed wholly outside the United States may be navigated...

  9. 14 CFR 375.32 - Flights incidental to agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... industrial operations outside the United States. 375.32 Section 375.32 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... agricultural and industrial operations outside the United States. Foreign civil aircraft that are engaged in agricultural or industrial operations to be performed wholly outside the United States may be navigated...

  10. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  11. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  12. Assessing flight safety differences between the United States regional and major airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Broderick H.

    During 2008, the U.S. domestic airline departures exceeded 28,000 flights per day. Thirty-nine or less than 0.2 of 1% of these flights resulted in operational incidents or accidents. However, even a low percentage of airline accidents and incidents continue to cause human suffering and property loss. The charge of this study was the comparison of U.S. major and regional airline safety histories. The study spans safety events from January 1982 through December 2008. In this quantitative analysis, domestic major and regional airlines were statistically tested for their flight safety differences. Four major airlines and thirty-seven regional airlines qualified for the safety study which compared the airline groups' fatal accidents, incidents, non-fatal accidents, pilot errors, and the remaining six safety event probable cause types. The six other probable cause types are mechanical failure, weather, air traffic control, maintenance, other, and unknown causes. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated each airline safety event, and assigned a probable cause to each event. A sample of 500 events was randomly selected from the 1,391 airlines' accident and incident population. The airline groups' safety event probabilities were estimated using the least squares linear regression. A probability significance level of 5% was chosen to conclude the appropriate research question hypothesis. The airline fatal accidents and incidents probability levels were 1.2% and 0.05% respectively. These two research questions did not reach the 5% significance level threshold. Therefore, the airline groups' fatal accidents and non-destructive incidents probabilities favored the airline groups' safety differences hypothesis. The linear progression estimates for the remaining three research questions were 71.5% for non-fatal accidents, 21.8% for the pilot errors, and 7.4% significance level for the six probable causes. These research questions' linear regressions are greater than

  13. Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance

  14. Flight model performance of the integral field unit for the James Webb Space Telescope's near-infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purll, David J.; Lobb, Daniel R.; Barnes, Andrew R.; Talbot, R. Gordon; Rolt, Stephen; Robertson, David J.; Closs, Martin F.; te Plate, Maurice

    2010-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) developed by EADS Astrium GmbH for the European Space Agency (ESA) is a spectrograph covering the 0.6-5.0 μm waveband to fly on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). NIRSpec will be primarily operated as a multi-object spectrograph but also includes an integral field unit (IFU) allowing a 3×3 arcsec field of view to be sampled continuously with 0.1 arcsec spatial resolution. The IFU, based on an advanced image slicer concept, is a very compact athermal unit made of aluminium. It contains three 30-element monolithic mirror arrays forming slicer, pupil and slit mirrors, and single-surface image relay and plane fold mirrors, produced using 5-axis diamond-machining techniques. Many of the mirrors have complex surfaces like toric sections with 3rd-order corrections in order to achieve the required performance within a small allowed volume, and could only have been fabricated with the most advanced free-form machining. The mechanical design accommodates the differential expansion between the aluminium IFU and its titanium parent assembly across a 250K drop to operating temperature using an isostatic mounting system. This paper presents the development of the IFU from the design and diamond-machining techniques to the optical and cryogenic testing of the assembled flight model unit.

  15. The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) for GOES-R: Accelerator Calibrations of Flight Unit 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) instruments for GOES-R will provide high resolution measurement of energetic ions (Solar energetic particles and cosmic rays) from hydrogen (H) through nickel (Ni) for space weather monitoring and scientific research. Measurements are taken in five approximately logarithmically spaced energy intervals from 10-200 MeV/u for hydrogen and helium (He) and comparable penetrations for heavier elements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique is used to provide single element resolution by determining the angle of incidence with a very simple telescope design using Si solid state detectors. The ADIS system also facilitates on-board event identification of ion species. During high flux conditions, EHIS can identify the elemental composition of ~2000 events per seconds. Elemental charge histograms are compiled on-board and reported via telemetry once per minute providing an unprecedented combination of statistical resolution and high cadence. The first of four flight instruments (FM1) has been completed. FM1 underwent heavy ion accelerator calibration at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) at Michigan State University in February 2013 and proton calibration at the Massachusetts General Hospital's (MGH) Burr Proton Therapy Center in April 2013. The heavy ion calibration included both Ni primary and secondary fragments runs down to H. Results of these calibration runs will be presented. This work is supported by NASA under the contract NNG06HX01C.

  16. The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) for GOES-R: Accelerator Calibrations of Flight Unit 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) instruments for GOES-R will provide high resolution measurement of energetic ions (Solar energetic particles and cosmic rays) from hydrogen (H) through nickel (Ni) for space weather monitoring and scientific research. Measurements are taken in five approximately logarithmically spaced energy intervals from 10-200 MeV/u for hydrogen and helium (He) and comparable penetrations for heavier elements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique is used to provide single element resolution by determining the angle of incidence with a very simple telescope design using Si solid state detectors. The ADIS system also facilitates on-board event identification of ion species. During high flux conditions, EHIS can identify the elemental composition of ~2000 events per seconds. Elemental charge histograms are compiled on-board and reported via telemetry once per minute providing an unprecedented combination of statistical resolution and high cadence. The first of four flight instruments (FM1) has been completed. FM1 underwent heavy ion accelerator calibration at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) at Michigan State University in February 2013, and proton calibration at the Massachusetts General Hospital's (MGH) Burr Proton Therapy Center in April 2013. The heavy ion calibration included both Ni primary and secondary fragments runs down to H. Results of these calibration runs will be presented.

  17. Power conditioning unit for 30 kWe class arcjet flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, C. M.; Fisher, J. R.; Kay, Robert J.

    1992-02-01

    The requirements, design, and operation of a 30 kilowatt (kWe) class arcjet power conditioning unit (PCU) are described by this paper. The PCU provides conditioned power to operate an ammonia-propellant arcjet thruster system for a low-earth orbit demonstration program. This arcjet Advanced Technology Transition Demonstration (ATTD) program is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory. The purpose of the program is to develop an experiment package to operate and characterize the performance of a high-power arcjet thruster.

  18. Vibration Testing of Dallas/Maxim iButton Temperature Logger, Model DS1999L, for Flight Qualification on Captive Flight Test Unit?B (CFTU-B)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, G; Lavietes, A

    2005-06-20

    This report documents the flight qualification testing of the Dallas/Maxim iButton temperature logger, model DS1922L, for internal mounting to the W80 Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). A single test was performed utilizing a Labworks Inc. LW-140-110 electro-dynamic vibration system in Building 131, Room 2272, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Two DS1922L temperature loggers were tested simultaneously, one horizontally and one vertically. The test consisted of random excitation in the vertical axis for 5-hours. The test spectrum used is a shaped random spectrum defined by the Boeing Company for flight qualification of all modifications flown on ALCM flight tests. The spectrum is defined from 10 to 2000 Hz with a 8.52 g RMS magnitude. The spectrum is given in Table 1 and shown graphically in Figure 1.1.

  19. Summary of Turbulence Data Obtained During United Air Lines Flight Evaluation of an Experimental C Band (5.5 cm) Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, E. C.; Fetner, M. W.

    1954-01-01

    Data on atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of thunderstorms obtained during a flight evaluation of an experimental C band (5.5 cm) airborne radar are summarized. The turbulence data were obtained with an NACA VGH recorder installed in a United Air Lines DC-3 airplane.

  20. Multigen-2 Pre-Flight Testing: Science Testing Unit (STU) and Stowage Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittang, A.-I.; Kvaloy, B.; Berg, C.; Rakvaag, G.; Iversen, T.-H.

    2008-06-01

    The Multigen-2 experiment Science Testing Unit (STU) proved to be a useful tool in optimizing experiment environment settings for cultivation of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS). By using the EMCS Experiment Reference Model (ERM); light, temperature and air flow regimes for optimal growth could be tested. Healthy seedlings were obtained using the STU#2 and STU#3 in the EMCS ERM. It was concluded that the Experiment Container Development Kit (ECDK) is unsuitable for the Multigen-2 testing due to limitation in the ECDK temperature control. The results from the stowage condition tests showed that the selected growth medium (agar) can be used after 3 months at +4°C. The seeds show a germination rate of ≥80% after sterilisation and stowed for 5 months. The Multigen-2 plant samples will be fixed in RNA later and stored at - 80 °C. Three methods with different RNA isolation kits showed that the Qiagen kit (#74904) gave the highest amount and the best quality of Total RNA from RNA Later and frozen samples. The amount of plant material from one cultivation chamber gives two RNA isolations. Each of the isolations gives Total RNA sufficient for at least two microarray analyses.

  1. Is DNA Barcoding Actually Cheaper and Faster than Traditional Morphological Methods: Results from a Survey of Freshwater Bioassessment Efforts in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Eric D.; Martinez, Maria C.; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a

  2. STS-109 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    The STS-109 Post Flight presentation begins with Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, Michael J. Massimino, James H. Newman, and Richard M. Linnehan shown getting suited on launch day. Actual footage of the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia is shown. Five spacewalks are performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope. Richard Linnehan and John Grunsfield are replacing solar arrays, connectors and power control units on the Hubble Space Telescope. Mission Specialist Nancy Currie will use Space Shuttle Columbia's robotic arm to grab the telescope, move it away from the orbiter and release it. A look at the coast of South America is also presented.

  3. Miracle Flights

    MedlinePlus

    ... the perfect solution for your needs. Book A Flight Request a flight now Click on the link ... Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights ...

  4. Flight experience with flight control redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Larson, R. R.; Glover, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience with both current and advanced redundancy management schemes was gained in recent flight research programs using the F-8 digital fly by wire aircraft. The flight performance of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) methods for sensors, computers, and actuators is reviewed. Results of induced failures as well as of actual random failures are discussed. Deficiencies in modeling and implementation techniques are also discussed. The paper also presents comparison off multisensor tracking in smooth air, in turbulence, during large maneuvers, and during maneuvers typical of those of large commercial transport aircraft. The results of flight tests of an advanced analytic redundancy management algorithm are compared with the performance of a contemporary algorithm in terms of time to detection, false alarms, and missed alarms. The performance of computer redundancy management in both iron bird and flight tests is also presented.

  5. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  10. Integrated Approach to Flight Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The computer based approach used by United Airlines for flight training is discussed. The human factors involved in specific aircraft accidents are addressed. Flight crew interaction and communication as they relate to training and flight safety are considered.

  11. Statistical Survey of Icing Data Measured on Scheduled Airline Flights over the United States and Canada from November 1951 to June 1952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J

    1955-01-01

    A statistical survey and a preliminary analysis are made of icing data collected from scheduled flights over the United States and Canada from November 1951 to June 1952 by airline aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters. This interim report presents information obtained from a continuing program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of the airlines. An analysis of over 600 icing encounters logged by three airlines operating in the United States, one operating in Canada and one operating up the coast to Alaska, is presented. The icing conditions encountered provided relative frequencies of many icing-cloud variables, such as horizontal extent, vertical thickness, temperatures, icing rate, liquid-water content, and total ice accumulation. Liquid-water contents were higher than data from earlier research flights in layer-type clouds but slightly lower than previous data from cumulus clouds. Broken-cloud conditions, indicated by intermittent icing, accounted for nearly one-half of all the icing encounters. About 90 percent of the encounters did not exceed a distance of 120 miles, and continuous icing did not exceed 50 miles for 90 percent of the unbroken conditions. Icing cloud thicknesses measured during climbs and descents were less than 4500 feet for 90 percent of the vertical cloud traverses.

  12. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  13. Flight software memory sizing and CPU loading estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of the AP101 memory and central processing unit (CPU) requirements for the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The resource estimates reflect OASCAB approved change requests for Release 18 and Release 19. Memory sizes are presented in 32 bit full words, CPU loading is listed by percentage. Memory and CPU information was obtained from actual AP101 code where available, and from estimates provided by flight software development programmers.

  14. Technical Seminar: "Flight Deck Technologies"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Reduced visibility affects the safety and efficiency of nearly all flight operations. As a result, researchers are improving ways to give pilots a vision capability that is independent of actual vi...

  15. Free-flight Performance of 16-inch-diameter Supersonic Ram-jet Units III : Four Units Designed for Combustion-chamber-inlet Mach Number of 0.245 at Free-stream Mach Number of 1.8 (units D-1, D-2, D-3, and D-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, John H; Rabinowitz, Leonard

    1950-01-01

    Performance of four 16-inch-diameter ram-jet units was determined at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.49 to 1.78 over range of gas total-temperature ratios of 1.0 to 6.1. Time histories of each flight and data on thrust, drag, diffuser efficiency, and combustion are presented. A maximum thrust coefficient of 0.88 and a maximum net acceleration of 5.13 g's were observed for the four units.

  16. 14 CFR 375.22 - Flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.22 Flight operations. Flights of foreign civil aircraft in the United States shall be conducted...

  17. 14 CFR 375.22 - Flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.22 Flight operations. Flights of foreign civil aircraft in the United States shall be conducted...

  18. 14 CFR 375.22 - Flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.22 Flight operations. Flights of foreign civil aircraft in the United States shall be conducted...

  19. 14 CFR 375.22 - Flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.22 Flight operations. Flights of foreign civil aircraft in the United States shall be conducted...

  20. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  1. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  2. Free-flight Performance of 16-inch-diameter Supersonic Ram-jet Units II : Five Units Designed for Combustion-chamber-inlet Mach Number of 0.16 at Free-stream Mach Number of 1.60 (units B-1, B-2, B-3, B-4, and B-5) /c Wesley E. Messing and Scott H. S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messing, Wesley E; Simpkinson, Scott H

    1950-01-01

    Free-flight performance of five 16-inch-diameter ram-jet units was determined over range of free-stream Mach numbers of 0.50 to 1.86 and gas total-temperature ratios between 1.0 and 6.1 Time histories of performance data are presented for each unit. Correlations illustrate effect of free-stream Mach number and gas total-temperature ratio on diffuser total-pressure recovery, net-thrust coefficient, and external drag coefficient. One unit had smooth steady burning throughout the entire flight and encountered a maximum free-stream Mach number of 1.86 with a net acceleration of approximately 4.2 g's.

  3. Calibration of the aerodynamic coefficient identification package measurements from the shuttle entry flights using inertial measurement unit data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, M. L.; Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (ACIP) is an instrument consisting of body mounted linear accelerometers, rate gyros, and angular accelerometers for measuring the Space Shuttle vehicular dynamics. The high rate recorded data are utilized for postflight aerodynamic coefficient extraction studies. Although consistent with pre-mission accuracies specified by the manufacturer, the ACIP data were found to contain detectable levels of systematic error, primarily bias, as well as scale factor, static misalignment, and temperature dependent errors. This paper summarizes the technique whereby the systematic ACIP error sources were detected, identified, and calibrated with the use of recorded dynamic data from the low rate, highly accurate Inertial Measurement Units.

  4. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  5. United States Navy - Canadian forces solid state flight data recorder/crash position locator experiment on the B-720 controlled impact demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The operation of a radio beacon position locator during and after the remotely controlled transport aircraft is discussed. The radio beacon transmission was actuated and was picked up by the Navy P-3A chase aircraft for a short time, after which reception was lost. The pilot reported that he received a signal on both 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz for a period of approximately 5 seconds. Five minutes after the crash a portable direction finding unit located on the roof of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, 4 miles distant from the crash, was unable to pick up the beacon transmission. The fire crews started fighting the fires approximately 90 seconds after the time of impact. Navy personnel access to the crash site was allowed on the morning of December 2, 1984. Radio beacon locator was found resting top side up, 15 feet forward and 13 feet perpendicular from the tray location the starboard side of the aircraft. An immediate inspection indicated the airfoil suffered moderate fire damage with paint peeling but not intumescing. The visual marker strobe lamp housings were intact but extensively burned such that it was impossible to see if the lamps had survived. The airfoil suffered minor structural damage, with assorted dents, etc. The extended plunger on the ARU-21 release unit indicated that the pyrotechnic deployment system operated. The radio beacon base (tray) suffered some heat and fire damage, and was charred and blackened by smoke. The frangible switch in the nose survived and the switch in the belly was recovered and found to have actuated. It is assumed that this switch fired the ARU-21 squib. There were no other release switches installed in the normally open system in the aircraft.

  6. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  7. On the flight derived/aerodynamic data base performance comparisons for the NASA Space Shuttle entries during the hypersonic regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance data from the first four Shuttle reentry flights are compared with preflight predictions covering hypersonic longitudinal mode down to Mach 2. The extraction of the flight coefficients, as measured by the spacecraft angular rates and the linear accelerations, derived from the inertial measurement unit, the best estimate trajectory, and the remotely measured atmosphere are discussed. The ground predictions were developed from 30,000 hr of wind tunnel testing. Actual flight data are presented for 80-260 kft, from Mach 2-26, comprising the dynamic pressure, the vehicle air relative attitude angles, control surface deflections, reaction jet activity, and body axis rates and accelerations. The second and fourth flights gave results which deviated from predictions between 230-260 kft. The accuracy limits of the derived atmospheric densities are considered, together with potential data base updates in the light of limitations imposed on the corrections by available flight data.

  8. Reflecting Random Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, Alessandro; Orsingher, Enzo

    2015-09-01

    We consider random flights in reflecting on the surface of a sphere with center at the origin and with radius R, where reflection is performed by means of circular inversion. Random flights studied in this paper are motions where the orientation of the deviations are uniformly distributed on the unit-radius sphere . We obtain the explicit probability distributions of the position of the moving particle when the number of changes of direction is fixed and equal to . We show that these distributions involve functions which are solutions of the Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. The unconditional probability distributions of the reflecting random flights are obtained by suitably randomizing n by means of a fractional-type Poisson process. Random flights reflecting on hyperplanes according to the optical reflection form are considered and the related distributional properties derived.

  9. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's X-38, a research vehicle developed as part of an effort to build an emergency Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station, descends toward the desert floor under its steerable parafoil on its second free flight. The X-38 was launched from NASA Dryden's B-52 Mothership on Saturday, February 6, 1999, from an altitude of approximately 23,000 feet. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA

  11. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's X-38, a research vehicle developed as part of an effort to build an emergency Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station, descends toward a desert lakebed under its steerable parafoil on its second free flight. The X-38 was launched from NASA Dryden's B-52 Mothership on Saturday, February 6, 1999, from an altitude of approximately 23,000 feet. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA

  12. International flight-related transmission of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: an historical cohort study of the first identified cases in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nicholas; Pebody, Richard; Smith, Gillian; Olowokure, Babatunde; Shankar, Giri; Hoschler, Katja; Galiano, Monica; Green, Helen; Wallensten, Anders; Hogan, Angela; Oliver, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Transporting over two billion passengers per year, global airline travel has the potential to spread emerging infectious diseases, both via transportation of infectious cases and through in-flight transmission. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidance recommends contact tracing of passengers seated within two rows of a case of influenza during air travel. Objectives The objectives of this study were to describe flight-related transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during a commercial flight carrying the first cases reported in the United Kingdom and to test the specific hypothesis that passengers seated within two rows of an infectious case are at greater risk of infection. Methods An historical cohort study, supplemented by contact tracing, enhanced surveillance data and laboratory testing, was used to establish a case status for passengers on board the flight. Results Data were available for 239 of 278 (86·0%) of passengers on the flight, of whom six were considered infectious in-flight and one immune. The attack rate (AR) was 10 of 232 (4·3%; 95% CI 1·7–6·9%). There was no evidence that the AR for those seated within two rows of an infectious case was different from those who were not (relative risk 0·9; 95% CI 0·2–3·1; P = 1·00). Laboratory testing using PCR and/or serology, available for 118 of 239 (49·4%) of the passengers, was largely consistent with clinically defined case status. Conclusions This study of A(H1N1)pdm09 does not support current WHO guidance regarding the contact tracing of passengers seated within two rows of an infectious case of influenza during air travel. PMID:24373291

  13. Analysis of the Quality of Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambot, Thomas; Ord, Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Parabolic flights allow researchers to conduct several 20 second micro-gravity experiments in the course of a single day. However, the measurement can have large variations over the course of a single parabola, requiring the knowledge of the actual flight environment as a function of time. The NASA Flight Opportunities program (FO) reviewed the acceleration data of over 400 parabolic flights and investigated the quality of micro-gravity for scientific purposes. It was discovered that a parabolic flight can be segmented into multiple parts of different quality and duration, a fact to be aware of when planning an experiment.

  14. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemler, Richard J.; Kelly, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source—Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances.

  15. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Hemler, R.J.; Kelly, C.E. )

    1993-01-10

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances.

  16. National remote computational flight research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Herman A.

    1989-01-01

    The extension of the NASA Ames-Dryden remotely augmented vehicle (RAV) facility to accommodate flight testing of a hypersonic aircraft utilizing the continental United States as a test range is investigated. The development and demonstration of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) that uses expert system technology for flight test planning, scheduling, and execution is documented.

  17. 14 CFR 375.22 - Flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight operations. 375.22 Section 375.22 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... Flight operations. Flights of foreign civil aircraft in the United States shall be conducted...

  18. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  19. X-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    killed. The aircraft suffered little damage in the crash, resulting in proposals (never implemented) from the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia, to rebuild it for use in a hypersonic (Mach 5+) test program. In 1953, X-2 Number 2 was lost in an in-flight explosion while at the Bell Aircraft Company during captive flight trials and was jettisoned into Lake Ontario. The Air Force had previously flown the aircraft on three glide flights at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1952. Although the NACA's High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, California, (predecessor of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center) never actually flew the X-2 aircraft, the NACA did support the program primarily through Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory wind-tunnel tests and Wallops Island, Virginia, rocket-model tests. The NACA High-Speed Flight Station also provided stability and control recording instrumentation and simulator support for the Air Force flights. In the latter regard, the NACA worked with the Air Force in using a special computer to extrapolate and predict aircraft behavior from flight data.

  20. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  1. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  2. Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that uses tracking and attitude data from onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and configurable rule-based algorithms to make flight termination decisions. AFSS objectives are to increase launch capabilities by permitting launches from locations without range safety infrastructure, reduce costs by eliminating some downrange tracking and communication assets, and reduce the reaction time for flight termination decisions.

  3. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  4. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  5. Miracle Flights for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights to distant specialized care and valuable second opinions. Miracle Flights Through June 2016 Flights Coordinated: 101,862 ...

  6. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  7. F-14 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA 991, an F-14 Navy Tomcat designated the F-14 (1X), cruises over the desert on a research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The F-14 was used at Dryden between 1979 and 1985 in extensive high-angle-of-attack and spin-control-and-recovery tests. The NASA/Navy program, which included 212 total flights, achieved considerable improvement in the F-14 high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, improved departure and spin resistance, and contributed to substantial improvements in reducing 'wing rock,' (i.e., tilting from one side to another), at high angles of attack. NASA 991 had numerous special additions for high-angle-of-attack and spin-recovery research. These included a battery-powered auxiliary power unit, a flight test nose boom, and a special spin recovery system, consisting of forward mounted, hydraulically actuated canards and an emergency spin chute. NASA's F-14 was first flown by NASA research pilots, but was later flown by Grumman, and by Navy test pilots from Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS). The Navy test flights with the spin research vehicle constituted the first program that incorporated air combat maneuvering in its test flights at Dryden. The Navy brought F-14s from Point Mugu and Miramar NAS in San Diego to test the new spin control laws in combat situations. Although the new control laws proved valuable, the Navy did not incorporate them into production F-14s until the F-14D, nearly 15 years later. Among the 212 flights completed for this research project, the F-14 also tested a flush air data system, for gathering data about air speed; provided an updated aeromodel, which is currently in use on Navy F-14 training simulators; created natural laminar flow baseline data for many of NASA's later laminar flow programs; and tested low altitude, asymetric thrust.

  8. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  9. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  10. Summary of lower body negative pressure experiments during space flight.

    PubMed

    Charles, J B; Lathers, C M

    1994-06-01

    This paper summarizes the lower body negative pressure experiments performed in space, beginning with the experiments conducted on Skylab, because this program provided the most cardiovascular physiology data for United States space flight. Data obtained during studies of lower body negative pressure for use as a countermeasure after months of Russian space flight are also presented. Lower body negative pressure experiments conducted aboard Space Shuttle flights provide data about the deadaptation response of the cardiovascular system to orthostatic stress occurring during periods of zero gravity, and about protection against postflight orthostatic intolerance. Data obtained using Russian and American lower body negative pressure devices indicate that, when a crew member stands, as opposed to being supported by a seat or saddle as in the American device, there may be a slight detrimental effect in terms of the cardiovascular response to this orthostatic stress. Comparison of heart rate and blood pressure response to entry and landing of the Shuttle indicate that, although lower body negative pressure is a different stress and is applied in a different manner, the maximum heart rates during lower body negative pressure are reached at approximately the same point that the maximum heart rates are reached during entry and landing. Thus, the use of a lower body negative pressure stress in flight is a fairly good predictor of the cardiovascular response to the actual entry and landing of the Shuttle. PMID:8083388

  11. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  12. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  13. Recent Flight Test Results of the Joint CIAM-NASA Mach 6.5 Scramjet Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roudakov, Alexander S.; Semenov, Vyacheslav L.; Hicks, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA, a joint Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) and NASA team recently conducted the fourth flight test of a dual-mode scramjet aboard the CIAM Hypersonic Flying Laboratory, 'Kholod'. With an aim test Mach 6.5 objective, the successful launch was conducted at the Sary Shagan test range in central Kazakstan on February 12, 1998. Ground-launch, rocket boosted by a modified Russian SA5 missile, the redesigned scramjet was accelerated to a new maximum velocity greater than Mach 6.4. This launch allowed for the measurement of the fully supersonic combustion mode under actual flight conditions. The primary program objective was the flight-to-ground correlation of measured data with preflight analysis and wind-tunnel tests in Russia and potentially in the United States. This paper describes the development and objectives of the program as well as the technical details of the scramjet and SA5 redesign to achieve the Mach 6.5 aim test condition. An overview of the launch operation is also given. Finally, preliminary flight test results are presented and discussed.

  14. Flight simulation for flight control computer S/N 0104-1 (ASTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flight control computer (FCC) 0104-I has been designated the prime unit for the SA-210 launch vehicle. The results of the final flight simulation for FCC S/N 0104-I are documented. These results verify satisfactory implementation of the design release and proper interfacing of the FCC with flight-type control sensor elements and simulated thrust vector control system.

  15. Activity Tracking for Pilot Error Detection from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an application of activity tracking for pilot error detection from flight data, and describes issues surrounding such an application. It first describes the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS), in-flight data collected from the NASA Langley Boeing 757 Airborne Research Integrated Experiment System aircraft, and a model of B757 flight crew activities. It then presents an example of CATS detecting actual in-flight crew errors.

  16. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Status and Remaining Challenges for Manned Space-Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Will F.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fuel Cell has been used for manned space flight since the Gemini program. Its power output and water production capability over long durations for the mass and volume are critical for manned space-flight requirements. The alkaline fuel cell used on the Shuttle, while very reliable and capable for it s application, has operational sensitivities, limited life, and an expensive recycle cost. The PEM fuel cell offers many potential improvements in those areas. NASA Glenn Research Center is currently leading a PEM fuel cell development and test program intended to move the technology closer to the point required for manned space-flight consideration. This paper will address the advantages of PEM fuel cell technology and its potential for future space flight as compared to existing alkaline fuel cells. It will also cover the technical hurdles that must be overcome. In addition, a description of the NASA PEM fuel cell development program will be presented, and the current status of this effort discussed. The effort is a combination of stack and ancillary component hardware development, culminating in breadboard and engineering model unit assembly and test. Finally, a detailed roadmap for proceeding fiom engineering model hardware to qualification and flight hardware will be proposed. Innovative test engineering and potential payload manifesting may be required to actually validate/certify a PEM fuel cell for manned space flight.

  17. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  18. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... each risk covered, the period of coverage of each risk, the special warranties for each risk, the premium for each risk (or the basis for determining such premium), and the conditions of paying the premium for each risk. For purposes of this subdivision, it shall be unnecessary formally to make...

  19. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... each risk covered, the period of coverage of each risk, the special warranties for each risk, the premium for each risk (or the basis for determining such premium), and the conditions of paying the premium for each risk. For purposes of this subdivision, it shall be unnecessary formally to make...

  20. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... each risk covered, the period of coverage of each risk, the special warranties for each risk, the premium for each risk (or the basis for determining such premium), and the conditions of paying the premium for each risk. For purposes of this subdivision, it shall be unnecessary formally to make...

  1. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... each risk covered, the period of coverage of each risk, the special warranties for each risk, the premium for each risk (or the basis for determining such premium), and the conditions of paying the premium for each risk. For purposes of this subdivision, it shall be unnecessary formally to make...

  2. Aid For Simulating Digital Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    DIVERS translator is computer program to convert descriptions of digital flight-control systems (DFCS) into computer program. Language developed to represent design charts of DFCS. Translator converts DIVERS source code into easily transportable language, while minimizing probability that results are affected by interpretation of programmer. Final translated program used as standard of comparison to verify operation of actual flight-control systems. Applicable to simulation of other control systems; for example, electrical circuits and logic processes. Written in C.

  3. Results of the First US Manned Orbital Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The results of the first United States manned orbital space flight conducted on February 20, 1962 are presented. The prelaunch activities, spacecraft description, flight operations, flight data, and postflight analyses presented form a continuation of the information previously published for the two United States manned suborbital space flights conducted on May 5, 1961, and July 21, 1961, respectively, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. STS-67 post flight presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    This video is the post-flight presentation by the astronauts of the STS-67 Space Shuttle Mission. The astronauts were: Steve Oswald (Mission Commander), Bill Gregory (Shuttle Pilot), John Grunsfeld (Mission Specialist), Sam Durrance (Payload Specialist), Ron Parise (Payload Specialist), and Tammy Jernigan (Payload Commander). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup and launch (liftoff), the deployment of the telescope package payload (Hopkins UV telescope, Wisconsin UV polarimeter, and Astrostar Tracker) for their astronomical observations of different stellar objects, inside Shuttle shots of data collection stations, protein crystal growth experiments, medical BSO of head and eye functions in microgravity environment, storm activity over the United States and other Earth observation shots, Mid-deck Act Control Experiments, school-Shuttle direct radio communication, and descent and landing footage. This launch was a night launch and the flight was a 17 day flight (extended two days from original flight plan).

  5. Statistical Detection of Atypical Aircraft Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving; Chidester, Thomas; Shafto, Michael; Ferryman, Thomas; Amidan, Brett; Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Willse, Alan; Cooley, Scott; Jay, Joseph; Rosenthal, Loren; Swickard, Andrea; Bates, Derrick; Scherrer, Chad; Webb, Bobbie-Jo; Lawrence, Robert; Mosbrucker, Chris; Prothero, Gary; Andrei, Adi; Romanowski, Tim; Robin, Daniel; Prothero, Jason; Lynch, Robert; Lowe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A computational method and software to implement the method have been developed to sift through vast quantities of digital flight data to alert human analysts to aircraft flights that are statistically atypical in ways that signify that safety may be adversely affected. On a typical day, there are tens of thousands of flights in the United States and several times that number throughout the world. Depending on the specific aircraft design, the volume of data collected by sensors and flight recorders can range from a few dozen to several thousand parameters per second during a flight. Whereas these data have long been utilized in investigating crashes, the present method is oriented toward helping to prevent crashes by enabling routine monitoring of flight operations to identify portions of flights that may be of interest with respect to safety issues.

  6. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  7. Flight Project Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) is responsible for the overall planning, directing, executing, and evaluating that part of the overall NASA program that has the goal of using the unique characteristics of the space environment to conduct a scientific study of the universe, to understand how the Earth works as an integrated system, to solve practical problems on Earth, and to provide the scientific and technological research foundation for expanding human presence beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. OSSA guides its program toward leadership through its pursuit of excellence across the full spectrum of disciplines. OSSA pursues these goals through an integrated program of ground-based laboratory research and experimentation, suborbital flight of instruments on airplanes, balloons, and sounding rockets; flight of instruments and the conduct of research on the Shuttle/Spacelab system and on Space Station Freedom; and development and flight of automated Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft. The OSSA program is conducted with the participation and support of other Government agencies and facilities, universities throughout the United States, the aerospace contractor community, and all of NASA's nine Centers. In addition, OSSA operates with substantial international participation in many aspects of our Space Science and Applications Program. OSSA's programs currently in operation, those approved for development, and those planned for future missions are described.

  8. Radioastron flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, V. I.; Sukhanov, K. G.; Altunin, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Radioastron is a space-based very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission to be operational in the mid-90's. The spacecraft and space radio telescope (SRT) will be designed, manufactured, and launched by the Russians. The United States is constructing a DSN subnet to be used in conjunction with a Russian subnet for Radioastron SRT science data acquisition, phase link, and spacecraft and science payload health monitoring. Command and control will be performed from a Russian tracking facility. In addition to the flight element, the network of ground radio telescopes which will be performing co-observations with the space telescope are essential to the mission. Observatories in 39 locations around the world are expected to participate in the mission. Some aspects of the mission that have helped shaped the flight operations concept are: separate radio channels will be provided for spacecraft operations and for phase link and science data acquisition; 80-90 percent of the spacecraft operational time will be spent in an autonomous mode; and, mission scheduling must take into account not only spacecraft and science payload constraints, but tracking station and ground observatory availability as well. This paper will describe the flight operations system design for translating the Radioastron science program into spacecraft executed events. Planning for in-orbit checkout and contingency response will also be discussed.

  9. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Unit Ground Tested With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Tank for the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles. Technology to create supercooled high-density liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key means to lowering launch vehicle costs. The densification of cryogenic propellants through subcooling allows 8 to 10 percent more propellant mass to be stored in a given unit volume, thereby improving the launch vehicle's overall performance. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would be possible with conventional normal boiling point cryogenic propellants, considering the normal boiling point of LO2 and LH2.

  10. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-509 Apollo 14 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 flight is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight failures are identified, their causes are determined and corrective actions are recommended. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  12. Transfer of Training with Formation Flight Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gary B.; Cyrus, Michael L.

    The present research was conducted to determine transfer of practice from a formation simulator to actual aircraft flight for the wing aircraft component of the formation flying task. Evidence in support of positive transfer was obtained by comparing students trained in the formation simulator with students who were essentially untrained and with…

  13. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  14. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  15. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil...

  16. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  17. 14 CFR 129.20 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders. 129.20... § 129.20 Digital flight data recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that use...

  18. 14 CFR 129.20 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders. 129.20... § 129.20 Digital flight data recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that use...

  19. 14 CFR 129.20 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders. 129.20... § 129.20 Digital flight data recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that use...

  20. 14 CFR 129.20 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders. 129.20... § 129.20 Digital flight data recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that use...

  1. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  2. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  3. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  4. Kinematics of chiropteran shoulder girdle in flight.

    PubMed

    Panyutina, A A; Kuznetsov, A N; Korzun, L P

    2013-03-01

    New data on the mechanisms of movements of the shoulder girdle and humerus of bats are described; potential mobility is compared to the movements actually used in flight. The study was performed on the basis of morphological and functional analysis of anatomical specimens of 15 species, high speed and high definition filming of two species and X-ray survey of Rousettus aegyptiacus flight. Our observations indicate that any excursions of the shoulder girdle in bats have relatively small input in the wing amplitude. Shoulder girdle movements resemble kinematics of a crank mechanism: clavicle plays the role of crank, and scapula-the role of connecting rod. Previously described osseous "locking mechanisms" in shoulder joint of advanced bats do not affect the movements, actually used in flight. The wing beats in bats are performed predominantly by movements of humerus relative to shoulder girdle, although these movements occupy the caudal-most sector of available shoulder mobility. PMID:23381941

  5. Effect of space flight on cytokine production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    Space flight has been shown to alter many immunological responses. Among those affected are the production of cytokines, Cytokines are the messengers of the immune system that facilitate communication among cells that allow the interaction among cells leading to the development of immune responses. Included among the cytokines are the interferons, interleukins, and colony stimulating factors. Cytokines also facilitate communication between the immune system and other body systems, such as the neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems. Some cytokines also have direct protective effects on the host, such as interferon, which can inhibit the replication of viruses. Studies in both humans and animals indicate that models of space flight as well as actual space flight alter the production and action of cytokines. Included among these changes are altered interferon production, altered responsiveness of bone marrow cells to granulocyte/monocyte-colony stimulating factor, but no alteration in the production of interleukin-3. This suggests that there are selective effects of space flight on immune responses, i.e. not all cytokines are affected in the same fashion by space flight. Tissue culture studies also suggest that there may be direct effects of space flight on the cells responsible for cytokine production and action. The results of the above study indicate that the effects of space flight on cytokines may be a fundamental mechanism by which space flight not only affects immune responses, but also other biological systems of the human.

  6. Utilising Multimedia ESP Programme in Enhancing Flight Attendants' Safety Knowledge and Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani-Salameh, Zakaria A.; Kabilan, Muhammad K.; Bani-Salalmeh, Lina

    2011-01-01

    A multimedia English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programme was developed to train flight attendants. The programme comprised of two units. Unit one is listening comprehension, which provides the flight attendants' with specific information of Airbus A340. Unit two is reading comprehension, which provides the flight attendants with the emergency…

  7. In-flight calibration of the fine pointing Sun sensor on the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambardella, P. J.; Thompson, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude control objectives of solar maximum mission are to point the boresight of the payload fine pointing sun sensor (FPSS) to any point within 30 arc-minutes of the Sun's center with an accuracy of 5 arc-seconds (3 sigma, pitch and yaw) and a jitter of less than 3 arc-seconds (3 sigma). To meet these stringent accuracy requirements, a procedure was developed for in-flight calibration of the FPSS. The spacecraft was maneuvered using FPSS offset commands to position the Sun at different points within the FPSS field of view. The coefficients of the FPSS digital to analog nonlinear transfer function were determined by minimizing the residuals between the pitch and yaw angles computed from the FPSS measurements and the corresponding reference angles obtained from inertial reference unit measurements. The actual in-flight calibration and the calibration algorithm are discussed.

  8. Space flight and neurovestibular adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    Space flight represents a form of sensory stimulus rearrangement requiring modification of established terrestrial response patterns through central reinterpretation. Evidence of sensory reinterpretation is manifested as postflight modifications of eye/head coordination, locomotor patterns, postural control strategies, and illusory perceptions of self or surround motion in conjunction with head movements. Under normal preflight conditions, the head is stabilized during locomotion, but immediately postflight reduced head stability, coupled with inappropriate eye/head coordination, results in modifications of gait. Postflight postural control exhibits increased dependence on vision which compensates for inappropriate interpretation of otolith and proprioceptive inputs. Eye movements compensatory for perceived self motion, rather than actual head movements have been observed postflight. Overall, the in-flight adaptive modification of head stabilization strategies, changes in head/eye coordination, illusionary motion, and postural control are maladaptive for a return to the terrestrial environment.

  9. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  10. X-38 Vehicle #132 in Flight with Deployed Parafoil during First Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The X-38, a research vehicle built to help develop technology for an emergency Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), descends under its steerable parafoil on a March 1999 test flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting

  11. X-38 Vehicle #132 in Flight Approaching Landing during First Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The X-38, a research vehicle built to help develop technology for an emergency Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), maneuvers toward landing at the end of a March 1999 test flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting

  12. Readiness for First Crewed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to fly safely on a human spaceflight system for the first time (i.e., first crewed flight). The NESC assembled a small team which included experts with experience developing robotic and human spaceflight and aviation systems through first crewed test flight and into operational capability. The NESC team conducted a historical review of the steps leading up to the first crewed flights of Mercury through the Space Shuttle. Benchmarking was also conducted with the United States (U.S.) Air Force and U.S. Navy. This report contains documentation of that review.

  13. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  14. X-15 #3 being secured by ground crew after flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The X-15-3 (56-6672) research aircraft is secured by ground crew after landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The work of the X-15 team did not end with the landing of the aircraft. Once it had stopped on the lakebed, the pilot had to complete an extensive post-landing checklist. This involved recording instrument readings, pressures and temperatures, positioning switches, and shutting down systems. The pilot was then assisted from the aircraft, and a small ground crew depressurized the tanks before the rest of the ground crew finished their work on the aircraft. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the

  15. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  16. D-558-2 launch and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    This 19-second video clip shows the D-558-2 being dropped from the P2B-1S mothership, flying and landing. Near the end of the clip the wing of the TF-86 video chase aircraft is visible landing on the Rogers Dry Lakebed next to the Skyrocket. The Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket airplanes were early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and X-92A. Three of these single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California. Flight research was done at the NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit in California, redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS). The HSFRS is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. Douglas Aircraft pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in California on February 4, 1948. The goals of that program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitchup (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards) -- a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that era, particularly at low speeds during takeoff and landing and in tight turns. The three aircraft gathered a great deal of data about pitchup and the coupling of lateral (yaw) and longitudinal (pitch) motions; wing and tail loads, lift, drag, and buffeting characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds; and the effects of the rocket exhaust plume on lateral dynamic stability throughout the speed range. (Plume effects were a new experience for aircraft.) The number three aircraft also gathered information about the effects of external stores (bomb shapes, drop tanks) upon the aircraft behavior in

  17. Analysis of the Quality of Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambot, Thomas; Ord, Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Parabolic flight allows researchers to conduct several micro-gravity experiments, each with up to 20 seconds of micro-gravity, in the course of a single day. However, the quality of the flight environment can vary greatly over the course of a single parabola, thus affecting the experimental results. Researchers therefore require knowledge of the actual flight environment as a function of time. The NASA Flight Opportunities program (FO) has reviewed the acceleration data for over 400 parabolas and investigated the level of micro-gravity quality. It was discovered that a typical parabola can be segmented into multiple phases with different qualities and durations. The knowledge of the microgravity characteristics within the parabola will prove useful when planning an experiment.

  18. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  19. The 737 graphite composite flight spoiler flight service evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A flight service report was prepared which covers the flight service experience of 111 graphite epoxy spoilers on 737 transport aircraft and related ground based environmental exposure of graphite epoxy material specimens. Spoilers were installed on 28 aircraft representing seven major airlines operating throughout the world. Tests of removed spoilers after the seventh year of service continue to indicate modest changes in composite strength properties. Two spoilers were tested, one with 6 and one with 7 years of service, and both had residual strengths that fall within the original static strength scatter band. Both these units had typical service included discrepancies when tested. Based on visual, ultrasonic, and destructive inspection there continues to be no evidence of moisture migration into the honeycomb core and no core corrosion in the deployed units.

  20. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and flight time, and the instrument currency must have been performed in actual weather conditions or under simulated weather conditions— (A) One hour of instrument flight time in a glider or in a single... the use of navigation electronic systems. (B) Two hours of instrument flight time in a glider or...

  1. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and flight time, and the instrument currency must have been performed in actual weather conditions or under simulated weather conditions— (A) One hour of instrument flight time in a glider or in a single... the use of navigation electronic systems. (B) Two hours of instrument flight time in a glider or...

  2. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and flight time, and the instrument currency must have been performed in actual weather conditions or under simulated weather conditions— (A) One hour of instrument flight time in a glider or in a single... the use of navigation electronic systems. (B) Two hours of instrument flight time in a glider or...

  3. Atmospheric reentry flight test of winged space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto

    A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.

  4. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  5. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  6. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a) In any operation in which one flight engineer or flight navigator is required, the flight...

  7. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  8. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  9. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  10. 14 CFR 437.53 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations and systems in preparing a reusable suborbital rocket for flight at a launch site in the United States and returning the reusable suborbital rocket and any support equipment to a safe condition...

  11. 14 CFR 61.41 - Flight training received from flight instructors not certificated by the FAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the FAA. (a) A person may credit flight training toward the requirements of a pilot certificate or... Armed Force in a program for training military pilots of either— (i) The United States; or (ii)...

  12. 14 CFR 61.41 - Flight training received from flight instructors not certificated by the FAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the FAA. (a) A person may credit flight training toward the requirements of a pilot certificate or... Armed Force in a program for training military pilots of either— (i) The United States; or (ii)...

  13. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  14. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  15. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  16. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  17. F-8 SCW in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The F-8A Supercritical Wing (SCW) aircraft in flight. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb began work on the supercritical wing in the early 1960s. Although the design was highly efficient in wind-tunnel testing, it was so unusual that few accepted the concept as practical. Larry Loftin of NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA, said, 'We're going to have a flight demonstration. This thing is so different from anything that we've ever done before that nobody's going to touch it with a ten foot pole without somebody going out and flying it.' The Navy supplied NASA with an F-8A (Navy Bureau Number 141353/NASA tail number 810), while North American Aviation built the supercritical wing. The SCW team attached it to the stock F-8 fuselage. This 1971 photo shows its original paint finish. Tom McMurtry, who was the lead project pilot, recalled that there was no time or money for a fancier finish. In fact, on the first flight, made on March 9, 1971, the 'SCW' on the tail was actually taped on. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the speed of sound (transonic region of flight). Delaying the shock wave at these speeds results in less drag. Results of the NASA flight research at the Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) demonstrated that aircraft using the supercritical wing concept would have increased cruising speed, improved fuel efficiency, and greater flight range than those using conventional wings. As a result, supercritical wings are now commonplace on virtually every

  18. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  19. Multi-Exciter Vibroacoustic Simulation of Hypersonic Flight Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    GREGORY,DANNY LYNN; CAP,JEROME S.; TOGAMI,THOMAS C.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; HOLLINGSHEAD,JAMES RONALD

    1999-11-11

    Many aerospace structures must survive severe high frequency, hypersonic, random vibration during their flights. The random vibrations are generated by the turbulent boundary layer developed along the exterior of the structures during flight. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past using a fixed-based, single exciter input with an upper frequency range of 2 kHz. This study investigates the possibility of using acoustic ardor independently controlled multiple exciters to more accurately simulate hypersonic flight vibration. The test configuration, equipment, and methodology are described. Comparisons with actual flight measurements and previous single exciter simulations are also presented.

  20. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  1. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  2. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30–60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  3. I-FORCAST: Rapid Flight Planning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaida, Bogdan; Khan, Mohammed; Mercury, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    I-FORCAST (Instrument - Field of Regard Coverage Analysis and Simulation Tool) is a flight planning tool specifically designed for quickly verifying the feasibility and estimating the cost of airborne remote sensing campaigns (see figure). Flights are simulated by being broken into three predefined routing algorithms as necessary: mapping in a snaking pattern, mapping the area around a point target (like a volcano) with a star pattern, and mapping the area between a list of points. The tool has been used to plan missions for radar, lidar, and in-situ atmospheric measuring instruments for a variety of aircraft. It has also been used for global and regional scale campaigns and automatically includes landings when refueling is required. The software has been compared to the flight times of known commercial aircraft route travel times, as well as a UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) campaign, and was within 15% of the actual flight time. Most of the discrepancy is due to non-optimal flight paths taken by actual aircraft to avoid restricted airspace and used to follow landing and take-off corridors.

  4. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  5. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  6. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  7. Preliminary Flight Results of a Fly-by-throttle Emergency Flight Control System on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies were followed by flight tests. The principles of throttles only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including actual landings with throttles-only control are discussed.

  8. Improvements in flight table dynamic transparency for hardware-in-the-loop facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMore, Louis A.; Mackin, Rob; Swamp, Michael; Rusterholtz, Roger

    2000-07-01

    Flight tables are a 'necessary evil' in the Hardware-In-The- Loop (HWIL) simulation. Adding the actual or prototypic flight hardware to the loop, in order to increase the realism of the simulation, forces us to add motion simulation to the process. Flight table motion bases bring unwanted dynamics, non- linearities, transport delays, etc to an already difficult problem sometimes requiring the simulation engineer to compromise the results. We desire that the flight tables be 'dynamically transparent' to the simulation scenario. This paper presents a State Variable Feedback (SVF) control system architecture with feed-forward techniques that improves the flight table's dynamic transparency by significantly reducing the table's low frequency phase lag. We offer some actual results with existing flight tables that demonstrate the improved transparency. These results come from a demonstration conducted on a flight table in the KHILS laboratory at Eglin AFB and during a refurbishment of a flight table for the Boeing Company of St. Charles, Missouri.

  9. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  10. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Uchakin, Peter N; Tobin, Brian W

    2002-10-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section. PMID:12361789

  11. STS 63: Post flight presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Mission Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Mission Specialist from Russia), gave a short autobiography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MlR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  12. STS 63: Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Misssion Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Misssion Specialist from Russia. A short biography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission is given. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MIR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  13. Miniaturization of flight deflection measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodale, Robert (Inventor); Hampton, Herbert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A flight deflection measurement system is disclosed including a hybrid microchip of a receiver/decoder. The hybrid microchip decoder is mounted piggy back on the miniaturized receiver and forms an integral unit therewith. The flight deflection measurement system employing the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be used in a wind tunnel. In particular, the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be employed in a spin measurement system due to its small size and can retain already established control surface actuation functions.

  14. Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the launch vehicle and lunar roving vehicle performance for the Apollo 17 flight is presented. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  15. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-511 Apollo 16 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 16 mission is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are deet determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are provide in tabular form.

  16. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  17. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  18. Space Launch Flight Termination System initial development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkevich, B.; Brierley, S.; Lupia, D.; Leiker, T.

    This paper describes the studies, capabilities and challenges in initial development of a new digital encrypted termination system for space launch vehicles. This system is called the Space Launch Flight Termination System (SLFTS). Development of SLFTS is required to address an obsolescence issue and to improve the security of flight termination systems presently in use on the nation's space launch vehicles. SLFTS development was implemented in a four phase approach with the goal of producing a high secure, cost effective flight termination system for United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). These detailed study phases developed the requirements, design and implementation approach for a new high secure flight termination system. Studies led to a cost effective approach to replace the High Alphabet Command Receiver Decoders (HA-CRD) presently used on the EELV (Delta-IV & Atlas-V), with a common SLFTS unit. SLFTS is the next generation flight termination system for space launch vehicles, providing an assured high secure command destruct system for launch vehicles in flight. The unique capabilities and challenges to develop this technology for space launch use will be addressed in this paper in detail. This paper summarizes the current development status, design and capabilities of SLFTS for EELV.

  19. Flight control experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    A multidisciplinary medical-management team at mission control provided Skylab crew support by monitoring health, retrieving and compiling experimental data, assisting in the development of flight plans, and by contributing to in-flight procedures and checklists. Real time computers assisted the flight crews in performing medical and other experiments.

  20. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  1. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has a consistent need for radioisotope power systems (RPS) to enable robotic scientific missions for planetary exploration that has been present for over four decades and will continue into the foreseeable future, as documented in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Study Report. As RPS have evolved throughout the years, there has also grown a desire for more efficient power systems, allowing NASA to serve as good stewards of the limited plutonium-238 (238Pu), while also supporting the ever-present need to minimize mass and potential impacts to the desired science measurements. In fact, the recent Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) released in April 2015 resulted in several key conclusion regarding RPS, including affirmation that RPS will be necessary well into the 2030s (at least) and that 238Pu is indeed a precious resource requiring efficient utilization and preservation. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) combine a Stirling cycle engine powered by a radioisotope heater unit into a single generator system. Stirling engine technology has been under development at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE) since the 1970's. The most recent design, the 238Pu-fueled Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was offered as part of the NASA Discovery 2010 Announcement of Opportunity (AO). The Step-2 selections for this AO included two ASRG-enabled concepts, the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) and the Comet Hopper (CHopper), although the only non-nuclear concept, InSight, was ultimately chosen. The DOE's ASRG contract was terminated in 2013. Given that SRGs utilize significantly less 238Pu than traditional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) - approximately one quarter of the nuclear fuel, to produce similar electrical power output - they provide a technology worthy of consideration for meeting the aforementioned NASA objectives. NASA's RPS Program Office has recently investigated a new Stirling to

  2. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  3. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  4. Flight Control Overview of STS-88, the First Space Station Assembly Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert; Kirchwey, Kim; Martin, Michael; Rosch, Gene; Zimpfer, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    When the Space Shuttle Endeavour undocked from the Zarya/Unity configuration on STS-88 it marked the completion of the most challenging shuttle mission to date and the beginning of an enormous task of assembling the International Space Station. The flight offered an array of complex dynamics and control related challenges to mate the American module 'Unity' to the Russian module 'Zarya'. Capability demonstrated on the flight included closed-loop thruster control in the presence of low frequency structural dynamics and mated-vehicle translational maneuvers in the presence of structural loads and thruster hardware constraints. The flight was a complete success from all aspects. This paper will give an overview of the flight control challenges encountered and the actual control performance observed for the on-orbit operations. Included will be the shuttle analysis and filtering strategies to ensure control system stability in the presence of low frequency flex-body dynamics.

  5. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: X-40A Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.

  6. JetStar in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This 18-second movie clip shows the NASA Dryden Lockheed C-140 JetStar in flight with its pylon-mounted air-turbine-drive system used to gather information on the acoustic characteristics of subscale advanced design propellers. Data was gathered through 28 flush-mounted microphones on the skin of the aircraft. From 1976 to 1987 the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio -- today known as the Glenn Research Center -- engaged in research and development of an advanced turboprop concept in partnership with Hamilton Standard, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, the largest manufacturer of propellers in the United States. The Advanced Turboprop Project took its impetus from the energy crisis of the early 1970's and sought to produce swept propeller blades that would increase efficiency and reduce noise. As the project progressed, Pratt & Whitney, Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors, General Electric, Gulfstream, Rohr Industries, Boeing, Lockheed, and McDonnell Douglas, among others, also took part. NASA Lewis did the much of the ground research and marshaled the resources of these and other members of the aeronautical community. The team came to include the NASA Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (before and after that time, the Dryden Flight Research Center). Together, they brought the propeller to the flight research stage, and the team that worked on the project won the coveted Collier Trophy for its efforts in 1987. To test the acoustics of the propeller the team developed, it mounted propeller models on a C-140 JetStar aircraft fuselage at NASA Dryden. The JetStar was modified with the installation of an air-turbine-drive system. The drive motor, with a test propeller, was mounted on a pylon atop the JetStar. The JetStar was equipped with an array of 28 microphones flush-mounted in the fuselage of the aircraft beneath the propeller. Microphones mounted on the wings and on an accompanying Learjet chase

  7. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  8. Ariane flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedrenne, M.

    1983-11-01

    The object of this paper is to present the way in which the flight development tests of the Ariane launch vehicle have enabled the definition to be frozen and its qualification to be demonstrated before the beginning of the operational phase. A first part is devoted to the in-flight measurement facilities, the acquisition and evaluation systems, and to the organization of the in-flight results evaluation. The following part consists of the comparison between ground predictions and flight results for the main parameters as classified by system (stages, trajectory, propulsion, flight mechanics, auto pilot and guidance). The corrective actions required are then identified and the corresponding results shown.

  9. Preliminary Report on Free Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, E P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Results are presented for a series of tests made by the Advisory Committee's staff at Langley Field during the summer of 1919 with the objectives of determining the characteristics of airplanes in flight and the extent to which the actual characteristics differ from those predicted from tests on models in the wind tunnel, and of studying the balance of the machines and the forces which must be applied to the controls in order to maintain longitudinal equilibrium.

  10. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  11. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  12. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  13. Small Payload Flight Systems (SPFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Small Payload Flight System (SPFS) provides a simple and cost-effective approach to carrying small size experiments on the space shuttle. The system uses a bridge-like structure which spans the orbiter cargo bay but is only 3 feet in length. The structure can carry up to 4300 lb of payload weight and can be positioned at any location along the length of the cargo bay. In addition to the structural support, the SPFS provides avionics services to experiments. These include electrical power distribution and control, command and telemetry for control of the experiments and subsystem health monitoring, and software computations. The avionics system includes a flight qualified electrical power branching distributor, and a system control unit based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor. Data can be recorded on magnetic tape or transmitted to the ground. Finally, a Freon pump and cold plate system provides environmental control for both the avionics hardware and the experiments as necessary.

  14. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM) and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p < 0.01) from 99% vs. 67% of samples (p < 0.01). TCM detected S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19%) for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p < 0.01) with codetection of coagulase negative staphylococci but not S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted. PMID:23050585

  15. X-38 - First Free Flight, March 12, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle descends under its steerable parafoil over the California desert in its first free flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The flight took place March 12, 1998. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed

  16. Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

    1995-01-01

    Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

  17. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  18. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  19. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  20. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  1. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  2. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  3. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  4. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  5. X-15 flight crew - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force Major William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. These six pilots made 125 of the 199 total flights in the X-15. Rushworth made 34 flights (the most of any X-15 pilot); McKay flew 29 times; Engle, Knight, and Dana each flew 16 times; Thompson's total was 14. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  6. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  9. Space Station Live: ISS Communications Unit Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters interviews International Space Station Flight Director Mike Lammers about the recent Ku communications unit upgrade work taking place aboard th...

  10. Optimization models for flight test scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holian, Derreck

    As threats around the world increase with nations developing new generations of warfare technology, the Unites States is keen on maintaining its position on top of the defense technology curve. This in return indicates that the U.S. military/government must research, develop, procure, and sustain new systems in the defense sector to safeguard this position. Currently, the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Lightning II is being developed, tested, and deployed to the U.S. military at Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP). The simultaneous act of testing and deployment is due to the contracted procurement process intended to provide a rapid Initial Operating Capability (IOC) release of the 5th Generation fighter. For this reason, many factors go into the determination of what is to be tested, in what order, and at which time due to the military requirements. A certain system or envelope of the aircraft must be assessed prior to releasing that capability into service. The objective of this praxis is to aide in the determination of what testing can be achieved on an aircraft at a point in time. Furthermore, it will define the optimum allocation of test points to aircraft and determine a prioritization of restrictions to be mitigated so that the test program can be best supported. The system described in this praxis has been deployed across the F-35 test program and testing sites. It has discovered hundreds of available test points for an aircraft to fly when it was thought none existed thus preventing an aircraft from being grounded. Additionally, it has saved hundreds of labor hours and greatly reduced the occurrence of test point reflight. Due to the proprietary nature of the JSF program, details regarding the actual test points, test plans, and all other program specific information have not been presented. Generic, representative data is used for example and proof-of-concept purposes. Apart from the data correlation algorithms, the optimization associated

  11. In-flight crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, Charles; Galicki, Peter; Shores, David

    1990-01-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display system and Part Task Trainer are two projects currently underway that are closely related to the in-flight crew training concept. The first project is a training simulator and an engineering analysis tool. The simulator's unique helmet mounted display actually projects the wearer into the simulated environment of 3-D space. Miniature monitors are mounted in front of the wearers eyes. Partial Task Trainer is a kinematic simulator for the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The simulator consists of a high end graphics workstation with a high resolution color screen and a number of input peripherals that create a functional equivalent of the RMS control panel in the back of the Orbiter. It is being used in the training cycle for Shuttle crew members. Activities are underway to expand the capability of the Helmet Display System and the Partial Task Trainer.

  12. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  13. Pilot's Desk Flight Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft flight station designs have generally evolved through the incorporation of improved or modernized controls and displays. In connection with a continuing increase in the amount of information displayed, this process has produced a complex and cluttered conglomeration of knobs, switches, and electromechanical displays. The result was often high crew workload, missed signals, and misinterpreted information. Advances in electronic technology have now, however, led to new concepts in flight station design. An American aerospace company in cooperation with NASA has utilized these concepts to develop a candidate conceptual design for a 1995 flight station. The obtained Pilot's Desk Flight Station is a unique design which resembles more an operator's console than today's cockpit. Attention is given to configuration, primary flight controllers, front panel displays, flight/navigation display, approach charts and weather display, head-up display, and voice command and response systems.

  14. YF-17 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator aircraft in flight during a 1976 flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From May 27 to July 14, 1976, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, flew the Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator to test the high-performance U.S. Air Force fighter at transonic speeds. The objectives of the seven-week flight test program included the study of maneuverability of this aircraft at transonic speeds and the collection of in-flight pressure data from around the afterbody of the aircraft to improve wind-tunnel predictions for future fighter aircraft. Also studied were stability and control and buffeting at high angles of attack as well as handling qualities at high load factors. Another objective of this program was to familiarize center pilots with the operation of advanced high-performance fighter aircraft. During the seven-week program, all seven of the center's test pilots were able to fly the aircraft with Gary Krier serving as project pilot. In general the pilots reported no trouble adapting to the aircraft and reported that it was easy to fly. There were no familiarization flights. All 25 research flights were full-data flights. They obtained data on afterbody pressures, vertical-fin dynamic loads, agility, pilot physiology, and infrared signatures. Average flight time was 45 minutes, although two flights involving in-flight refueling lasted approximately one hour longer than usual. Dryden Project Manager Roy Bryant considered the program a success. Center pilots felt that the aircraft was generations ahead of then current active military aircraft. Originally built for the Air Force's lightweight fighter program, the YF-17 Cobra left Dryden to support the Northrop/Navy F-18 Program. The F-18 Hornet evolved from the YF-17.

  15. Flight Checklists And Interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, C.; Goguen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Report examines relation between performances of flight checklists and interruptions. Based on study of simulated flights of Boeing 707 Airplane. During each flight series of overlapping problems introduced. Study investigated patterns of communication that in carrying out checklists, may contribute to accidents. Showed good crews had high continuity in following checklists and it is not number of interruptions but rather duration of interruptions associated with quality of performance. Suggests greater burden placed on memory by one long interruption than by several short ones.

  16. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  17. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  18. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  19. System-level flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Eardley, D.; Happer, W.; LeLevier, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Press, W.; Ruderman, M.; Sullivan, J.; York, H.

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  20. Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

  1. X-38 - First Free Flight, March 12, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle descends under its steerable parafoil over the California desert during its first free flight in March 1998 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the

  2. X-38 - Landing After First Free Flight, March 12, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle touches down amidst the California desert scrubbrush at the end of its first free flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in March 1998. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the

  3. X-38 Vehicle #132 Landing on First Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The X-38, a research vehicle built to help develop technology for an emergency Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), flares for its lakebed landing at the end of a March 1999 test flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted

  4. X-38 on Lakebed after Landing on Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's X-38, a prototype of a Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) resting on the lakebed near the Dryden Flight Research Center after the completion of its second free flight. The X-38 was launched from NASA Dryden's B-52 Mothership on Saturday, February 6, 1999, from an altitude of approximately 23,000 feet. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than

  5. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  6. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  7. The flight from physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellington, Jerry

    1986-03-01

    The author starts with some recruitment statistics, and then looks at some actual case studies. Recruitment to initial teacher training in physics, as many people know, in not healthy. Previous articles have discussed trends, possible remedies, and underlying causes (Wellington 1980, 1982a, 1982b). Two problems in the supply of physics teachers have been identified so far: the trickle of graduates into initial teacher training, and the off-putting effect of low morale currently encountered in staff and preparation rooms. A third problem has in recent months become the most serious of the three. This is the flight of well-qualified, competent and experienced physics teachers from teaching into other professions. The crisis facing physics teaching clearly has three dimensions: the sharp decline of recruitment into teacher training since the tiny peak of 1982; the first encounters of physics graduates with the teaching profession during their training year; and the flight of practising physics teachers into industry. The author would not venture to suggest remedies for the situation now facing physics education. These surely need to come from a central source. However, he does hazard a few predictions on the consequences of the three crises discussed above.

  8. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  9. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

  10. Vision-based range estimation using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Hussein, Bassam

    1992-01-01

    Pilot aiding during low-altitude flight depends on the ability to detect and locate obstacles near the helicopter's intended flightpath. Computer-vision-based methods provide one general approach for obstacle detection and range estimation. Several algorithms have been developed for this purpose, but have not been tested with actual flight data. This paper presents results obtained using helicopter flight data with a feature-based range estimation algorithm. A method for recursively estimating range using a Kalman filter with a monocular sequence of images and knowledge of the camera's motion is described. The helicopter flight experiment and one of four resulting datasets is briefly discussed. Finally the performance of the range estimation algorithm is explored based on comparison of the range estimates with true range measurements collected during the flight experiment.

  11. Vision-based range estimation using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Hussien, Bassam

    1992-01-01

    Pilot aiding during low-altitude flight depends on the ability to detect and locate obstacles near the helicopter's intended flightpath. Computer-vision-based methods provide one general approach for obstacle detection and range estimation. Several algorithms have been developed for this purpose, but have not been tested with actual flight data. This paper presents results obtained using helicopter flight data with a feature-based range estimation algorithm. A method for recursively estimating range using a Kalman filter with a monocular sequence of images and knowledge of the camera's motion is described. The helicopter flight experiment and four resulting datasets are discussed. Finally the performance of the range estimation algorithm is explored in detail based on comparison of the range estimates with true range measurements collected during the flight experiment.

  12. Flight testing of a luminescent surface pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Espina, J.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Demandante, C. G. N.; Bjarke, L.

    1992-01-01

    NASA ARC has conducted flight tests of a new type of aerodynamic pressure sensor based on a luminescent surface coating. Flights were conducted at the NASA ARC-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The luminescent pressure sensor is based on a surface coating which, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emits visible light with an intensity dependent on the local air pressure on the surface. This technique makes it possible to obtain pressure data over the entire surface of an aircraft, as opposed to conventional instrumentation, which can only make measurements at pre-selected points. The objective of the flight tests was to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a luminescent pressure sensor in the actual flight environment. A luminescent pressure sensor was installed on a fin, the Flight Test Fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of an F-104 aircraft. The response of one particular surface coating was evaluated at low supersonic Mach numbers (M = 1.0-1.6) in order to provide an initial estimate of the sensor's capabilities. This memo describes the test approach, the techniques used, and the pressure sensor's behavior under flight conditions. A direct comparison between data provided by the luminescent pressure sensor and that produced by conventional pressure instrumentation shows that the luminescent sensor can provide quantitative data under flight conditions. However, the test results also show that the sensor has a number of limitations which must be addressed if this technique is to prove useful in the flight environment.

  13. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s−1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

  14. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  15. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  16. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  17. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  18. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  19. Analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of near-terminal aircraft flight paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.; Matthews, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft at an airport are stochastically represented. Radar data of the aircraft movements are used to decompose the flight paths into linear and curvilinear segments. Variables which describe the segments are derived, and the best fitting probability distributions of the variables, based on a sample of flight paths, are found. Conversely, given information on the probability distribution of the variables, generation of a random sample of flight paths in a Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. Actual flight paths at Dulles International Airport are analyzed and simulated.

  20. HIFIRE Flight 2 Overview and Status Update 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Kevin R.; Gruber, Mark R.; Buccellato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative international effort, the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program aims to study basic hypersonic phenomena through flight experimentation. HIFiRE Flight 2 teams the United States Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), NASA, and the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO). Flight 2 will develop an alternative test technique for acquiring high enthalpy scramjet flight test data, allowing exploration of accelerating hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet performance and dual-to-scram mode transition up to and beyond Mach 8 flight. The generic scramjet flowpath is research quality and the test fuel is a simple surrogate for an endothermically cracked liquid hydrocarbon fuel. HIFiRE Flight 2 will be a first of its kind in contribution to scramjets. The HIFiRE program builds upon the HyShot and HYCAUSE programs and aims to leverage the low-cost flight test technique developed in those programs. It will explore suppressed trajectories of a sounding rocket propelled test article and their utility in studying ramjet-scramjet mode transition and flame extinction limits research. This paper describes the overall scramjet flight test experiment mission goals and objectives, flight test approach and strategy, ground test and analysis summary, development status and project schedule. A successful launch and operation will present to the scramjet community valuable flight test data in addition to a new tool, and vehicle, with which to explore high enthalpy scramjet technologies.

  1. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  2. Flight speeds of swifts (Apus apus): seasonal differences smaller than expected.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, P; Karlsson, H; Bäckman, J; Alerstam, T; Hedenström, A

    2009-07-01

    We have studied the nocturnal flight behaviour of the common swift (Apus apus L.), by the use of a tracking radar. Birds were tracked from Lund University in southern Sweden during spring migration, summer roosting flights and autumn migration. Flight speeds were compared with predictions from flight mechanical and optimal migration theories. During spring, flight speeds were predicted to be higher than during both summer and autumn due to time restriction. In such cases, birds fly at a flight speed that maximizes the overall speed of migration. For summer roosting flights, speeds were predicted to be lower than during both spring and autumn since the predicted flight speed is the minimum power speed that involves the lowest energy consumption per unit time. During autumn, we expected flight speeds to be higher than during summer but lower than during spring since the expected flight speed is the maximum range speed, which involves the lowest energy consumption per unit distance. Flight speeds during spring were indeed higher than during both summer and autumn, which indicates time-selected spring migration. Speeds during autumn migration were very similar to those recorded during summer roosting flights. The general result shows that swifts change their flight speed between different flight behaviours to a smaller extent than expected. Furthermore, the difference between flight speeds during migration and roosting among swifts was found to be less pronounced than previously recorded. PMID:19324733

  3. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  4. Survey of missile simulation and flight mechanics facilities in NATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, W. M.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents the results of a Flight Mechanics Panel (FMP) sponsored survey of twenty-four (24) simulation and flight mechanics facilities in six NATO community nations: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. The survey included government and contractor facilities and was obtained by a combination of a questionnaire mailed to each facility and a follow-up on-site visit and interview with facility managers and operational personnel.

  5. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General...

  6. Optimal Flight for Ground Noise Reduction in Helicopter’s Landing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Hirokazu; Uchida, Junichi; Gomi, Hiromi; Matayoshi, Naoki; Okuno, Yoshinori

    This study aims to obtain the optimal flights of a helicopter that reduce ground noise in its landing approach with an optimization technique and to conduct flight tests for confirming the effectiveness of the optimal solutions. Past experiments of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) shows the noise of the helicopter varies significantly according to its flight conditions, especially depending on the flight path angle. We therefore build a simple noise model of the helicopter, in which the level of the noise generated from a point sound source is a function only of the flight path angle. By using equations of motion for flight in a vertical plane, we define optimal control problems for minimizing noise levels measured at points on the ground surface, and obtain optimal controls for specified initial altitudes, flight constraints, and wind conditions. The obtained optimal flights avoid the flight path angle which generates the large noise and decrease the flight time, which are different from the conventional flight. Finally, we verify the validity of the optimal flight patterns by the flight experiments. The actual flights following the optimal ones also result in the noise reduction, which shows the effectiveness of the optimization.

  7. Optimal Flight for Ground Noise Reduction in Helicopter Landing Approach: Optimal Altitude and Velocity Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Hirokazu; Uchida, Junichi; Gomi, Hiromi; Matayoshi, Naoki; Okuno, Yoshinori

    This study aims to obtain the optimal flights of a helicopter that reduce ground noise during landing approach with an optimization technique, and to conduct flight tests for confirming the effectiveness of the optimal solutions. Past experiments of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) show that the noise of a helicopter varies significantly according to its flight conditions, especially depending on the flight path angle. We therefore build a simple noise model for a helicopter, in which the level of the noise generated from a point sound source is a function only of the flight path angle. Using equations of motion for flight in a vertical plane, we define optimal control problems for minimizing noise levels measured at points on the ground surface, and obtain optimal controls for specified initial altitudes, flight constraints, and wind conditions. The obtained optimal flights avoid the flight path angle which generates large noise and decrease the flight time, which are different from conventional flight. Finally, we verify the validity of the optimal flight patterns through flight experiments. The actual flights following the optimal paths resulted in noise reduction, which shows the effectiveness of the optimization.

  8. YF-22 in flight (US AF photo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The YF-22, prototype aircraft for the Air Force's F-22 fighter, cruises over the desert on a flight for the Air Force. It was never involved in any programs with Dryden. The United States Air Force announced the demonstration/validation phase contractors selection for the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program October 31, 1986. These contractor programs were the Lockheed YF-22 and the Northrop YF-23; each produced two prototypes and ground-based avionics testbeds. First flights of all four prototypes occured in 1990. The YF-22 was first flown on Sept. 29, 1990. The YF-22 was powered by two General Electric YF120-GE-100 engines. The final design, the F-22, was flown sometime in May 1997. The F-22 is capable of efficient supersonic operation without afterburner use (supercruise). Lockheed teamed with General Dynamics (Fort Worth) and Boeing Military Airplanes to produce two YF-22 prototypes, civil registrations N22YF (with GE YF120) and N22YX (P&W YF119). N22YF rolled out at Palmdale August 29, 1990; first flight/ferry to Edwards AFB September 29, 1990; first air refuelling (11th sortie) October 26, 1990; thrust vectoring in flight November 15, 1990; achieved Mach 1.8 December 26, 1990. Flight test demonstrations included `supercruise' flight in excess of Mach 1.58 without afterburner.

  9. Numerical CFD Simulation and Test Correlation in a Flight Project Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.; Lung, S. F.; Ibrahim, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents detailed description of a novel CFD procedure and comparison of its solution results to that obtained by other available CFD codes as well as actual flight and wind tunnel test data pertaining to the GIII aircraft, currently undergoing flight testing at AFRC.

  10. Chemical research projects office fuel tank sealants review. [flight testing of fluorosilicone sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant prediction studies, flight simulation and actual flight testing of best state-of-the-art fluorosilicone sealants. The technical accomplishments of these projects are reviewed.

  11. Magnesium and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  12. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  13. The Communicative Relevancies of Instrument Flight; A Technologically Contingent World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Claire Elaine

    The success and safety of flight in actual instrument conditions is dependent upon the communicative competency of the individuals involved. The more obvious elements of communication involved include crew coordination and communication both verbal and nonverbal, aircraft and ground communication links, pilot interpretation of verbally and…

  14. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  15. Software conversion history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the overall history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) applications software conversion project. It describes the background and nature of the project; traces the actual course of conversion; assesses the process, product, and personnel involved; and offers suggestions for future projects. It also contains lists of pertinent reference material and examples of supporting data.

  16. Simulation Method for Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhong-Liang; Fan, Zhao-Lin

    The Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing (WTBVFT) could replicate the actual free flight and explore the aerodynamics/flight dynamics nonlinear coupling mechanism during the maneuver in the wind tunnel. The basic WTBVFT concept is to mount the test model on a specialized support system which allows for the model freely rotational motion, and the aerodynamic loading and motion parameters are measured simultaneously during the model motion. The simulations of the 3-DOF pitching motion of a typical missile in the vertical plane are performed with the openloop and closed-loop control methods. The objective is to analyze the effect of the main differences between the WTBVFT and the actual free flight, and study the simulation method for the WTBVFT. Preliminary simulation analyses have been conducted with positive results. These results indicate that the WTBVFT that uses closed-loop autopilot control method with the pitch angular rate feedback signal is able to replicate the actual free flight behavior within acceptable differences.

  17. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  18. One Hundred Years of Powered Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This year, Centennial of Flight celebrations across the United States are marking the tremendous achievement of the Wright brothers successful, powered, heavier-than-air flight on December 17, 1903. The vision and persistence of these two men pioneered the way for explorers, inventors, and innovators to take aeronautics from the beaches of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to the outer reaches of the solar system. Along this 100-year journey, NASA has played a significant role in developing and supporting the technologies that have shaped the aviation industry.

  19. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  20. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  1. An improved waste collection system for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Lofland, William W., Jr.; Whitmore, Henry

    1986-01-01

    Waste collection systems are a critical part of manned space flight. Systems to date have had a number of deficiencies. A new system, which uses a simple mechanical piston compactor and disposable pads allows a clean area for defecation and maximum efficiency of waste collection and storage. The concept has been extensively tested. Flight demonstration units are being built, tested, and scheduled for flight. A prototype operational unit is under construction. This system offers several advantages over existing or planned systems in the areas of crew interface and operation, cost, size, weight, and maintenance and power consumption.

  2. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  3. Selected Examples of NACA/NASA Supersonic Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1995-01-01

    The present Dryden Flight Research Center, a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has a flight research history that extends back to the mid-1940's. The parent organization was a part of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and was formed in 1946 as the Muroc Flight Test Unit. This document describes 13 selected examples of important supersonic flight research conducted from the Mojave Desert location of the Dryden Flight Research Center over a 4 decade period beginning in 1946. The research described herein was either obtained at supersonic speeds or enabled subsequent aircraft to penetrate or traverse the supersonic region. In some instances there accrued from these research efforts benefits which are also applicable at lower or higher speed regions. A major consideration in the selection of the various research topics was the lasting impact they have had, or will have, on subsequent supersonic flight vehicle design, efficiency, safety, and performance or upon improved supersonic research techniques.

  4. Speech Recognition Interfaces Improve Flight Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    "Alpha, Golf, November, Echo, Zulu." "Sierra, Alpha, Golf, Echo, Sierra." "Lima, Hotel, Yankee." It looks like some strange word game, but the combinations of words above actually communicate the first three points of a flight plan from Albany, New York to Florence, South Carolina. Spoken by air traffic controllers and pilots, the aviation industry s standard International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet uses words to represent letters. The first letter of each word in the series is combined to spell waypoints, or reference points, used in flight navigation. The first waypoint above is AGNEZ (alpha for A, golf for G, etc.). The second is SAGES, and the third is LHY. For pilots of general aviation aircraft, the traditional method of entering the letters of each waypoint into a GPS device is a time-consuming process. For each of the 16 waypoints required for the complete flight plan from Albany to Florence, the pilot uses a knob to scroll through each letter of the alphabet. It takes approximately 5 minutes of the pilot s focused attention to complete this particular plan. Entering such a long flight plan into a GPS can pose a safety hazard because it can take the pilot s attention from other critical tasks like scanning gauges or avoiding other aircraft. For more than five decades, NASA has supported research and development in aviation safety, including through its Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) program, which works to advance safer and more capable flight decks (cockpits) in aircraft. Randy Bailey, a lead aerospace engineer in the VSST program at Langley Research Center, says the technology in cockpits is directly related to flight safety. For example, "GPS navigation systems are wonderful as far as improving a pilot s ability to navigate, but if you can find ways to reduce the draw of the pilot s attention into the cockpit while using the GPS, it could potentially improve safety," he says.

  5. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  6. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  7. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  8. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 187 - Fees for FAA Services for Certain Flights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... appendix applies to any person who conducts a flight through U.S.-controlled airspace that does not include.... This appendix does not apply to any military or civilian flight operated by the United States... operator of a flight that takes off and lands in Canada, without an intermediate stop outside Canada,...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 187 - Fees for FAA Services for Certain Flights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix applies to any person who conducts a flight through U.S.-controlled airspace that does not include.... This appendix does not apply to any military or civilian flight operated by the United States... operator of a flight that takes off and lands in Canada, without an intermediate stop outside Canada,...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 187 - Fees for FAA Services for Certain Flights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... appendix applies to any person who conducts a flight through U.S.-controlled airspace that does not include.... This appendix does not apply to any military or civilian flight operated by the United States... operator of a flight that takes off and lands in Canada, without an intermediate stop outside Canada,...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 187 - Fees for FAA Services for Certain Flights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appendix applies to any person who conducts a flight through U.S.-controlled airspace that does not include.... This appendix does not apply to any military or civilian flight operated by the United States... operator of a flight that takes off and lands in Canada, without an intermediate stop outside Canada,...

  13. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  14. 24 CFR 81.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 81.18 Section 81.18 Housing and Urban... (actual or prospective tenants). In determining whether a rental unit is affordable to very-low, low-, or..., and affordability determined as follows: (a) For moderate-income, the income of prospective...

  15. Comparison of predicted and actual orbital lifetimes for the SEDS-2 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents a series of estimates of the orbital lifetime of the SEDS-2 flight configuration made prior to the mission. These estimates were made with program LTIME, which has been in use at MSFC for a number of years. Because of the unusual configuration of upper-stage/tether/endmass flown on this mission, and the type of assumptions and inputs used in LTIME, the effective area used in the drag calculation had to be estimated in an unusual way. The final pre-flight predicted lifetime was 28.35 days. In the actual flight, the tether was cut approximately 5 days into the mission. The instrumented endmass plus about 12 km of tether rapidly reentered the atmosphere, and the Delta II Second Stage plus the remaining 8 km of tether reentered on mission day 60. Tracking data was used to reconstruct reentry sequences for the two parts of the configuration after the cut. The predicted lifetimes for the endmass plus tether-fragment were in the range of 0.2 to 2.8 days, depending on the perigee altitudes assumed. The predicted lifetime of the upper-stage plus tether was 56.4 days, which corresponds to reentry on mission day 61, in good agreement with the actual reentry on day 60.

  16. Digital Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Validation Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Jarvis, C. R.; Krier, G. E.; Megna, V. A.; Brock, L. D.; Odonnell, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    The experience gained in digital fly-by-wire technology through a flight test program being conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in an F-8C aircraft is described. The system requirements are outlined, along with the requirements for flight qualification. The system is described, including the hardware components, the aircraft installation, and the system operation. The flight qualification experience is emphasized. The qualification process included the theoretical validation of the basic design, laboratory testing of the hardware and software elements, systems level testing, and flight testing. The most productive testing was performed on an iron bird aircraft, which used the actual electronic and hydraulic hardware and a simulation of the F-8 characteristics to provide the flight environment. The iron bird was used for sensor and system redundancy management testing, failure modes and effects testing, and stress testing in many cases with the pilot in the loop. The flight test program confirmed the quality of the validation process by achieving 50 flights without a known undetected failure and with no false alarms.

  17. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  18. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  19. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  20. Identification of atypical flight patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing aircraft data, including multiple selected flight parameters for a selected phase of a selected flight, and for determining when the selected phase of the selected flight is atypical, when compared with corresponding data for the same phase for other similar flights. A flight signature is computed using continuous-valued and discrete-valued flight parameters for the selected flight parameters and is optionally compared with a statistical distribution of other observed flight signatures, yielding atypicality scores for the same phase for other similar flights. A cluster analysis is optionally applied to the flight signatures to define an optimal collection of clusters. A level of atypicality for a selected flight is estimated, based upon an index associated with the cluster analysis.

  1. Numerical study of insect free hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Lim, Tee Tai; Fluid lab, Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore Team

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present the computational fluid dynamics study of three-dimensional flow field around a free hovering fruit fly integrated with unsteady FSI analysis and the adaptive flight control system for the first time. The FSI model being specified for fruitfly hovering is achieved by coupling a structural problem based on Newton's second law with a rigorous CFD solver concerning generalized finite difference method. In contrast to the previous hovering flight research, the wing motion employed here is not acquired from experimental data but governed by our proposed control systems. Two types of hovering control strategies i.e. stroke plane adjustment mode and paddling mode are explored, capable of generating the fixed body position and orientation characteristic of hovering flight. Hovering flight associated with multiple wing kinematics and body orientations are shown as well, indicating the means by which fruitfly actually maintains hovering may have considerable freedom and therefore might be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements. Additionally, both the near- and far-field flow and vortex structure agree well with the results from other researchers, demonstrating the reliability of our current model.

  2. Space flight and changes in spatial orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Harm, Deborah L.; Paloski, William H.

    1992-01-01

    From a sensory point of view, space flight represents a form of stimulus rearrangement requiring modification of established terrestrial response patterns through central reinterpretation. Evidence of sensory reinterpretation is manifested as postflight modifications of eye/head coordination, locomotor patterns, postural control strategies, and illusory perceptions of self or surround motion in conjunction with head movements. Under normal preflight conditions, the head is stabilized during locomotion, but immediately postflight reduced head stability, coupled with inappropriate eye/head coordination, results in modifications of gait. Postflight postural control exhibits increased dependence on vision which compensates for inappropriate interpretation of otolith and proprioceptive inputs. Eye movements compensatory for perceived self motion, rather than actual head movements have been observed postflight. Overall, the in-flight adaptive modification of head stabilization strategies, changes in head/eye coordination, illusionary motion, and postural control are maladaptive for a return to the terrestrial environment. Appropriate countermeasures for long-duration flights will rely on preflight adaptation and in-flight training.

  3. Aerodynamic effect of alula in avian flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Jaemyoung; Park, Hyungmin; Jablonski, Piotr; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-11-01

    Alula is a small structure located at the joint between handwing and armwing of birds and has been suggested to function as a leading-edge slot. In this study, we investigated the functional aspect of alula in bird flight with experimental conditions that reflect the flow characteristics used by birds in their actual flight using magpies as the model species. The presence of alula enabled the bird to perform steeper descending flights with greater lateral angle changes. Force measurements showed that alula presence increased the lift when the angle of attack was high (higher than 20-45 deg), which resulted in the stall delay by 5 deg. The wake width was significantly thinner when alula was present, suggesting that boundary layer separation is delayed when alula is used. This result was corroborated by PIV; accelerated streamwise velocity over the wing surface was recovered faster and separation point was pushed downstream when alula was present. To conclude, the lift enhancement and stall delay by alula are closely related to the downstream movement of separation point and faster recovery of accelerated flow over the wing surface, which endows greater flight maneuverability to the birds. This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grants (2011-0030744, 2010-0009006, and 2012-K001368).

  4. Flight testing an integrated synthetic vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  5. Flight Testing an Integrated Synthetic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream GV aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  6. The Flight Track Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burn, Melissa; Carey, Jeffrey; Czech, Joseph; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Flight Track Noise Impact Model (FTNIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operations might have on air carrier operating efficiency at any one of 8 selected U.S. airports. The analyst selects an airport and case year for study, chooses a set of flight tracks for use in the case, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft by 3, 6, or 10 decibels. Two sets of flight tracks are available for each airport: one that represents actual current conditions, including noise abatement tracks, which avoid flying over noise-sensitive areas; and a second set that offers more efficient routing. FTNIM computes the resultant noise impact and the time and distance saved for each operation on the more efficient, alternate tracks. Noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to the more efficient alternate routing.

  7. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  8. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  9. Space flight hazards catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The most significant hazards identified on manned space flight programs are listed. This summary is of special value to system safety engineers in developing safety checklists and otherwise tailoring safety tasks to specific systems and subsystems.

  10. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  11. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  12. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  13. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  14. Dexterous manipulator flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    The Dexterous Manipulator Flight Experiment, an outgrowth of the Dexterous End Effector project, is an experiment to demonstrate newly developed equipment and methods that make for a dexterous manipulator which can be used on the Space Shuttle or other space missions. The goals of the project, the objectives of the flight experiment, the experiment equipment, and the tasks to be performed during the demonstration are discussed.

  15. Adaptive Structures Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Maurice

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  16. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  17. Heat pipe flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1973-01-01

    OAO 3 heat pipe flight experiments to check out weightlessness behavior are reported. Tested were a hollow channel screen system with helical grooves, a heat pipe with a wicking system of horizontal grooves, and a spiral artery pipe with multichannel fluid return to the evaporator. Flight experiment data proved that all heat pipe geometries containing wicking systems provided uninterrupted fluid return to the condensators during weightlessness and sufficient cooling for isothermalizing optical instruments onboard OAO.

  18. Design and Implementation of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment on Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, Theodoros A.; Micklos, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to better the understanding of high speed aerodynamics, a series of flight experiments were installed on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-119 and STS-128 missions. This experiment, known as the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLTFE), provided the technical community with actual entry flight data from a known height protuberance at Mach numbers at and above Mach 15. Any such data above Mach 15 is irreproducible in a laboratory setting. Years of effort have been invested in obtaining this valuable data, and many obstacles had to be overcome in order to ensure the success of implementing an Orbiter modification. Many Space Shuttle systems were involved in the installation of appropriate components that revealed 'concurrent engineering' was a key integration tool. This allowed the coordination of all various parts and pieces which had to be sequenced appropriately and installed at the right time. Several issues encountered include Orbiter configuration and access, design requirements versus current layout, implementing the modification versus typical processing timelines, and optimizing the engineering design cycles and changes. Open lines of communication within the entire modification team were essential to project success as the team was spread out across the United States, from NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas, to Boeing Huntington Beach, California among others. The forum permits the discussion of processing concerns from the design phase to the implementation phase, which eventually saw the successful flights and data acquisition on STS-119 in March 2009 and on STS-128 in September 2009.

  19. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  20. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  1. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  2. Student Parabolic Flight Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentse, N. S. M.; Ockels, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    After the successful Student Parabolic Flight Campaigns held in 1994 and 1995, the European Space Agency resumed their organisation of parabolic flight campaigns, dedicated to students of all ESA member states on an annual basis. The Student Parabolic Flight Campaigns are in order to promote microgravity research among students, tomorrow's scientists, since students can bring new ideas and initiatives to the space industry. Already four parabolic flight campaigns have flown and the 2002 student parabolic flight campaign has just flown in September. Thirty experiments are selected to fly in each campaign using the criteria of originality, demonstration of zero G, technical complexity and outreach performed by the team. Each experiment team consists of four university students. This is the chance for students to have the real weightlessness experience on board of the A300 ZERO-G aircraft. In addition, for one or two of the very best student experiments from each campaign, there will be the possibility to re-fly themselves and their experiment on ESA's Professional Parabolic Flight Campaigns. Eventually, one student experiment will be flying to the International Space Station. Conclusively, students' experiments can get fundamentally new and exciting results!

  3. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  4. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  5. D-558-2 in flight with F-86 chase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    This 1950s photograph shows the Douglas D-558-2 and the North American F-86 Sabre chase aircraft in-flight. Both aircraft display early examples of sweptwing airfoils. The Douglas D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and X-92A. Three of the single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), with its flight research done at the NACA's Muroc Flight Test Unit in Calif., redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Co. The HSFRS became the High-Speed Flight Station in 1954 and is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. The 2 in the aircraft's designation referred to the fact that the Skyrocket was the phase-two version of what had originally been conceived as a three-phase program, with the phase-one aircraft having straight wings. The third phase, which never came to fruition, would have involved constructing a mock-up of a combat-type aircraft embodying the results from the testing of the phase one and two aircraft. Douglas pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. on February 4, 1948. The goals of the program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitch-up (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards)--a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that era, particularly at low speeds during take-off and landing and in tight turns. The three aircraft gathered a great deal of data about pitch-up and the coupling of lateral (yaw) and longitudinal (pitch) motions; wing and tail loads, lift, drag, and buffeting characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic

  6. A plume spectroscopy system for flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makel, D. B.; Petersen, T. V.; Duncan, D. B.; Madzsar, G. C.

    1993-06-01

    An operational plume spectroscopy system will be an important element of any rocket engine health management system (HMS). The flight capable FPI spectrometer will enable prognosis and response to incipient rocket engine failures as well as diagnosis of wear and degradation for on-condition maintenance. Spectrometer application to development programs, such as the Space Lifter, NASP, and SSTO, will reduce program risks, allow better adherence to schedules and save money by reducing or eliminating redesign and test costs. The diagnostic capability of a proven, calibrated spectrometer will enhance post-burn certification of high value, reusable engines, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), where life and reliability are key cost drivers. This paper describes a prototype FPI spectrometer for demonstration and validation testing on NASA's Technology Test Bed Engine (TTBE) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The TTBE test unit is designed with flight prototype optics and a commercial off-the-shelf data processing system.

  7. EF2000 PIRATE test flights campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Luigi Enrico; Busnelli, Livio

    2008-10-01

    The PIRATE, short for Passive Infra Red Airborne Tracking Equipment, multi mode Infrared Sensor, has been developed and manufactured by the Eurofirst consortium. The consortium is led by SELEX Galileo, contract award since 1992, from Italy, and includes THALES UK, and TECNOBIT from Spain. At the end of the development phase, a three years flight test campaign has started in 2005, and has been carried out involving Eurofighter partner companies, as flight trials responsible, like ALENIA in Turin (FLIR flight testing leading company), BAE SYSTEM in Warton, and EADS in Manching, highlighting the functionality and the performance of the unit, when operating in real scenarios, with cooperative target and TOO (target of opportunity), across different weather conditions, like clean sky, but also misty and cloudy weather, haze and hail, generally not ideal to the infrared wavelength operation, either during tracking or imaging.

  8. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    for heat transfer research while the X-1C was intended as a high-speed armament systems test bed. All of these aircraft like the original X-1s, were launched from a Boeing B-29 or Boeing B-50 'mothership' to take maximum advantage of their limited flying time with a rocket engine. Most launches were made from the JTB-29A (45-21800). The other launch aircraft was EB-50A (46-006). X-1A The Bell X-1A was similar to the Bell X-1, except for having turbo-driven fuel pumps (instead of a system using nitrogen under pressure), a new cockpit canopy, longer fuselage and increased fuel capacity. The X-1A arrived at Edwards Air Force Base, California on January 7, 1953, with the first glide flight being successfully completed by Bell pilot, Jean 'Skip' Ziegler. The airplane also made five powered flights with Ziegler at the controls. The USAF was attempting a Mach 2 flight and USAF test pilot Charles 'Chuck' Yeager was eager. He reached speed of Mach 2.435, at a altitude of 75,000 feet on December 12, 1953, a speed record at the time. But all was not well, the aircraft encountered an inertial coupling phenomenon and went out of control. Once the X-1A had entered the denser atmosphere (35,000 feet) it slowly stabilized and Yeager was able to return to Edwards. The aircraft had experienced high-speed roll-coupling, something aerodynamicists had predicted, but this was the first actual encounter. On August 26, 1954, Major Arthur Murray, USAF test pilot flew the X-1A to an altitude record of 90,440 feet. NACA High-Speed Flight Station received the aircraft in September 1954 and returned it to Bell for the installation of an ejection seat. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made a familiarization flight on July 20, 1955 followed by another scheduled flight on August 8, 1955. Shortly before launch the X-1A suffered an explosion. The extent of the damage prohibited landing the crippled aircraft. The X-1A was jettisoned into the desert, exploding and burning on impact. Walker and the B-29

  9. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flight review. (i) A flight simulator or flight training device may be used to meet the flight review requirements of this section subject to the following conditions: (1) The flight simulator or flight training... under part 142 of this chapter. (2) Unless the flight review is undertaken in a flight simulator that......

  10. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  11. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  12. DAST Being Calibrated for Flight in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    DAST-2, a modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone, undergoes calibration in a hangar at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. After the crash of the first DAST vehicle, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II (serial # 72-1558) with the rebuilt ARW-1 (ARW-1R) wing. The DAST-2 made a captive flight aboard the B-52 on October 29, 1982, followed by a free flight on November 3, 1982. During January and February of 1983, three launch attempts from the B-52 had to be aborted due to various problems. Following this, the project changed the launch aircraft to a DC-130A. Two captive flights occurred in May 1983. The first launch attempt from the DC-130 took place on June 1, 1983. The mothership released the DAST-2, but the recovery system immediately fired without being commanded. The parachute then disconnected from the vehicle, and the DAST-2 crashed into a farm field near Harper Dry Lake. Wags called this the 'Alfalfa Field Impact Test.' These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and

  13. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than

  14. Current flight test experience related to structural divergence of forward-swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Lawrence S.; Lokos, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Flight testing the X-29A forward-swept wing aircraft has required development of new flight test techniques to accomplish subcritical extrapolations to the actual structural divergence dynamic pressure of the aircraft. This paper provides current experience related to applying these techniques to analysis of flight data from the forward-swept wing in order to assess the applicability of these techniques to flight test data. The measurements required, maneuvers flown, and flight test conditions are described. Supporting analytical predictions for the techniques are described and the results using flight data are compared to these predictions. Use of the results during envelope expansion and the resulting modifications to the techniques are discussed. Some of the analysis challenges that occurred are addressed and some preliminary conclusions and recommendations are made relative to the usefulness of these techniques in the flight test environment.

  15. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.

  16. Sexualization of Awareness: Catchy, but Does It Actually Increase Knowledge of Breast Cancer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Murray, Ashley B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, in the United States, there exist numerous public awareness campaigns about breast cancer. Many of these campaigns are highly sexualized, focusing on the breasts as an object of fun, as opposed to focusing on information about prevention/diagnosis/treatment. In spite of their popularity, it is unknown what effect they actually have on…

  17. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  18. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring...

  19. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  20. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  1. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  2. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  3. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  4. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  5. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  6. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  7. Lessons from dragonfly flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2005-11-01

    I will describe two lessons we learned from analyzing dragonfly flight using computers and table-top experiments. Part I: The role of drag in insect flight. Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. However, it is not a priori clear that insects use only lift to fly. We find that dragonfly uses mainly drag to hover, which explains an anomalous factor of four in previous estimates of dragonfly lift coefficients, where drag was assumed to be negligible. Moreover, we show that the use of drag for flight is efficient at insect size. This suggests a re-consideration of the hovering efficiency of flapping flight, which is no longer described by the lift to drag ratio. Part II. Fore-hind wing interaction in dragonfly flight. A distinctive feature of dragonflies is their use of two pairs of wings which are driven by separate direct muscles. Dragonflies can actively modulate the phase delay between fore-hind wings during different maneuver. We compute the Navier-Stokes equation around two wings following the motion measured from our tethered dragonfly experiments, and find an explanation of the advantage of counter-stroking during hovering.

  8. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  9. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  10. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  11. Calculation Method for Flight Limit Load of V-band Clamp Separation Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong

    A simplified calculation method for estimating a flight limit load of the V-band clamp separation shock was established. With this method, the flight limit load is estimated through addition of an appropriate envelope margin to the results acquired with the simplified analysis method proposed in our previous paper. The envelope margin used in the method was calculated based on the reviews on the differences observed between the results of a pyroshock test and the analysis. Using the derived envelope margin, a calculating formula of the flight limit load, which envelopes the actual pyroshock responses with a certain probability, was developed. Based on the formula, flight limit loads for several actual satellites were estimated and compared to the test results. The comparative results showed that the estimated flight limit loads appropriately envelope the test results, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. 14 CFR 375.33 - Transit flights, irregular operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.33 Transit flights, irregular operations. Foreign civil aircraft carrying... for non-traffic purposes. The navigation of foreign civil aircraft in the United States is...

  13. 14 CFR 375.33 - Transit flights, irregular operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.33 Transit flights, irregular operations. Foreign civil aircraft carrying... for non-traffic purposes. The navigation of foreign civil aircraft in the United States is...

  14. Effects of the space flight environment on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.

  15. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  16. Decision Model of Flight Safety Based on Flight Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-yu, Zhang; Jiu-sheng, Chen

    To improve the management of flight safety for airline company, the hierarchy model is established about the evaluation of flight safety by flight event. Flight safety is evaluated by improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The method to rectify the consistency judgment matrix is given to improve the AHP. Then the weight can be given directly without consistency judgment matrix. It ensures absolute consistent of judgment matrix. By statistic of flight event incidence history data, the flight safety analysis is processed by means of static evaluation and dynamic evaluation. The hierarchy structure model is implemented based on .NET, and the simulation result proves the validity of the method.

  17. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  18. Characteristics of flight simulator visual systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, I. C. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The physical parameters of the flight simulator visual system that characterize the system and determine its fidelity are identified and defined. The characteristics of visual simulation systems are discussed in terms of the basic categories of spatial, energy, and temporal properties corresponding to the three fundamental quantities of length, mass, and time. Each of these parameters are further addressed in relation to its effect, its appropriate units or descriptors, methods of measurement, and its use or importance to image quality.

  19. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  20. ATIC Flight Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Ampe, J.; Case, G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment from McMurdo, Antarctica lasted for 16 days, starting on December 28, 2000. The ATIC instrument consists of a fully active 320-crystal, 960-channel Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, 202 scintillator strips (808 channels) in 3 hodoscopes, interleaved with graphite target layers, and a 4480-pixel silicon matrix charge detector. We have developed an object-oriented data processing package based on ROOT. In this paper, we describe the data processing scheme used in handling the accumulated 45 GB of flight data. We discuss calibration issues, particularly the time-dependence of housekeeping information.

  1. Theory of flapping flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, Alexander

    1925-01-01

    Before attempting to construct a human-powered aircraft, the aviator will first try to post himself theoretically on the possible method of operating the flapping wings. This report will present a graphic and mathematical method, which renders it possible to determine the power required, so far as it can be done on the basis of the wing dimensions. We will first consider the form of the flight path through the air. The simplest form is probably the curve of ordinary wave motion. After finding the flight curve, we must next determine the change in the angle of attack while passing through the different phases of the wave.

  2. Soaring flight in Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idrac, P

    1920-01-01

    The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.

  3. C-47 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Center's Douglas R4D-5/C-47H (Bu. No. 17136) in flight, with its landing gear extended, in 1963. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) from 1952 to 1956 and flew at least one cross-country flight to the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The second R4D, used from 1956 to 1979, made many flights to the Ames Research Center, Mountain

  4. ASTRID rocket flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.

    1994-07-01

    On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.

  5. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report, AS-510, Apollo 15 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 15 flight is presented. The performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and lunar roving vehicle are discussed. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are tabulated.

  6. Optimization and simulation of flight control laws under parameter uncertainty and external disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Several tasks pertinent to flight control in parameter uncertainty and wind-gust loading were successfully completed. Identification algorithms for extracting stability and control derivatives from flight data taking gust loading into account were developed. They were verified by simulation and evaluated throughly on actual flight data taken on a Lockheed Jet Star flying in turbulence. In particular the need for automatically generated dither-like inputs was studied. Criteria for performance evaluation using stochastic models were developed for gust alleviation as well as handling quantities. Algorithms for assessing degradation in performance due to parameter uncertainty were developed and evaluated using flight test data.

  7. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  8. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  9. Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Stability Modeling at Flight Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkowicz, Matt; Johnson, Heath; Candler, Graham; Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    State of the art boundary layer stability modeling capabilities are increasingly seeing application to entry flight vehicles. With the advent of user friendly and robust implementations of two-dimensional chemical nonequilibrium stability modeling with the STABL/PSE-CHEM software, the need for flight data to calibrate such analyses capabilities becomes more critical. Recent efforts to perform entry flight testing with the Orbiter geometry related to entry aerothermodynamics and boundary layer transition is allowing for a heightened focus on the Orbiter configuration. A significant advancement in the state of the art can likely be achieved by establishing a basis of understanding for the occurrence of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter due to discrete protruding gap fillers and the nominal distributed roughness of the actual thermal protection system. Recent success in demonstrating centerline two-dimensional stability modeling on the centerline of the Orbiter at flight entry conditions provides a starting point for additional investigations. The more detailed paper will include smooth Orbiter configuration boundary layer stability results for several typical orbiter entry conditions. In addition, the numerical modeling approach for establishing the mean laminar flow will be reviewed and the method for determining boundary layer disturbance growth will be overviewed. In addition, if actual Orbiter TPS surface data obtained via digital surface scans become available, it may be possible to investigate the effects of an as-flown flight configuration on boundary layer transition compared to a smooth CAD reference.

  10. Evaluating Flight Crew Operator Manual Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot s expectations for the behavior of the avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. Researchers have attributed these "automation surprises" to the complexity of the avionics mode logic, the absence of complete training, limitations in cockpit displays, and ad-hoc conceptual models of the avionics. Complete canonical rule-based descriptions of the behavior of the autopilot provide the basis for understanding the perceived complexity of the autopilots, the differences between the pilot s and autopilot s conceptual models, and the limitations in training materials and cockpit displays. This paper compares the behavior of the autopilot Vertical Speed/Flight Path Angle (VS-FPA) mode as described in the Flight Crew Operators Manual (FCOM) and the actual behavior of the VS-FPA mode defined in the autopilot software. This example demonstrates the use of the Operational Procedure Model (OPM) as a method for using the requirements specification for the design of the software logic as information requirements for training.

  11. Materials flight experiment carrier capability and future flight experiments on Hitchhiker-M carrier program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D.

    1993-01-01

    The CMSS has designed, fabricated, and qualified a unique Materials FLight EXperiment (MFLEX) carrier. The MFLEX is a reusable materials experiment carrier designed to support a wide array of sensors that measure synergistic effects on candidate space materials in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MFLEX can be integrated on a variety of launch vehicles/carriers and multiple units can be networked to optimize the surface area of carriers such as the Hitchhiker-M currently being built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  12. Flight service evaluation of composite components on the Bell helicopter model 206L, flight service report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinberg, H.

    1984-01-01

    The flight service components for the Bell Model 206L JetRanger helicopter are examined. The components were placed in service in the Continental United States, Canada, and Alaska. The status of 34 sets of components is discussed. Approximately 27,500 flight hours were accumulated on the components as of 1 August 1983. Three sets of components and one-fifth of the exposure coupons were returned and tested. The results are given. The overall behavior of the components and associated problems are discussed.

  13. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  14. CLVTOPS Liftoff and Separation Analysis Validation Using Ares I-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Ben; Schwarz, Kristina; Kim, Young

    2011-01-01

    CLVTOPS is a multi-body time domain flight dynamics simulation tool developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for a space launch vehicle and is based on the TREETOPS simulation tool. CLVTOPS is currently used to simulate the flight dynamics and separation/jettison events of the Ares I launch vehicle including liftoff and staging separation. In order for CLVTOPS to become an accredited tool, validation against other independent simulations and real world data is needed. The launch of the Ares I-X vehicle (first Ares I test flight) on October 28, 2009 presented a great opportunity to provide validation evidence for CLVTOPS. In order to simulate the Ares I-X flight, specific models were implemented into CLVTOPS. These models include the flight day environment, reconstructed thrust, reconstructed mass properties, aerodynamics, and the Ares I-X guidance, navigation and control models. The resulting simulation output was compared to Ares I-X flight data. During the liftoff region of flight, trajectory states from the simulation and flight data were compared. The CLVTOPS results were used to make a semi-transparent animation of the vehicle that was overlaid directly on top of the flight video to provide a qualitative measure of the agreement between the simulation and the actual flight. During ascent, the trajectory states of the vehicle were compared with flight data. For the stage separation event, the trajectory states of the two stages were compared to available flight data. Since no quantitative rotational state data for the upper stage was available, the CLVTOPS results were used to make an animation of the two stages to show a side-by-side comparison with flight video. All of the comparisons between CLVTOPS and the flight data show good agreement. This paper documents comparisons between CLVTOPS and Ares I-X flight data which serve as validation evidence for the eventual accreditation of CLVTOPS.

  15. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  16. F-104 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    F-104G N826NA during a 1993 flight over the Mojave desert, outfitted with an experiment pylon under the center fuselage and wing racks. The F-104 was originally designed by Kelly Johnson of the Lockheed Skunk Works as a day fighter. The aircraft soon proved ideal for both research and training. For instance, a modified F-104 tested the reaction control jets for the X-15. The F-104's short wings and low lift to drag ratio made it ideal to simulate the X-15 landing profile, which the F-104s often undertook before X-15 flights in order to acquaint pilots with the rocket plane's landing characteristics. This training role continued with the lifting bodies. NASA F-104s were also used for high-speed research after the X-1E was retired. Finally, the F-104s were also used as chase planes for research missions. The F-104G was a late model designed as a fighter bomber for low-level strike missions. It was built for use by the West German Air Force and other foreign governments. N826NA accomplished a wide-range of research activities, including tests of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles. The aircraft made 1,415 flights before being retired. It is now on display at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  17. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  18. F-106 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Convair NF-106B designated #816 in level flight over cloud cover. This side view shows the tandem seating arrangement in the cockpit for two pilots and the relationship of the inlet to the cockpit area and leading edge of the wing.

  19. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  20. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  1. Flight performance of Skylab attitude and pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, W. B.; Kennel, H. F.; Rupp, C. C.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab attitude and pointing control system (APCS) requirements are briefly reviewed and the way in which they became altered during the prelaunch phase of development is noted. The actual flight mission (including mission alterations during flight) is described. The serious hardware failures that occurred, beginning during ascent through the atmosphere, also are described. The APCS's ability to overcome these failures and meet mission changes are presented. The large around-the-clock support effort on the ground is discussed. Salient design points and software flexibility that should afford pertinent experience for future spacecraft attitude and pointing control system designs are included.

  2. STS-111 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Flight Day 7 of STS-111 (Space Shuttle Endeavour crew includes: Kenneth Cockrell, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Franklin Chang-Diaz, Mission Specialist; Philippe Perrin, Mission Specialist; International Space Station (ISS) Expedition 5 crew includes Valery Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitson, Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer; ISS Expedition 4 crew includes: Yury Onufrienko, Commander; Daniel Bursch, Flight Engineer; Carl Walz, Flight Engineer), this video opens with answers to questions asked by the public via e-mail about the altitude of the space station, the length of its orbit, how astronauts differentiate between up and down in the microgravity environment, and whether they hear wind noise during the shuttle's reentry. In video footage shot from inside the Quest airlock, Perrin is shown exiting the station to perform an extravehicular activity (EVA) with Chang-Diaz. Chang-Diaz is shown, in helmet mounted camera footage, attaching cable protection booties to a fish-stringer device with multiple hooks, and Perrin is seen loosening bolts that hold the replacement unit accomodation in launch position atop the Mobile Base System (MBS). Perrin then mounts a camera atop the mast of the MBS. During this EVA, the astronauts installed the MBS on the Mobile Transporter (MT) to support the Canadarm 2 robotic arm. A camera in the Endeavour's payload bay provides footage of the Pacific Ocean, the Baja Peninsula, and Midwestern United States. Plumes from wildfires in Nevada, Idaho, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and Montana are visible. The station continues over the Great Lakes and the Eastern Provinces of Canada.

  3. STS-111 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    On Flight Day 7 of STS-111 (Space Shuttle Endeavour crew includes: Kenneth Cockrell, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Franklin Chang-Diaz, Mission Specialist; Philippe Perrin, Mission Specialist; International Space Station (ISS) Expedition 5 crew includes Valery Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitson, Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer; ISS Expedition 4 crew includes: Yury Onufrienko, Commander; Daniel Bursch, Flight Engineer; Carl Walz, Flight Engineer), this video opens with answers to questions asked by the public via e-mail about the altitude of the space station, the length of its orbit, how astronauts differentiate between up and down in the microgravity environment, and whether they hear wind noise during the shuttle's reentry. In video footage shot from inside the Quest airlock, Perrin is shown exiting the station to perform an extravehicular activity (EVA) with Chang-Diaz. Chang-Diaz is shown, in helmet mounted camera footage, attaching cable protection booties to a fish-stringer device with multiple hooks, and Perrin is seen loosening bolts that hold the replacement unit accomodation in launch position atop the Mobile Base System (MBS). Perrin then mounts a camera atop the mast of the MBS. During this EVA, the astronauts installed the MBS on the Mobile Transporter (MT) to support the Canadarm 2 robotic arm. A camera in the Endeavour's payload bay provides footage of the Pacific Ocean, the Baja Peninsula, and Midwestern United States. Plumes from wildfires in Nevada, Idaho, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and Montana are visible. The station continues over the Great Lakes and the Eastern Provinces of Canada.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Completion versus Accuracy Contingencies on Practice-Exam and Actual-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Renee; Williams, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Students in four sections of an undergraduate educational course (two large and two small sections) took out-of-class practice exams prior to actual exams for each of five course units. Each course unit consisted of five class sessions focusing on a specific developmental theme. Some sections received practice-exam credit based on the number of…

  5. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The lightweight structure of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing can be seen clearly in this photo from beneath the vehicle. The photo was taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights conducted in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds

  6. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The long, narrow wing design and lightweight structure of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing is clearly visible in this photo, taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered flight tests with the aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the

  7. Centurion in Banked Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Centurion remotely piloted flying wing during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar-powered aircraft

  8. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Centurion remotely piloted flying wing during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar-powered aircraft

  9. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The long, curved wing of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing is clearly visible in this photo, taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight

  10. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight-measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions made by the simulation, aerodynamic characteristics and elastic properties of the tow rope were a significant component of the towing system; and the Dryden high-fidelity simulation provided a representative model of the performance of the QF-106 and C-141A airplanes in tow configuration. Total time on tow for the entire project was 5 hours, 34 minutes, and 29 seconds. All six flights were highly productive, and all project objectives were achieved. All three of the project objectives were successfully accomplished. The objectives were: demonstration of towed takeoff, climb-out, and separation of the EXD-01 from the towing aircraft; validation of simulation models of the towed aircraft systems; and development of ground and flight procedures for towing and launching a delta-winged airplane configuration safely behind a transport-type aircraft. NASA Dryden served as the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden also supplied engineering, simulation, instrumentation, range support, research pilots, and chase aircraft for the test series. Dryden personnel also performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 into the piloted EXD-01 aircraft. During the early flight phase of the project, Tracor, Inc. provided maintenance and ground support for the two QF-106 airplanes.The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, provided the C-141A transport aircraft for the project, its flight and engineering support, and the aircrew. Kelly Space and Technology provided the modification design and fabrication of the hardware that was installed on the EXD-01 aircraft. Kelly Space and Technology hopes to use the data gleaned from the tow tests to develop a series of low-cost reusable

  11. Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) Flight Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, John M.; Haynes, Mark A.; Wing, David J.; Burke, Kelly A.; Henderson, Jeff; Woods, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that has the potential to achieve significant fuel and time savings when it is embedded in the data-rich Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. To address a key step towards the operational deployment of TAP and the NASA concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR), a system evaluation was conducted in a representative flight environment in November, 2013. Numerous challenges were overcome to achieve this goal, including the porting of the foundational Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) software from its original simulation-based, avionics-embedded environment to an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) platform. A flight-test aircraft was modified to host the EFB, the TAP application, an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) processor, and a satellite broadband datalink. Nine Evaluation Pilots conducted 26 hours of TAP assessments using four route profiles in the complex eastern and north-eastern United States airspace. Extensive avionics and video data were collected, supplemented by comprehensive inflight and post-flight questionnaires. TAP was verified to function properly in the live avionics and ADS-B environment, characterized by recorded data dropouts, latency, and ADS-B message fluctuations. Twelve TAP-generated optimization requests were submitted to ATC, of which nine were approved, and all of which resulted in fuel and/or time savings. Analysis of subjective workload data indicated that pilot interaction with TAP during flight operations did not induce additional cognitive loading. Additionally, analyses of post-flight questionnaire data showed that the pilots perceived TAP to be useful, understandable, intuitive, and easy to use. All program objectives were met, and the next phase of TAP development and evaluations with partner airlines is in planning for 2015.

  12. Quasi-satellite dynamics in formation flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkola, Seppo; Prioroc, Claudiu-Lucian

    2016-04-01

    The quasi-satellite phenomenon makes two celestial bodies to fly near each other (Mikkola et al.) and that effect can be used also to make artificial satellites move in tandem. We consider formation flight of two or three satellites in low eccentricity near Earth orbits. With the help of weak ion thrusters, it is possible to accomplish tandem flight. With ion thrusters, it is also possible to mimic many kinds of mutual force laws between the satellites. We found that both a constant repulsive force or an attractive force that decreases with the distance are able to preserve the formation in which the eccentricities cause the actual relative motion and the weak thrusters keep the mean longitude difference small. Initial values are important for the formation flight but very exact adjustment of orbital elements is not important. Simplicity is one of our goals in this study and this result is achieved at least in the way that, when constant force thrusters are used, the satellites only need to detect the directions of the other ones to fly in tandem. A repulsive acceleration of the order of 10-6 times the Earth attraction, is enough to effectively eliminate the disruptive effects of all the perturbations at least for a time-scale of years.

  13. Designing to Control Flight Crew Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Willshire, Kelli F.

    1997-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human error is a major contributing factor in aircraft accidents. There has been a significant amount of research in why these errors occurred, and many reports state that the design of flight deck can actually dispose humans to err. This research has led to the call for changes in design according to human factors and human-centered principles. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center has initiated an effort to design a human-centered flight deck from a clean slate (i.e., without constraints of existing designs.) The effort will be based on recent research in human-centered design philosophy and mission management categories. This design will match the human's model of the mission and function of the aircraft to reduce unnatural or non-intuitive interfaces. The product of this effort will be a flight deck design description, including training and procedures, and a cross reference or paper trail back to design hypotheses, and an evaluation of the design. The present paper will discuss the philosophy, process, and status of this design effort.

  14. X-38 Ship #2 Landing on Lakebed, Completing the Program's 4th Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research

  15. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  16. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  17. Planter unit test stand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  18. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  19. YF-12 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the Blackbirds, were designed by Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. They were constructed mostly of titanium to withstand aerodynamic heating. Fueled by JP-7, the Blackbirds were capable of cruising at Mach 3.2 and attaining altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet. The first version, a CIA reconnaissance aircraft that first flew in April 1962 was called the A-12. An

  20. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  1. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+<2 week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  2. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  3. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  4. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  5. UAVSAR Flight-Planning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A system of software partly automates planning of a flight of the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) -- a polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar system aboard an unpiloted or minimally piloted airplane. The software constructs a flight plan that specifies not only the intended flight path but also the setup of the radar system at each point along the path.

  6. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This DVD has several short videos showing some of the work that Dryden is involved in with experimental aircraft. These are: shots showing the Active AeroElastic Wing (AAW) loads calibration tests, AAW roll maneuvers, AAW flight control surface inputs, Helios flight, and takeoff, and Pathfinder takeoff, flight and landing.

  7. Flight crew health stabilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The flight crew health stabilization program was developed to minimize or eliminate the possibility of adverse alterations in the health of flight crews during immediate preflight, flight, and postflight periods. The elements of the program, which include clinical medicine, immunology, exposure prevention, and epidemiological surveillance, are discussed briefly. No crewmember illness was reported for the missions for which the program was in effect.

  8. Flight demonstration of laser diode initiated ordnance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Craig J.; Schulze, Norman R.

    1995-01-01

    A program has been initiated by NASA Headquarters to validate laser initiated ordnance in flight applications. The primary program goal is to bring together a team of government and industry members to develop a laser initiated ordnance system having the test and analysis pedigree to be flown on launch vehicles. The culmination of this effort was a flight of the Pegasus launch vehicle which had two fin rockets initiated by this laser system. In addition, a laser initiated ordnance squib was fired into a pressure bomb during thrusting flight. The complete ordnance system comprising a laser diode firing unit, fiber optic cable assembly, laser initiated detonator, and laser initiated squib was designed and built by The Ensign Bickford Company. The hardware was tested to the requirements of the Pegasus launch vehicle and integrated into the vehicle by The Ensign Bickford Company and the Orbital Sciences Corporation. Discussions include initial program concept, contract implementation, team member responsibilities, analysis results, vehicle integration, safing architecture, ordnance interfaces, mission timeline and telemetry data. A complete system description, summary of the analyses, the qualification test results, and the results of flight are included.

  9. Simulation Testing of Embedded Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahabuddin, Mohammad; Reinholtz, William

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Real Time (VRT) is a computer program for testing embedded flight software by computational simulation in a workstation, in contradistinction to testing it in its target central processing unit (CPU). The disadvantages of testing in the target CPU include the need for an expensive test bed, the necessity for testers and programmers to take turns using the test bed, and the lack of software tools for debugging in a real-time environment. By virtue of its architecture, most of the flight software of the type in question is amenable to development and testing on workstations, for which there is an abundance of commercially available debugging and analysis software tools. Unfortunately, the timing of a workstation differs from that of a target CPU in a test bed. VRT, in conjunction with closed-loop simulation software, provides a capability for executing embedded flight software on a workstation in a close-to-real-time environment. A scale factor is used to convert between execution time in VRT on a workstation and execution on a target CPU. VRT includes high-resolution operating- system timers that enable the synchronization of flight software with simulation software and ground software, all running on different workstations.

  10. Hyper-X Mach 7 Scramjet Design, Ground Test and Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Shelly M.; McClinton, Charles R.; Rock, Ken E.; Voland, Randy T.

    2005-01-01

    The successful Mach 7 flight test of the Hyper-X (X-43) research vehicle has provided the major, essential demonstration of the capability of the airframe integrated scramjet engine. This flight was a crucial first step toward realizing the potential for airbreathing hypersonic propulsion for application to space launch vehicles. However, it is not sufficient to have just achieved a successful flight. The more useful knowledge gained from the flight is how well the prediction methods matched the actual test results in order to have confidence that these methods can be applied to the design of other scramjet engines and powered vehicles. The propulsion predictions for the Mach 7 flight test were calculated using the computer code, SRGULL, with input from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel tests. This paper will discuss the evolution of the Mach 7 Hyper-X engine, ground wind tunnel experiments, propulsion prediction methodology, flight results and validation of design methods.

  11. Muscle Efficiency and Elastic Storage in the Flight Motor of Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Michael H.; Lighton, John R. B.

    1995-04-01

    Insects could minimize the high energetic costs of flight in two ways: by employing high-efficiency muscles and by using elastic elements within the thorax to recover energy expended accelerating the wings. However, because muscle efficiency and elastic storage have proven difficult variables to measure, it is not known which of these strategies is actually used. By comparison of mechanical power measurements based on gas exchange with simultaneously measured flight kinematics in Drosophila, a method was developed for determining both the mechanical efficiency and the minimum degree of elastic storage within the flight motor. Muscle efficiency values of 10 percent suggest that insects may minimize energy use in flight by employing an elastic flight motor rather than by using extraordinarily efficient muscles. Further, because of the trade-off between inertial and aerodynamic power throughout the wing stroke, an elastic storage capacity as low as 10 percent may be enough to minimize the energetic costs of flight.

  12. Man-vehicle systems research facility advanced aircraft flight simulator throttle mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurasaki, S. S.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Aircraft Flight Simulator is equipped with a motorized mechanism that simulates a two engine throttle control system that can be operated via a computer driven performance management system or manually by the pilots. The throttle control system incorporates features to simulate normal engine operations and thrust reverse and vary the force feel to meet a variety of research needs. While additional testing to integrate the work required is principally now in software design, since the mechanical aspects function correctly. The mechanism is an important part of the flight control system and provides the capability to conduct human factors research of flight crews with advanced aircraft systems under various flight conditions such as go arounds, coupled instrument flight rule approaches, normal and ground operations and emergencies that would or would not normally be experienced in actual flight.

  13. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  14. Development of and flight results from the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.; Baugher, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the development of and the flight results from the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) flight units used in the Orbiter middeck, Spacelab module, and the Orbitercargo bay. The SAMS units are general purpose microgravity accelerometers designed to support a variety of science experiments with microgravity acceleration measurements. A total of six flight units have been fabricated; four for use in the Orbiter middeck and Spacelab module, and two for use in the Orbiter cargo bay. The design of the units is briefly described. The initial two flights of SAMS units on STS-40 (June 1991) and STS-43 (August 1991) resulted in 371 megabytes and 2.6 gigabytes of data respectively. Analytical techniques developed to examine this quantity of acceleration data are described and sample plots of analyzed data are illustrated. Future missions for the SAMS units are listed.

  15. ATIC Flight Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment from McMurdo, Antarctica lasted for 16 days, starting in December, 2000. The ATIC instrument consists of a fully active 320-crystal, 960-channel Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, 202 scintillator strips in 3 hodoscopes interleaved with a graphite target, and a 4480-pixel silicon matrix charge detector. We have developed an Object Oriented data processing package based on ROOT. In this paper, we will describe the data processing scheme used in handling the accumulated 45 GB of flight data. We will also discuss trigger issues by comparing the measured energy-dependent trigger efficiency with its simulation and calibration issues by considering the time-dependence of housekeeping information, etc.

  16. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  17. Engineering flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine if the two-segment profile equipment, and operational procedures as defined by the B-727 Simulation Evaluation are operationally sound under all flight conditions expected to be encountered in line service. The evaluation was divided into the following areas: (1) to verify that the two-segment system operates as it was designed; (2) to conduct sufficient tests to secure a supplemental type certificate for line operation of the system; (3) to evaluate the normal operation of the equipment and procedures; (4) to evaluate the need for an autothrottle system for two-segment approaches; (5) to investigate abnormal operation of the equipment and procedures, including abused approaches and malfunctions of airborne and ground components; (6) to determine the accuracy and ease of flying the two-segment approach; (7) to determine the improvement in ground noise levels; and (8) to develop a guest pilot flight test syllabus.

  18. X-38 - On Ground after First Free Flight, March 12, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Crew members surround the X-38 lifting body research vehicle after a successful test flight and landing in March 1998. The flight was the first free flight for the vehicle and took place at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an

  19. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  20. Flight loads and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mowery, D. K.; Winder, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    The prediction of flight loads and their potential reduction, using various control logics for the space shuttle vehicles, is very complex. Some factors, not found on previous launch vehicles, that increase the complexity are large lifting surfaces, unsymmetrical structure, unsymmetrical aerodynamics, trajectory control system coupling, and large aeroelastic effects. Discussed are these load producing factors and load reducing techniques. Identification of potential technology areas is included.

  1. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  2. Infrared Thermography Flight Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.

  3. Flight Software Math Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  4. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  5. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  6. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  7. ATS-6 - Flight accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, R.; Honeycutt, G.; Lindner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) flight accelerometers were designed to provide data for verifying the basic spacecraft vibration modes during launch, to update the analytical model of the ATA structure, and to provide a capability for detection and diagnosis of inflight and anomalies. The experiment showed accelerations less than 2.5 g during liftoff and 1.1 g or less during staging with frequencies below 80 Hz. Measured values were generally within 1 g of predicted.

  8. The IBEX Flight Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, J.; Carrico, J.; Crock, J.; Cross, W.; Delossantos, A.; Dunn, A.; Dunn, G.; Epperly, M.; Fields, B.; Fowler, E.; Gaio, T.; Gerhardus, J.; Grossman, W.; Hanley, J.; Hautamaki, B.; Hawes, D.; Holemans, W.; Kinaman, S.; Kirn, S.; Loeffler, C.; McComas, D. J.; Osovets, A.; Perry, T.; Peterson, M.; Phillips, M.; Pope, S.; Rahal, G.; Tapley, M.; Tyler, R.; Ungar, B.; Walter, E.; Wesley, S.; Wiegand, T.

    2009-08-01

    IBEX provides the observations needed for detailed modeling and in-depth understanding of the interstellar interaction (McComas et al. in Physics of the Outer Heliosphere, Third Annual IGPP Conference, pp. 162-181, 2004; Space Sci. Rev., 2009a, this issue). From mission design to launch and acquisition, this goal drove all flight system development. This paper describes the management, design, testing and integration of IBEX’s flight system, which successfully launched from Kwajalein Atoll on October 19, 2008. The payload is supported by a simple, Sun-pointing, spin-stabilized spacecraft with no deployables. The spacecraft bus consists of the following subsystems: attitude control, command and data handling, electrical power, hydrazine propulsion, RF, thermal, and structures. A novel 3-step orbit approach was employed to put IBEX in its highly elliptical, 8-day final orbit using a Solid Rocket Motor, which provided large delta-V after IBEX separated from the Pegasus launch vehicle; an adapter cone, which interfaced between the SRM and Pegasus; Motorized Lightbands, which performed separation from the Pegasus, ejection of the adapter cone, and separation of the spent SRM from the spacecraft; a ShockRing isolation system to lower expected launch loads; and the onboard Hydrazine Propulsion System. After orbit raising, IBEX transitioned from commissioning to nominal operations and science acquisition. At every phase of development, the Systems Engineering and Mission Assurance teams supervised the design, testing and integration of all IBEX flight elements.

  9. Space flight visual simulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, L

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, based on the scenes of stars seen by astronauts in their orbital flights, we have studied the mathematical model which must be constructed for CGI system to realize the space flight visual simulation. Considering such factors as the revolution and rotation of the Earth, exact date, time and site of orbital injection of the spacecraft, as well as its orbital flight and attitude motion, etc., we first defined all the instantaneous lines of sight and visual fields of astronauts in space. Then, through a series of coordinate transforms, the pictures of the scenes of stars changing with time-space were photographed one by one mathematically. In the procedure, we have designed a method of three-times "mathematical cutting." Finally, we obtained each instantaneous picture of the scenes of stars observed by astronauts through the window of the cockpit. Also, the dynamic conditions shaded by the Earth in the varying pictures of scenes of stars could be displayed. PMID:11542842

  10. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  11. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  12. Flight experience with windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifel, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Windshear alerts resulting from the Honeywell Windshear Detection and Guidance System are presented based on data from approximately 248,000 revenue flights at Piedmont Airlines. The data indicate that the detection system provides a significant benefit to the flight crew of the aircraft. In addition, nuisance and false alerts were found to occur at an acceptably low rate to maintain flight crew confidence in the system. Data from a digital flight recorder is also presented which shows the maximum and minimum windshear magnitudes recorded for a representative number of flights in February, 1987. The effect of the boundary layer of a steady state wind is also discussed.

  13. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... throwover control wheel that controls the elevator and ailerons, in place of fixed, dual controls, when—...

  14. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  15. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  16. In-situ model analysis of STARS missile flight data and comparison to per-flight predictions from test-reconciled models

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H.; Carne, T.G.; Marek, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) was used to analyze STARS launch data during first and second stage flight using telemetered acceleration data. A continuous track of modal frequencies and modal damping was acquired for the first and second elastic modes of the system during first stage flight and for the first mode during second stage flight. Generally, the first mode was predicted to be lower than seen in actual flight. The second mode predictions were very close to those seen in flight. Damping values were found to be within the range estimated by ground testing or slightly less. The results from this modal analysis of launch data allowed a final quantification of the inherent bias errors which resulted from the STARS ground-based modal tests as well as pointing out structures which were in need of further test/analysis correlation.

  17. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  18. The preferred walk to run transition speed in actual lunar gravity.

    PubMed

    De Witt, John K; Edwards, W Brent; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Norcross, Jason R; Gernhardt, Michael L

    2014-09-15

    Quantifying the preferred transition speed (PTS) from walking to running has provided insight into the underlying mechanics of locomotion. The dynamic similarity hypothesis suggests that the PTS should occur at the same Froude number across gravitational environments. In normal Earth gravity, the PTS occurs at a Froude number of 0.5 in adult humans, but previous reports found the PTS occurred at Froude numbers greater than 0.5 in simulated lunar gravity. Our purpose was to (1) determine the Froude number at the PTS in actual lunar gravity during parabolic flight and (2) compare it with the Froude number at the PTS in simulated lunar gravity during overhead suspension. We observed that Froude numbers at the PTS in actual lunar gravity (1.39±0.45) and simulated lunar gravity (1.11±0.26) were much greater than 0.5. Froude numbers at the PTS above 1.0 suggest that the use of the inverted pendulum model may not necessarily be valid in actual lunar gravity and that earlier findings in simulated reduced gravity are more accurate than previously thought. PMID:25232195

  19. Shuttle orbiter flash evaporator operational flight test performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, J. R.; Behrend, A. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Flash evaporator System (FES is part of the Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem. The FES provides total heat rejection for the vehicle Freon Coolant Loops during ascent and entry and supplementary heat rejection during orbital mission phases. This paper reviews the performance of the FES during the first two Shuttle orbital missions (STS-1 and STS-2). A comparison of actual mission performance against design requirements is presented. Mission profiles (including Freon inlet temperature and feedwater pressure transients), control temperature, and heat load variations are evaluated. Anomalies that occurred during STS-2 are discussed along with the procedures conducted, both in-flight and post-flight, to isolate the causes. Finally, the causes of the anomalies and resulting corrective action taken for STS-3 and subsequent flights are presented.

  20. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View looks north at a hutment typical of several structures erected at the Muroc Flight Test Base (North Base) ca. 1943-1945. Similar structures, Buildings T-61, T-62 and T-63, lie in the distance behind T-40 - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Barracks T-40, Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 10. Credit USAF, 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Credit USAF, 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View of jet engine rotor balancing machine with engine rotor in place for balancing operations. Original caption reads "Balancing bucket wheel of jet engine, Muroc Flight Test Base, Oct. 1945"; personnel not identified. Location where photograph was taken not determined, but presumed to be in shops of Building 4505. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Perseus A in Flight with Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  3. Initial SVS Integrated Technology Evaluation Flight Test Requirements and Hardware Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Stella V.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Harrah, Steven D.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the flight test requirements for the Initial Synthetic Vision Systems Integrated Technology Evaluation flight Test to be flown aboard NASA Langley's ARIES aircraft and the final hardware architecture implemented to meet these requirements. Part I of this document contains the hardware, software, simulator, and flight operations requirements for this light test as they were defined in August 2002. The contents of this section are the actual requirements document that was signed for this flight test. Part II of this document contains information pertaining to the hardware architecture that was realized to meet these requirements as presented to and approved by a Critical Design Review Panel prior to installation on the B-757 Airborne Research Integrated Experiments Systems (ARIES) airplane. This information includes a description of the equipment, block diagrams of the architecture, layouts of the workstations, and pictures of the actual installations.

  4. The physiological basis of bird flight.

    PubMed

    Butler, Patrick J

    2016-09-26

    Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher. Species like bar-headed geese migrate at high altitudes, where the availability of oxygen is reduced and the energy cost of flapping flight increased compared with those at sea level. Physiological adaptations to these conditions include haemoglobin with a higher affinity for oxygen than that in lowland birds, a greater effective ventilation of the gas-exchange surface of the lungs and a greater capillary-to-muscle fibre ratio. Migrating birds use fatty acids as their source of energy, so they have to be transported at a sufficient rate to meet the high demand. Since fatty acids are insoluble in water, birds maintain high concentrations of fatty acid-binding proteins to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane and within the cytoplasm. The concentrations of these proteins, together with that of a key enzyme in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, increase before migration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528774

  5. Generation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Aerodynamic Data Book and Comparison To Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X.; Krist, Steven E.; Compton, William B.

    2011-01-01

    A 3.5-year effort to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (AIX FTV) is described in this paper. The AIX FTV was designed to be representative of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). While there are several differences in the outer mold line from the current revision of the CLV, the overall length, mass distribution, and flight systems of the two vehicles are very similar. This paper briefly touches on each of the aerodynamic databases developed in the program, describing the methodology employed, experimental and computational contributions to the generation of the databases, and how well the databases and underlying computations compare to actual flight test results.

  6. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  7. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  8. Dynamic flight stability of a model dronefly in vertical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chong; Sun, Mao

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic flight stability of a model dronefly in hovering and upward flight is studied. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the stability derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector used to solve the equations of motion. The major finding is as following. Hovering flight of the model dronefly is unstable because of the existence of an unstable longitudinal and an unstable lateral natural mode of motion. Upward flight of the insect is also unstable, and the instability increases as the upward flight speed increases. Inertial force generated by the upward flight velocity coupled with the disturbance in pitching angular velocity is responsible for the enhancement of the instability.

  9. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  10. Fiber optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Sandy L.

    1994-10-01

    The FOPMN is a fiber-optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications. An avionics bay protected electro-optic interface unit transmits light down fiber optic cable to an optical sensor housed in the harsh environment of a hydraulic actuator. The interface unit also receives the sensor's reflected pattern and calculates independent positions from the multiplexed signals. This paper discusses the FOPMN method for fiber-optically sensing and multiplexing two channels of position of a TEF actuator's main ram cylinder. Currently installed in NASA Dryden's SRA F/A-18, the FOPMN has accumulated approximately 15 hours of flight time. A performance comparison is made between the FOPMN positions and the flight control computer's feedback mechanism (the actuator LVDTs). Included is a discussion of some of the lessons learned as a result of testing the FOPMN in the lab and in flight. The FOPMN is well on its way to proving itself as a robust fiber optic system with the ability to multiplex numerous optical sensors for primary flight control. The success of the FOPMN leads to the second phase of the project--optical loop closure. Our goal for this phase is to have four FOPMN sensor channels on the main ram and/or the main control valve of the actuator to serve as the quad redundant feedback mechanism for flight control.

  11. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  12. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  13. The 737 graphite composite flight spoiler flight service evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The flight service experience of 111 graphite-epoxy spoilers on 737 transport aircraft and related ground based environmental exposure of graphite-epoxy material specimens is covered. Spoilers have been installed on 28 aircraft representing seven major airlines operating throughout the world. An extended flight service evaluation program of 15 years is presently underway. As of December 1984, a total of 2,092, 155 spoiler flight hours and 2,954,814 spoiler landings had been accumulated by this fleet.

  14. Flight investigation of piloting techniques and crosswind limitations using a research type crosswind landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Deal, P. L.; Champine, R. A.; Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A research-type crosswind landing gear was tested in a flight program which used a light STOL transport in strong crosswind conditions. The research-type crosswind landing gear used enabled the airplane to land to crosswinds up to a magnitude of 25 to 30 knots. Three modes of landing-gear operation were investigated: preset, automatic, and castor (passive self-alignment). Actual test data and histograms are given for the 195 'visual flight rules' crosswind landings made.

  15. Scientific experiments in the flight of the 1977 biological satellite (draft plan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The physiological, biological, radiobiological and radiophysical experiments planned for the 1977 biological satellite are described. The biological experiments will involve rats, higher and lower plants, insects and other biological specimens carried on the biosatellite. The responses of these organisms to weightlessness, artificial gravity, cosmic radiation particles and general flight factors will be studied. The radiophysical experiments will investigate certain properties of cosmic radiation as well as the possibility of creating electrostatic and dielectric radiation shields under actual space-flight conditions.

  16. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  17. Flight Mechanics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  18. The Third Flight Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    A self-shielded superconducting magnet was designed for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator Program. This is the third magnet built from this design. The magnets utilize Cryomagnetics' patented ultra-low current technology. The magnetic system is capable of reaching a central field of two tesla at slightly under two amperes and has a total inductance of 1068 henries. This final report details the requirements of the magnet, the specifications of the resulting magnet, the test procedures and test result data for the third magnet (Serial # C-654-M), and recommended precautions for use of the magnet.

  19. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  20. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  1. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  2. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  3. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  4. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  5. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  6. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  7. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  8. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  9. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  10. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  11. Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

  12. Enhanced Flight Termination System Flight Demonstration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David; Arce, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and implementation plan for the live demonstration of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) using a missile program at two locations in Florida: Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) and Tyndall AFB. The demonstration included the integration of EFTS Flight Termination Receivers (FTRs) onto the missile and the integration of EFTS-program-developed transmitter assets with the mission control system at Eglin and Tyndall AFBs. The initial test stages included ground testing and captive-carry flights, followed by a launch in which EFTS was designated as the primary flight termination system for the launch.

  13. The 737 graphite composite flight spoiler flight service evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, Randy L.

    1987-01-01

    The ninth flight service report was prepared in compliance with the requirements of Contract NAS1-11668. It covers the flight service experience of 111 graphite-epoxy spoilers on 737 transport aircraft and related ground-based environmental exposure of graphite epoxy material specimens for the period 1 Jan. 1985 through 31 Dec. 1986. Spoilers have been installed on 28 aircraft representing seven major airlines operating throughout the world. An extended flight service evaluation program of 15 years is presently underway. As of 31 Dec. 1986, a total of 3,339,608 spoiler flight-hours and 3,320,952 spoiler landings had been accumulated by this fleet.

  14. Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool - 12006

    SciTech Connect

    Messick, Chuck; Pham, Minh; Smith, Ron; Isiminger, Dave

    2012-07-01

    The Region 3 Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool is used by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), United States Department of Energy, Radiological Assistance Program, Region 3, to respond to emergency radiological situations. The tool automates the flight planning package process while decreasing Aerial Measuring System response times and decreases the potential for human error. Deployment of the Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool has resulted in an immediate improvement to the flight planning process in that time required for mission planning has been reduced from 1.5 hours to 15 minutes. Anecdotally, the RAP team reports that the rate of usable data acquired during surveys has improved from 40-60 percent to over 90 percent since they began using the tool. Though the primary product of the flight planning tool is a pdf format document for use by the aircraft flight crew, the RAP team has begun carrying their laptop computer on the aircraft during missions. By connecting a Global Positioning System (GPS) device to the laptop and using ESRI ArcMap's GPS tool bar to overlay the aircraft position directly on the flight plan in real time, the RAP team can evaluate and correct the aircraft position as the mission is executed. (authors)

  15. Propulsion Flight Research at NASA Dryden From 1967 to 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.; Conners, Timothy R.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1997-01-01

    From 1967 to 1997, pioneering propulsion flight research activities have been conceived and conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Many of these programs have been flown jointly with the United States Department of Defense, industry, or the Federal Aviation Administration. Propulsion research has been conducted on the XB-70, F-111 A, F-111E, YF-12, JetStar, B-720, MD-11, F-15, F- 104, Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology, F-14, F/A-18, SR-71, and the hypersonic X-15 airplanes. Research studies have included inlet dynamics and control, in-flight thrust computation, integrated propulsion controls, inlet and boattail drag, wind tunnel-to-flight comparisons, digital engine controls, advanced engine control optimization algorithms, acoustics, antimisting kerosene, in-flight lift and drag, throttle response criteria, and thrust-vectoring vanes. A computer-controlled thrust system has been developed to land the F-15 and MD-11 airplanes without using any of the normal flight controls. An F-15 airplane has flown tests of axisymmetric thrust-vectoring nozzles. A linear aerospike rocket experiment has been developed and tested on the SR-71 airplane. This paper discusses some of the more unique flight programs, the results, lessons learned, and their impact on current technology.

  16. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b) of...) contains requirements for flight termination rules. (b) Data loss flight times. A flight safety...

  17. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  18. Navigation systems requirement analysis for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K. H.; Chang, Ho-Pen; Wells, Eugene M.

    1990-01-01

    Navigation requirements for Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft passing through the earth's atmosphere have been studied using a 6-DOF dynamics model, an Inertial Measurement Unit model, a baseline AFE aeropass flight guidance logic, and a baseline AFE aeropass control model. The goal of this study is to determine, in a statistical sense, how much flight path angle error can be tolerated at Entry Interface (EI) and still have acceptable delta-V requirements at exit to position the AFE spacecraft for recovery. Assuming there is fuel available to produce 370 ft/sec of delta-V at atmospheric exit, a 3-sigma standard deviation in flight path angle error of 0.04 degree at EI would result in a 98 percent probability of mission success. In addition to the required delta-V at exit, other aeropass parameters such as maximum aeroheating rate, fuel consumption, and the science requirements affecting mission success are also investigated.

  19. STS-79 Flight Day 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz having completed five days of joint operations between the American astronauts and the Russian cosmonauts are seen flying solo once again after undocking from the Mir Space Station. As Atlantis/Mir flew over the Ural Mountains of central Asia, the docking hooks and latches that joined the vehicles together were commanded open and Atlantis drifted slowly away from Mir. Wilcutt then initiated a tail-forward fly-around of the Russian space station. After one and one-half revolutions around Mir, Atlantis' jets were fired in a separation maneuver to enable Atlantis to break away from Mir. On board Atlantis, the six-member crew is settling back into its normal routine with a fairly light schedule for the remainder of the day. Early in the morning as Atlantis flew over the United States, the crew took time to talk with anchors for the CBS Up to the Minute' network news broadcast.

  20. ROTEX: space telerobotic flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirzinger, Gerd; Landzettel, Klaus L.; Heindl, J.

    1993-12-01

    In early 1993 the space robot technology experiment ROTEX flew with the space-shuttle Columbia (spacelab mission D2 on flight STS-55 from April 26 to May 6). A multisensory robot on board the space-craft successfully worked in autonomous modes, teleoperated by astronauts, as well as in different telerobotic ground control modes. These include on-line teleoperation and tele-sensor-programming, a task-level oriented programming technique involving `learning by showing' concepts in a virtual environment. The robot's key features were its multisensory gripper and the local sensory feedback schemes which are the basis for shared autonomy. The corresponding man-machine interface concepts using a 6 dof non-force- reflecting control ball and visual feedback to the human operator are explained. Stereographic simulation on ground was used to predict not only the robot's free motion but even the sensor based path refinement on board; prototype tasks performed by this space robot were the assembly of a truss structure, connecting/disconnecting an electric plug (orbit replaceable unit exchange ORU), and grasping free-floating objects.