Science.gov

Sample records for actual fuel consumption

  1. Amtrak fuel consumption study

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents a study of fuel consumption on National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) trains and is part of an effort to determine effective ways of conserving fuel on the Amtrak system. The study was performed by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC). A series of 26 test runs were conducted on Amtrak trains operating between Boston, Massachusetts, and New Haven, Connecticut, to measure fuel consumption, trip time and other fuel-use-related parameters. The test data were analyzed and compared with results of the TSC Train Performance Simulator replicating the same operations.

  2. Frigate Fuel Consumption Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-20

    Report DRDC-RDDC-2014- C50 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...number. 1 . REPORT DATE 20 SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Frigate Fuel Consumption

  3. Predicting Ship Fuel Consumption: Update.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of

  4. Fuel Consumption Impacts of Auto Roof Racks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing. The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8% of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. The aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.

  5. Fuel consumption impacts of auto roof racks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-03-23

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing. The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8‰ of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. Here, the aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.

  6. Fuel consumption impacts of auto roof racks

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-03-23

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing.more » The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8‰ of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. Here, the aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.« less

  7. Reduced truck fuel consumption through aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Full-scale fuel consumption and drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor-trailer combination and a version of the same vehicle with significant forebody modifications. The modified configuration had greatly increased radii on all front corners and edges of the tractor and a smooth fairing of the modified tractor top and sides extending to the trailer. Concurrent highway testing of the two configurations showed that the modified design used 20% to 24% less fuel than the baseline configuration at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) with near-calm wind conditions. Coastdown test results showed that the modified configuration reduced the drag coefficient by 0.43 from the baseline value of 1.17 at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) in calm wind conditions.

  8. Amtrak fuel consumption study. Final report May-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents a study of fuel consumption on National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) trains and is part of an effort to determine effective ways of conserving fuel on the Amtrak system. The study was performed by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC) under the sponsorship of the Federal Railroad Administration and in cooperation with Amtrak. A series of 26 test runs were conducted on Amtrak trains operating between Boston, Massachusetts, and New Haven, Connecticut, to measure fuel consumption, trip time and other fuel-use-related parameters. The test data were analyzed and compared with results of the TSC Train Performance Simulator replicating the same operations. Results of the tests showed that the average fuel consumption for the 157.7 mile trip was 368 gallons and that the average fuel use efficiency was 277 ton-miles per gallon. Fuel consumption and fuel use efficiency were found to increase consistently with increasing train tonnage. One locomotive was also found to consume about 12 percent more fuel than the other locomotive tested. The fuel consumption and trip time results for individual runs varied between +8.0 to -9.5 and +5.4 and -10.7 percent, respectively, of the Train Performance Simulator results. However, when averaged over the ten test runs analyzed, the fuel consumption and trip time results were within 1.04 and 0.03 percent, respectively, of the simulator. Throttle notch settings and train speed profiles also agreed well with simulated results.

  9. Process for Generating Engine Fuel Consumption Map: Ricardo Cooled EGR Boost 24-bar Standard Car Engine Tier 2 Fuel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the process followed to utilize the fuel consumption map of a Ricardo modeled engine and vehicle fuel consumption data to generate a full engine fuel consumption map which can be used by EPA's ALPHA vehicle simulations.

  10. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-06-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126), temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39), pasture (n = 6, FC = 28), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5), chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  11. Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

  12. Fuel consumption of freight trains hauled by diesel electric locomotives

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, R.W.

    1983-05-01

    The cost of railway diesel fuel has become an increasingly high proportion of railway operating expenses. The paper analyzes the generation and utilization of rail horsepower in freight train operations. The effects on fuel consumption of variations in several parameters including train consist, car weight, gradient, average speed, meet strategy, throttle control, locomotive axle arrangement, and train marshalling are examined. Estimates are made of the value, in terms of fuel cost, of weight reduction of freight cars and of selective train marshalling.

  13. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC is usually modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC for various biomes and fuel categories to understand FC and its variability better, and to provide a database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 77 studies covering 11 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1 with a standard deviation of 2.2), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126 ± 77), temperate forest (n = 12, FC = 58 ± 72), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 35 ± 24), pasture (n = 4, FC = 28 ± 9.3), shifting cultivation (n = 2, FC = 23, with a range of 4.0-43), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5 ± 9.0), chaparral (n = 3, FC = 27 ± 19), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314 ± 196), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42 [42-43]), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only three measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences in FC were found within the defined biomes: for example, FC of temperate pine forests in the USA was 37% lower than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that substantial uncertainties are associated with using biome-averaged values to represent FC for whole

  14. Tracked-vehicle fuel consumption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-06

    This document describes test procedures for evaluating the fuel efficiency of tracked vehicles under controlled operating conditions. The test data are a major source for comparisons with similar vehicles, and can also serve to predict the operational range of these vehicles during tactical missions.

  15. Food consumption and the actual statistics of cardiovascular diseases: an epidemiological comparison of 42 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Grasgruber, Pavel; Sebera, Martin; Hrazdira, Eduard; Hrebickova, Sylva; Cacek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this ecological study was to identify the main nutritional factors related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Europe, based on a comparison of international statistics. Design The mean consumption of 62 food items from the FAOSTAT database (1993–2008) was compared with the actual statistics of five CVD indicators in 42 European countries. Several other exogenous factors (health expenditure, smoking, body mass index) and the historical stability of results were also examined. Results We found exceptionally strong relationships between some of the examined factors, the highest being a correlation between raised cholesterol in men and the combined consumption of animal fat and animal protein (r=0.92, p<0.001). The most significant dietary correlate of low CVD risk was high total fat and animal protein consumption. Additional statistical analyses further highlighted citrus fruits, high-fat dairy (cheese) and tree nuts. Among other non-dietary factors, health expenditure showed by far the highest correlation coefficients. The major correlate of high CVD risk was the proportion of energy from carbohydrates and alcohol, or from potato and cereal carbohydrates. Similar patterns were observed between food consumption and CVD statistics from the period 1980–2000, which shows that these relationships are stable over time. However, we found striking discrepancies in men's CVD statistics from 1980 and 1990, which can probably explain the origin of the ‘saturated fat hypothesis’ that influenced public health policies in the following decades. Conclusion Our results do not support the association between CVDs and saturated fat, which is still contained in official dietary guidelines. Instead, they agree with data accumulated from recent studies that link CVD risk with the high glycaemic index/load of carbohydrate-based diets. In the absence of any scientific evidence connecting saturated fat with CVDs, these findings show that

  16. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  17. Decreasing fuel-oil consumption through feedback and social commendation.

    PubMed

    Seaver, W B; Patterson, A H

    1976-01-01

    The energy crisis of the winter of 1973-74 led to severe shortages of fuel oil for home heating and a government request for voluntary conservation by the oil consumer. This experiment tested two methods of facilitating fuel-oil conservation. Home fuel-oil consumers were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: feedback of information on rate of oil use, feedback plus commendation for reduced consumption, or a no-treatment control. The consumption rate for the feedback plus commendation group was significantly lower than that of either the informational feedback group or the control group. The informational feedback group did not differ from the control group. The results suggest that feedback alone may not result in oil conservation, but that feedback combined with commendation can produce socially significant savings.

  18. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  19. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements for new Federal buildings and...

  20. 49 CFR 1243.3 - Report of fuel cost, consumption, and surcharge revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of fuel cost, consumption, and surcharge... QUARTERLY OPERATING REPORTS-RAILROADS § 1243.3 Report of fuel cost, consumption, and surcharge revenue... file quarterly a Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption, and Surcharge Revenue, in accordance with the...

  1. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  2. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  3. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  4. Method for reporting in-use vehicle fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from a fast-pass transient inspection.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Steve

    2004-05-01

    A method has been developed that allows reporting of the fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for in-use vehicles from a fast-pass transient (IM240) inspection. The major technical obstacle to reporting CO2 emission rate and fuel consumption is that inspection and maintenance tests do not all use a standardized test duration or test method. The method is able to project full-duration fuel consumption from IM240 tests that actually fast-passed as early as just 30 sec from starting the test. It is based on basic considerations of the work done in driving the inspection cycle, with additional empirical adjustments. The initial application examined the differences between passing and failing inspections, and this did confirm that there are significant differences.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Robert, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic CO2 emissions among countries of the world. The demand for energy in Indonesia has been growing rapidly in recent years as Indonesia attempts to modernize and upgrade the standard of living for its citizens. With such a large population (a quarter of a billion people), the recent increase observed in the per capita energy use equates to a large escalation in total CO2 emissions. However, the economy and political climate is rather turbulent and thus emissions tend to fluctuate wildly. For example, Indonesia's energy consumption dropped substantially during the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. It is likely that the recent tsunami will also significantly impact energy consumption as the hard-hit Aceh region is the largest fuel-producing region of Indonesia. Therefore, Indonesia is a country whose emissions are more unpredictable than most countries that emit comparable levels of CO2. Complicating matters further, data collection practices in Indonesia are less diligent than in other countries with more stable economies. Thus, though CO2 emissions from Indonesia are a particular challenge to model, they are an important component to understanding the total global carbon cycle.

  6. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption... the term ``alternative fuel,'' as presented in section 301 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The... having the same energy content as a gallon of gasoline. \\b\\ FY 2005 alternative fuel consumption...

  7. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Landscape fires occur on a large scale in (sub)tropical savannas and grasslands, affecting ecosystem dynamics, regional air quality and concentrations of atmospheric trace gasses. Fuel consumption per unit of area burned is an important but poorly constrained parameter in fire emission modelling. We combined satellite-derived burned area with fire radiative power (FRP) data to derive fuel consumption estimates for land cover types with low tree cover in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Australia. We developed a new approach to estimate fuel consumption, based on FRP data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in combination with MODIS burned-area estimates. The fuel consumption estimates based on the geostationary and polar-orbiting instruments showed good agreement in terms of spatial patterns. We used field measurements of fuel consumption to constrain our results, but the large variation in fuel consumption in both space and time complicated this comparison and absolute fuel consumption estimates remained more uncertain. Spatial patterns in fuel consumption could be partly explained by vegetation productivity and fire return periods. In South America, most fires occurred in savannas with relatively long fire return periods, resulting in comparatively high fuel consumption as opposed to the more frequently burning savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Strikingly, we found the infrequently burning interior of Australia to have higher fuel consumption than the more productive but frequently burning savannas in northern Australia. Vegetation type also played an important role in explaining the distribution of fuel consumption, by affecting both fuel build-up rates and fire return periods. Hummock grasslands, which were responsible for a large share of Australian biomass burning, showed larger fuel build-up rates than equally productive grasslands in

  8. Carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Ling; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Ning; Shan, Yuli; Chen, G. Q.

    2016-11-01

    The present study analyzed the consumption-based carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012. The multi-scale input-output analysis method was applied. It is capable of tracing the carbon emissions embodied in imports based on a global multi-regional input-output analysis using Eora data. The results show that the consumption-based carbon emission of Beijing has increased by 18% since 2007, which is 2.57 times higher than the production-based carbon emission in 2012. Only approximately 1/10 of the total carbon emissions embodied in Beijing’s local final demand originated from local direct carbon emissions. Meanwhile, more than 4/5 were from domestically imported products. The carbon emission nexus between Beijing and other Chinese regions has become closer since 2007, while the imbalance as the carbon emission transfer from Beijing to other regions has been mitigated. Instead, Beijing has imported more carbon emissions from foreign countries. Some carbon emission reduction strategies for Beijing concerning different goals are presented on the basis of detailed discussion.

  9. Fuel Consumption of a Carburetor Engine at Various Speeds and Torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1938-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain fuel-consumption curves for a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G and Pratt & Whitney 1340-H cylinder at varying speeds, manifold pressures, and air-fuel ratios. The 1340- H cylinder was tested at speeds from 1,200 to 2,400 r.p.m. and at manifold pressures from 21 to 38 inches of mercury absolute. Less than extensive tests were made of the 1820-G cylinder. The results of the tests showed that the minimum brake fuel consumption was obtained when the engines were operating at high torques and at speeds from 60 to 70 percent of the rated speed. The fuel consumption increased at an increasing rate as the torque was reduced; and, at 45 percent of maximum torque, the fuel consumption was 20 percent higher than at maximum torque when the engines were operating at 70 percent of rated speed. Minimum specific fuel consumption was obtained at the same air-fuel ratio regardless of compression ratio. No improvement in fuel consumption was obtained when mixtures leaner than an air-fuel ratio of 15.5 were used. The leanest mixture ratio on which the engine with the 1340-H cylinder would operate smoothly was 18.5 and the spark advance for maximum power with this mixture ratio was 50 degrees B.T.C. A method is discussed for reducing the amount of testing necessary to obtain curves for minimum brake fuel consumption.

  10. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled 'Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital' (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administration׳s International Energy Statistics (http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2) and the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset (http://www.barrolee.com). These data can be used to examine the relationships between economic growth and different forms of energy consumption. The dataset is made publicly available to promote further analyses.

  11. Fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions induced by cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-04-01

    Many cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies have been presented to improve traffic efficiency as well as road traffic safety, but scholars have rarely explored the impacts of these strategies on cars' fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. In this paper, we respectively select two-velocity difference model, multiple velocity difference model and the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations to investigate each car's fuel consumptions, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions and carry out comparative analysis. The comparisons of fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions in three different cruise control strategies show that cooperative cars simulated by the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations can run with the minimal fuel consumptions, CO, HC and NOX emissions, thus, taking the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations as the cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy can significantly improve cars' fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  12. Effects of signal light on the fuel consumption and emissions under car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yi, Zhi-Yan; Lin, Qing-Feng

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is utilized to study the effects of signal light on each vehicle's fuel consumption, CO, HC and NOX. The numerical results show that each vehicle's fuel consumption and emissions are influenced by the signal light and that the effects are related to the green split of the signal light and the vehicle's time headway at the origin, which can help drivers adjust their micro driving behavior on the road with a signal light to reduce their fuel consumption and emissions.

  13. Optimization to reduce fuel consumption in charge depleting mode

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Martini, Ryan D.

    2014-08-26

    A powertrain includes an internal combustion engine, a motor utilizing electrical energy from an energy storage device, and a plug-in connection. A Method for controlling the powertrain includes monitoring a fuel cut mode, ceasing a fuel flow to the engine based upon the fuel cut mode, and through a period of operation including acceleration of the powertrain, providing an entirety of propelling torque to the powertrain with the electrical energy from the energy storage device based upon the fuel cut mode.

  14. [Epidemiologic studies on role of nutrition in development of osteoarthrosis. Report 2. Actual consumption of food and risk assessment of their influence in development of osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N; Khodyrev, V N; Peskova, E V

    2010-01-01

    We studied the actual consumption of specific food groups of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and analyzed the nutritional risk factors for OA in case-control study. Level of consumption of all types of dairy products was significantly lower in the group of patients with OA compared with controls. The relative risk of developing OA in the consumption of less than 573 g (median) of dairy products in terms of milk increases by 5-6 times.

  15. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  16. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  17. Process for Generating Engine Fuel Consumption Map: Future Atkinson Engine with Cooled EGR and Cylinder Deactivation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the process followed to utilize GT-POWER modeled engine and laboratory engine dyno test data to generate a full engine fuel consumption map which can be used by EPA's ALPHA vehicle simulations.

  18. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  19. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  20. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2015-09-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the Composite Burn Index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire fuel structure. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  1. Uncertainties in fuel loading and fire consumption calculations and the Smoke and Emissions Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, N.; Solomon, R.; Strand, T.; Raffuse, S. M.; Craig, K.

    2009-12-01

    Fire and fuel managers often need to know how much fuel will be consumed by a fire, and how much smoke the fire will produce. Many factors influence the end result, including fuel type, loading, and moisture, quantity of live and dead fuels, terrain, and meteorology. A variety of fuel models and consumption models have been developed to help provide estimated quantities of fuel consumption and subsequent smoke production. We present results from this work, done as part of the Smoke and Emissions Model Intercomparison Project that show that the specific choice of model and model coupling can have a large effect on the final answer. We have used four different consumption models (CONSUME3, EPM, FEPS, and FOFEM) with three different fuel loading maps (NFDRS, Hardy, FCCS) to bracket the simulated results. A new web-based database viewer now allows both scientists and land and fire managers to directly compare various results by selecting a fuel loading map and consumption model. For model users interested in information for a specific fire these comparisons can be useful in understanding the uncertainties resulting from different model choices.

  2. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the composite burn index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire vegetation type. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The electricity generation and fuel consumption models of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provide forecasts of electricity generation from various types of energy sources and forecasts of the quantities of fossil fuels consumed for power generation. The structure of the electricity industry and the behavior of power generators varies between different areas of the United States. In order to capture these differences, the STEO electricity supply and fuel consumption models are designed to provide forecasts for the four primary Census regions.

  4. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  5. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  6. Measured effect of wind generation on the fuel consumption of an isolated diesel power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-06-01

    The Block Island Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island, Rhode Island, operates an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel generation and an experimental wind turbine. The 150-kW wind turbine, designated MOD-OA by the U.S. Department of Energy is typically operated in parallel with two diesel generators to serve an average winter load of 350 kW. Wind generation serves up to 60 percent of the system demand depending on wind speed and total system load. Results of diesel fuel consumption measurements are given for the diesel units operated in parallel with the wind turbine and again without the wind turbine. The fuel consumption data are used to calculate the amount of fuel displaced by wind energy. Results indicate that the wind turbine displaced 25,700 lbs. of the diesel fuel during the test period, representing a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of 6.7 percent while generating 11 percent of the total electric energy. The amount of displaced fuel depends on operating conditions and system load. It is also shown that diesel engine throttle activity resulting from wind gusts which rapidly change the wind turbine output do not significantly influence fuel consumption.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Lightweighting: Novel Mathematical Methods to Estimate Use-Phase Fuel Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Sullivan, John L; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2015-08-18

    Lightweighting is a key strategy to improve vehicle fuel economy. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting requires a quantitative description of the use-phase fuel consumption reduction associated with mass reduction. We present novel methods of estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs) from fuel economy and dynamometer test data in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database. In the past, FRVs have been measured using experimental testing. We demonstrate that FRVs can be mathematically derived from coast down coefficients in the EPA vehicle test database avoiding additional testing. MIF and FRVs calculated for 83 different 2013 MY vehicles are in the ranges 0.22-0.43 and 0.15-0.26 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively, and increase to 0.27-0.53 L/(100 km 100 kg) with powertrain resizing to retain equivalent vehicle performance. We show how use-phase fuel consumption can be estimated using MIF and FRVs in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of vehicle lightweighting from total vehicle and vehicle component perspectives with, and without, powertrain resizing. The mass-induced fuel consumption model is illustrated by estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits from lightweighting a grille opening reinforcement component using magnesium or carbon fiber composite for 83 different vehicle models.

  8. Measured effect of wind generation on the fuel consumption of an isolated diesel power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The Block Island Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island, Rhode Island, operates an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel generation and an experimental wind turbine. The 150-kW wind turbine, designated MOD-OA by the U.S. Department of Energy is typically operated in parallel with two diesel generators to serve an average winter load of 350 kW. Wind generation serves up to 60 percent of the system demand depending on wind speed and total system load. Results of diesel fuel consumption measurements are given for the diesel units operated in parallel with the wind turbine and again without the wind turbine. The fuel consumption data are used to calculate the amount of fuel displaced by wind energy. Results indicate that the wind turbine displaced 25,700 lbs. of the diesel fuel during the test period, representing a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of 6.7 percent while generating 11 percent of the total electric energy. The amount of displaced fuel depends on operating conditions and system load. It is also shown that diesel engine throttle activity resulting from wind gusts which rapidly change the wind turbine output do not significantly influence fuel consumption.

  9. Evaluations of 1997 Fuel Consumption Patterns of Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Danilo

    2001-08-05

    The proposed 21st Century Truck program selected three truck classes for focused analysis. On the basis of gross vehicle weight (GVW) classification, these were Class 8 (representing heavy), Class 6 (representing medium), and Class 2b (representing light). To develop and verify these selections, an evaluation of fuel use of commercial trucks was conducted, using data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS). Truck fuel use was analyzed by registered GVW class, and by body type.

  10. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  11. Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

  12. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  13. Vehicular emissions and fuel consumption estimation in passer IV. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, N.A.

    1995-04-01

    Gasoline consumed by vehicles traveling within urban signalized networks constitutes a large portion of the total fuel usage in the United States. In addition, pollutants emitted by these vehicles degrade urban air quality. It is well known that the optimal coordination of traffic signals on urban signalized arterials improves traffic flow and reduces gasoline consumption and vehicular emissions. The research performed in this project incorporated fuel consumption and emissions estimation procedures into PASSER IV, a program for optimizing bandwidth-based signal timings in traffic networks. The enhanced PASSER IV software will allow Traffic Engineers to better assess the impacts of alternate signal timing plans on fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles traveling in a signalized network.

  14. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  15. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  16. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Gregg, JS; Losey, London M; Marland, Gregg; Boden, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

  17. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  18. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact from an Automated Mobility District

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Qi, Xuewei; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2015-10-19

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  19. Sustainable power generation in continuous flow microbial fuel cell treating actual wastewater: influence of biocatalyst type on electricity production.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; Jaeel, Ali Jwied

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m(2) obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively.

  20. Sustainable Power Generation in Continuous Flow Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Actual Wastewater: Influence of Biocatalyst Type on Electricity Production

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zainab Z.; Jaeel, Ali Jwied

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively. PMID:24453893

  1. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  2. 78 FR 37883 - Information Collection Activities: Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption, and Surcharge Revenue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Surcharge Revenue AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: 60-day notice of request for comments and... Management and Budget (OMB) an extension of approval for the collection of the Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption, and Surcharge Revenue. Comments are requested concerning: (1) The accuracy of the Board's...

  3. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: On March 12, 2012, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued...

  4. On the actual cathode mixed potential in direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zago, M.; Bisello, A.; Baricci, A.; Rabissi, C.; Brightman, E.; Hinds, G.; Casalegno, A.

    2016-09-01

    Methanol crossover is one of the most critical issues hindering commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells since it leads to waste of fuel and significantly affects cathode potential, forming a so-called mixed potential. Unfortunately, due to the sluggish anode kinetics, it is not possible to obtain a reliable estimation of cathode potential by simply measuring the cell voltage. In this work we address this limitation, quantifying the mixed potential by means of innovative open circuit voltage (OCV) tests with a methanol-hydrogen mixture fed to the anode. Over a wide range of operating conditions, the resulting cathode overpotential is between 250 and 430 mV and is strongly influenced by methanol crossover. We show using combined experimental and modelling analysis of cathode impedance that the methanol oxidation at the cathode mainly follows an electrochemical pathway. Finally, reference electrode measurements at both cathode inlet and outlet provide a local measurement of cathode potential, confirming the reliability of the innovative OCV tests and permitting the evaluation of cathode potential up to typical operating current. At 0.25 A cm-2 the operating cathode potential is around 0.85 V and the Ohmic drop through the catalyst layer is almost 50 mV, which is comparable to that in the membrane.

  5. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (a) For the purposes of BTS schedule P-12(a), type of service shall be either scheduled service...

  6. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (a) For the purposes of BTS schedule P-12(a), type of service shall be either scheduled service...

  7. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  8. Using the Relationship between Vehicle Fuel Consumption and CO[subscript 2] Emissions to Illustrate Chemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    This instructional resource utilizes consumer product information by which students compare theoretical stoichiometric calculations to CO[subscript 2] car emissions and fuel consumption data. Representing graphically the emission of CO[subscript 2] versus consumption of fuel provides a tangible way of connecting concepts studied in chemistry…

  9. More efficiency in fuel consumption using gearbox optimization based on Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goharimanesh, Masoud; Akbari, Aliakbar; Akbarzadeh Tootoonchi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    Automotive emission is becoming a critical threat to today's human health. Many researchers are studying engine designs leading to less fuel consumption. Gearbox selection plays a key role in an engine design. In this study, Taguchi quality engineering method is employed, and optimum gear ratios in a five speed gear box is obtained. A table of various gear ratios is suggested by design of experiment techniques. Fuel consumption is calculated through simulating the corresponding combustion dynamics model. Using a 95 % confidence level, optimal parameter combinations are determined using the Taguchi method. The level of importance of the parameters on the fuel efficiency is resolved using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio as well as analysis of variance.

  10. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  11. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  12. Analysis of the CO2, NOx emission and fuel consumption from a heavy-duty vehicle designed for carriage of timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuc, P.; Lijewski, P.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements of the CO2 and NOx emission and fuel consumption recorded under actual operating conditions of a heavy-duty vehicle designed for loading and carriage of timber. The tests were performed on a specially designed test route that reflected the arrival of the vehicle to the felling site in the forest, the loading process and return to the lumberyard. The route ran through paved (asphalt) and unpaved (forest) portions. Its total length was 8.6 km. An advanced PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) device was used for the measurement of the exhaust emissions - SEMTECH DS by Sensors Inc. The paper analyses the CO2 and NOx emission and fuel consumption on all portions of the test route and presents a comparison between the forest and asphalt roads.

  13. Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft Using Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Literature Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzer, Alan J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is a major cost expense for air carriers. A typical airline spends 10% of its operating budget on the purchase of jet fuel, which even exceeds its expenditures on aircraft acquisitions. Thus, it is imperative that fuel consumption be managed as wisely as possible. The implementation of Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs at airlines may be able to assist in this management effort. The purpose of the study is to examine the literature regarding fuel consumption by air carriers, the literature related to air carrier fuel conservation efforts, and the literature related to the appropriate statistical methodologies to analyze the FOQA-derived data.

  14. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    PubMed

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  15. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  16. Study of operational parameters impacting helicopter fuel consumption. [using computer techniques (computer programs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized study of operational parameters affecting helicopter fuel consumption was conducted as an integral part of the NASA Civil Helicopter Technology Program. The study utilized the Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program (HESCOMP) developed by the Boeing-Vertol Company and NASA Ames Research Center. An introduction to HESCOMP is incorporated in this report. The results presented were calculated using the NASA CH-53 civil helicopter research aircraft specifications. Plots from which optimum flight conditions for minimum fuel use that can be obtained are presented for this aircraft. The results of the study are considered to be generally indicative of trends for all helicopters.

  17. Cold start fuel consumption of a diesel and a petrol car

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, T.C.; Waters, M.H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the fuel consumption of a petrol and a diesel car when starting from cold. The cars were the 1.1 liter petrol VW Golf and the 1.5 liter diesel version, which have the same passenger accommodation and nearly identical road performance. It was found that the diesel car used less fuel in the warm-up period than the petrol, both when being driven at constant speed on a test track and with the engine idling and the car stationary. (Copyright (c) Crown Copyright 1980.)

  18. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  19. Jet transport energy management for minimum fuel consumption and noise impact in the terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Foster, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Significant reductions in both noise and fuel consumption can be gained through careful tailoring of approach flightpath and airspeed profile, and the point at which the landing gear and flaps are lowered. For example, the noise problem has been successfully attacked in recent years with development of the 'two-segment' approach, which brings the aircraft in at a steeper angle initially, thereby achieving noise reduction through lower thrust settings and higher altitudes. A further reduction in noise and a significant reduction in fuel consumption can be achieved with the 'decelerating approach' concept. In this case, the approach is initiated at high airspeed and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The landing flaps are then lowered at the appropriate time so that the airspeed slowly decelerates to V sub r at touchdown. The decelerating approach concept can be applied to constant glideslope flightpaths or segmented flightpaths such as the two-segment approach.

  20. The methodology of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by jet-propulsion engines of a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, V. S.

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, management of propellant fuel consumption on board of a spacecraft is only associated with the operation of jet-propulsion engines (JPE) that are actuator devices of motion control systems (MCS). The efficiency of propellant fuel consumption depends not only on the operation of the MCS, but also, to one extent or another, on all systems functioning on board of a spacecraft, and on processes that occur in them and involve conversion of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by JPEs as a constituent part of the control of the complex process of spacecraft flight.

  1. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  2. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  3. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an FA-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This presentation presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA FA-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom FA-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  4. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lina; Ci, Yusheng; Chu, Jiangwei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC) was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type (c) of the vehicular operating status was illustrated to be the worst way of reducing fuel consumption, the causes were analyzed and four improvement strategies were put forward. PMID:26367012

  5. Age-related increase in food spilling by laboratory mice may lead to significant overestimation of actual food consumption: implications for studies on dietary restriction, metabolism, and dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals.

  6. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  7. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  8. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  9. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption.

  10. Cancer mortality in relation to national consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea and coffee.

    PubMed

    Stocks, P

    1970-06-01

    Comparison between the age-adjusted death rates in 1964-65 from cancers of different sites and the annual consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea and coffee as measured by trade statistics in 20 countries reveals the existence of significant correlations.Cigarette consumption per adult in the population is positively related with lung and bladder cancer in males and insignificantly with lung in females. Negative relations are indicated with the liver and biliary passages, prostate and uterus.Solid fuel is positively related with the intestine, lung and bladder in both sexes, with leukaemia in males and with breast in females. Nagative associations are indicated with the stomach.Tea is positively related with intestine except rectum in both sexes and with larynx, lung and breast in females. Negative associations are indicated with the stomach in both sexes and with uterus and leukaemia in females.Coffee is positively related with the pancreas, prostate and leukaemia in males and with ovary and leukaemia in females.Specially noteworthy were the contrasts between the intestine and stomach in their associations with solid fuel, cigarettes and tea for which a possible explanation has been suggested.

  11. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available.

  12. Thermal modeling in an engine cooling system to control coolant flow for fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Minho; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-09-01

    The design and evaluation of engine cooling and lubrication systems is generally based on real vehicle tests. Our goal here was to establish an engine heat balance model based on mathematical and interpretive analysis of each element of a passenger diesel engine cooling system using a 1-D numerical model. The purpose of this model is to determine ways of optimizing the cooling and lubrication components of an engine and then to apply these methods to actual cooling and lubrication systems of engines that will be developed in the future. Our model was operated under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode conditions, which represent the fuel economy evaluation mode in Europe. The flow rate of the cooling system was controlled using a control valve. Our results showed that the fuel efficiency was improved by as much as 1.23 %, cooling loss by 1.35 %, and friction loss by 2.21 % throughout NEDC modes by modification of control conditions.

  13. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  14. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  16. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  17. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day. PMID:25587974

  18. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  19. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  20. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  1. Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2014-11-01

    Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

  2. Peak Seeking Control for Reduced Fuel Consumption with Preliminary Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation project seeks to accomplish the simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise, and emissions. A project at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is contributing to ERAs goals by exploring the practical application of real-time trim configuration optimization for enhanced performance and reduced fuel consumption. This peak-seeking control approach is based on Newton-Raphson algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of the performance function. In real-time operation, deflection of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of a modified F-18 are directly optimized, and the horizontal stabilators and angle of attack are indirectly optimized. Preliminary results from three research flights are presented herein. The optimization system found a trim configuration that required approximately 3.5% less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the given flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These preliminary results show the algorithm has good performance and is expected to show similar results at other flight conditions and aircraft configurations.

  3. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  4. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  5. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. 291.44 Section 291.44 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... possession; (3) International operations are flight stages with one or both terminals outside the 50...

  6. On-road pollutant emission and fuel consumption characteristics of buses in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aijuan; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Fu, Mingliang; Shah, Asad Naeem; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Hong; Liang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    On-road emission and fuel consumption (FC) levels for Euro III and IV buses fueled on diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) were compared, and emission and FC characteristics of buses were analyzed based on approximately 28,700 groups of instantaneous data obtained in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The experimental results revealed that NOx and PM emissions from CNG buses were decreased by 72.0% and 82.3% respectively, compared with Euro IV diesel buses. Similarly, these emissions were reduced by 75.2% and 96.3% respectively, compared with Euro III diesel buses. In addition, CO2, CO, HC, NOx, PM emissions and FC of Euro IV diesel buses were reduced by 26.4%, 75.2%, 73.6%, 11.4%, 79.1%, and 26.0%, respectively, relative to Euro III diesel buses. The CO2, CO, HC, NOx, PM emissions and FC factors all decreased with bus speed increased, while increased as bus acceleration increased. At the same time, the emission/FC rates as well as the emission/FC factors exhibited a strong positive correlation with the vehicle specific power (VSP). They all were the lowest when VSP < 0, and then rapidly increased as VSP increased. Furthermore, both the emission/FC rates and emission/FC factors were the highest at accelerations, higher at cruise speeds, and the lowest at decelerations for non-idling buses. These results can provide a base reference to further estimate bus emission and FC inventories in Beijing.

  7. Fuel conservation for fishing vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The fuel monitoring system provided information that was sufficiently precise and generally reliable enough to be of use in making operational decisions. The curve of fuel consumption versus speed for a vessel will vary with changes in draft, trim, and bottom cleanliness. Therefore, although generalized fuel consumption/speed curves would be of value to an operator, maximum fuel savings can only be effected by applying the actual present fuel consumption, as supplied by a fuel monitor, and true ground speed, as derived by a LORAN C system, to the decision making process. The dividing line between maximum profits and minimum fuel consumption may be a fine line requiring information from a fuel monitor to assist the operator in making the proper decision. This study also addressed the relationship of engine maintenance and fuel monitoring systems.

  8. Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium in Current and Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

    2003-07-01

    A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup, and improved waste form characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium oxide fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in 233U. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly in the reduction of plutonium inventories. While uranium-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium in discharged fuel, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the 238U. Here, we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed-oxide fuel in a light water reactor. Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2, where >70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnups of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels for similar plutonium enrichments. For equal specific burnups of ~60 MWd/kg (i.e., using variable plutonium weight percentages to give the desired burnup), the thorium-based fuels still outperform the uranium-based fuels by more than a factor of 2, where the total plutonium consumption in a three-batch, 18-month cycle was 60 to 70%. This is fairly significant considering that 10 to 15% (by weight) more plutonium is needed in the thorium-based fuels as compared to the uranium

  9. Fuel Burn Estimation Using Real Track Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2011-01-01

    A procedure for estimating fuel burned based on actual flight track data, and drag and fuel-flow models is described. The procedure consists of estimating aircraft and wind states, lift, drag and thrust. Fuel-flow for jet aircraft is determined in terms of thrust, true airspeed and altitude as prescribed by the Base of Aircraft Data fuel-flow model. This paper provides a theoretical foundation for computing fuel-flow with most of the information derived from actual flight data. The procedure does not require an explicit model of thrust and calibrated airspeed/Mach profile which are typically needed for trajectory synthesis. To validate the fuel computation method, flight test data provided by the Federal Aviation Administration were processed. Results from this method show that fuel consumed can be estimated within 1% of the actual fuel consumed in the flight test. Next, fuel consumption was estimated with simplified lift and thrust models. Results show negligible difference with respect to the full model without simplifications. An iterative takeoff weight estimation procedure is described for estimating fuel consumption, when takeoff weight is unavailable, and for establishing fuel consumption uncertainty bounds. Finally, the suitability of using radar-based position information for fuel estimation is examined. It is shown that fuel usage could be estimated within 5.4% of the actual value using positions reported in the Airline Situation Display to Industry data with simplified models and iterative takeoff weight computation.

  10. The Influence on Exhaust Gas Components and Fuel Consumption of Injection of Concentrated NOx into Diesel Engine Intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    The authors inject NO into a diesel engine intake and investigate the reduction of NOx generation at the combustion chamber at first. The result shows that 20 - 30% of the injected NO (0.225 ∼ 0.72 slm) is reduced. Discussion through the calculation of the extended Zeldovich mechanism suggests that the reduction is mainly attributed to the region where equivalence ratio ranges in 1.1 - 1.5 and that the reaction between NO and hydrocarbon species slightly contributes to the NO reduction. Moreover, another experimental result shows that the injection of NO slightly improves specific fuel consumption, e.g. 0.4% at NO injection of 0.72 slm for intake airflow of 285 slm. Calculation of reaction enthalpy of NO reduction and CO oxidation considerably meets the experimental results on the change in fuel consumption.

  11. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  12. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle-Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-12-17

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes.

  13. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  14. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    PubMed

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  15. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    SciTech Connect

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  16. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  17. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  18. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed.

  19. Chassis dynamometer study of the effects of AGO detergent and ignition improver on vehicle fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Reading, K.; Evans, T.M.

    1994-10-01

    The benefits of diesel fuel additives have been demonstrated in a broad range of performance and operational areas from the refinary, through storage and distribution to fuel dispensing and vehicle operation. The object of this study is to devise a method to measure the effects of individual additives on fuel economy, at conditions representative of urban driving conditions, and to make preliminary measurements of the effects of a detergent and ignition improver. In this study a vehicle was prepared and run on a chasis dynamometer under steady-state urban cruise conditions according to a specially designed procedure. The results show that benefits in fuel economy can be gained both by using detergents in avoiding the build-up of excessive nozzle fouling and maintaining fuel injection equipment close to its design conditions - and also by using ignition improver. Changes in emissions consistent with previous studies were noted in both cases. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  1. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  2. Effects on Fuel Consumption and Diesel Engine Deposits from Nano-Particle Oil Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Products HTBCT High Temperature Benchtop Corrosion Test HwFET Highway Fuel Economy Test IF Inorganic Fullerene JP-8 A kerosene based jet fuel lbs...engine crankcase lubricants at the request of TARDEC. This additive contains inorganic fullerene -like (IF) nano- particles of WS2 which were claimed...volume and hardness change are shown in Table 4 with MIL-PRF-46167D specified limits. Table 4: Seal Compatibility Test Results Material Property

  3. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling infrastructure. Because of their high

  4. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel

    PubMed Central

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell. PMID:27142725

  5. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel.

    PubMed

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-04

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell.

  6. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell.

  7. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  8. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  9. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    F. Stodolsky; L. Gaines; A. Vyas

    2000-06-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  10. Analysis of technology options to reduce the fuel consumption of idling trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Vyas, A.

    2000-08-22

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000--3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  11. Tracked-vehicle fuel consumption. Final report on international test operations procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-18

    This document describes procedures for evaluating the fuel efficiency of tracked vehicles under controlled operating conditions. The test data are a major source for comparisons with similar vehicles, and can also serve to predict the operational range of these vehicles during tactical missions.

  12. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  13. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind

  14. The influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in NEDC test and real traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, P.; Wędrychowicz, D.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in a city passenger car. The simulations were conducted for a particular vehicle characterized by its mass, body shape, size of tires and equipped with a combustion engine for which the characteristic of fuel consumption in dynamic states was already designated on the basis of engine test bed measurements. Several designs of transmission with different number of gears and their ratios were used in virtual simulations of road traffic, particularly in the NEDC test, to calculate mileage fuel consumption. This allows for a quantitative assessment of transmission parameters in terms of both vehicle economy and dynamic properties. Also, based on obtained results, recommendations for the selection of a particular vehicle for a specific type of exploitation have been formulated.

  15. The impact of anti-congestion policies on fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and urban sprawl: Application of RELU-TRAN2, a CGE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Tomoru

    RELU-TRAN (Regional Economy and Land Use and Transportation) is a numerically solvable general equilibrium model (Anas and Liu, 2007), which treats in a unified manner the regional economy, urban land use and urban personal transportation sectors. In this dissertation, the model is extended by adding the consumer-workers' choice of private vehicle type according to the vehicle's fuel economy, by treating congestion on local roads as well as on major roads and by introducing car fuel consumption as a function of congested vehicle speed. By making the extensions, the model becomes more suitable to analyze the fuel consumption and CO2 emission consequences of urban development. The model is calibrated and simulated for the Chicago metropolitan area. By adjusting the model to the longer time span gradually, the shortand long-run price elasticities of fuel consumption are examined. As the time span becomes longer, fuel consumption becomes more elastic with respect to gasoline price, but when technological improvements in car fuel economy over comparable time spans are introduced exogenously, then the elasticity of fuel with respect to gasoline price becomes similar to that estimated in the econometric literature. Comparative statics exercises show that, if travel by auto becomes relatively more attractive in terms of travel time or travel cost than travel by public transit, then the Chicago MSA becomes more sprawled in total developed land area, whereas if public transit travel becomes relatively more attractive, then the Chicago MSA becomes more centralized. To mitigate fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, relative effectiveness of quasi-Pigouvian congestion tolls, a fuel tax on gasoline, a cordon toll around the downtown and a downtown parking fee are tested. All of these policies successfully reduce the aggregate fuel consumption and CO2. The urban growth boundary (UGB) is an alternative policy tested by the model. The UGB directly makes the Chicago MSA more

  16. Reducing Fuel Consumption through Semi-Automated Platooning with Class 8 Tractor Trailer Combinations (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.; Gonder, J.

    2014-07-01

    This poster describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's evaluation of the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning. Platooning involves reducing aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and decreasing the distance between them through the use of electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. The NREL study addressed the need for data on American style line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics and over a range of trucking speeds common in the United States.

  17. Internationally recognized guidelines for ‘sensible’ alcohol consumption: is exceeding them actually detrimental to health and social circumstances? Evidence from a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Lewars, Heather; Emslie, Carol; Gale, Catharine R.; Hunt, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background The health and social impact of drinking in excess of internationally recognized weekly (>21 units in men; >14 units in women) and daily (>4 units in men; >3 units in women) recommendations for ‘sensible’ alcohol intake are largely unknown. Methods A prospective cohort study of 1551 men and women aged around 55 years in 1988 when typical alcohol consumption was recalled using a 7-day grid. An average of 3.4 years later (1990/92), study participants were re-surveyed (n = 1259; 84.7% of the target population) when they responded to nurse-administered enquiries regarding minor psychiatric morbidity, self-perceived health, hypertension, accidents, overweight/obesity and financial difficulties. Study members were followed up for mortality experience over 18 years. Results In fully adjusted analyses, surpassing guidelines for sensible alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of hypertension [daily guidelines only: P-value(trend): 0.012], financial problems [weekly guidelines: P-value(difference): 0.046] and, to a lesser degree, accidents [weekly guidelines: P-value(difference): 0.065]. There was no association between either indicator of alcohol intake and mortality risk. Conclusions In the present study, there was some evidence for a detrimental effect on health and social circumstances of exceeding current internationally recognized weekly and daily guidelines for alcohol intake. PMID:19574275

  18. JT9D-70/59 Improved High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control System. [for specific fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT9D-70/59 high pressure turbine active clearance control system was modified to provide reduction of blade tip clearance when the system is activated during cruise operation. The modification increased the flow capacity and air impingement effectiveness of the cooling air manifold to augment turbine case shrinkage capability, and increased responsiveness of the airseal clearance to case shrinkage. The simulated altitude engine testing indicated a significant improvement in specific fuel consumption with the modified system. A 1000 cycle engine endurance test showed no unusual wear or performance deterioration effects on the engine or the clearance control system. Rig tests indicated that the air impingement and seal support configurations used in the engine tests are near optimum.

  19. The Effect of Fuel Consumption on Cylinder Temperatures and Performance of a Cowled Wright J-5 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W

    1929-01-01

    Given here are the results of tests made to determine the effect of fuel consumption on the cylinder temperatures and the performance of a cowled Wright J-5 engine. The results of these tests indicate that enriching the mixture by increasing the carburetor size results in a reduction in cylinder head and barrel temperatures. The cylinders shielded by the magnetos or the points on the cylinder that do not receive a free flow of cooling air increase most rapidly in temperature as the mixture is leaned. A free flow of air past the cylinders is essential for satisfactory operation on a lean mixture. The results of these tests show that the Wright J-5 engine can withstand severe temperatures for short periods of operation. The test results also show to what extent destructive temperatures may be avoided by enriching the mixture.

  20. Trajectory Optimization Using Adjoint Method and Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation for Minimizing Fuel Consumption During Climb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hornby, Gregory; Ishihara, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes two methods of trajectory optimization to obtain an optimal trajectory of minimum-fuel- to-climb for an aircraft. The first method is based on the adjoint method, and the second method is based on a direct trajectory optimization method using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation and cubic spine approximation. The approximate optimal trajectory will be compared with the adjoint-based optimal trajectory which is considered as the true optimal solution of the trajectory optimization problem. The adjoint-based optimization problem leads to a singular optimal control solution which results in a bang-singular-bang optimal control.

  1. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  2. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G.D.; Christian, J.E.; Mixon, W.R.; Jackson, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes the procedures and data sources used to develop an energy-consumption and system-cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total-energy systems in the nonindustrial building market. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings - office buildings, retail stores, hotels and motels, schools, hospitals, and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system. The systems were simulated for a single building size for each building type. Methods were developed to extrapolate the system cost and performance data to other building sizes.

  3. Aerodynamic Improvements of an Empty Timber Truck can Have the Potential of Significantly Reducing Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Marashi, Seyedeh Sepideh; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, aerodynamic drag (AD) has been estimated for an empty and a fully loaded conceptual timber truck (TT) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The increasing fuel prices have challenged heavy duty vehicle (HDV) manufactures to strive for better fuel economy, by e.g. utilizing drag reducing external devices. Despite this knowledge, the TT fleets seem to be left in the dark. Like HDV aerodynamics, similarities can be observed as a large low pressure wake is formed behind the tractor (unloaded) and downstream of the trailer (full load) thus generating AD. As TTs travel half the time without any cargo, focus on drag reduction is important. The full scaled TTs where simulated using the realizable k-epsilon model with grid adaption techniques for mesh independence. Our results indicate that a loaded TT reduces the AD significantly as both wake size and turbulence kinetic energy are lowered. In contrast to HDV the unloaded TTs have a much larger design space available for possible drag reducing devices, e.g. plastic wrapping and/or flaps. This conceptual CFD study has given an indication of the large AD difference between the unloaded and fully loaded TT, showing the potential for significant AD improvements.

  4. LXRα fuels fatty acid-stimulated oxygen consumption in white adipocytes[S

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Lea; Bugge, Anne; Collins, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors known for their role in hepatic cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Though highly expressed in fat, the role of LXR in this tissue is not well characterized. We generated adipose tissue LXRα knockout (ATaKO) mice and showed that these mice gain more weight and fat mass on a high-fat diet compared with wild-type controls. White adipose tissue (WAT) accretion in ATaKO mice results from both a decrease in WAT lipolytic and oxidative capacities. This was demonstrated by decreased expression of the β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors, reduced level of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase, and lower oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) in WAT of ATaKO mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in vivo and in vitro led to decreased adipocyte size in WAT and increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes, respectively, with a concomitant increase in OCR in both models. Our findings show that absence of LXRα in adipose tissue results in elevated adiposity through a decrease in WAT oxidation, secondary to attenuated FA availability. PMID:24259533

  5. Trends in the size distribution, highway use, and consumption of gasoline and diesel fuels of the U.S. Commercial Truck Fleet, 1977-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Vyas, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002, 1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends by using U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census Vehicle/Truck Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS/TIUS) data from this period, as well as selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Highway Statistics. Analyses are made of (1) overall passenger vehicle versus truck consumption patterns of gasoline and diesel fuel and (2) the population growth and fuels used by all commercial truck classes and selected truck types (single unit and combination). Selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-miles traveled trends, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption, are also assessed. In addition, long-range trends of related factors (such as long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on both reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes were examined. Results of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption are identified. The effects of basic engineering design and performance, national Interstate highway construction legislation, national demographic trends (such as suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operational requirements are discussed. Their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry are highlighted.

  6. Thermophysical and Corrosion Characteristics of the Actual and Potential Fuel-Element Jackets of Light-Water Reactors in the Case of an Accident with Coolant Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyuk, S. S.; Kiselev, D. S.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Mokrushin, A. A.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Fedik, I. I.

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion tests were carried out and experimental data are presented on the characteristics of steam-phase oxidation of fuel-element jackets made from an É110G zirconium alloy and vacuum-melted molybdenum in a temperature range of up to 1400°C at atmospheric pressure. The shut-down cooling characteristics on repeated flooding of model fuel assemblies of large-scale stands with fuel elements simulators having jackets made from various standard materials and those from a promising molybdenum one are compared. It is shown that interaction of steam with zirconium alloy is more intense than with molybdenum. At the present time the data on molybdenum are limited.

  7. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  8. Oxygen consumption and filtering rate of Daphnia Pulex after exposure to water-soluble fractions of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.G.; Buikema, A.L.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of short-term exposure to water-soluble fractions (WSF) of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote upon oxygen consumption and filtering rates of Daphnia pulex are examined. Approximately 60 young Daphnia were exposed to test solutions of LC20 and LC30 concentrations of WSF for at least three molt cycles. Oxygen consumption was determined by the azide modification of the Winkler Method (American Public Health Association et al. 1975). Algal counts were made for experimental and control bottles using an Electrozone electronic particle counter interfaced with a PDP-11 minicomputer. Filtering rates were computed and expressed as ml/Daphnia/day. Results indicate no significant differences in oxygen consumption rates. However, changes in filtering rates may be a sensitive indicator of sublethal stress. 3 tables (JMT)

  9. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  10. Peak-Seeking Control For Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results For The Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed FA-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. This presentation also focuses on the design of the flight experiment and the practical challenges of conducting the experiment.

  11. Exploring the Reduction of Fuel Consumption for Ship-to-Shore Connectors of the Marine Expeditionary Brigade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    developing world. The Marine Corps must prepare itself to operate without the benefit of readily available fossil fuels and supplies shipped in by trucks ...itself to operate without the benefit of readily available fossil fuels and supplies shipped in by trucks or home-based supply lines. As demonstrated in...resulted in a MEB fighting force that is dependent upon extensive amounts of fossil fuels. Whether provided by truck , plane, or 3 ship, the

  12. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR...) Each air carrier shall maintain records for each station showing the computation of fuel inventories... other than Jet A fuel, a footnote shall be added indicating the number of gallons and applicable...

  13. What Is the Actual Local Crystalline Structure of Uranium Dioxide, UO2? A New Perspective for the Most Used Nuclear Fuel.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, L; Ma, Y; Garcia, Ph; Baldinozzi, G; Siméone, D; Fischer, H E

    2017-01-03

    Up to now, uranium dioxide, the most used nuclear fuel, was said to have a Fm3̅m crystalline structure from 30 to 3000 K, and its behavior was modeled under this assumption. However, recently X-ray diffraction experiments provided atomic pair-distribution functions of UO2, in which UO distance was shorter than the expected value for the Fm3̅m space group. Here we show neutron diffraction results that confirm this shorter UO bond, and we also modeled the corresponding pair-distribution function showing that UO2 has a local Pa3̅ symmetry. The existence of a local lower symmetry in UO2 could explain some unexpected properties of UO2 that would justify UO2 modeling to be reassessed. It also deserves more study from an academic point of view because of its good thermoelectric properties that may originate from its particular crystalline structure.

  14. Do biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediate educational inequalities in stillbirth risk? An analysis of the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Näyhä, Simo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have explored the association between educational inequalities and stillbirth but most have failed to elaborate how low educational attainment leads to an increased risk of stillbirth. We hypothesised that use of biomass fuels and consumption of unsafe water related to low educational attainment could explain the stillbirth burden in Ghana attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods Data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey, a nationally representative population-based survey were analysed for this study. Of the10 370 women aged 15–49 years interviewed via structured questionnaires for the survey, 7183 primiparous and multiparous women qualified for inclusion in the present study. Results In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for age, area of residence, marital status and ethnicity of women, lower maternal primary education was associated with a 62% (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.52) increased lifetime risk of stillbirth. Biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediated 18% and 8% of the observed effects, respectively. Jointly these two exposures explained 24% of the observed effects. The generalised additive modelling revealed a very flat inverted spoon-shaped smoothed curve which peaked at low levels of schooling (2–3 years) and confirms the findings from the logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Our results show that biomass fuel use and unsafe water consumption could be important pathways through which low maternal educational attainment leads to stillbirths in Ghana and similar developing countries. Addressing educational inequalities in developing countries is thus essential for ensuring household choices that curtail environmental exposures and help improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:28174221

  15. Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

  16. The potential effect of future energy-efficiency and emissions-improving technologies on fuel consumption of heavy trucks.

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Saricks, C.; Stodolsky, F.

    2003-03-14

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory analyzed heavy-duty truck technologies to support the Energy Information Administration's long-term energy use projections. Researchers conducted an analysis of several technology options that have potential to improve heavy truck fuel economy and emissions characteristics. The technologies are grouped as fuel-economy-enhancing and emissions-improving. Each technology's potential impact on heavy truck fuel economy has been estimated, as has the cost of implementation. The extent of technology penetration is estimated on the basis of truck data analyses and technical judgment.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  18. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole.

  19. The Evaluation of the Impact of New Technologies for Different Powertrain Medium-Duty Trucks on Fuel Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Michael; Prohaska, Robert

    2016-09-27

    In this paper, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory present the results of simulation studies to evaluate potential fuel savings as a result of improvements to vehicle rolling resistance, coefficient of drag, and vehicle weight as well as hybridization for four powertrains for medium-duty parcel delivery vehicles. The vehicles will be modeled and simulated over 1,290 real-world driving trips to determine the fuel savings potential based on improvements to each technology and to identify best use cases for each platform. The results of impacts of new technologies on fuel saving will be presented, and the most favorable driving routes on which to adopt them will be explored.

  20. The Evaluation of the Impact of New Technologies for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Trucks on Fuel Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Michael; Prohaska, Robert

    2016-10-06

    In this paper, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory present the results of simulation studies to evaluate potential fuel savings as a result of improvements to vehicle rolling resistance, coefficient of drag, and vehicle weight as well as hybridization for four power trains for medium-duty parcel delivery vehicles. The vehicles will be modeled and simulated over 1,290 real-world driving trips to determine the fuel savings potential based on improvements to each technology and to identify best use cases for each platform. The results of impacts of new technologies on fuel saving will be presented, and the most favorable driving routes on which to adopt them will be explored.

  1. History of fuel consumption inferred from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the south Lianhuan Lake, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants of global concern. The current study uses differences in PAH profiles in 1 cm core sediment samples from south Lianhuan Lake, Heilongjiang Province, China to evaluate historical changes in fuel sources. Individual core segments were dated using (137)Cs techniques and concentrations of 16 priority PAHs were measured. Principal components analysis with multivariate linear regression and PAH profiles of specific combustion sources were used to identify historical fuel use. During the early 1940s to the early 1970s, PAHs concentrations increases with the increased combustion of coal, and relatively high petroleum source could be linked to the establishment of the Daqing Oil Field. The source apportionment suggested that coal combustion replaced wood burning and became the dominant fuel since the 1940s and petroleum source increased. These results were coincidence with the rapid economic growth occurring in China.

  2. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  3. The effect of exhaust-to-coolant heat transfer on warm-up time and fuel consumption of two automobile engines

    SciTech Connect

    Goettler, H.J.; Vidger, L.J.; Majkrzak

    1986-01-01

    A 1977 Buick V-6 engine and a 1981 Ford Granada automobile were equipped with heat exchangers to transfer energy from the exhaust gases to the cooling water after cold starts in order to shorten engine warm-up periods and improve fuel economy. A parallel concern was the time required to reach satisfactory heat delivery to the passenger compartment. The Buick engine was investigated in the laboratory. The Ford automobile was tested during driving over a 12.4 km length of freeway and over an 8.6 km test route including both in-town and highway segments. Prior to each test run the engines were exposed to ambient air for at least 8 hours at temperatures ranging from -26/sup 0/C to +2/sup 0/C. The use of the heat exchangers resulted in average reductions of fuel consumption of 2.8% during a 7 minute warm-up period for the engine, and of 2.2% for the automobile when tested on the above test routes. The corresponding times for the coolant in the automobile compartment heater to reach maximum temperature were reduced by 16% and 7%. While fuel savings were achieved, their economic value is questionable, particularly in light of a possible retrofit of an existing automobile with an exhaust-to-coolant heat exchanger and the necessary control equipment.

  4. Planning Strategies for Transportation Fuel Consumption Reduction: An Evaluation of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative’s Transportation Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    technologies to improve fleet efficiency goals, and evaluate switching to biodiesel for trucks and vehicles without other alternatives (HCEI 2011...standards and biodiesel usage levels 2020 Goal 50 MGY of renewable fuels 28 working with industry to increase EV market penetration, and...Strategy Reduction Potential Purchase more efficient vehicles 10-20% Promote hybrid technologies 10-20% Evaluate biodiesel switching (freight) TBD

  5. Alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askew, W. S.; McNamara, T. M.; Maxfield, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The commercialization of alternative fuels is analyzed. Following a synopsis of US energy use, the concept of commercialization, the impacts of supply shortages and demand inelasticity upon commercialization, and the status of alternative fuels commercialization to date in the US are discussed. The US energy market is viewed as essentially numerous submarkets. The interrelationship among these submarkets precludes the need to commercialize for a specific fuel/use. However, the level of consumption, the projected growth in demand, and the inordinate dependence upon foreign fuels dictate that additional fuel supplies in general be brought to the US energy marketplace. Commercialization efforts encompass a range of measures designed to accelerate the arrival of technologies or products in the marketplace. As discussed in this paper, such a union of willing buyers and willing sellers requires that three general conditions be met: product quality comparable to existing products; price competitiveness; and adequate availability of supply. Product comparability presently appears to be the least problematic of these three requirements. Ethanol/gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends, for example, demonstrate the fact that alternative fuel technologies exist. Yet price and availability (i.e., production capacity) remain major obstacles. Given inelasticity (with respect to price) in the US and abroad, supply shortages - actual or contrived - generate upward price pressure and should make once-unattractive alternative fuels more price competitive. It is noted, however, that actual price competitiveness has been slow to occur and that even with price competitiveness, the lengthy time frame needed to achieve significant production capacity limits the near-term impact of alternative fuels.

  6. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B. T.; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L.; Albuquerque, Ulysses P.

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP ( Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  7. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-04

    tactical ground mobility and increasing operational reach • Identify, review, and assess – Technologies for reducing fuel consumption, including...T I O N S A C T I O N S TOR Focus - Tactical ground mobility - Operational reach - Not A/C, Ships, or troops Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Management...Fuel Management During Combat Operations Energy Fundamentals • Energy Density • Tactical Mobility • Petroleum Use • Fuel Usage (TWV) • TWV OP TEMPO TOR

  8. Sectoral CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Nagpur City of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Gajghate, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Emission inventory of CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 has been prepared for Nagpur city in Central India for the year 2004. Data on fossil fuel (coal, light diesel oil, high speed diesel, petrol/gasoline, low sulphur heavy stock, furnace oil and kerosene) consumption in thermal power, industrial, transport and domestic sectors were collected. Thermal power sector had the maximum coal consumption followed by the industrial and domestic sectors, whereas kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline were used only in any single sector. Total annual CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from these fuels in Nagpur city for the year 2004 was found to be 14792418 MT (14.8 Tg), 4649 (4.6 Tg), 1529 (1.5 Tg) and 69093 (6.9 Tg), respectively, in which thermal power and domestic sector had the maximum share. Coal was found to be the major contributor to Green House Gas (GHG) and SO 2 emissions in all the sectors barring transport and domestic sectors. Carbon dioxide was the predominant GHG emitted by the selected sectors in terms of absolute emissions and also global warming contribution (GWC), though the share in the latter was lesser in magnitude due to higher global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O than CO 2. Thermal power sector had a share of 51% in total CO 2 emissions from all the sectors, followed by domestic, industrial and transport sectors having 27, 12 and 10% contributions, respectively. Share of thermal power sector in total SO 2 emissions was 61%, followed by 24% from industrial, 10% from domestic and 5% from transport sector.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Lightweighting: A Physics-Based Model To Estimate Use-Phase Fuel Consumption of Electrified Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J

    2016-10-18

    Assessing the life-cycle benefits of vehicle lightweighting requires a quantitative description of mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs). We have extended our physics-based model of MIF and FRVs for internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to electrified vehicles (EVs) including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). We illustrate the utility of the model by calculating MIFs and FRVs for 37 EVs and 13 ICEVs. BEVs have much smaller MIF and FRVs, both in the range 0.04-0.07 Le/(100 km 100 kg), than those for ICEVs which are in the ranges 0.19-0.32 and 0.16-0.22 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively. The MIF and FRVs for HEVs and PHEVs mostly lie between those for ICEVs and BEVs. Powertrain resizing increases the FRVs for ICEVs, HEVs and PHEVs. Lightweighting EVs is less effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions than lightweighting ICEVs, however the benefits differ substantially for different vehicle models. The physics-based approach outlined here enables model specific assessments for ICEVs, HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs required to determine the optimal strategy for maximizing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting the light-duty vehicle fleet.

  10. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  11. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  12. Estimated performance of an adaptive trailing-edge device aimed at reducing fuel consumption on a medium-size aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodati, Gianluca; Concilio, Antonio; Ricci, Sergio; De Gaspari, Alessandro; Huvelin, Fabien; Dumont, Antoine; Godard, Jean-Luc

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the performance of a medium-size aircraft (3-hour flight range) equipped with an adaptive trailing edge device (ATED) that runs span-wise from the wing root in the flap zone and extends chord-wise for a limited percentage of the MAC. Computations are calculated referring to the full wing and do not refer to the complete aircraft configuration. Aerodynamic computations, taking into account ideal shapes, have been performed by using both Euler and Navier- Stokes method in order to extract the wing polars for the reference and the optimal wing, implementing an ATED, deflected upwards and downwards. A comparison of the achieved results is discussed. Considering the shape domain, a suitable interpolation procedure has been set up to obtain the wing polar envelop of the adaptive wing, intended as the set of "best" values, picked by each different polar. At the end, the performances of the complete reference and adaptive wing are computed and compared for a symmetric, centered, leveled and steady cruise flight for a medium size aircraft. A significant fuel burn reduction estimate or, alternatively, an increased range capability is demonstrated, with margins of further improvements. The research leading to these results has gratefully received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007- 2013) under Grant Agreement n° 284562.

  13. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg

    2008-04-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  14. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  15. Developing a high-resolution vehicular emission inventory by integrating an emission model and a traffic model: Part 1--Modeling fuel consumption and emissions based on speed and vehicle-specific power.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikun; Fu, Lixin

    2010-12-01

    To improve the accuracy and applicability of vehicular emission models, this study proposes a speed and vehicle-specific power (VSP) modeling method to estimate vehicular emissions and fuel consumption using data gathered by a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). The PEMS data were categorized into discrete speed-VSP bins on the basis of the characteristics of vehicle driving conditions and emissions in Chinese cities. Speed-VSP modal average rates of emissions (or fuel consumption) and the time spent in the corresponding speed-VSP bins were then used to calculate the total trip emissions (or fuel consumption) and emission factors (or fuel economy) under specific average link speeds. The model approach was validated by comparing it against measured data with prediction errors within 20% for trip emissions and link-speed-based emission factors. This analysis is based on the data of light-duty gasoline vehicles in China; however, this research approach could be generalized to other vehicle fleets in other countries. This modeling method could also be coupled with traffic demand models to establish high-resolution emissions inventories and evaluate the impacts of traffic-related emission control measures.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  17. [Fire behavior of Quercus mongolica leaf litter fuelbed under zero-slope and no-wind conditions. II. Analysis and modelling of fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2013-12-01

    Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) is an important constructive and accompanying species in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Northeast China, In this paper, a laboratory burning experiment was conducted under zero-slope and no-wind conditions to study the effects of fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness on the fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency of the Mongolian oak leaf litter fuelbed. The fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness all had significant effects on the three fire behavior indices, and there existed interactions between these three affecting factors. Among the known models, the Byram model could be suitable for the prediction of local leaf litter fire intensity only after re-parameterization. The re-estimated alpha and beta parameters of the re-parameterized Byram model were 98.009 and 1.099, with an adjusted determination coefficient of 0.745, the rooted mean square error (RMSE) of 8.676 kW x m(-1), and the mean relative error (MRE) of 21%, respectively (R2 = 0.745). The re-estimated a and b by the burning efficiency method proposed by Albini were 0.069 and 0.169, and the re-estimated values were all higher than 93%, being mostly overestimated. The Consume model had a stronger suitability for the fuel. The R2 of the general linear models established for fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and burning efficiency was 0.82, 0.73 and 0.53, and the RMSE was 8.266 kW x m(-1) 0.081 kg x m(-2), and 0.203, respectively. In low intensity surface fires, the fine fuels could not be completely consumed, and thus, to consider the leaf litter and fine fuel in some forest ecosystems being completely consumed would overestimate the carbon release from forest fires.

  18. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  19. A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    LITZKE,W.

    2004-08-01

    Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

  20. Technical documentation for the nonresidential-buildings energy-consumption survey, 1979 - 1980, building characteristics, energy end use and fuel oil tank data, public use data tapes: Users' guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    Basic information and technical specifications necessary for using machine readable magnetic tapes containing the building characteristics, energy end use and fuel oil tank data Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS) are provided. Included in this document are a brief overview of the NBECS, technical specifications for reading the tapes and descriptions of the contents of each of the files contained on the tape. The remaining sections are devoted to technical topics of special interest to users of the data. Appended to this document are copies of the questionnaire used in the survey, a listing of the contents of the SPSS labels file, COBOL file description and TPL codebook.

  1. Forecast of future aviation fuels: The model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayati, M. B.; Liu, C. Y.; English, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual models of the commercial air transportation industry is developed which can be used to predict trends in economics, demand, and consumption. The methodology is based on digraph theory, which considers the interaction of variables and propagation of changes. Air transportation economics are treated by examination of major variables, their relationships, historic trends, and calculation of regression coefficients. A description of the modeling technique and a compilation of historic airline industry statistics used to determine interaction coefficients are included. Results of model validations show negligible difference between actual and projected values over the twenty-eight year period of 1959 to 1976. A limited application of the method presents forecasts of air tranportation industry demand, growth, revenue, costs, and fuel consumption to 2020 for two scenarios of future economic growth and energy consumption.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  3. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-02-17

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell.

  4. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  5. Fuel gas from biodigestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. C.; Wolverton, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Biodigestion apparatus produces fuel gas (primarily methane) for domestic consumption, by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic matter such as aquatic vegetation. System includes 3,786-1 cylindrical container, mechanical agitator, and simple safe gas collector for short term storage.

  6. The combined effect of reduced fossil fuel consumption and increasing biomass combustion on Athens' air quality, as inferred from long term CO measurements.

    PubMed

    Gratsea, Myrto; Liakakou, Eleni; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Adamopoulos, Anastasios; Tsilibari, Eirini; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos

    2017-03-14

    To evaluate the role of biomass burning emissions, and in particular of residential wood heating, as a result of the economic recession in Greece, carbon monoxide (CO) atmospheric concentrations from five (5) stations of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network in Athens, spanning the period 2000-2015, in conjunction with black carbon (BC) concentrations from the NOA (National Observatory of Athens) station at Thissio were analysed. The contribution of the different sources to the diurnal cycle of these two pollutants is clear, resulting to a morning peak, mainly due to traffic, and a late evening peak attributed both to fossil fuel (traffic plus central heating) and biomass combustion. Calculated morning and evening integrals of CO peaks, for the investigated period, show consistent seasonal modulations, characterised by low summer and high winter values. The summer and winter morning CO peak integrals demonstrate an almost constant decreasing trend of CO concentrations over time (by almost 50% since 2000), attributed to the renewal of passenger car fleet and to reduced anthropogenic activities during the last years. On the other hand, an increase of 23%-78% (depending on the monitoring site) in the winter evening integrals since 2012, provides evidence of the significant contribution of biomass combustion, which has prevailed over fossil fuel for domestic heating. CO emitted by wood burning was found to contribute almost 50% to the total CO emissions during night time (16:00-5:00), suggesting that emissions from biomass combustion have gained an increasing role in atmospheric pollution levels in Athens.

  7. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  8. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  11. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  12. Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.

  13. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, C.; Liousse, C.

    2008-03-01

    Country by country emission inventories for carbonaceous aerosol for the period 1860 to 1997 have been constructed on the basis of historic fuel production, use and trade data sets published by the United Nation's Statistical Division UNSTAT (1997), Etemad et al. (1991) and Mitchell (1992, 1993, 1995). The inventories use emission factors variable over time, which have been determined according to changes in technological development. The results indicate that the industrialisation period since 1860 was accompanied by a steady increase in black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC) emissions up to 1910. The calculations show a moderate decrease of carbonaceous aerosol emissions between 1920 and 1930, followed by an increase up to 1990, the year when emissions began to decrease again. Changes in BC and POC emissions prior to the year 1950 are essentially driven by the USA, Germany and the UK. The USSR, China and India become substantial contributors to carbonaceous aerosol emissions after 1950. Emission maps have been generated with a 1°×1° resolution based on the relative population density in each country. They will provide a helpful tool for assessing the effect of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on observed climate changes of the past.

  14. Fuel-conservative engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Mcaulay, J. E.; Reynolds, T. W.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft fuel consumption is discussed in terms of its efficient use, and the conversion of energy from sources other than petroleum. Topics discussed include: fuel from coal and oil shale, hydrogen deficiency of alternate sources, alternate fuels evaluation program, and future engines.

  15. Long-term analysis of diesel fuel consumption in a co-culture of Acinetobacter venetianus, Pseudomonas putida and Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Milva; Minacci, Andrea; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Baldi, Franco; Fani, Renato

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of a microbial population isolated from superficial waters of Venice Lagoon and the ability to utilise diesel fuel (n-alkanes mixture C12-C28) as the sole carbon and energy source were studied in a long-term reconstruction experiment. The reconstructed microbial population consisted of three bacterial strains belonging to the species Acinetobacter venetianus, Pseudomonas putida, and Alcaligenes faecalis, which were able to oxidise n-alkanes to alkanoates, n-alkanols to alkanoates, or only n-alkanoates, respectively. Three different approaches: plate counting, cell counting by epifluorescence microscopy with DAPI staining, and by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) by using a probe conjugate with fluoresceine isothiocyanate specifically targeted towards the 16S rRNA of bacteria belonging to the genus Acinetobacter were used to monitor the growth of the bacterial population. The growth of A. venetianus was stimulated by the presence of other strains, suggesting a beneficial interaction. After the first week of growth A. venetianus cells formed aggregates, as confirmed by confocal microscopy (CLSM), which allowed them to be distinguished from free cells. A relationship between cell number and measured areas (microm2) per aggregate was found. Each cell presented an average surface of 1.21 microm2. Each aggregate was formed by a cellular monolayer biofilm consisting of up to several thousands of cells. The A. venetianus aggregates increased in number and size over time, but after two weeks fragmentation events, which had a beneficial effect on the growth of P. putida and A. faecalis, occurred.

  16. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  17. 40 CFR 92.107 - Fuel flow measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement. (a) Fuel flow measurement for locomotive and engine testing. The rate of fuel consumption by the... performed for at least 10 flow rates evenly distributed over the entire range of fuel flow rates used...

  18. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

  19. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS ) 2009 Technical Documentation - Summary

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    RECS is a periodic survey sponsored by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) that provides detailed information about energy usage in U.S. homes. RECS is a multi-year effort consisting of a Household Survey phase, data collection from household energy suppliers, and detailed consumption and expenditures estimation. The Household Survey collects data on energy-related characteristics and usage patterns of a nationally representative sample of housing units. For renters that do not directly pay for their energy usage, a supplementary Rental Agent Survey is conducted. The Energy Supplier Surveys (ESS) collect data on how much electricity, natural gas, propane/LPG, fuel oil, and kerosene were consumed in the sampled housing unit during the reference year. It also collects data on actual dollar amounts spent on these energy sources.

  20. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  1. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2005-01-25

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell. Other polarization curves may be generated and used for fuel cell stack monitoring based on different operating pressures, temperatures, hydrogen quantities.

  2. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  3. Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... power consumption during the off mode, PW,OFF = 0, and the fossil fuel energy consumed during the off... 62301 (Second Edition) (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3), and the fossil fuel energy consumption... in Btu. 5.2 Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy...

  5. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  6. The causes and effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yimin

    The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase in the production of alternative fuel vehicles and a decrease in gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This dissertation examines theoretically the effects of the program set up under AMFA. It finds that, under some conditions, this program may actually increase gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The dissertation also uses hedonic techniques to examine whether the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) has a significant effect on the implicit price of fuel economy and whether the marginal value of vehicle fuel efficiency changes over time. It estimates the change of implicit price in miles per gallon after the production of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Results indicate that every year consumers may evaluate vehicle fuel economy differently, and that since AFVs came to the market, the marginal value of fuel economy from specific companies producing AFVs has decreased. This finding suggests that since the AMFA provides extra Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credit for those automakers producing AFVs, the automakers can take advantage of the incentive to produce more profitable conventional vehicles and meet CAFE standards without improving the fleet fuel economy. In this way, manufacturers who produce AFVs are willing to offer a lower price for the fuel economy under the AMFA. Additionally, this paper suggests that the flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the market are not significantly more expensive than comparable conventional vehicles, even if FFVs are also able to run on an alternative fuel and may cost more than conventional vehicles

  7. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  8. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  10. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  12. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  13. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  14. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  15. Firewood consumption in a Nepali village

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1984-05-01

    People's dependence on firewood as a primary source of energy is causing serious deforestation problems in many developing countries. Reliable information on firewood consumption rates is needed to develop afforestation plans and to control deforestation. This study compares three methods used to determine firewood consumption in a Nepali village. Cultural and environmental factors that affect firewood consumption in the village are also examined. The weight survey proved to be the most accurate method used. The less precise daily recall and annual recall surveys overestimated actual firewood consumption by factors of 1.76 and 1.95, respectively. Overestimates are attributed to both physical and social factors. In view of the good agreement between daily and annual recall surveys, and the much greater ease of conducting the latter, annual recall surveys are recommended as the most practical method of monitoring firewood consumption rates. Validating the survey with occasional weighted measurements is suggested as a means of improving accuracy.

  16. Engine performance with a hydrogenated safety fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1933-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the engine performance obtained with a hydrogenated safety fuel developed to eliminate fire hazard. The tests were made on a single-cylinder universal test engine at compression ratios of 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0. Most of the tests were made with a fuel-injection system, although one set of runs was made with a carburetor when using gasoline to establish comparative performance. The tests show that the b.m.e.p. obtained with safety fuel when using a fuel-injection system is slightly higher than that obtained with gasoline when using a carburetor, although the fuel consumption with safety fuel is higher. When the fuel-injection system is used with each fuel and with normal engine temperatures the b.m.e.p. with safety fuel is from 2 to 4 percent lower than with gasoline and the fuel consumption about 25 to 30 percent higher. However, a few tests at an engine coolant temperature of 250 F have shown a specific fuel consumption approximating that obtained with gasoline with only a slight reduction in power. The idling of the test engine was satisfactory with the safety fuel. Starting was difficult with a cold engine but could be readily accomplished when the jacket water was hot. It is believed that the use of the safety fuel would practically eliminate crash fires.

  17. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  18. The Use of Synthetic JP-8 Fuels in Military Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    constant, the higher fuel density caused DF-2 to have a higher quantity mass of fuel injected for the same command period. Thus, DF-2 had a higher fuel...mixing and evaporation of the fuels which becomes more evident later in the heat release analysis. Table 7 summarizes the fuel consumption for the...Busch, H., Keppeler, S., Schaberg, P., and Schnell , M., 200 , “Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel E g

  19. Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

  20. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  1. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  2. 40 CFR 92.107 - Fuel flow measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement. 92.107 Section...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.107 Fuel flow measurement. (a) Fuel flow measurement for locomotive and engine testing. The rate of fuel consumption by...

  3. 40 CFR 92.107 - Fuel flow measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Fuel flow measurement. 92.107 Section...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.107 Fuel flow measurement. (a) Fuel flow measurement for locomotive and engine testing. The rate of fuel consumption by...

  4. 40 CFR 92.107 - Fuel flow measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement. 92.107 Section...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.107 Fuel flow measurement. (a) Fuel flow measurement for locomotive and engine testing. The rate of fuel consumption by...

  5. 40 CFR 92.107 - Fuel flow measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement. 92.107 Section...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.107 Fuel flow measurement. (a) Fuel flow measurement for locomotive and engine testing. The rate of fuel consumption by...

  6. Fuel cell cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, J.G.; Archer, D.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

  7. Integral fast reactor concept. [Pool type; metal fuel; integral fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Key features of the IFR consist of a pool-type plant arrangement, a metal fuel-based core design, and an integral fuel cycle with colocated fuel cycle facility. Both the basic concept and the technology base have been demonstrated through actual integral cycle operation in EBR-II. This paper discusses the inherent safety characteristics of the IFR concept. (DLC)

  8. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of modifications in hydrocarbon jet fuels specifications on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel system performance is discussed. Specific topics covered include: specific fuel consumption; ignition at relight limits; exhaust emissions; combustor liner temperatures; carbon deposition; gum formation in fuel nozzles, erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes; deposits in fuel system heat exchangers; and pumpability and flowability of the fuel. Data that evaluate the ability of current technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, JCH FUEL SOLUTIONS, INC., JCH ENVIRO AUTOMATED FUEL CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification testing was conducted at the Cl facility in North Las Vegas, NV, on July 17 and 18, 2001. During this period, engine emissions, fuel consumption, and fuel quality were evaluated with contaminated and cleaned fuel.

    To facilitate this verification, JCH repre...

  10. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  11. Digital Photography as a Tool to Measure School Cafeteria Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background: Assessing actual consumption of school cafeteria meals presents challenges, given recall problems of children, the cost of direct observation, and the time constraints in the school cafeteria setting. This study assesses the use of digital photography as a technique to measure what elementary-aged students select and actually consume…

  12. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy... reference; see § 430.3) and the fossil fuel energy consumption during the standby test, Qp, in Btu. Ambient... switch, the average electric power consumption during the off mode, PW,OFF = 0, and the fossil...

  13. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM... person are applicable towards the petroleum fuel reduction required in § 490.803(a) of this subpart....

  14. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  15. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  16. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  17. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  18. The Quantum Energy Saver design and Fuel-saving application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiong; Mao, Wenwu; Shen, Xisheng; LI, Jianyu; Huang, Wenchao; Chen, Zhixin

    2016-11-01

    In order to reduce the high fuel consumption of the shipping industry, a new type of quantum energy saver device is studied and developed. According to a period of time to use the energy saving device and the users’ feedback, by recording the fuel consumption of diesel engine usage, and comparing the changes in fuel consumption before and after the installation of quantum economizer in the same ship, it can reflected the ability of the fuel consumption. After analyzing the data, it shows that the installation of quantum economizer can significantly reduce the fuel consumption of a diesel engine ship. The analysis and application of this paper can play an important role in saving energy and reducing consumption, and provide a reference for other related research.

  19. Fuel characteristics required for LWR fuel rod calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Meulemeester, E.

    1982-04-01

    BELGONUCLEAIRE gradually increasing in-reactor experience has enabled to assess the relative importance of attributes defined in specifications and drawings for both UO 2 and MO 2 fuels. On the basis of that experience, design codes have been benchmarked and were thereafter applied to cover the range of parameters and irradiation histories to be encountered or evaluated. To illustrate the effects of fuel characteristics on fuel behaviour, sensitivity calculations were performed on the basis of actual fuel irradiated in BWR's (DODEWAARD, GARIGLANO and OYSTER CREEK) and PWR's (BR3, DOEL, SENA, TIHANGE and MAINE YANKEE). The major characteristics are : fuel structure, UO 2 versus mixed oxide fuel; fuel accomodation (depending on the fuel microstructure and chemical composition); fuel density and densification stability; open porosity; pellet end geometry; pellet L/D ratio, gap size. Although the influence of the various parameters is not additive, these examples enable to determine the relative influence of each characteristic and to conclude to what accuracy it should be measured (in demo fuel) or controlled (in production fuel).

  20. Fuel saving device

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, J. C.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to a fuel saving device adaptable to all types of carburetors, petrol engines and domestic or industrial burners, constituted by a solenoid generating a magnetic field which has an influence on the air-fuel mixture. Said solenoid has a red copper coil, has its axis oriented in parallel to the axis of the engine, and, periodically, in a first pre-determined direction, during the moon phase which goes from the full moon to the new moon, and in a second, opposite, direction, during the moon phase going from the new moon to the full moon. The invention finds an application in motor engine of low consumption.

  1. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  2. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  3. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  4. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... incorrect fuel consumption values in NHTSA-specific tables in the preamble that resulted from using an incorrect conversion factor for determining CO 2 emissions to equivalent fuel consumption for gasoline fuel... document corrects the rounding errors by adopting a uniform rounding approach for all fuel...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-1994. The expression of fuel consumption for oil-fired pool heaters shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy for pool heater, EF, is defined as... of pool operating hours=4464 h QIN=rated fuel energy input as defined according to 2.9.1 or 2.9.2...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-1994. The expression of fuel consumption for oil-fired pool heaters shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy for pool heater, EF, is defined as... of pool operating hours=4464 h QIN=rated fuel energy input as defined according to 2.9.1 or 2.9.2...

  7. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  8. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  9. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  10. Simulated thermal energy demand and actual energy consumption in refurbished and non-refurbished buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, C. A.; Visa, I.; Duta, A.

    2016-08-01

    The EU legal frame imposes the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) status to any new public building starting with January 1st, 2019 and for any other new building starting with 2021. Basically, nZEB represents a Low Energy Building (LEB) that covers more than half of the energy demand by using renewable energy systems installed on or close to it. Thus, two steps have to be followed in developing nZEB: (1) reaching the LEB status through state- of-the art architectural and construction solutions (for the new buildings) or through refurbishing for the already existent buildings, followed by (2) implementing renewables; in Romania, over 65% of the energy demand in a building is directly linked to heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and - in certain areas - for cooling. Thus, effort should be directed to reduce the thermal energy demand to be further covered by using clean and affordable systems: solar- thermal systems, heat pumps, biomass, etc. or their hybrid combinations. Obviously this demand is influenced by the onsite climatic profile and by the building performance. An almost worst case scenario is approached in the paper, considering a community implemented in a mountain area, with cold and long winters and mild summers (Odorheiul Secuiesc city, Harghita county, Romania). Three representative types of buildings are analysed: multi-family households (in blocks of flats), single-family houses and administrative buildings. For the first two types, old and refurbished buildings were comparatively discussed.

  11. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  12. Kerosene Base Fuels in Small Gasoline Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    DIA. 4330 .354IA GAG 4. .235 DIA. INCONEL 601 SHEATHED ELEMENT DW 3AwL CTCCKYPE NO. !2 GWk I / 5-12- 82 CHAMPION SPARK PLUG COMPANY ’ 2-20-84 T OLEDO...1982) that emissions and specific fuel consumption certain piston designs in a CFR (Cooperative Fuel at part-load; 3600 RI, 3.5 bar SEP. Research

  13. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  14. Wood fuel in suspension burners

    SciTech Connect

    Wolle, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

  15. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  16. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  17. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  18. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  19. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  20. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  1. LADWP FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Thai Ta

    2003-09-12

    Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is currently one of the most active power utility companies in researching fuel cell technology. Fuel cells offer many benefits and are now used as an alternative to traditional internal combustion engines in power generation. In continuing it's role as the leader in fuel cell research, LADWP has installed a pre-commercial molten carbonate fuel cell on August 2001 at its headquarter, the John Ferraro Building (JFB). The goal of this project is to learn more about the actual behavior of the fuel cell running under real world conditions. The fuel cell ran smoothly through the first year of operation with very high efficiency, but with some minor setbacks. The JFB fuel cell project is funded by the City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power with partial grant funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. The technical evaluation and the benefit-cost evaluation of the JFB fuel cell are both examined in this report.

  2. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  3. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  4. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  5. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  6. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  7. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; ...

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  8. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  9. Figuring on energy: fuel-switch mirage

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, P.

    1984-06-25

    DOE's Petroleum Supply Annual: 1983 does not support the idea that the 1981-83 drop in natural gas consumption was due to industrial users switching to oil. A consumption breakdown shows a pattern of reduced oil use during the same period. The American Gas Association estimates that gas utilities lost 0.325 quads in 1982 because of dual-fuel switching, but gas consumption continued to decline even after the fuel-switching trend reversed. The author traces the problem to state rate regulators whose policies subsidize residential users at the expense of industry rather than to interfuel competition.

  10. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  11. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  12. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  13. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  14. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General... sufficient to replace, on an energy equivalent basis, at least 30 percent of motor fuel consumption in...

  15. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General... sufficient to replace, on an energy equivalent basis, at least 30 percent of motor fuel consumption in...

  16. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General... sufficient to replace, on an energy equivalent basis, at least 30 percent of motor fuel consumption in...

  17. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General... sufficient to replace, on an energy equivalent basis, at least 30 percent of motor fuel consumption in...

  18. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General... sufficient to replace, on an energy equivalent basis, at least 30 percent of motor fuel consumption in...

  19. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  20. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  1. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  2. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L.

    1993-03-15

    To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE`s requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?

  3. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  4. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that <24 % of smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  5. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  6. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  7. Comparison of predictive control methods for high consumption industrial furnace.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Goran; Stankovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn.

  8. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  9. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Declining U.S. oil reserves and escalating energy costs underline the need for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft engines. The most promising unconventional aircraft engines based on their potential for fuel savings and improved economics are identified. The engines installed in both a long-range and medium-range aircraft were evaluated. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for their state-of-readiness for application to a commercial transport. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  10. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  11. Fuel Vaporization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

  12. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  13. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  14. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  15. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  16. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing, in an amount sufficient to minimize coking, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel, at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator and (ii) an esterified cycle dehydration product of sorbitol which, when added to the fuel in combination with the organic nitrate ignition accelerator minimizes the coking.

  17. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  18. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program addendum: Low/mid heating value gaseous fuel evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion performance of a rich/quench/lean (RQL) combustor was evaluated when operated on low and mid heating value gaseous fuels. Two synthesized fuels were prepared having lower heating values of 10.2 MJ/cu m. (274 Btu/scf) and 6.6 MJ/cu m (176 Btu/scf). These fuels were configured to be representative of actual fuels, being composed primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. A liquid fuel air assist fuel nozzle was modified to inject both of the gaseous fuels. The RQL combustor liner was not changed from the configuration used when the liquid fuels were tested. Both gaseous fuels were tested over a range of power levels from 50 percent load to maximum rated power of the DDN Model 570-K industrial gas turbine engine. Exhaust emissions were recorded for four power level at several rich zone equivalence ratios to determine NOx sensitivity to the rich zone operating point. For the mid Btu heating value gas, ammonia was added to the fuel to simulate a fuel bound nitrogen type gaseous fuel. Results at the testing showed that for the low heating value fuel NOx emissions were all below 20 ppmc and smoke was below a 10 smoke number. For the mid heating value fuel, NOx emissions were in the 50 to 70 ppmc range with the smoke below a 10 smoke number.

  19. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  20. Fuel dehazers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Hazy fuels can be caused by the emulsification of water into the fuel during refining, blending, or transportation operations. Detergent additive packages used in gasoline tend to emulsify water into the fuel. Fuels containing water haze can cause corrosion and contamination, and support microbiological growth. This results in problems. As the result of these problems, refiners, marketers, and product pipeline companies customarily have haze specifications. The haze specification may be a specific maximum water content or simply ''bright and clear'' at a specified temperature.

  1. Motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.D.

    1982-07-13

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuel compositions are provided containing antiknock quantities of ashless antiknock agents comprising selected furyl compounds including furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl amine, furfuryl esters, and alkyl furoates.

  2. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  3. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  4. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt.

  5. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  6. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P's<.05) associated with low levels of physical activity (r=-.28), with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption (r=-.19), and with high levels of body image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  12. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  13. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  14. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Kristi

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  15. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  16. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  17. Materials advances required to reduce energy consumption through the application of heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Several key materials advances are required to reduce energy consumption through application of heavy duty diesel engines. Heavy duty diesel engines are viewed as effecting energy use both directly through fuel consumption, and indirectly through their durability with large energy expenditures required to replace worn-out engines. Materials advances that would improve fuel consumption include materials related to hot gas-path insulation, and materials related to design advances (other than insulation). Most design advances that are focused on fuel consumption or other performance factors also directly influence durability through materials properties. Several major engine components and many conventional (and advanced) materials are examined. If materials development is integrated with design and manufacturing advances, then fuel economy higher than 0.28 BSFC (50 pct thermal efficiency), and durability beyond 750,000 miles may be achievable.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  19. Content Consumption and Hierarchical Structures of Web-Supported Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Hardof-Jaffe, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an empirical investigation of the relationship between the hierarchical structure of content delivered to students within a Learning Management System (LMS) and its actual consumption. To this end, campus-wide data relating to 1,203 courses were collected from the LMS' servers and were subsequently analyzed using data mining…

  20. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  1. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-31

    DOE is investigating methods for long term dispositioning of weapons grade plutonium. One such method would be to utilize the plutonium in Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel assemblies in existing CANDU reactors. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors are designed, licensed, built, and supported by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and currently use natural uranium oxide as fuel. The MOX spent fuel assemblies removed from the reactor would be similar to the spent fuel currently produced using natural uranium fuel, thus rendering the plutonium as unattractive as that in the stockpiles of commercial spent fuel. This report presents the results of a study sponsored by the DOE for dispositioning the plutonium using CANDU technology. Ontario Hydro`s Bruce A was used as reference. The fuel design study defined the optimum parameters to disposition 50 tons of Pu in 25 years (or 100 tons). Two alternate fuel designs were studied. Safeguards, security, environment, safety, health, economics, etc. were considered. Options for complete destruction of the Pu were also studied briefly; CANDU has a superior ability for this. Alternative deployment options were explored and the potential impact on Pu dispositioning in the former Soviet Union was studied. An integrated system can be ready to begin Pu consumption in 4 years, with no changes required to the reactors other than for safe, secure storage of new fuel.

  2. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  3. Technical analysis of alternative fueled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The current status of alternative fueled vehicles, such as methanol fueled, compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, and electric vehicles, that have feasibility to take the place of oil fueled ones is analyzed from the viewpoints of environmental pollution control, energy resources conservation, and economic performances. As for environmental pollution control, these three vehicles are compared by such items as nitrogen oxides, photochemical reactivity, adaptability to future regulations, earth warming substances, and toxicity. As for practical applicability, the following items are compared: power density (torque, power, acceleration performance), energy density, range, energy consumption, vehicle initial costs, energy costs, freight transportation energy costs (yen/ton/km), and energy supply suitability. Conclusions include: methanol vehicles have the problem of fueling stations to be arranged; since CNG vehicles are considered to be loaded with CNG fuel tanks on the top of vehicles, safety must be ensured; electric vehicles still have many problems in spite of their many advantages.

  4. Fuel cells - Fundamentals and types: Unique features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, J. R.

    An overview of the working principles, thermodynamic efficiencies, types, and engineering aspects of fuel cells is presented. It is noted that fuel cells are distinguished from other direct energy conversion devices by the existence of charge separation at the electrodes involving ions in an electrolyte. The electrical energy produced by a fuel cell is shown to be equal to the change in the free energy of the reactants, and thermodynamic balances of reactions in different fuel cells are provided. The production of electricity in the discharge mode involves a spontaneous reaction of overproduction of electrons at the anode and consumption of the electrons at the cathode, with the total ionic current being equal to the electronic current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the operations and problems of acid, alkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells, in addition to applications of electro-organic fuel cells.

  5. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  6. Optical Fuel Injector Patternation Measurements in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. For one injector, further comparison is also made with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  7. Fuel cell on-site integrated energy system parametric analysis of a residential complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric energy-use analysis was performed for a large apartment complex served by a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES). The variables parameterized include operating characteristics for four phosphoric acid fuel cells, eight OS/IES energy recovery systems, and four climatic locations. The annual fuel consumption for selected parametric combinations are presented and a breakeven economic analysis is presented for one parametric combination. The results show fuel cell electrical efficiency and system component choice have the greatest effect on annual fuel consumption; fuel cell thermal efficiency and geographic location have less of an effect.

  8. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  9. Fuels research: Fuel thermal stability overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative fuels or crude supplies are examined with respect to satisfying aviation fuel needs for the next 50 years. The thermal stability of potential future fuels is discussed and the effects of these characteristics on aircraft fuel systems are examined. Advanced fuel system technology and design guidelines for future fuels with lower thermal stability are reported.

  10. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  11. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  12. Reducing theatre energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Tom; Morris, Gemma; Parker, Beena

    2014-03-01

    As little has been written to describe the electrical energy required to deliver anaesthesia, we undertook to measure the total electrical energy consumption for a day's clinical anaesthesia. Daily energy consumption related to anaesthesia was measured with commercially available 'plug-in' power and energy meters, and additional in-use energy estimates were based on direct observation made in theatre and from measuring the power consumption of anaesthetic gas scavenging system (AGSS) pumps. Total energy use for anaesthesia per day was 28 kWh, and cost the modest sum of around pound 2.24 per day. Disproportionately large amounts of energy were required to run the anaesthetic gas scavenging pumps and the overhead radiant heaters. Energy saving can be safely obtained by switching off AGSS out of hours, and placing radiant heaters on timing or thermostatic controls.

  13. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  14. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  15. Potential improvements in turbofan engine fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1976-01-01

    The method developed for initial evaluation of possible performance improvements in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, directed toward improving the fuel economy of turbofan engines, is outlined, and results of the evaluation of 100 candidate engine modifications are presented. The study indicates that fuel consumption improvements of as much as 5% may be possible in current JT3D, JT8D, and JT9D turbofan engines. Aerodynamic, thermodynamic, material, and structural advances are expected to yield fuel consumption improvements on the order of 10 to 15% in advanced turbofan engines, with the greatest improvement stemming from significantly higher cycle pressure ratios. Higher turbine temperature and fan bypass ratios are also expected to contribute to fuel conservation.

  16. Aircraft fuel conservation technology. Task force report, September 10, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An advanced technology program is described for reduced fuel consumption in air transport. Cost benefits and estimates are given for improved engine design and components, turboprop propulsion systems, active control systems, laminar flow control, and composite primary structures.

  17. Testing of high-octane fuels in the single-cylinder airplane engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, Fritz

    1940-01-01

    One of the most important properties of aviation fuels for spark-ignition engines is their knock rating. The CFR engine tests of fuels of 87 octane and above does not always correspond entirely to the actual behavior of these fuels in the airplane engine. A method is therefore developed which, in contrast to the octane number determination, permits a testing of the fuel under various temperatures and fuel mixture conditions. The following reference fuels were employed: 1) Primary fuels; isooctane and n-heptane; 2) Secondary fuels; pure benzene and synthetic benzine.

  18. Test burning of tire-derived fuel in solid fuel combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    This study was commissioned to determine the overall viability of utilizing scrap tire chips, known as tire-derived fuel (TDF), as a supplemental fuel in conventional coal-fired boilers. The study involved actual tests at Monsanto Company`s W.G. Krummrich Plant in Sauget, Illinois, as well as general extrapolations as to the feasibility of using TDF at other sites. This report will show that TDF can be an excellent supplemental fuel supply, providing a cost-effective fuel source while helping to alleviate the dilemma of scrap tire disposal.

  19. Combustion engine for solid and liquid fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, W.

    1986-01-01

    A combustion engine having no piston, a single cylinder, and a dual-action, that is applicable for solid and liquid fuels and propellants, and that functions according to the principle of annealing point ignition is presented. The invention uses environmentally benign amounts of fuel and propellants to produce gas and steam pressure, and to use a simple assembly with the lowest possible consumption and constant readiness for mixing and burning. The advantage over conventional combustion engines lies in lower consumption of high quality igniting fluid in the most cost effective manner.

  20. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... filing the withdrawals; but neither the actual ability to withdraw smelted or refined products from the...; withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section 19.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... wastage; withdrawal for consumption. (a) Except where absolute deductions have been allowed in...

  1. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... filing the withdrawals; but neither the actual ability to withdraw smelted or refined products from the...; withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section 19.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... wastage; withdrawal for consumption. (a) Except where absolute deductions have been allowed in...

  2. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... filing the withdrawals; but neither the actual ability to withdraw smelted or refined products from the...; withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section 19.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... wastage; withdrawal for consumption. (a) Except where absolute deductions have been allowed in...

  3. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  4. 40 CFR 80.1403 - Which fuels are not subject to the 20% GHG thresholds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determined, the actual peak capacity of a specific renewable fuel production facility on a calendar year... produced from a specific renewable fuel production facility on a calendar year basis. (i) For facilities... five calendar years prior to 2008, unless no such production exists, in which case actual peak...

  5. On the flexibility of high temperature reactor cores for high-and low-enriched fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bzandes, S.; Lonhert, G.

    1982-07-01

    The operational flexibility of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is not restricted to either a low- or a high-enriched fuel cycle. Both fuel cycles are possible for the same core design. The fuel cycle cost is, however, penalized for low-enriched fuel; in addition, higher uranium consumption is required. Hence, an HTR is most economical to operate in the high-enriched thorium-uranium fuel cycle.

  6. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  7. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term.

  8. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  9. Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Present the implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson engine and use steady state fuel consumption maps to estimate the technologies’ potential fuel economy improvements over the FTP and Highway tests. In addition to use fuel weighted modes to determine possible fuel economy...

  10. U.S. sent fuel shipment experience by rail

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, K.

    2007-07-01

    As planning for the large scale shipment of spent nuclear fuel to Yucca Mountain proceeds to address these challenges, actual shipments of spent fuel in other venues continues to provide proof that domestic rail spent fuel shipments can proceed safely and effectively. This paper presents some examples of recently completed spent fuel shipments, and the shipment of large low-level radioactive waste shipments offering lessons learned that may be beneficial to the planning process for large scale spent fuel shipments in the US. (authors)

  11. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  12. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification.

  13. Transportation Fuels Markets, PADD 1 and PADD 3

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This study examines supply, consumption, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 1 and 3, or the U.S. East Coast and the Gulf Coast, respectively. The East Coast region includes states from Maine to Florida along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. The Gulf Coast region comprises states between New Mexico in the west to Alabama in the east along the Gulf of Mexico. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. Residual fuel oil supply is also analyzed where applicable.

  14. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption, with duty deposited, as required under the applicable regulations (see part 144 of this chapter... withdrawal for consumption shall be filed and duties shall be deposited for the excess of fuel so withdrawn over that used on aircraft so qualifying. Such withdrawal shall be filed and such duties shall...

  15. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  16. New Methodology for Estimating Fuel Economy by Vehicle Class

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Dabbs, Kathryn; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Office of Highway Policy Information to develop a new methodology to generate annual estimates of average fuel efficiency and number of motor vehicles registered by vehicle class for Table VM-1 of the Highway Statistics annual publication. This paper describes the new methodology developed under this effort and compares the results of the existing manual method and the new systematic approach. The methodology developed under this study takes a two-step approach. First, the preliminary fuel efficiency rates are estimated based on vehicle stock models for different classes of vehicles. Then, a reconciliation model is used to adjust the initial fuel consumption rates from the vehicle stock models and match the VMT information for each vehicle class and the reported total fuel consumption. This reconciliation model utilizes a systematic approach that produces documentable and reproducible results. The basic framework utilizes a mathematical programming formulation to minimize the deviations between the fuel economy estimates published in the previous year s Highway Statistics and the results from the vehicle stock models, subject to the constraint that fuel consumptions for different vehicle classes must sum to the total fuel consumption estimate published in Table MF-21 of the current year Highway Statistics. The results generated from this new approach provide a smoother time series for the fuel economies by vehicle class. It also utilizes the most up-to-date and best available data with sound econometric models to generate MPG estimates by vehicle class.

  17. Alternative-engine-fuels demonstration and materials test

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.

    1981-01-01

    A portable demonstration was constructed to measure peak power and specific fuel consumption of a gasoline engine burning gasoline and ethanol, and a diesel engine burning No. 2 diesel and sunflower oil. The demonstrations were given at farm field days. Several metals were subjected to wet ethanol fuels to measure corrosion.

  18. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  19. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  20. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  1. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Household Energy Consumption: Community Context and the Fuelwood Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Link, Cynthia F.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the influence of community context on change over time in households’ use of non-wood fuels. Our theoretical framework builds on sociological concepts in order to study energy consumption at the micro-level. The framework emphasizes the importance of nonfamily organizations and services in the local community as determinants of the transition from use of fuelwood to use of alternative fuels. We use multilevel longitudinal data on household fuel choice and community context from rural Nepal to provide empirical tests of our theoretical model. Results reveal that increased exposure to nonfamily organizations in the local community increases the use of alternative fuels. The findings illustrate key features of human impacts on the local environment and motivate greater incorporation of social organization into research on environmental change. PMID:23017795

  3. Experimental Results for SimFuels

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Andrew M.; Skomurski, Frances N.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Wittman, Richard S.; Mcnamara, Bruce K.

    2012-08-22

    Assessing the performance of Spent (or Used) Nuclear Fuel (UNF) in geological repository requires quantification of time-dependent phenomena that may influence its behavior on a time-scale up to millions of years. A high-level waste repository environment will be a dynamic redox system because of the time-dependent generation of radiolytic oxidants and reductants and the corrosion of Fe-bearing canister materials. One major difference between used fuel and natural analogues, including unirradiated UO2, is the intense radiolytic field. The radiation emitted by used fuel can produce radiolysis products in the presence of water vapor or a thin-film of water that may increase the waste form degradation rate and change radionuclide behavior. To study UNF, we have been working on producing synthetic UO2 ceramics, or SimFuels that can be used in testing and which will contain specific radionuclides or non-radioactive analogs so that we can test the impact of radiolysis on fuel corrosion without using actual spent fuel. Although, testing actual UNF would be ideal for understanding the long term behavior of UNF, it requires the use of hot cells and is extremely expensive. In this report, we discuss, factors influencing the preparation of SimFuels and the requirements for dopants to mimic the behavior of UNF. We have developed a reliable procedure for producing large grain UO2 at moderate temperatures. This process will be applied to a series of different formulations.

  4. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  5. Fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.K.

    1989-04-04

    This patent describes a method of forming a fuel bundle of a nuclear reactor. The method consists of positioning the fuel rods in the bottom plate, positioning the tie rod in the bottom plate with the key passed through the receptacle to the underside of the bottom plate and, after the tie rod is so positioned, turning the tie rod so that the key is in engagement with the underside of the bottom plate. Thereafter mounting the top plate is mounted in engagement with the fuel rods with the upper end of the tie rod extending through the opening in the top plate and extending above the top plate, and the tie rod is secured to the upper side of sid top plate thus simultaneously securing the key to the underside of the bottom plate.

  6. Cutting fuel costs: alternatives for commercial fishermen

    SciTech Connect

    Hollin, D.; Windh, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The shrimp industry, in conjunction with the National Marine Fisheries Service, initiated three energy-related studies in 1981 to help shrimpers adjust to high fuel costs. One project, a joint effort of the Mississippi/Alabama Sea Grant Consortium and the Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, studied fuel use by shrimp vessels. Meant to provide information that could help suggest alternatives to decrease fuel consumption, the project looked at total fuel consumption; running, fishing and searching times; duration of average drag; and catch rate. A second project, conducted by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, looked at fishing vessel fuel use in the U.S. fleet compared to the state of the art of fuel efficiency. The third study, funded through the National Shrimp Congress, was to gather energy conservation information that might help fishermen make decisions about ways to conserve fuel on both a short-term and long-term basis. This report is a summary of the findings of that study.

  7. Fuel Cross Leak of Direct Di-methyl-ether Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Haraguchi, Tadao

    Fuel cross leak through a polymer electrolyte membrane of the direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DDFC) was investigated and was found to be approximately one-tenth that of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Three phenomena known to appear in the DMFC were also observed in the DDFC. These were (1) fuel cross leak due to the diffusion which increases with the fuel concentration on an open circuit condition, (2) electro-osmotic cross leak, which increases with the current density and fuel concentration, and (3) decrease of fuel cross leak with the increase of the current density due to fuel consumption at low fuel concentration. The decreased fuel cross leak realized by using Nafion ®117 as a membrane and the low fuel concentration of 11% resulted in an increase of the Farady efficiency of the DDFC of up to 90% at a current density of 80mA/cm2. The CO2 quantity at the anode outlet of the operating DDFC was slightly less than 2 mol per 12 protons, as estimated from an electrochemical reaction on the anode. The CO2 quantity at the cathode outlet was also investigated. The CO2 cross leak increased with current density at every CO2 concentration and the diffusion appeared to be the dominant phenomenon of the CO2 cross leak.

  8. Study of Naval Air Station Operations to Reduce Fuel Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Klabjan, Johnson, Nemhouser, Gelman , and Ramaswamy solve the airline problem by adding plane count constraints sequentially to allow a feasible routing to...be attained (Klabjan, Johnson, Nemhouser, Gelman , & Ramaswamy, 2002). Dunbar et al. introduce a slack variable to the problem and change the...J. S., & Sturrock, D. T. (2013). Simio and simulation. New York: Springer Verlag. Klabjan, D., Johnson E.L., Nemhouser G.L., Gelman E., & Ramaswamy

  9. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  10. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hiroyo; Shioji, Norio; Hamasaki, Akihiro

    1995-12-31

    To mitigate CO{sub 2} discharged from thermal power plants, studies on CO{sub 2} fixation by the photosynthesis of microalgae using actual exhaust gas have been carried out. The results are as follows: (1) A method is proposed for evaluating the maximum photosynthesis rate in the raceway cultivator using only the algal physical properties; (2) Outdoor cultivation tests taking actual flue gas were performed with no trouble or break throughout 1 yr using the strain collected in the test; (3) The produced microalgae is effective as solid fuel; and (4) The feasibility studies of this system were performed. The system required large land area, but the area is smaller than that required for other biomass systems, such as tree farms.

  11. Bulk Fuel Pricing: DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Establish a More Reliable Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    begins to actually purchase the fuel at the current market rate.1 Historically, DOD has used economic assumptions data provided by the Office of...during the budget year of execution to account for actual prices for fuel on the world market . According to DOD officials, this is not their...to develop a more precise estimate, but the new methodology does not reflect actual market conditions or fully account for risks to the reliability

  12. A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Stephen; Won, Sang Hee; Chaos, Marcos; Heyne, Joshua; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L.; Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen; Wang, Haowei; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.

    2010-12-15

    An implicit methodology based on chemical group theory to formulate a jet aviation fuel surrogate by the measurements of several combustion related fuel properties is tested. The empirical formula and derived cetane number of an actual aviation fuel, POSF 4658, have been determined. A three component surrogate fuel for POSF 4658 has been formulated by constraining a mixture of n-decane, iso-octane and toluene to reproduce the hydrogen/carbon ratio and derived cetane number of the target fuel. The validity of the proposed surrogate is evaluated by experimental measurement of select combustion properties of POSF 4658, and the POSF 4658 surrogate. (1)A variable pressure flow reactor has been used to chart the chemical reactivity of stoichiometric mixtures of POSF 4658/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and POSF 4658 surrogate/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} at 12.5 atm and 500-1000 K, fixing the carbon content at 0.3% for both mixtures. (2)The high temperature chemical reactivity and chemical kinetic-molecular diffusion coupling of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate have been evaluated by measurement of the strained extinction limit of diffusion flames. (3)The autoignition behavior of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate has been measured with a shock tube at 674-1222 K and with a rapid compression machine at 645-714 K for stoichiometric mixtures of fuel in air at pressures close to 20 atm. The flow reactor study shows that the character and extent of chemical reactivity of both fuels at low temperature (500-675 K) and high temperature (900 K+) are extremely similar. Slight differences in the transition from the end of the negative temperature coefficient regime to hot ignition are observed. The diffusion flame strained extinction limits of the fuels are observed to be indistinguishable when compared on a molar basis. Ignition delay measurements also show that POSF 4658 exhibits NTC behavior. Moreover, the ignition delays of both fuels are also extremely similar over the temperature range studied in

  13. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  14. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  15. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  16. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  17. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  18. Multicylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    diesel engines representative of the four -stroke cycle and two-stroke cycle main propulsion units installed in U.S. Coast Guard WPB class cutters were...performance. The test results for the four -stroke cycle engine indicated that an average diesel fuel saving of about 2.5 percent could be obtained at the...CONSUMPTION, DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE, 1000 RPM ................. 39 3-5 FUEL CONSUMPTION, DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE, FOUR SPEEDS .............. 40 3-6 FUEL INJECTION

  19. Analysis of fuel using the Direct LSC method determination of bio-originated fuel in the presence of quenching.

    PubMed

    Doll, Charles G; Wright, Cherylyn W; Morley, Shannon M; Wright, Bob W

    2017-04-01

    A modified version of the Direct LSC method to correct for quenching effect was investigated for the determination of bio-originated fuel content in fuel samples produced from multiple biological starting materials. The modified method was found to be accurate in determining the percent bio-originated fuel to within 5% of the actual value for samples with quenching effects ≤43%. Analysis of highly quenched samples was possible when diluted with the exception of one sample with a 100% quenching effect.

  20. Energy modeling for aviation fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The fuel consumption and path profile description of an aircraft can be related by an energy balanced concept. Application of this concept has produced an equation set that can be utilized to analyze the energy efficiency of propeller and turbojet aircraft during various operating conditions. Analytical methods, results and aircraft specific constants are presented and discussed along with proposed extensions. 10 refs.

  1. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, B.; Green, J. B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  2. The Burden of Cancer Attributable to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    TESTINO, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect. The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast. The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption exerts its carcinogenic effect have not been defined fully, although plausible events include: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism. Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control. In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women. In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption. PMID:22879847

  3. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  4. Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent.

  5. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) shall be the cost of: (i) Fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in the utility's own plants, and the utility's share of fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in jointly owned or leased plants. (ii) The actual identifiable fossil and nuclear fuel costs associated with energy purchased for reasons other than...

  6. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) shall be the cost of: (i) Fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in the utility's own plants, and the utility's share of fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in jointly owned or leased plants. (ii) The actual identifiable fossil and nuclear fuel costs associated with energy purchased for reasons other than...

  7. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) shall be the cost of: (i) Fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in the utility's own plants, and the utility's share of fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in jointly owned or leased plants. (ii) The actual identifiable fossil and nuclear fuel costs associated with energy purchased for reasons other than...

  8. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) shall be the cost of: (i) Fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in the utility's own plants, and the utility's share of fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in jointly owned or leased plants. (ii) The actual identifiable fossil and nuclear fuel costs associated with energy purchased for reasons other than...

  9. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) shall be the cost of: (i) Fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in the utility's own plants, and the utility's share of fossil and nuclear fuel consumed in jointly owned or leased plants. (ii) The actual identifiable fossil and nuclear fuel costs associated with energy purchased for reasons other than...

  10. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  11. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  12. Future Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1991-01-01

    Tough new environmental laws, coupled with fluctuating oil prices, are likely to prompt hundreds of school systems to examine alternative fuels. Literature reviews and interviews with 45 government, education, and industry officials provided data for a comparative analysis of gasoline, diesel, natural gas, methanol, and propane. (MLF)

  13. Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    Swedish Biofuels AB • Cellulosic and algal feedstocks that are non-competitive with food material $ P r o d u c t P r o d u c t Traditional fuels...JP-8 BACK-UP SLIDES Unclassified 19 What Are Biofuels ? Cellulose “first generation”“second generation” C18:0 C16:1 Triglycerides (fats, oils

  14. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  15. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  16. On the dynamics of the age structure, dependency, and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effects of population aging due to declining fertility and rising elderly life expectancy on consumption possibilities in the presence of intergenerational transfers. Our analysis is based on a highly tractable continuous-time overlapping generations model in which the population is divided into three groups (youth dependents, workers, and elderly dependents) and lifecourse transitions take place in a probabilistic fashion. We show that the consumption-maximizing response to greater longevity in highly developed countries is an increase in fertility. However, with larger transfer payments, the actual fertility response will likely be the opposite, leading to further population aging. PMID:24353374

  17. The influence of the types of marine fuel over the Energy Efficiency Operational Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2014-05-01

    One of the main concerns of our society is certainly the environment protection. The international efforts for maintaining the environment clean are various and this paper refers to the efforts in the maritime transport field. Marine pollution consists of the water pollution and also the air pollution. Regardless of the delay in recognizing the later type of pollution, it rapidly gains many organizations to argue on it. The first step was including a dedicated annex (Annex VI) in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, in 1997, which seeks to minimize the airborne emissions from ships. In order to control and minimize the air pollution, the International Maritime Organization has also developed a series of measures for monitoring the emissions. These measures are grouped in three main directions: technical, operational and management related. The subject of our study is the concept of Energy Efficiency Operational Index (EEOI), developed to provide ship-owners with assistance in the process of establishing the emissions from ships in operation, and to suggest the methods for achieving their reduction. As a monitoring tool, EEOI represents the mass of CO2 emitted per unit of transport work. The actual CO2 emission from combustion of fuel on board a ship during each voyage is calculated by multiplying total fuel consumption for each type of fuel (e.g. diesel oil, gas oil, light fuel oil, heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas) with the carbon to CO2 conversion factor for the fuel in question. The performed transport work is calculated by multiplying mass of cargo (tonnes, number of TEU/cars, or number of passengers) with the distance in nautical miles corresponding to the transport work done. Using the software developed by the author it will be emphasized the variation of the EEOI value for one vessel using different types of fuel for the voyage's legs (distance to discharge port, distance to loading port, the

  18. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-02

    DOE2.1E-121SUNOS is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS).

  19. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  1. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  2. Population growth and consumption.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  3. Patterns of chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Seligson, F H; Krummel, D A; Apgar, J L

    1994-12-01

    Although consumed in some form since at least 460 AD, cacao (Theobroma cacao) was not used in confectionery until the 19th century when the cocoa press was invented. Per capita consumption of chocolate confectionery in the United States is moderate (approximately 4.6-4.8 kg/y) compared with that of many northern European countries (approximately 7-10 kg/y). Eleven percent of the US population reported consuming chocolate candy on > or = 1 of the 3 d of recorded food intake in the US Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1987-1988; < 1.0% consumed chocolate every day. The Western region of the United States contained the highest proportion of chocolate consumers. More whites than other racial groups were consumers. Chocolate was consumed by more people in the winter than in other seasons and more was consumed at snacks than at meals. The mean amount of chocolate consumed was approximately 30-90 g/d, depending on sex and age group. Chocolate candy was only a minor contributor (0.7-3.4%) to the overall dietary intake of total energy, fat, saturated fatty acids, and stearic acid.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon-containing fuels and their dynamics in low-temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Krewer, Ulrike; Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Rihko-Struckmann, Liisa

    2011-10-04

    Fuel cells can convert the energy that is chemically stored in a compound into electrical energy with high efficiency. Hydrogen could be the first choice for chemical energy storage, but its utilization is limited due to storage and transport difficulties. Carbon-containing fuels store chemical energy with significantly higher energy density, which makes them excellent energy carriers. The electro-oxidation of carbon-containing fuels without prior reforming is a more challenging and complex process than anodic hydrogen oxidation. The current understanding of the direct electro-oxidation of carbon-containing fuels in low-temperature fuel cells is reviewed. Furthermore, this review covers various aspects of electro-oxidation for carbon-containing fuels in non-steady-state reaction conditions. Such dynamic investigations open possibilities to elucidate detailed reaction kinetics, to sense fuel concentration, or to diagnose the fuel-cell state during operation. Motivated by the challenge to decrease the consumption of fossil fuel, the production routes of the fuels from renewable resources also are reviewed.

  5. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  7. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  8. Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1992-12-22

    This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis.

  9. Fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gheysens, J.L.G.

    1990-11-27

    This patent describes a composition for the improvement of hydrocarbon fuels exhibiting a boiling range of gasoline being suitable for use in spark ignition-type engines. It comprises an aromatic amine; a polyaminated detergent; a catalyst comprising a colloidal suspension or amine salt of transition/alkali/alkaline earth metal organic coordinations having at least one metal oxidehydroxide linked to an alkyl chain via a carboxyl group; and a solvent comprising an alkanol-aliphatic ether oxygenated hydrocarbon.

  10. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Storage Devices, Fuel Management, Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch, Syngas , Hubberts’s Peak UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UU 80 Dr. Sujata Millick (703) 696...traction power – mission payloads – mobile electric power • Improved survivability • Inherent modularity improves maintainability & upgradability ...threatened the output of the Ploesti oil fields and refineries. In the FT process, so-called syngas (a mixture of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide

  11. Fuel conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

  12. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  13. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  14. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, Megan S.; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO2, the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or increase

  15. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-09-30

    container is penetrated by twelve hexagonal control assembly (CA) guide tubes, each of which has 3.0 mm thickness and 69.4 mm flat-to-flat outer distance. The distance between two neighboring CA guide tube is selected to be 26 cm to provide an adequate space for CA driving systems. The fuel container has 18181 penetrating coolant tubes of 6.0 mm inner diameter and 2.0 mm thickness. The coolant tubes are arranged in a triangular lattice with a lattice pitch of 1.21 cm. The fuel, structure, and coolant volume fractions inside the fuel container are 0.386, 0.383, and 0.231, respectively. Separate steel reflectors and B4C shields are used outside of the fuel container. Six gas expansion modules (GEMs) of 5.0 cm thickness are introduced in the radial reflector region. Between the radial reflector and the fuel container is a 2.5 cm sodium gap. The TRU inventory at the beginning of equilibrium cycle (BOEC) is 5081 kg, whereas the TRU inventory at the beginning of life (BOL) was 3541 kg. This is because the equilibrium cycle fuel contains a significantly smaller fissile fraction than the LWR TRU feed. The fuel inventory at BOEC is composed of 34.0 a/o TRU, 41.4 a/o Ce, 23.6 a/o Co, and 1.03 a/o solid fission products. Since uranium-free fuel is used, a theoretical maximum TRU consumption rate of 1.011 kg/day is achieved. The semi-continuous fuel cycle based on the 300-batch, 1- day cycle approximation yields a burnup reactivity loss of 26 pcm/day, and requires a daily reprocessing of 32.5 kg of SLFFR fuel. This yields a daily TRU charge rate of 17.45 kg, including a makeup TRU feed of 1.011 kg recovered from the LWR used fuel. The charged TRU-Ce-Co fuel is composed of 34.4 a/o TRU, 40.6 a/o Ce, and 25.0 a/o Co.

  16. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy use and costs of the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) which provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat that would normally be rejected to the environment is compared to a conventional system purchasing electricity from a utility and a phosphoric acid fuel cell powered system. The analysis showed that for a 500-unit apartment complex a fuel OS/IES would be about 10% more energy conservative in terms of total coal consumption than a diesel OS/IES system or a conventional system. The fuel cell OS/IES capital costs could be 30 to 55% greater than the diesel OS/IES capital costs for the same life cycle costs. The life cycle cost of a fuel cell OS/IES would be lower than that for a conventional system as long as the cost of electricity is greater than $0.05 to $0.065/kWh. An analysis of several parametric combinations of fuel cell power plant and state-of-art energy recovery systems and annual fuel requirement calculations for four locations were made. It was shown that OS/IES component choices are a major factor in fuel consumption, with the least efficient system using 25% more fuel than the most efficient. Central air conditioning and heat pumps result in minimum fuel consumption while individual air conditioning units increase it, and in general the fuel cell of highest electrical efficiency has the lowest fuel consumption.

  17. Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Richard

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental, generally implicit, assumption of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and many energy analysts is that each unit of energy supplied by non-fossil-fuel sources takes the place of a unit of energy supplied by fossil-fuel sources. However, owing to the complexity of economic systems and human behaviour, it is often the case that changes aimed at reducing one type of resource consumption, either through improvements in efficiency of use or by developing substitutes, do not lead to the intended outcome when net effects are considered. Here, I show that the average pattern across most nations of the world over the past fifty years is one where each unit of total national energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel energy use and, focusing specifically on electricity, each unit of electricity generated by non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These results challenge conventional thinking in that they indicate that suppressing the use of fossil fuel will require changes other than simply technical ones such as expanding non-fossil-fuel energy production.

  18. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-24

    DOE2.1E-121 is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS). DOE2.1E-121 contains modifications to DOE2.1E which allows 1000 zones to be modeled.

  19. Laser-Based Characterization of Nuclear Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the integrity of fuel-clad and clad-clad bonding in nuclear fuels is important for safe reactor operation and assessment of fuel performance, yet the measurement of bond strengths in actual fuels has proved challenging. The laser shockwave technique (LST) originally developed to characterize structural adhesion in composites is being employed to characterize interface strength in a new type of plate fuel being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large-amplitude acoustic waves and is well suited for application to both fresh and irradiated nuclear-fuel plates. This paper will report on initial characterization results obtained from fresh fuel plates manufactured by different processes, including hot isostatic pressing, friction stir welding, and hot rolling.

  20. Laser-based characterization of nuclear fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James A.; Cottle, Dave L.; Rabin, Barry H.

    2014-02-18

    Ensuring the integrity of fuel-clad and clad-clad bonding in nuclear fuels is important for safe reactor operation and assessment of fuel performance, yet the measurement of bond strengths in actual fuels has proved challenging. The laser shockwave technique (LST) originally developed to characterize structural adhesion in composites is being employed to characterize interface strength in a new type of plate fuel being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large-amplitude acoustic waves and is well suited for application to both fresh and irradiated nuclear-fuel plates. This paper will report on initial characterization results obtained from fresh fuel plates manufactured by different processes, including hot isostatic pressing, friction stir welding, and hot rolling.

  1. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  2. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  3. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  4. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  5. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  6. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  7. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  8. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  9. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  10. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  11. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  12. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  13. A natural-gas fuel processor for a residential fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Lee, S. H. D.; Papadias, D.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Bendert, J. C.; Kanner, S. A.; Yamazaki, Y.

    A system model was used to develop an autothermal reforming fuel processor to meet the targets of 80% efficiency (higher heating value) and start-up energy consumption of less than 500 kJ when operated as part of a 1-kWe natural-gas fueled fuel cell system for cogeneration of heat and power. The key catalytic reactors of the fuel processor - namely the autothermal reformer, a two-stage water gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor - were configured and tested in a breadboard apparatus. Experimental results demonstrated a reformate containing ∼48% hydrogen (on a dry basis and with pure methane as fuel) and less than 5 ppm CO. The effects of steam-to-carbon and part load operations were explored.

  14. Fuel Injector Patternation Evaluation in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors, Using Nonintrusive Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three diverse fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. Further comparison is also made for one injector with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  15. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  16. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options.

  17. Natural gas consumption prediction in Slovenian industry - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačič, Miha; Šarler, Božidar; Župerl, Uroš

    2016-09-01

    In accordance with the regulations of the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, each natural gas supplier regulates and determines the charges for the differences between the ordered (predicted) and the actually supplied quantities of natural gas. Yearly charges for these differences represent up to 2% of supplied natural gas costs. All the natural gas users, especially industry, have huge problems finding the proper method for efficient natural gas consumption prediction and, consequently, the decreasing of mentioned costs. In this study, prediction of the natural gas consumption in Štore Steel Ltd. (steel plant) is presented. On the basis of production data, several models for natural gas consumption have been developed using linear regression, genetic programming and artificial neural network methods. The genetic programming approach outperformed linear regression and artificial neural networks.

  18. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  19. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  20. Failsafe engine fuel control system

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsons, R.; Deutch, R.W.

    1987-11-03

    An engine fuel control system is described comprising: sensor means for providing separate more than two state electrical signals; fuel control means for receiving at least a primary control signal and providing a calculated engine fuel control signal as a function thereof; sensor signal conditioning circuit means coupled to the sensor means for receiving at least one of the electrical signals representative of sensed engine throttle position and sensed engine manifold pressure and providing; wherein the improvement comprises, failure detection means, for determining when the engine manifold pressure sensor signal is non-representative of actual engine manifold pressure and for providing a pressure sensor failure signal in response thereto. The sensor signal conditioning circuit means normally effectively provides a signal having magnitudes determined by at least the sensed manifold pressure signal to the fuel control means as the primary control signal in response to the absence of the pressure sensor failure signal. The system including an operator warning device which is activated in response to the pressure sensor failure signal indicating a failure of the pressure sensor.

  1. Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

  2. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuel consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.

  3. Nuclear Fuels: Promise and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane

    2012-03-01

    From 1950 through 1980, scientists, engineers and national leaders confidently predicted an early twenty-first century where fast breeder reactors and commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing were commonplace. Such a scenario seemed necessary for a world with the more than 1000 GWe of nuclear energy needed to meet such an ever-increasing thirst for energy. Thirty years later uranium reserves are increasing on pace with consumption, the growth of nuclear power has been slowed, commercial breeder reactors have yet to enter the marketplace, and less than a handful of commercial reprocessing plants operate. As Nobel Laureate Niels Bohr famously said, “Prediction is very difficult, especially if it’s about the future.” The programme for IChemE’s 2012 conference on the nuclear fuel cycle features a graphic of an idealized nuclear fuel cycle that symbolizes the quest for a closed nuclear fuel cycle featuring careful husbanding of precious resources while minimizing the waste footprint. Progress toward achieving this ideal has been disrupted by technology innovations in the mining and petrochemical industries, as well as within the nuclear industry.

  4. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  5. What happens inside a fuel cell? Developing an experimental functional map of fuel cell performance.

    PubMed

    Brett, Daniel J L; Kucernak, Anthony R; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C; Brandon, Nigel P; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-09-10

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an 'experimental functional map' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models.

  6. Fuel for the Future: Development of New Fuels, e.g. Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Gitte; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Hansen, Hans Ove; Nygaard, Sune D.

    Whether we like it or not, climate change is to some extent affiliated with the emission of green house gasses, and specifically CO2 emissions, which are rising due to the global increased use of fossil fuels. As a result, political enthusiasm is high when it comes to implementing new initiatives aimed at better protection of the global environment. However, environmental concerns are just one aspect of the issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, since fossil fuels are a natural reserve and, therefore, a limited resource. Prognoses vary, but within the next decades the fossil fuel reserves will be exhausted leading to reduced oil production, rising oil prices, and the risk of international bellicose conflicts caused by adverse national interests. Additionally, fossil fuel as a natural reserve is unevenly distributed, meaning that a few countries possess the main energy reserve of the entire world. The incorporation of alternatives to fossil fuel into the existing fuel infrastructure is currently under intense development in the Western world, both to cut the oil dependency and to counter the depletion of oil reserves. This political enthusiasm to decrease the use of fossil fuel is emphasised by the fact that according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) more than 80% of the global primary energy consumption in 2007 accounts from fossil fuels and half of this is oil. More than 60% of the oil is used in the transport sector.

  7. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    From current projections of the availability of high-quality petroleum crude oils, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the specifications for hydrocarbon jet fuels may have to be modified. The problems that are most likely to be encountered as a result of these modifications relate to engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance. The effect on engine performance will be associated with changes in specific fuel consumption, ignition at relight limits, at exhaust emissions. Durability and maintenance will be affected by increases in combustor liner temperatures, carbon deposition, gum formation in fuel nozzles, and erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes. Aircraft fuel-system performance will be affected by increased deposits in fuel-system heat exchangers and changes in the pumpability and flowability of the fuel. The severity of the potential problems is described in terms of the fuel characteristics most likely to change in the future. Recent data that evaluate the ability of current-technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  8. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE PAGES

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore » immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  9. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  10. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  11. Fuel Burn Estimation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

  12. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  13. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.; Andrus, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F). Conservative assumptions in themore » model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F).« less

  14. Performance of Pentaborane, Pentaborane - JP-4 Fuel Mixtures, and Trimethylborate Azeotrope Fuel in a Full-scale Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breitwiesser, Roland; Useller, James W.

    1956-01-01

    This report summarizes the full-scale engine tests of pentaborane, pentaborane - JP-4 fuel mixtures, and trimethylborate azeotrope fuel. The tests were conducted in a full-scale turbojet engine at a simulated altitude of 50,000 feet and Mach number of 0.08. Engine speeds were 90 to 100 percent of rated speed. Pentaborane reduced the the specific fuel consumption to two-thirds that of JP-4 fuel. However, because boron oxide collected in the engine, the performance deteriorated with continued operation of pentaborane in each of the short-duration tests reported.

  15. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  16. 146. FUEL LINE TO SKID 2 (FUEL LOADER) IN FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. FUEL LINE TO SKID 2 (FUEL LOADER) IN FUEL CONTROL ROOM (215), LSB (BLDG. 751). LIQUID NITROGEN/HELIUM HEAT EXCHANGER ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  18. Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Method Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2–5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Results Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Conclusion Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. PMID:27633419

  19. Influence of test fuel properties and composition on UNECE R101 CO2 and fuel economy valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 emission and fuel consumption of passenger cars is now assessed by using a simplistic procedure measuring the emission during a test performed without any control of the fuel properties and computing the fuel consumption through an unsophisticated formula. As pump gasoline and diesel fuels are refinery products mixture of many different hydrocarbons, and in case of gasoline may also contain a significant amount of oxygenates, the fuel properties, including the density, carbon and energy content may strongly vary from one pump fuel to the other. Being the specific test fuels carefully selected by the car manufacturers and everything but randomly chosen pump fuels, the claimed CO2 emission and fuel economy figures may differ largely from the certification values. I show from the analysis of the 2014 UK government data for 2358 diesel and 2103 petrol vehicles how same volumes of only theoretically same pump fuels used during the certification test by the cars manufacturers unfortunately do not produce the same carbon dioxide emission, and very likely do not have the same energy content. The CO2 emission per liter of diesel fuel is shown to oscillate froma maximum of 3049 g to a minimum of 2125 g, with an average of 2625 g, froma +16.13% to a -19.06% of the average. TheCO2 emission per liter of petrol fuel is shown to oscillate even more from a maximum of 3735 g to a minimum of 1767 g with an average of 2327 g, from a +60.48% to a -24.05% of the average. The proposed solution is to center the assessment on the energy demand by measuring with accuracy the mass of fuel consumed and the fuel properties of the test fuel starting from the lower heating. The corrected fuel consumption and the corrected carbon dioxide emission to mention from the test are then computed by using pure hydrocarbon reference fuels for diesel and petrol having a given lower heating value and a given hydrocarbon composition. Alternatively, exactly the same test fuel should be used by all the

  20. Fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.K.; Gilbert, H.A.

    1989-02-21

    An efficient and cost competitive fuel extender liquid is described for blending with lead-free gasoline as an additive thereto in a maximum amount of up to about 35% thereof with 65% by volume of the gasoline in a blended mixture wherein. The content of the extender in the resultant fuel as proportioned on the basis of its thus representative maximum content consists essentially of: naphtha X as represented by C/sub 4/, C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons having a Reid vapor pressure of about 8.5 to 9.6 per ASTM, D323 test procedure and an initial distillation point of about 101/sup 0/F. and an end point of about 280/sup 0/F. within a range of about 10 to 25% by volume, about 3.8 to 6.0% by volume of anhydrous ethanol, a stabilizing amount of a water repellent of the class consisting of ethyl acetate and methyl isotubyl ketone; and about 4 to 10.5% by volume of aromatics benzene and toluene, of benzene and xylene or of benzene with toluene and xylene; the extender having a specific gravity substantially comparable with that of the lead-free gasoline to which it is to be added and having phase stability in the presence of water when mixed with the gasoline.

  1. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel based on reprocessed uranium and plutonium mixture in thermal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Y.S.; Bibichev, B.A.; Zilberman, B.Y.; Baryshnikov, M.V.; Kryukov, O.V.; Khaperskaya, A.V.

    2013-07-01

    REMIX fuel consumption in WWER-1000 is considered. REMIX fuel is fabricated from non-separated mixture of uranium and plutonium obtained during NPP spent fuel reprocessing with further makeup by enriched natural uranium. It makes possible to recycle several times the total amount of uranium and plutonium obtained from spent fuel with 100% loading of the WWER-1000 core. The stored SNF could be also involved in REMIX fuel cycle by enrichment of regenerated uranium. The same approach could be applied to closing the fuel cycle of CANDU reactors. (authors)

  2. The impact of fuels on aircraft technology through the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    In the future, it may be necessary to use jet fuels with a broader range of properties in order to insure a more flexible and reliable supply and to minimize energy consumption and processing costs at the refinery. This paper describes research being conducted to (1) determine the potential range of properties for future jet fuels, (2) establish a data base of fuel property effects on propulsion system components, (3) evolve and evaluate advanced component technology that would permit the use of broader property fuels and (4) identify technical and economic trade-offs within the overall fuel production-air transportation system associated with variations in fuel properties.

  3. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  4. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  5. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  6. Intergenerational Linkages in Consumption Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald

    2004-01-01

    We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…

  7. Production of electricity from the treatment of urban waste water using a microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, M. A.; Cañizares, P.; Lobato, J.; Paz, R.; Sáez, C.; Linares, J. J.

    In this work, is studied the oxidation of the pollutants contained in an actual urban wastewater using a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). By using an anaerobic pre-treatment of the activated sludge of an urban wastewater treatment plant, the electricity generation in a MFC was obtained after a short acclimatization period of less than 10 days. The power density generated was found to depend mainly on the organic matter contain (COD) but not on the wastewater flow-rate. Maximum power densities of 25 mW m -2 (at a cell potential of 0.23 V) were obtained. The rate of consumption of oxygen in the cathodic chamber was very low. As the oxygen reduction is coupled with the COD oxidation in the anodic chamber, the COD removed by the electricity-generating process is very small. Thus, taking into account the oxygen consumption, it was concluded that only 0.25% of the removed COD was used for the electricity-generation processes. The remaining COD should be removed by anaerobic processes. The presence of oxygen in the anodic chamber leads to a deterioration of the MFC performance. This deterioration of the MFC process occurs rapidly after the appearance of non-negligible concentrations of oxygen. Hence, to assure a good performance of this type of MFC, the growth of algae should be avoided.

  8. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  9. Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about regulations, developed by EPA, in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders, that ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

  10. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  11. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world`s riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future.

  12. Electrodermal responses to implied versus actual violence on television.

    PubMed

    Kalamas, A D; Gruber, M L

    1998-01-01

    The electrodermal response (EDR) of children watching a violent show was measured. Particular attention was paid to the type of violence (actual or implied) that prompted an EDR. In addition, the impact of the auditory component (sounds associated with violence) of the show was evaluated. Implied violent stimuli, such as the villain's face, elicited the strongest EDR. The elements that elicited the weakest responses were the actual violent stimuli, such as stabbing. The background noise and voices of the sound track enhanced the total number of EDRs. The results suggest that implied violence may elicit more fear (as measured by EDRs) than actual violence does and that sounds alone contribute significantly to the emotional response to television violence. One should not, therefore, categorically assume that a show with mostly actual violence evokes less fear than one with mostly implied violence.

  13. 40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual Negative 4'x5') STAR PLAN, COURTYARD FACADE PROFILE AND DEFENSIVE LINKS - Castillo de San Marcos, 1 Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL

  14. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  15. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  16. Actuarial and actual analysis of surgical results: empirical validation.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, G L; Anderson, R P; Starr, A

    2001-06-01

    This report validates the use of the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method of computing survival curves by comparing 12-year estimates published in 1978 with current assessments. It also contrasts cumulative incidence curves, referred to as "actual" analysis in the cardiac-related literature with Kaplan-Meier curves for thromboembolism and demonstrates that with the former estimate the percentage of events that will actually occur.

  17. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  18. Fuels from biomass. Technology and feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.S. .

    1980-01-01

    This book for engineers, research workers and managers is concerned with decreasing conventional fuel consumption and increasing the use of synthetic fuels. There are 10 chapters: Sources of biomass - wastes and residues (including forestry residues); Sources of biomass - energy farms (including silviculture and aquaculture); Thermal conversion methods; Primary biochemical conversions (production of methane and glucose); Secondary conversion processes (methanol, hydrocarbons, ammonia, ethanol etc.); Case studies and economics - describing pyrolysis methods, production of methane by anaerobic fermentation, and biomass sources (3 chapters); Market penetration analysis; and Environmental impacts. Extensive illustrative data is a list of sourand a listes.

  19. Effect of hydrocarbon fuel type on fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. L.; Bittker, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    A modified jet fuel thermal oxidation tester (JFTOT) procedure was used to evaluate deposit and sediment formation for four pure hydrocarbon fuels over the temperature range 150 to 450 C in 316-stainless-steel heater tubes. Fuel types were a normal alkane, an alkene, a naphthene, and an aromatic. Each fuel exhibited certain distinctive deposit and sediment formation characteristics. The effect of aluminum and 316-stainless-steel heater tube surfaces on deposit formation for the fuel n-decane over the same temperature range was investigated. Results showed that an aluminum surface had lower deposit formation rates at all temperatures investigated. By using a modified JFTOT procedure the thermal stability of four pure hydrocarbon fuels and two practical fuels (Jet A and home heating oil no. 2) was rated on the basis of their breakpoint temperatures. Results indicate that this method could be used to rate thermal stability for a series of fuels.

  20. Fuel cell technology: A sweeter fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    Eating sugar gives us a boost when we feel tired because our cells use it as fuel to produce energy. Likewise, sugar can now be used to produce power in artificial biological fuel cells that function in a physiological environment.

  1. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  2. Fuel Reformer Nozzle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Ming-Chia D.

    2003-01-01

    The fellowship work this summer will be in support of the development of a fuel mixer for a liquid fuel reformer that is upstream of a fuel cell. Tasks for the summer shall consist of design of a fuel mixer, setup of the laser diagnostics for determining the degree of fuel mixing, and testing of the fuel mixer. The fuel mixer shall be a venturi section with fuel injected at or near the throat, and an air swirler upstream of the venturi. Data to determine the performance of the mixer shall be taken using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  3. New approach for reduction of diesel consumption by comparing different mining haulage configurations.

    PubMed

    Rodovalho, Edmo da Cunha; Lima, Hernani Mota; de Tomi, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    The mining operations of loading and haulage have an energy source that is highly dependent on fossil fuels. In mining companies that select trucks for haulage, this input is the main component of mining costs. How can the impact of the operational aspects on the diesel consumption of haulage operations in surface mines be assessed? There are many studies relating the consumption of fuel trucks to several variables, but a methodology that prioritizes higher-impact variables under each specific condition is not available. Generic models may not apply to all operational settings presented in the mining industry. This study aims to create a method of analysis, identification, and prioritization of variables related to fuel consumption of haul trucks in open pit mines. For this purpose, statistical analysis techniques and mathematical modelling tools using multiple linear regressions will be applied. The model is shown to be suitable because the results generate a good description of the fuel consumption behaviour. In the practical application of the method, the reduction of diesel consumption reached 10%. The implementation requires no large-scale investments or very long deadlines and can be applied to mining haulage operations in other settings.

  4. 75 FR 80430 - Passenger Car and Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standards Request for Product Plan Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... other fuels (or chemical battery energy). 39. Electrical System Voltage--measured in volts, e.g., 12... conditioner compressor. F. Energy Consumption \\8\\--of total fuel energy (higher heating value) consumed over... order to account for a given vehicle model's fuel economy as partitioned into nine energy...

  5. Well-to-Wheels Water Consumption: Tracking the Virtual Flow of Water into Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, D. J.; Elgowainy, A.; Hao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy resources are fundamental to life on Earth and essential for the production of consumer goods and services in the economy. Energy and water resources are heavily interdependent—energy production consumes water, while water treatment and distribution consume energy. One example of this so-called energy-water nexus is the consumption of water associated with the production of transportation fuels. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can be used to compare the environmental impacts of different transportation fuels on a consistent basis. In this presentation, the expansion of GREET to perform life cycle water accounting or the "virtual flow" of water into transportation and other energy sectors and the associated implications will be discussed. The results indicate that increased usage of alternative fuels may increase freshwater resource consumption. The increased water consumption must be weighed against the benefits of decreased greenhouse gas and fossil energy consumption. Our analysis highlights the importance of regionality, co-product allocation, and consistent system boundaries when comparing the water intensity of alternative transportation fuel production pathways such as ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity with conventional petroleum-based fuels such as diesel and gasoline.

  6. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  7. Analysis of fuel shares in the residential sector: 1960 to 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Pomykala, J.S.

    1986-08-01

    Historical and future energy use by fuel type in the residential sector of the United States are examined. Of interest is the likely relative demand for fuels as they affect national policy issues such as the potential shortfall of electric generating capacity in the mid to late 1990's and the ability of the residential sector to switch rapdily among fuels in response to fuel shortages, price increases and other factors. Factors affecting the share of a fuel used rather than the aggregate level of energy use are studied. However, the share of a fuel used is not independent of the level of energy consumption. In the analysis, the level of consumption of each fuel is computed as an intermediate result and is reported for completeness.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  9. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuelmore » consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.« less

  10. Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Snyder, J.R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

  11. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  12. Investigation of the technology development status of alternate fuel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The main purpose of the introduction of alternate fuel vehicles is to contribute to the reduction of pollution, the alternate energy for petroleum, and the energy savings. This report describes the development status of methanol, natural gas, and electric vehicles, which have high potential as alternate fuel vehicles. Characteristics of alternate fuel vehicles are compared by using the same factors on the basis of technological data. Outlines of individual alternate fuel vehicles are illustrated. Then, practicabilities of the alternate fuel vehicles are compared with each other, as for the output and energy densities, maximum output and torque of motors, power performance, specific consumption of energy, driving distance, initial cost, running cost and life cycle cost, convenience of fuel and energy supply, low pollution, and health effects.

  13. Acid fuel cell technologies for vehicular power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, J.R.; Srinivasan, S.

    1982-08-01

    Fuel cells offer a number of significant advantages as vehicular power sources. These include high efficiency, virtually no pollution, and the ability to use nonpetroleum fuel. To date, most fuel cell systems have been designed for either utility or space applications, which have substantially different requirements than vehicular applications. Several fuel cell technologies were assessed specifically for vehicular applications. The results of these assessments were used to calculate the performance and fuel consumption of a fuel cell powered GM X car. Results indicate that the phosphoric acid technology, which has the most development experience, can power a vehicle with reasonable performance, with a range of over 350 miles on 20 gallons of methanol and with high energy efficiency. Solid polymer electrolyte technology, which is second in development experience, can provide performance approaching that of an ICE vehicle and an energy efficiency 149% higher than the ICE-powered version.

  14. Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    A K Wertsching

    2012-09-01

    provide additional confidence with the results. The actual corrosion rates of UMo fuel is very likely to be lower than assumed within this report which can be confirmed with additional testing.

  15. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  16. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  17. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  18. Emission Characteristics and Egr Application of Blended Fuels with Bdf and Oxygenate (dmm) in a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    In this study, the possibility of biodiesel fuel and oxygenated fuel (dimethoxy methane ; DMM) was investigated as an alternative fuel for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The smoke emission of blending fuel (biodiesel fuel 90vol-% + DMM 10vol-%) was reduced approximately 70% at 2500rpm, full load in comparison with the diesel fuel. But, engine power and brake specific energy consumption showed no significant differences. But, NOx emission of biodiesel fuel and DMM blended fuel increased compared with commercial diesel fuel due to the oxygen component in the fuel. It was needed a NOx reduction counter plan that EGR method was used as a countermeasure for NOx reduction. It was found that simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emission was achieved with BDF (95 vol-%) and DMM (5 vol-%) blended fuel and cooled EGR method (15%).

  19. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    DOEpatents

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  20. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Steven J.; Caldeira, Ken

    2010-01-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with the consumption of goods and services in each country. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions differs from traditional, production-based inventories because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involve CO2 emissions. Here, using the latest available data, we present a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and calculations of associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 23% of global CO2 emissions, or 6.2 gigatonnes CO2, were traded internationally, primarily as exports from China and other emerging markets to consumers in developed countries. In some wealthy countries, including Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, the United Kingdom, and France, >30% of consumption-based emissions were imported, with net imports to many Europeans of >4 tons CO2 per person in 2004. Net import of emissions to the United States in the same year was somewhat less: 10.8% of total consumption-based emissions and 2.4 tons CO2 per person. In contrast, 22.5% of the emissions produced in China in 2004 were exported, on net, to consumers elsewhere. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions demonstrates the potential for international carbon leakage. Sharing responsibility for emissions among producers and consumers could facilitate international agreement on global climate policy that is now hindered by concerns over the regional and historical inequity of emissions. PMID:20212122