Science.gov

Sample records for actual lunar samples

  1. Thermoluminescence of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Doell, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable natural thermoluminescence with glow curve peaks at about 350 degrees centigrade for lunar fines and breccias and above 400 degrees centigrade for crystalline rocks has been recognized in lunar samples. Plagioclase has been identified as the principal carrier of thermoluminescence, and the difference in peak temperatures indicates compositional or structural differences between the feldspars of the different rock types. The present thermoluminescence in the lunar samples is probably the result of a dynamic equilibrium between acquisition from radiation and loss in the lunar thermal environment. A progressive change in the glow curves of core samples with depth below the surface suggests the use of thermoluminescence disequilibrium to detect surfaces buried by recent surface activity, and it also indicates that the lunar diurnal temperature variation penetrates to at least 10.5 centimeters.

  2. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  3. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  4. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  5. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  6. Lunar sample 14425 - Not a lunar tektite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of a polished section of lunar sample 14425 shows, in contradiction to a previous report, that it has a composition similar to Apollo 14 breccias, but not to high-magnesium microtektites. Lunar sample 14425 is a large (8.006±0.006 mm dia.) glass bead. Sample 14425 is one of the largest glass beads returned from the moon. Semiquantitative analysis of the bead indicated that it has a composition unlike other lunar samples, but similar to high-magnesium microtektites (O'Keefe and Glass, 1985). A polished section was prepared at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Quantitative analysis of this section shows that the spherule is extremely homogenous in composition and that the composition is similar to Apollo 14 impact breccias and not to any known terrestrial tektite. It appears that the glass bead was formed by impact melting and that it is not a lunar tektite.

  7. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

  8. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  9. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  10. Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

  11. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

  12. Terrestrial contamination in Apollo lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    The contamination prevention procedures adopted for controlling the collection, processing, and analysis of the Apollo lunar samples in order to keep them free of significant levels of terrestrial organic matter are described. The organic contaminants actually found in the samples by the various investigators are summarized. It is shown that the program succeeded in providing investigators with samples containing less than 0.1 ppm total contamination.

  13. Magnetic studies of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doell, Richard R.; Gromme, S.C.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.

    1970-01-01

    The remanent magnetism of a lunar type C breccia sample includes a large viscous component with a time constant of several hours, and a high coercivity remanence, possibly acquired by impact processes on the lunar surface. Ilmenite(?) and metallic iron in breccias, and ferrous and metallic iron in glass beads separated from lunar fines (type D) were identified by high-field and low-temperature experiments. The iron appears to occur in a wide range of grain sizes including the single domain and multidomain states.

  14. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  15. Horizons and opportunities in lunar sample science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Moon is the cornerstone of planetary science. Lunar sample studies were fundamental in developing an understanding of the early evolution and continued development of planetary bodies, and have led to major revisions in understanding of processes for the accumulation of planetesimals and the formation of planets. Studies of lunar samples have increased an understanding of impact cratering, meteoroid and micrometeoroid fluxes, the interaction of planetary surfaces with radiations and particles, and even the history of the Sun. The lunar sample research program was especially productive, but by no means have all the important answers been determined; continued study of lunar samples will further illuminate the shadows of our knowledge about the solar system. Further, the treasures returned through the Apollo program provide information that is required for a return to the Moon, beginning with new exploration (Lunar Geoscience Observer (LGO)), followed by intensive study (new sample return missions), and eventually culminating in a lunar base and lunar resource utilization.

  16. Nuclear tracks in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt is made to relate the appearance of an etched tract to the atomic number and velocity of the ion that left it using 10 MeV/nucleon Kr beams and 6 MeV/nucleon Zn beams. It was found that the etching rate along a tract in minerals and glass is a monototonic function of ionization rate thus, making particle identification possible. Results show the following were present in lunar samples: superheavy elements, cosmic rays with z greater than 26, and solar flare particles in Surveyor glass.

  17. Isotopic studies in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, E. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of lunar soil samples returned by Apollo 11 and 12 flights are discussed. Isotopic studies of the rare gases from Apollo 11 flight lunar samples are presented. The lunar soil analyses indicated the following: (1) high concentrations of solar wind rare gases, (2) isotopic match between solar wind gases and gas components in gas-rich meteorites, and (3) rare gases attributable to spallation reactions induced in heavier nuclides by cosmic ray particles.

  18. Luminescence of apollo 11 lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Greenman, N N; Gross, H G

    1970-01-30

    Luminescence measurements were made of four lunar rocks, two terrestrial rocks (granite and gabbro), and one terrestrial mineral (willemite) by comparing the spectral curves with the curve of a barium sulfate standard. Efficiencies with 3000 angstrom excitation were < 6 x 10(-5) for the lunar samples, < 8 x 10(-5) for gabbro of very similar composition to the lunar samples, approximately 10(-4) for granite, and approximately 2 X 10(-2) for willemite. If these are typical values for other ultraviolet excitation wavelengths, the Apollo 11 site appears to contribute little to the observed lunar luminescence. PMID:17781561

  19. Rock physics properties of some lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, N.; Trice, R.; Anderson, O. L.; Soga, N.

    1973-01-01

    Linear strains and acoustic velocity data for lunar samples under uniaxial and hydrostatic loading are presented. Elastic properties are presented for 60335,20; 15555,68; 15498,23; and 12063,97. Internal friction data are summarized for a number of artificial lunar glasses with compositions similar to lunar rocks 12009, 12012, 14305, 15021, and 15555. Zero porosity model-rock moduli are calculated for a number of lunar model-rocks, with mineralogies similar to Apollo 12, 14, and 16 rocks. Model-rock calculations indicate that rock types in the troctolitic composition range may provide reasonable modeling of the lunar upper mantle. Model calculations involving pore crack effects are compatible with a strong dependence of rock moduli on pore strain, and therefore of rock velocities on nonhydrostatic loading. The high velocity of rocks under uniaxial loading appears to be compatible with, and may aid in, interpretation of near-surface velocity profiles observed in the active seismic experiment.

  20. Why lunar sample studies are not finished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Graham

    The investigation of the 380 kg of lunar samples brought to the earth by six manned Apollo missions and three unmanned Luna missions has been a tremendous success so far, increasing our knowledge of the moon far beyond our prior ignorance. The advances provide the heart of the recent book by S.R. Taylor, Planetary Science: A Lunar Perspective (published by the Lunar and Planetary Institute). This book shows that not only has much been learned but numerous questions remain open, including that of the origin of the moon. Unfortunately, funding limitations in the future may severely restrict or postpone the appropriate research.

  1. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

  2. Analysis of lunar samples for carbon compounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of one approach to the analysis for carbon compounds in lunar materials from the Apollo 11 mission. The sequential scheme followed generally accepted organic geochemical practices, but was unusual in its application to a single sample. The procedures of the scheme were designed to minimize handling of the solids and extracts or hydrolysates. The solid lunar sample was retained in all steps of the sequential analysis in the vessel in which it was originally placed. Centrifugation was used to separate solid and liquid phases after extraction or refluxing. Liquids were recovered from solids by decantation.

  3. Organic analysis of the returned lunar sample.

    PubMed

    Abell, P I; Draffan, G H; Eglinton, G; Hayes, J M; Maxwell, J R; Pillinger, C T

    1970-01-30

    Lunar fines have been examined for organic compounds by crushing, programmed heating, hydrofluoric acid etching, and solvent extraction. Products were examined by mass spectroscopy. A variety of small organic molecules, including methane and other hydrocarbons, accompanied the release of the rare gases when the sample was heated in a stepwise fashion to 900 degrees C under vacuum. Methane is more abundant (abundance on the order of 1 part per million) than argon in the matrix-entrapped gases liberated by hydrofluoric acid etching of lunar fines. Methane is also present in a dark portion of the gas-rich meteorite Kapoeta. PMID:17781581

  4. Apollo-11 lunar sample information catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, F. E. (Compiler); Twedell, D. B. (Compiler); Walton, W. J. A., Jr. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission is reviewed with emphasis on the collection of lunar samples, their geologic setting, early processing, and preliminary examination. The experience gained during five subsequent missions was applied to obtain physical-chemical data for each sample using photographic and binocular microscope techniques. Topics discussed include: binocular examination procedure; breccia clast dexrriptuons, thin section examinations procedure typical breccia in thin section, typical basalt in thin section, sample histories, and chemical and age data. An index to photographs is included.

  5. The preferred walk to run transition speed in actual lunar gravity.

    PubMed

    De Witt, John K; Edwards, W Brent; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Norcross, Jason R; Gernhardt, Michael L

    2014-09-15

    Quantifying the preferred transition speed (PTS) from walking to running has provided insight into the underlying mechanics of locomotion. The dynamic similarity hypothesis suggests that the PTS should occur at the same Froude number across gravitational environments. In normal Earth gravity, the PTS occurs at a Froude number of 0.5 in adult humans, but previous reports found the PTS occurred at Froude numbers greater than 0.5 in simulated lunar gravity. Our purpose was to (1) determine the Froude number at the PTS in actual lunar gravity during parabolic flight and (2) compare it with the Froude number at the PTS in simulated lunar gravity during overhead suspension. We observed that Froude numbers at the PTS in actual lunar gravity (1.39±0.45) and simulated lunar gravity (1.11±0.26) were much greater than 0.5. Froude numbers at the PTS above 1.0 suggest that the use of the inverted pendulum model may not necessarily be valid in actual lunar gravity and that earlier findings in simulated reduced gravity are more accurate than previously thought. PMID:25232195

  6. Surface properties of lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Grossman, J J; Ryan, J A; Mukherjee, N R; Wegner, M W

    1970-01-30

    Fine-grained samples disrupted after exposure to oxygen and oxygen with 3.5 percent water above 2 torr. Chemical etching revealed plastic deformation in some samples, adhesion due to impact melting in others, dislocations in crystalline phases and evidence that some glasses were partially devitrified. Specimens of rock that were fractured in ultrahigh vacuum exhibited a time-dependent adhesion and a network of localized electrostatically charged areas. PMID:17781573

  7. Lunar sample studies. [breccias basalts, and anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility.

  8. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  9. Amino acid precursors in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    The use of hot water to extract lunar samples, followed by the hydrolysis of the aqueous extract, appears to be the method of choice for identification and quantitation of amino acid precursors in extraterrestrial sources. The net inferences from the analyses to date are (1) that amino acid precursors are verifiably present in lunar dust, and (2) that they are quite certainly not the consequence of contamination by terrestrial organisms, including man. It is suggested that prebiotic evolutionary pathways such as have been traversed on the earth were terminated on the moon for lack of sufficient water. Although some or all of the amino acid precursors may be indigenous, the low level observed suggests that they may also result from onfall of organic compounds from interstellar matter, comets, tails, solar wind, or meteorites.

  10. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  11. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station no. 1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background.

  12. High-Grading Lunar Samples for Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to "high-grade" their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to defile the "necessary and sufficient" measurements and techniques for highgrading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory.

  13. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  14. Preliminary Examination of lunar Samples from Apollo 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This is the first scientific report on the examination of the lunar samples returned from the Apollo 12 mission. Analyses of 34 kilograms of lunar rocks and fines reveal significant differences from the samples from Tranquillity Base, most notably in age, texture, amount of solar wind material, and in mineral and chemical composition. (LC)

  15. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  16. Evaluations of lunar samples for the presence of viable organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Wooley, B. C.

    1973-01-01

    Samples from the six successful Apollo lunar exploration missions were examined for the presence of biological formed elements and were used to inoculate a variety of culture media designed to promote growth of a broad spectrum of microorganisms. No evidence of viable organisms was obtained from any of these analyses. Following incubation of the lunar material-culture medium complexes, microbial growth dynamics studies were conducted with known test species to evaluate the possible presence of toxic factors. Only extracts of culture media which had been in contact with a mixture of lunar material from both Apollo 11 core tubes proved to be toxic to all species tested. Attempts to reproduce this toxic effect with individual Apollo 11 core samples obtained at other parts of the core and analyzed under somewhat different conditions were unsuccessful. In all, 48 different lunar samples were examined. These samples were collected at the lunar surface, in trenches, and in core samples to a depth of 297 cm.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Sample Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Global Mixing as a Mechanism for Compositional Anomalies of Agglutinitic Glasses; 2) Electron Microscopy of Apollo 12 Glass Spherules; 3) 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology on Apollo 12 Regolith; 4) LSCC Apollo and Luna Soil Analyses: Update of Soil Evolution Model; 5) Planetary Regolith Microstructure: An Unexpected Opposition Effect Result; 6) Infrared Spectroscopy on a Microscopic Scale: Investigating the Technique of Microspectroscopy and Its Application to a Lunar Breccia; 7) The Most Reduced Rock from the Moon - Apollo 14 Basalt 14053: Extreme Reduction Entirely from a Re-Heating Event.

  18. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg/sup 0/ and Br/sup 0/ (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material.

  19. Dr. Grant Heikan examines lunar material in sieve from sample container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Grant Heikan, Manned Spacecraft Center and a Lunar Sample preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Crust as Sampled by Basins and Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Crust as Samples by Basins and Craters" included:Radar Properties of Lunar Basin Deposits; Numerical Modeling of the South Pole-Aitkin Impact; Lunar South Pole-Aitken Impact Basin: Topography and Mineralogy; Comparison of the Geologic Setting of the South Pole-Aitken Basin Interior with Apollo 16: Implications for Regolith Components; Identifying Impact Events Within the Lunar Cataclysm from 40Ar-39Ar Ages of Apollo 16 Impact Melt Rocks; Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications; Lunar Meteorite PCA 02 007: A Feldspathic Regolith Breccia with Mixed Mare/Highland Components; Compositional Constraints on the Launch Pairing of LAP 02205 and PCA 02007 with Other Lunar Meteorites; An In-Situ Study of REE Abundances in Three Anorthositic Impact Melt Lunar Highland Meteorites; A Crustal Rock Clast in Magnesian Anorthositic Breccia, Dhofar 489 and Its Excavation from a Large Basin; The Origin and Impact History of Lunar Meteorite Yamato 86032; Evolved Lithologies and Their Inferred Sources in the Northwestern Procellarum Region of the Moon; and Revisiting the Interpretation of Thorium Abundances at Hansteen Alpha.

  1. Spectral analysis of lunar analogue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of samples derived from terrestrial analogue sites are used to study lunar processes in their geological context (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). For this study samples from the volcanic region of the Eifel, Germany collected during field campaigns (Foing et al., 2010), are analyzed with a variety of spectrometers. The aim is to obtain a database of analyzed samples that could be used as a reference for future in situ measurements. Equipment used in the laboratory consists of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, a Raman laser spectrometer, as well as UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers. The Raman, UV-VIS and NIR are also used in combination with the EXoGeoLab mock-up lander during field campaigns (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). Calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers is the main focus of this research in order to obtain the clearest spectra. The calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers requires the use of a good light source as well as suitable optical fibers to create a signal that covers the widest range in wavelengths available. To eliminate noise towards the edges of this range, multiple measurements are averaged and data is processed by dividing the signal by reference spectra. Calibration of the devices by creating a new dark and reference spectra has to take place after every sample measurement. In this way we take into account changes that occur in the signal due to the eating of the devices during the measurements. Moreover, the integration time is adjusted to obtain a clear signal without leading to oversaturation in the reflectance spectrum. The typical integration times for the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer vary between 1 - 18 s, depending on the amount of daylight during experiments. For the NIR reflectance spectrometer the integration time resulting in the best signals is approximately 150 ms in combination with a broad spectrum light

  2. A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

  3. Unique characterization of lunar samples by physical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, T.; Richter, D. A.; Simmons, G.; Wang, H.

    1973-01-01

    The measurement of compressional velocity, shear velocity, static compressibility, and thermal expansion of (1) a suite of shocked rocks fron the Ries impact in Germany, (2) a suite of samples cracked by thermal cycling to high temperatures, (3) many terrestrial igneous rocks, and (4) lunar basalts, gabbroic anorthosites, and breccias, indicate that shock metamorphism is the primary cause for values of physical properties of lunar rocks being diffferent from their intrinsic values. Large scale thermal metamorphism, thermal cycling between temperatures of lunar day and night, large thermal gradients, or thermal fatigue could possibly cause minor cracking in the top few centimeters of the lunar regolith, but are probably not important mechanism for extensively changing values of physical properties of lunar rocks.-

  4. Microbiological and experimental-histological investigations of lunar samples returned by the Lunar 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaulen, D. R.; Bulatova, T. I.; Fridenshteyn, A. Y.; Skvortsova, Y. B.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar surface material was studied for its content of viable microorganisms (aerobic and anaerobic, fungi, and viruses); the effect of the lunar surface material on the growth of microorganisms and its interaction with somatic cells of mammals was also observed. No viable microorganisms were detected; the samples exhibited neither stimulant or inhibitory action on the growth of microorganisms, and also showed no cytopathogenic action on tissue cultures. A suspension of lunar surface material particles was not toxic when parenterally administered to certain laboratory animals. The particles were subjected to intense phagocytosis by connective tissue cells in vivo and in vitro.

  5. Apollo Experiment Report: Lunar-Sample Processing in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory High-Vacuum Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A high-vacuum complex composed of an atmospheric decontamination system, sample-processing chambers, storage chambers, and a transfer system was built to process and examine lunar material while maintaining quarantine status. Problems identified, equipment modifications, and procedure changes made for Apollo 11 and 12 sample processing are presented. The sample processing experiences indicate that only a few operating personnel are required to process the sample efficiently, safely, and rapidly in the high-vacuum complex. The high-vacuum complex was designed to handle the many contingencies, both quarantine and scientific, associated with handling an unknown entity such as the lunar sample. Lunar sample handling necessitated a complex system that could not respond rapidly to changing scientific requirements as the characteristics of the lunar sample were better defined. Although the complex successfully handled the processing of Apollo 11 and 12 lunar samples, the scientific requirement for vacuum samples was deleted after the Apollo 12 mission just as the vacuum system was reaching its full potential.

  6. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  7. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  8. Infrared reflectance spectra (4-12 micron) of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here are infrared reflectance spectra of a typical set of Apollo samples to illustrate spectral character in the mid-infrared (4 to 12 microns) of lunar materials and how the spectra varies among three main forms: soil, breccia, and igneous rocks. Reflectance data, to a close approximation, are the inverse of emission spectra; thus, for a given material the spectral reflectance (R) at any given wavelength is related to emission (E) by 1 - R equals E. Therefore, one can use reflectance spectra of lunar samples to predict how emission spectra of material on the lunar surface will appear to spectrometers on orbiting spacecraft or earthbound telescopes. Spectra were measured in the lab in dry air using a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer. Shown here is only the key portion (4 to 12 microns) of each spectrum relating to the principal spectral emission region for sunlit lunar materials and to where the most diagnostic spectral features occur.

  9. Neutron capture on Sm-149 in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russ, G. P., III; Burnett, D. S.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    High precision isotopic composition measurements of Sm have been carried out for two terrestrial and seven lunar samples from three Apollo sites. The lunar samples, selected to show a wide variation in cosmic ray exposure ages, have a wide range of enrichments in Sm-150/Sm-154 (up to 0.8%) and depletions in Sm-149/Sm-154 which are due to neutron capture. The ratio of the number of neutrons captured per atom by Sm-149 to Gd-157 is 0.9 and reflects a hardened lunar neutron spectrum. This ratio is in reasonable but not exact agreement with that obtained from the theoretical lunar neutron energy spectrum of Lingenfelter, Canfield and Hampel. The average composition for terrestrial samarium is given.

  10. PDS Archive Release of Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 17 Lunar Rock Sample Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Stefanov, W. L.; Lofgren, G. E.; Todd, N. S.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory, Information Resources Directorate, and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory have been working to digitize (scan) the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs [1, 2]. The rock samples, and associated regolith and lunar core samples, were obtained during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions. The images allow scientists to view the individual rock samples in their original or subdivided state prior to requesting physical samples for their research. In cases where access to the actual physical samples is not practical, the images provide an alternate mechanism for study of the subject samples. As the negatives are being scanned, they have been formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate (which includes the Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory) at JSC is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving of these valuable data. The PDS Imaging Node is now pleased to announce the release of the image archives for Apollo missions 11, 12, and 17.

  11. Restoration and PDS Archive of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Runco, S. K.; LaBasse, D.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory (under the auspices of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate or ARES) began work on a 4-year project to digitize the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs. These rock samples together with lunar regolith and core samples were collected as part of the lander missions for Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17. The original film negatives are stored at JSC under cryogenic conditions. This effort is data restoration in the truest sense. The images represent the only record available to scientists which allows them to view the rock samples when making a sample request. As the negatives are being scanned, they are also being formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. The ARES group is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving.

  12. Technicians examine largest lunar rock sample collected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Three Brown and Root/Northrop technicians in the Nonsterile Nitrogen Laboratory in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) peer through glass at the much-discussed basketball size rock which Apollo 14 crewmen brought back from the Fra Mauro area of the Moon. They are, left to right, Linda Tyler, Nancy L. Trent and Sandra Richards (21244); Dr. Daniel Anderson, an aerospace technologist and test director in the LRL, looks at basketball size rock through a microscope (21245).

  13. View of lunar sample no. 15305 in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close-up view of lunar sample no. 15305 in the Non-Sterile Nitrogen Processing Line (NNPL) in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). This sample, pictured on a small spatula in a lab technician's glove, is green and is one of six recently taken from container no. 173, made up of comprehensive fines from the Apennine Front, Site no. 7. Astronauts David R. Scott and James B. Irwin took the sample during the second extravehicular activity (EVA), at a Ground Elapsed Time (GET) of 146:06.

  14. Using Lunar Sample Disks and Resources to Promote Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige; Allen, Jaclyn; Runco, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This poster presentation will illustrate the use of NASA Lunar Sample Disks and resources to promote scientific inquiry and address the Next Generation Science Standards. The poster will present information on the Lunar Sample Disks, housed and managed by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The poster will also present information on an inquiry-based planetary sample and impact cratering unit designed to introduce students in grades 4-10 to the significance of studying the rocks, soils, and surfaces of a planetary world. The unit, consisting of many hands-on activities, provides context and background information to enhance the impact of the Lunar Sample Disks.

  15. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leich, D. A.; Goldberg, R. H.; Burnett, D. S.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)0-16 has been used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction has been applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1/2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H2O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H2O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with 0-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations have been performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19 alpha gamma)0-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination.

  16. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leich, D. A.; Goldberg, R. H.; Burnett, D. S.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19(p, alpha gamma)O-16 has been used to perform depth-sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction has been applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths up to 0.45 microns. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H2O surface contamination and of a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H2O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation-damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations have been performed in a 1-micron surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(p, alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint that observed fluorine concentrations are a mixture of true lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination.

  17. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory with lunar material brought back to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 mission. Aseptic cultures of liverwort (marchantia polymorpha) - a species of plant commonly found growing on rocks or in wooded areas - are shown in two rows of sample containers. Seven weeks or some 50 days prior to this photograph 0.22 grams of finely ground lunar material was added to each of the upper samples of cultures. The lower cultures were untreated, and a noted difference can be seen in the upper row and the lower one, both in color and size of the culture.

  18. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water Extracted from Lunar Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn Martinez, M.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen exists in lunar materials in distinct phases having unique sources and equilibration histories. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O) of various components of lunar materials has been studied extensively, but analyses of water in these samples are relatively sparse [1-3]. Samples collected on the lunar surface reflect not only the composition of their source reservoirs but also contributions from asteroidal and cometary impacts, interactions with solar wind and cosmic radiation, among other surface processes. Isotopic characterization of oxygen in lunar water could help resolve the major source of water in the Earth-Moon system by revealing if lunar water is primordial, asteroidal, or cometary in origin [1]. Methods: A lunar rock/soil sample is pumped to high vacuum to remove physisorbed water before heating step-wise to 50, 150, and 1000°C to extract extraterrestrial water without terrestrial contamination. The temperature at which water is evolved is proportional to the strength with which the water is bound in the sample and the relative difficulty of exchanging oxygen atoms in that water. This allows for the isolated extraction of water bound in different phases, which could have different source reservoirs and/or histories, as evidenced by the mass (in)dependence of oxygen compositions. A low blank procedure was developed to accommodate the low water content of lunar material [4]. Results: Oxygen isotopic analyses of lunar water extracted by stepwise heating lunar basalts and breccias with a range of compositions, petrologic types, and surface exposure ages will be presented. The cosmic ray exposure age of these samples varies by two orders of magnitude, and we will consider this in discussing the effects of solar wind and cosmic radiation on the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O). I will examine the implications of our water analyses for the composition of the oxygen-bearing reservoir from which that water formed, the effects of surface

  19. Luminescence of Apollo 14 and Apollo 15 lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenman, N. N.; Gross, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Luminescence measurements have been made of Apollo 14 lunar samples with far UV, X-ray, and proton irradiation and of Apollo 15 lunar samples with X-ray irradiation. Preliminary efficiencies with the far UV are in the range .01 to .001; efficiencies with X-rays and protons are in the range .000001 to .00000001. The crystalline igneous rocks show higher efficiencies, in general, than the breccias and glasses, and the ratio of intensity of the green to the blue luminescence peak tends to be higher for the crystalline igneous rocks than for the breccias and glasses.

  20. The significance of observed rotational magnetic hysteresis in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1974-01-01

    Rotational magnetic hysteresis curves for lunar soils 10084, 12070, and 14259, and rock 14053 have been published. There is no adequate explanation to date for the observed large hysteresis at high fields. Lunar rock magnetism researchers consider fine particle iron to be the primary source of stable magnetic remanence in lunar samples. Iron has cubic anisotropy with added shape anisotropy for extreme particle shapes. The observed high-field hysteresis must have its source in uniaxial or unidirectional anisotropy. This implies the existence of minerals with uniaxial anisotropy or exchange-coupled spin states. Therefore, the source of this observed high-field hysteresis must be identified and understood before serious paleointensity studies are made. It is probable that the exchange-coupled spin states and/or the source of uniaxial anisotropy responsible for the high-field hysteresis might be influenced by the lunar surface diurnal temperature cycling. The possible sources of high-field hysteresis in lunar samples are presented and considered.

  1. Organic compounds in lunar samples: pyrolysis products, hydrocarbons, amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Drew, D M; Hamilton, P B; Modzeleski, V E; Murphy, M E; Scott, W M; Urey, H C; Young, M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar fines and a chip from inside a rock pyrolyzed in helium at 700 degrees C gave methane, other gases, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene/methanol extracts of fines yielded traces of high molecular weight alkanes and sulfur. Traces of glycine, alanine, ethanolamine, and urea were found in aqueous extracts. Biological controls and a terrestrial rock, dunite, subjected to exhaust from the lunar module descent engine showed a different amino acid distribution. Interpretation of the origin of the carbon compounds requires extreme care, because of possible contamination acquired during initial sample processing. PMID:5410553

  2. Coercivity maxima at low temperatures. [of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwerer, F. C.; Nagata, T.

    1974-01-01

    Recent measurements have shown that the magnetic coercive forces of some Apollo lunar samples show an unexpected decrease with decreasing temperature at cryogenic temperatures. This behavior can be explained quantitatively in terms of a model which considers additive contributions from a soft, reversible magnetic phase and from a harder, hysteretic magnetic phase.

  3. Emission spectrographic determination of trace elements in lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Annell, C.; Helz, A.

    1970-01-01

    Eighteen minor or trace elements were detected and determined by emission spectroscopy. Direct d-c arc excitation of powdered samples was used with three variations in the procedure. Thirteen lunar samples consisting of four fine-grained igneous rocks, one medium-grained igneous rock, seven breccias, and one sample of fines were analyzed. The zinc and nickel concentrations in the breccias were approximately one order of magnitude greater than the concentrations of these elements in igneous rocks.

  4. High voltage electron microscopy of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar pyroxenes from Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 were investigated. The iron-rich and magnesium-rich pyroxene specimens were crushed to a grain size of ca. 50 microns and studied by a combination of X-ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy, 57 Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography techniques. Highly ordered, uniform electron-dense bands, corresponding to exsolution lamellae, with average widths of ca. 230A to 1000A dependent on the source specimen were observed. These were?qr separated by wider, less-dense interband spacings with average widths of ca. 330A to 3100A. In heating experiments, splitting of the dense bands into finer structures, leading finally to obliteration of the exsolution lamellae was recorded. The extensive exsolution is evidence for significantly slower cooling rates, or possibly annealing, at temperatures in the subsolidus range, adding evidence that annealing of rock from the surface of the moon took place at ca. 600 C. Correlation of the band structure with magnetic ordering at low temperatures and iron clustering within the bands was studied.

  5. Hopping diffusion of helium isotopes from samples of lunar soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, G. S.

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on a detailed study of diffusion of helium isotopes from a sample of lunar soil (weight, 3.3 mg; bulk grain size, <74 μm; sampling depth, 118 cm in a 1.6-m-long core of lunar soil brought from the Moon by the Soviet automatic station Luna-24). The studies have been performed using step heating in the temperature range 300-1000°C in combination with a mass spectrometric isotope analysis of helium extracted at each temperature step. It has been demonstrated that the diffusion does not obey Fick’s law, which should be attributed to a large number of radiation damages in crystals of lunar soil minerals and can be described in terms of the formalism accepted for jump diffusion. The diffusion activation energy for both helium isotopes (4He, 3He) has been found to be identical and equal to 0.5 eV, and the frequency factors amount to 0.51 and 0.59 s-1, respectively. The random errors σ in the determination of these parameters are approximately equal to 5%. The lunar soil delivered to the Earth loses helium during the storage. At the beginning of the storage at room temperature, one gram of the lunar material under investigation loses approximately 3 × 109 helium atoms every second. It has been revealed that the jump diffusion of helium exhibits a strong isotopic effect: the light isotope 3He escapes at substantially higher rates. In order to prevent helium losses accompanied by isotope fractionation, the brought lunar soil should be stored at a low temperature.

  6. Adsorption of Water on JSC-1A Lunar Simulant Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, John; Sah, Shweta; Burghaus, Uwe; Street, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing probes sent to the moon in the 1990s indicated that water may exist in areas such as the bottoms of deep, permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles, buried under regolith. Water is of paramount importance for any lunar exploration and colonization project which would require self-sustainable systems. Therefore, investigating the interaction of water with lunar regolith is pertinent to future exploration. The lunar environment can be approximated in ultra-high vacuum systems such as those used in thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Questions about water dissociation, surface wetting, degree of crystallization, details of water-ice transitions, and cluster formation kinetics can be addressed by TDS. Lunar regolith specimens collected during the Apollo missions are still available though precious, so testing with simulant is required before applying to use lunar regolith samples. Hence, we used for these studies JSC-1a, mostly an aluminosilicate glass and basaltic material containing substantial amounts of plagioclase, some olivine and traces of other minerals. Objectives of this project include: 1) Manufacturing samples using as little raw material as possible, allowing the use of surface chemistry and kinetics tools to determine the feasibility of parallel studies on regolith, and 2) Characterizing the adsorption kinetics of water on the regolith simulant. This has implications for the probability of finding water on the moon and, if present, for recovery techniques. For condensed water films, complex TDS data were obtained containing multiple features, which are related to subtle rearrangements of the water adlayer. Results from JSC-1a TDS studies indicate: 1) Water dissociation on JSC-1a at low exposures, with features detected at temperatures as high as 450 K and 2) The formation of 3D water clusters and a rather porous condensed water film. It appears plausible that the sub- m sized particles act as nucleation centers.

  7. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M. D.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2011-03-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project enhances the Apollo mission data available on Google Moon and provides an interactive research and learning tool for the Apollo lunar rock sample collection.

  8. Thermoluminescence of Apollo 12 lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doell, Richard R.; Brent, Dalrymple G.

    1971-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve and decay characteristics of Apollo 12 fines and soil samples are similar to those from Apollo 11. Interpretation of the results from the core sample is difficult because of inadequate sample, spacing, but it appears that the part of the core below about 8 cm has been undisturbed for about 104 years whereas the part of the core above 10 cm may have been disturbed by recent surface activity. TL in the Apollo 12 samples is about twice that in the Apollo 11 samples, suggesting a lower mean daytime surface temperature of a few degrees at the Apollo 12 site. ?? 1971.

  9. Apollo 14 inverted pigeonites - Possible samples of lunar plutonic rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of 'inverted pigeonites' found in Apollo 14 samples 14082 and 14083 (a polymict breccia, the 'white rock') by a combination of optical, electron probe, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. These 'inverted pigeonites' are regarded as samples of plutonic rocks that have been blasted out of the Imbrium Basin. It is also concluded that lunar pigeonites will invert to orthopyroxenes, given sufficiently slow cooling histories even in very anhydrous environments.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  11. Multiple nitrogen components in lunar soil sample 12023

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brilliant, D. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the enigmatic elements in lunar soils and breccias. The large range in (delta)N-15 values found within lunar soils was initially attributed to a secular increase in the N-15/N-14 ratio of 50 percent within the solar corona, and hence in the implanted nitrogen within the lunar regolith. However, more recent explanations have proposed a two (or many) component mixing model of solar wind nitrogen with some hypothetical non-solar components. Such components could include indigenous lunar nitrogen, nitrogen contained in interstellar grains in primitive meteorites, and magnetospheric nitrogen from the terrestrial atmosphere. To understand the makeup of multi-component mixtures it is advantageous to have carbon and noble gas data measured simultaneously, particularly in the case of lunar soils, where the solar wind is a likely fundamental contributor of nitrogen. To this end, a new nitrogen instrument was adapted to give some of the desired data in parallel. Conjoint measurements of N abundance and (delta)N-15 together with N/Ar-36 and Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios obtained during a stepped combustion of lunar soil 12023. The results are preliminary to a much more comprehensive investigation of well characterized fractions of the sample which we still have available from a previous study. Stepped combustion of a sample of 12023,7 yielded 94 ppm nitrogen with a (delta)N-15 = +22.2 percent, as well as the characteristic heavy-light-heavy pattern observed for lunar samples. The low temperature maximum was +75.1 percent at 550 C, the minimum at 800 C with (delta)N-15 = -16.7 percent and the high temperature (delta)N-15 peak is +90.6 percent at 1250 C. The major releases of nitrogen occurred between 650 C - 800 C in the form of a double peak; a third, substantial release occurred at 1150 C yielding 14.2 ppm of nitrogen coinciding with a small but recognizable drop in (delta)N-15 against a regularly increasing trend.

  12. Analysis of Lunar Highland Regolith Samples From Apollo 16 Drive Core 64001/2 and Lunar Regolith Simulants - an Expanding Comparative Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Rickman, Doug; Stoeser, Douglas; Wentworth, Susan; McKay, Dave S.; Botha, Pieter; Butcher, Alan R.; Horsch, Hanna E.; Benedictus, Aukje; Gottlieb, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work to analyze the lunar highland regolith samples that came from the Apollo 16 core sample 64001/2 and simulants of lunar regolith, and build a comparative database. The work is part of a larger effort to compile an internally consistent database on lunar regolith (Apollo Samples) and lunar regolith simulants. This is in support of a future lunar outpost. The work is to characterize existing lunar regolith and simulants in terms of particle type, particle size distribution, particle shape distribution, bulk density, and other compositional characteristics, and to evaluate the regolith simulants by the same properties in comparison to the Apollo sample lunar regolith.

  13. Lunar sample analysis. [X-ray photoemission and Auger spectroscopy of lunar glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Grant, R. W.; Cirlin, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The surface composition of two samples from the highly shocked, glass-coated lunar basalt (12054) and from four glass-coated fragments from the 1-2 mm (14161) fines were examined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to determine whether the agglutination process itself is responsible for the difference between their surface and bulk compositions. Auger electron spectroscopy of glass balls from the 15425 and 74001 fines were analyzed to understand the nature, extent, and behavior of volatile phases associated with lunar volcanism. Initial results indicate that (1) volatiles, in the outer few atomic layers sampled, vary considerably from ball to ball; (2) variability over the surface of individual balls is smaller; (3) the dominant volatiles on the balls are S and Zn; and (4) other volatiles commonly observed are P, Cl, and K.

  14. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  15. Magnetic studies on Apollo 15 and 16 lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, G. W.; Gose, W. A.; Strangway, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The magnetic properties of lunar samples are almost exclusively due to rather pure metallic iron. The mare basalt contains about 0.06 wt.% Fe, the soils 0.5-0.6 wt.%, and the breccias 0.3-1.0 wt.%. Most of the additional iron in the soils and breccias is believed to be the result of reduction processes operating on the lunar surface. Whereas the total metallic iron content of the soils from all landing sites is rather constant, the Fe(0)/Fe(++) ratio and the average iron grain size increase with the age of the landing site, reflecting increasing maturity. The crystalline rocks studied from Apollo 16 have highly variable, but generally, very high metallic Fe content (up to 1.7 wt.% Fe). It is suggested that these rocks are either breccias or igneous samples which have been severely thermally metamorphosed in a highly reducing environment.

  16. Brief review of thermoluminescence studies in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. P., Jr.; Walker, R. M.; Miyajima, M.

    1971-01-01

    A weak thermoluminescence, due primarily to plagioclase feldspar, is found to exist in Apollo 11 and 12 lunar rock and topsoil samples. This effect increases with depth to about 10 cm below the surface and becomes relatively even in greater depth. The penetration of the diurnal temperature wave is traced to the rock thermoluminescence. Evidence is also found for the thermal draining of the surface rock.

  17. Description and Analysis of Core Samples: The Lunar Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Allton, Judith H.

    1997-01-01

    Although no samples yet have been returned from a comet, extensive experience from sampling another solar system body, the Moon, does exist. While, in overall structure, composition, and physical properties the Moon bears little resemblance to what is expected for a comet, sampling the Moon has provided some basic lessons in how to do things which may be equally applicable to cometary samples. In particular, an extensive series of core samples has been taken on the Moon, and coring is the best way to sample a comet in three dimensions. Data from cores taken at 24 Apollo collection stations and 3 Luna sites have been used to provide insight into the evolution of the lunar regolith. It is now well understood that this regolith is very complex and reflects gardening (stirring of grains by micrometeorites), erosion (from impacts and solar wind sputtering), maturation (exposure on the bare lunar surface to solar winds ions and micrometeorite impacts) and comminution of coarse grains into finer grains, blanket deposition of coarse-grained layers, and other processes. All of these processes have been documented in cores. While a cometary regolith should not be expected to parallel in detail the lunar regolith, it is possible that the upper part of a cometary regolith may include textural, mineralogical, and chemical features which reflect the original accretion of the comet, including a form of gardening. Differences in relative velocities and gravitational attraction no doubt made this accretionary gardening qualitatively much different than the lunar version. Furthermore, at least some comets, depending on their orbits, have been subjected to impacts of the uppermost surface by small projectiles at some time in their history. Consequently, a more recent post-accretional gardening may have occurred. Finally, for comets which approach the sun, large scale erosion may have occurred driven by gas loss. The uppermost material of these comets may reflect some of the features

  18. Some physical properties of Apollo 12 lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Oleary, B. T.; Campbell, M.

    1971-01-01

    The size distribution of the lunar fines is measured, and small but significant differences are found between the Apollo 11 and 12 samples as well as among the Apollo 12 core samples. The observed differences in grain size distribtuion in the core samples are related to surface transportation processes, and the importance of a sedimentation process versus meteoritic impact gardening of the mare grounds is discussed. The optical and the radio frequency electrical properties are measured and are also found to differ only slightly from Apollo 11 results.

  19. How successful were the lunar sampling tools: Implications for sampling Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Dardano, C. B.

    1988-01-01

    Like the Mars Sample Return endeavor, the Apollo lunar-sample program began with definition of strategy for sample collection and of scientific requirements for sampling hardware design. Several lessons can be illustrated by specific tools. The evolution of drive tubes from narrow 2 cm diameter, thick-walled tubes (used on Apollo 11, 12 and 14) to 4 cm diameter, thin-walled tubes used on Apollo 15, 16, and 17) as an example of the improvements made possible during multiple missions. The original Apollo 11 drive tube was designed to work in fluffy soil; thus, only 50 percent of the relatively dense lunar soil was recovered, and the core was distorted. The final configuration resulted in nearly 100 pct recovery with little distortion. The surface samplers (Contact Soil Sampling Devices) were designed to collect the upper 100 micrometer or the upper 1 mm of soil. It was over 2 years after the mission before these particularly specific samplers were opened because interest in them waned. Both core tubes and surface samplers were difficult to open in the laboratory. The Apollo Lunar Sample Return Containers (ALSRCs) were constructed with one indium and 2 Viton seals. They were closed on the lunar surface. Interior container pressures measured upon return to the laboratory indicate that these seals were not reliable in the lunar environment. Also, choice of indium as a sealing material interfered with siderophile analyses of samples.

  20. Thermal expansion of Apollo lunar samples and Fairfax diabase.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, W. S.; Miller, F.; Wang, H.; Simmons, G.

    1972-01-01

    Measured values of the thermal expansion of seven Apollo samples over the temperature range -100 C to +200 C are reported and compared to terrestrial Fairfax diabase. For most of the lunar rocks the measured expansion is significantly lower (30%) than the intrinsic value calculated from Turner's equation for the thermal expansion of an aggregate. The measured expansion of the Fairfax diabase was equal to the intrinsic but was higher for samples of Fairfax which had been previously cycled to high temperatures. The effect of microfractures on the thermal expansion of rocks is discussed.

  1. Interaction of gases with lunar materials. [analysis of lunar samples from Apollo 17 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Gammage, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The surface chemistry of Apollo 17 lunar fines samples 74220 (the orange soil) and 74241 (the gray control soil) has been studied by measuring the adsorption of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen (all at 77 K) and also water vapor (at 20 or 22 C). In agreement with results for samples from other missions, both samples had low initial specific surface areas, consisted of nonporous particles, and were attacked by water vapor at high relative pressure to give an increased specific surface area and create a pore system which gave rise to a capillary condensation hysteresis loop in the adsorption isotherms. In contrast to previous samples, both of the Apollo 17 soils were partially hydrophobic in their initial interaction with water vapor (both samples were completely hydrophilic after the reaction with water). The results are consistent with formation at high temperatures without subsequent exposure to significant amounts of water.

  2. Thorium Mass Balance for the Moon from Lunar Prospector and Sample Data: Implications for Thermal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Haskin, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    A global lunar mass-balance model for Th based on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray and lunar sample data is presented within the context of major crustal terranes. The consequences of strong enrichment of Th in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane are discussed.

  3. The origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5-651.1 ppb in 6 M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D- and L-β-amino-n-butyric acid (β-ABA), DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, β-alanine, and ε-amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic β-ABA were present in some samples. We also examined seven samples from Apollo 15, 16, and 17 that had been previously allocated to a non-curation laboratory, as well as two samples of terrestrial dunite from studies of lunar module engine exhaust that had been stored in the same laboratory. The amino acid content of these samples suggested that contamination had occurred during non-curatorial storage. We measured the compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios of glycine, β-alanine, and L-alanine in Apollo regolith sample 70011 and found values of -21‰ to -33‰. These values are consistent with those seen in terrestrial biology and, together with the enantiomeric compositions of the proteinogenic amino acids, suggest that terrestrial biological contamination is a primary source of the

  4. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  5. Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

  6. Phase chemistry, structure, and radiation effects in lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Arrhenius, G; Asunmaa, S; Drever, J I; Everson, J; Fitzgerald, R W; Frazer, J Z; Fujita, H; Hanor, J S; Lal, D; Liang, S S; Macdougall, D; Reid, A M; Sinkankas, J; Wilkening, L

    1970-01-30

    Phase chemistry, structure, and radiation effects were studied in rock, breccia, and soil samples. The regolith apparently developed in the final stages of accretion and was modified by later impact processes and radiation weathering. Exposure ages indicate transfer of buried igneous rock fragments to the near surface late in lunar history. With a few exceptions igneous rock fragments, soil, and breccia share the same distinctive chemistry, probably acquired before accretion of the moon. The igneous rocks texturally resemble basaltic achondrites, and the soil and breccias contain glassy spheres analogous to chondrules. PMID:17781535

  7. Preliminary examination of lunar samples: Part A: a petrographic and chemical description of samples from the lunar highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    The Lunar Sample Preliminary Examination Team

    1972-01-01

    More than four-fifths of the surface of the Moon consists of a profoundly cratered irregular surface designated terra or highlands by analogy with the terrestrial continents. These terra regions have much higher albedos than the physiographically lower and much smoother mare regions. The difference in albedo can now be ascribed to a fundamental difference in the chemical and mineralogical character of these two regions. Lunar samples from landing sites in the mare regions and high-resolution photographs taken from lunar orbit have shown that the lunar maria are underlain by extensive lava flows. Isotopic dating of samples from four mare regions (refs. 7-1 to 7-4) indicate that mare volcanism covered a time span of 600 million years, beginning approximately 3.7 billion years ago. The intensely cratered character of terra regions is due to both the greater antiquity of these parts of the Moon and the higher flux of incoming objects that hit the Moon during very early lunar history (ref. 7-5). In contrast with the mare region, the origin of the underlying material of the terra is not easily inferred from physiographic criteria. The surface manifestations of early plutonic or extrusive igneous activity — if indeed they ever existed — were erased from the terra regions by the intense early bombardment of the lunar surface. Some portions of the highlands may be exceptions to this generalization; in particular, large craters such as Ptolemaeus, Hipparchus, Albategnius, and Alphonsus. The regions bounded by these craters are much smoother than the typical densely cratered highlands. These regions are generally assumed to be physiographic lows that have, in some way, been filled by younger material. The nature of the material and the mechanism by which it was introduced into the basins are not well understood. On the basis of rather detailed studies of the physiographic and albedo characteristics of the basin material, it has been suggested (ref. 7-6) that the filling

  8. Apollo experience report: Processing of lunar samples in a sterile nitrogen atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, T. M.

    1972-01-01

    A sterile nitrogen atmosphere processing cabinet line was installed in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to process returned lunar samples with minimum organic contamination. Design and operation of the cabinet line were complicated by the requirement for biological sterilization and isolation, which necessitated extensive filtration, leak-checking, and system sterilization before use. Industrial techniques were applied to lunar sample processing to meet requirements for time-critical experiments while handling a large flow of samples.

  9. Organic analysis of lunar samples and the Martian surface.

    PubMed

    Oro, J; Flory, D

    1973-01-01

    In addition to the organogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, P) which are necessary for the synthesis of organic molecules, the lunar samples from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 contain substantial amounts (approximately equal to 10 to 100 microgram/g) of CO, N2 and CO2, which are released at relatively high temperatures and smaller amounts (approximately equal to 0.1 to 10 microgram/g) of more complex organic compounds (e.g. benzene). Most of these analyses have been performed by mass spectrometry or by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after appropriate volatilization. The release of very small amounts of water has also been observed and is consistent with the findings of goethite (FeO.OH) and with measurements by the suprathermal ion detector. The lunar surface provides one of the less favorable solar system models for the synthesis of organic compounds yet small amounts of these compounds have been detected in the returned samples. It is reasonable to assume that the different physical and developmental features of the planet Mars (increased gravitational field, presence of an atmosphere with CO2, CO and H2O, recent volcanic and tectonic activity, etc.) would favor an increased organic content of the surface of this planet relative to the moon. Therefore the organic molecules present in the Martian soil should be measurable by miniaturized mass spectrometers after fractional distillation or gas chromatographic separation of the volatiles released by moderate heating. PMID:11998860

  10. Electrical properties of lunar soil sample 15301,38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olhoeft, G. R.; Frisillo, A. L.; Strangway, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    Electrical property measurements have been made on an Apollo 15 lunar soil sample in ultrahigh vacuum from room temperature to 827 C for the frequency spectrum from 100 Hz through 1 MHz. The dielectric constant, the total ac loss tangent, and the dc conductivity were measured. The dc conductivity showed no thermal hysteresis, but an irreversible (in vacuum) thermal effect was found in the dielectric loss tangent on heating above 700 C and during the subsequent cooling. This appears to be related to several effects associated with lunar glass above 700 C. The sample also showed characteristic low-frequency dispersion in the dielectric constant with increasing temperature, presumably due to Maxwell-Wagner intergranular effects. The dielectric properties may be fitted to a model involving a Cole-Cole frequency distribution that is relatively temperature-independent below 200 C and follows a Boltzmann temperature distribution with an activation energy of 2.5 eV above 200 C. The dc conductivity is fitted by an exponential temperature distribution and becomes the dominant loss above 700 C.

  11. The apollo 15 lunar samples: A preliminary description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gast, P.W.; Phinney, W.C.; Duke, M.B.; Silver, L.T.; Hubbard, N.J.; Heiken, G.H.; Butler, P.; McKay, D.S.; Warner, J.L.; Morrison, D.A.; Horz, F.; Head, J.; Lofgren, G.E.; Ridley, W.I.; Reid, A.M.; Wilshire, H.; Lindsay, J.F.; Carrier, W.D.; Jakes, P.; Bass, M.N.; Brett, P.R.; Jackson, E.D.; Rhodes, J.M.; Bansal, B.M.; Wainwright, J.E.; Parker, K.A.; Rodgers, K.V.; Keith, J.E.; Clark, R.S.; Schonfeld, E.; Bennett, L.; Robbins, Martha M.; Portenier, W.; Bogard, D.D.; Hart, W.R.; Hirsch, W.C.; Wilkin, R.B.; Gibson, E.K.; Moore, C.B.; Lewis, C.F.

    1972-01-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo 15 site consist of mare basalts and breccias with a variety of premare igneous rocks. The mare basalts are from at least two different lava flows. The bulk chemical compositions and textures of these rocks confirm the previous conclusion that the lunar maria consist of a series of extrusive volcanic rocks that are rich in iron and poor in sodium. The breccias contain abundant clasts of anorthositic fragments along with clasts of basaltic rocks much richer in plagioclase than the mare basalts. These two rock types also occur as common components in soil samples from this site. The rocks and soils from both the front and mare region exhibit a variety of shock characteristics that can best be ascribed to ray material from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus.

  12. Apollo 16 returned lunar samples - Lithophile trace-element abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, S.; Kouns, C. W.; Lum, R. K. L.; Bickel, A. L.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Lithium, K, Rb, Sr, Ba, rare-earth, Zr, and Hf abundances have been determined by mass-spectrometric isotope-dilution for Apollo 16 soils, anorthosite 61016, and 'basalt' 68415 whole-rock and separated pyroxene and plagioclase. Our sample of 61016 is similar to some other lunar anorthosites in lithophile trace-element concentrations but at a slightly lower level. It was probably accumulated from a little differentiated basalt. Basalt 68415 might be a homogeneous mixture of KREEP and anorthosite material; it appears to have crystallized under conditions as reducing as those holding for mare-basalts. The soil fines cover only a limited compositional range. No obvious chemical differences were noted between the Descartes and Cayley formations. Most of the compositional variation of the soils can be accounted for in terms of the addition of plagioclase. The existence of very high alumina basalt as an independent magma-type appears debatable in view of its KREEP-like lithophile trace-element relative concentrations and the observed lunar radioactivity distribution.

  13. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of numerous fern plants growning in a sprinkling of lunar soil brought back from the lunar surface by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The photograph of the fern plants was taken 50 days after the plants were explosed to the lunar matter. The plants - Ococlea Sensidilis, or more commonly known as Sensitive Fern - were photographed on a dish containing the minimal nutrients for germination. The cabbage-like, darker circle of plants, about 3/8 inch tall at the highest point, is germinating in contact with the lunar material, but the lighter colored, blurred plant material surrounding the cabbage-like clump is not in contact with any of the lunar soil.

  14. Understanding the origin and evolution of water in the Moon through lunar sample studies

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mahesh; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in our knowledge and understanding of water in the lunar interior. This has transpired principally through continued analysis of returned lunar samples using modern analytical instrumentation. While these recent studies have undoubtedly measured indigenous water in lunar samples they have also highlighted our current limitations and some future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully understand the origin, distribution and evolution of water in the lunar interior. Another exciting recent development in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water or water ice on the surface of the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. Considered together, sample-based studies and those from orbit strongly suggest that the Moon is not an anhydrous planetary body, as previously believed. New observations and measurements support the possibility of a wet lunar interior and the presence of distinct reservoirs of water on the lunar surface. Furthermore, an approach combining measurements of water abundance in lunar samples and its hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be of vital importance to fingerprint and elucidate processes and source(s) involved in giving rise to the lunar water inventory. A number of sources are likely to have contributed to the water inventory of the Moon ranging from primordial water to meteorite-derived water ice through to the water formed during the reaction of solar wind hydrogen with the lunar soil. Perhaps two of the most striking findings from these recent studies are the revelation that at least some portions of the lunar interior are as water-rich as some Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt source regions on Earth and that the water in the Earth and the Moon probably share a common origin. PMID:25114308

  15. Understanding the origin and evolution of water in the Moon through lunar sample studies.

    PubMed

    Anand, Mahesh; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J

    2014-09-13

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in our knowledge and understanding of water in the lunar interior. This has transpired principally through continued analysis of returned lunar samples using modern analytical instrumentation. While these recent studies have undoubtedly measured indigenous water in lunar samples they have also highlighted our current limitations and some future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully understand the origin, distribution and evolution of water in the lunar interior. Another exciting recent development in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water or water ice on the surface of the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. Considered together, sample-based studies and those from orbit strongly suggest that the Moon is not an anhydrous planetary body, as previously believed. New observations and measurements support the possibility of a wet lunar interior and the presence of distinct reservoirs of water on the lunar surface. Furthermore, an approach combining measurements of water abundance in lunar samples and its hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be of vital importance to fingerprint and elucidate processes and source(s) involved in giving rise to the lunar water inventory. A number of sources are likely to have contributed to the water inventory of the Moon ranging from primordial water to meteorite-derived water ice through to the water formed during the reaction of solar wind hydrogen with the lunar soil. Perhaps two of the most striking findings from these recent studies are the revelation that at least some portions of the lunar interior are as water-rich as some Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt source regions on Earth and that the water in the Earth and the Moon probably share a common origin. PMID:25114308

  16. Astronaut John Young on rim of Plum crater gathering lunar rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, stands on the rim of Plum crater while collecting lunar rock samples at Station No.1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descartes landing site. This scene, looking eastward, was photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. The small boulder in the center foreground was chip sampled by the crewmen. Plum crater is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked on the far rim of the crater. The gnomon, which is used as a photographic reference to establish local vertical sun angle, scale, and lunar color, is deployed in the center of the picture. Young holds a geological hammer in his right hand.

  17. Age of Lunar Meteorite LAP02205 and Implications for Impact-Sampling of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Bogard, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the age of lunar meteorite LAP02205 by the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar methods. Sm-Nd analyses are in progress. The Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicate a crystallization age of approx. 3 Ga. Comparing the ages of LAP02205 and other lunar mare basaltic meteorites to mare surface ages based on the density of impact craters shows no significant bias in impact- sampling of lunar mare surfaces. Comparing the isotopic and geochemical data for LAP02205 to those for other lunar mare basalts suggests that it is a younger variant of the type of volcanism that produced the Apollo 12 basalts. Representative impact-sampling of the lunar surface

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  19. LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

  20. Mineralogic and petrologic studies of lunar samples and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and thermodynamic research on the pressure temperature limits of the stability of the mineral assemblages found in pristine, spinel bearing lunar highland lithologies demonstrated the likelihood that the minerals originated in the lower stratigraphic levels of the primordial crust. The phase equilibrium in silicate solid/liquid systems of planetary importance were thermochemically interpreted in order to model the early formation of the crusts and maneles of Earth and Moon sized planets. The petrography and chemical composition of coarse grained gabbro, the chemical analysis and age dating of clasts from Apollo 16 breccia, the analysis of glass particles from Apollo 16 soil samples, the study of Allende and Mokoia meteorites as a source of information about events in the solar nebula, and the hydrothermal alteration of amorphous materials were also investigated. The capabilities of a model for addressing the problem of the origin of the Earth's moon by the disruptive capture mechanism are examined as well as models of the thermal evolution of hypothetical meteorite bodies. Progress in determining the composition of stony meteorite specimens collected at the Allan Hills site during the Antarctic field exploration is reported.

  1. A quest for porphyrins in lunar soil - Samples from Apollo 11, 12 and 14.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, G. W.; Kvenvolden, K.; Peterson, E.; Ponnamperuma , C.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses for porphyrins in the lunar samples were carried out by extracting the lunar soils as received by organic solvents followed by analytical demetallation using methanesulfonic acid after which free-base porphyrins, if present, were recovered and demonstrably recomplexed with divalent cations. Samples from Apollo 11 showed the presence of fluorescent substances attributed to exhaust from the descent engine. One sample from Apollo 12 showed pigments resembling porphyrins. The Apollo 14 results were negative.

  2. Spinel-rich lithologies in the lunar highland crust: Linking lunar samples, crystallization experiments and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, J.; Treiman, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of areas rich in (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of lunar impact basins (by the M3 mapping spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1) has revived the old puzzle of the origin of lunar spinel. (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel is rare but widespread in lunar highlands rocks, and thus might be an important component of the lunar crust [1-3]. However, the origin of this spinel is not clear. Lunar (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel could have formed (1) during 'normal' basalt petrogenesis at high pressure; (2) during low-pressure crystallization of melts rich in olivine and plagioclase components, e.g. impact-melted lunar troctolite; or (3) formed at low pressure during assimilation of anorthosite into picritic magma; thus, lunar spinel-rich areas represent old (pre-impact) intrusions of magma. In the absence of spinel-rich samples from the Moon, however, these ideas have been highly speculative. Here we describe a rock fragment from lunar meteorite ALHA 81005 that we recently reported [4] that not only contains spinel, but is the first spinel-rich lunar sample described. This fragment contains ~30% (Mg,Fe)Al spinel and is so fine grained that it reasonably could represent a larger rock body. However, the fragment is so rich in spinel that it could not have formed by melting a peridotitic mantle or a basaltic lunar crust. The clast's small grain size and its apparent disequilibrium between spinel and pyroxene suggest fairly rapid crystallization at low pressure. It could have formed as a spinel cumulate from an impact melt of troctolitic composition; or from a picritic magma that assimilated crustal anorthosite on its margins. The latter mechanism is preferred because it explains the petrographic and chemical features of our clast, and is consistent with the regional setting of the Moscoviense spinel deposit [4]. To better understand the origin and formation history(s) of spinel-rich rocks, we also performed liquidus/crystallization experiments at low-pressure as analogues for impact

  3. Autonomous Surface Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. P.

    2007-08-01

    Surface science sample acquisition is a critical activity within any planetary and lunar exploration mission, and our research is focused upon the design, implementation, experimentation and demonstration of an onboard autonomous surface sample acquisition capability for a rover equipped with a robotic arm upon which are mounted appropriate science instruments. Images captured by a rover stereo camera system can be processed using shape from stereo methods and a digital elevation model (DEM) generated. We have developed a terrain feature identification algorithm that can determine autonomously from DEM data suitable regions for instrument placement and/or surface sample acquisition. Once identified, surface normal data can be generated autonomously which are then used to calculate an arm trajectory for instrument placement and sample acquisition. Once an instrument placement and sample acquisition trajectory has been calculated, a collision detection algorithm is required to ensure the safe operation of the arm during sample acquisition.We have developed a novel adaptive 'bounding spheres' approach to this problem. Once potential science targets have been identified, and these are within the reach of the arm and will not cause any undesired collision, then the 'cost' of executing the sample acquisition activity is required. Such information which includes power expenditure and duration can be used to select the 'best' target from a set of potential targets. We have developed a science sample acquisition resource requirements calculation that utilises differential inverse kinematics methods to yield a high fidelity result, thus improving upon simple 1st order approximations. To test our algorithms a new Planetary Analogue Terrain (PAT) Laboratory has been created that has a terrain region composed of Mars Soil Simulant-D from DLR Germany, and rocks that have been fully characterised in the laboratory. These have been donated by the UK Planetary Analogue Field Study

  4. Role of phosphorus in lunar samples: a chemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The roles played by phosphorus present in lunar material may be important in understanding the evolution of the crustal rocks. Quantitative extraction of phosphorus and trace elements associated with possible phosphate phases is the ultimate objective of these studies. Because P may be present in glassy or microcrystalline mesostasis and also as discrete phosphate minerals and as phosphides, chemical procedures provide a tool for its determination along with its complements of trace elements. In these experiments 0.1 M acid was used as a phosphate-specific agent. One experiment was designed to measure how quantitatively P-related constituents are extracted. In consecutive leaching steps more p and REE were dissolved, 76 vs 26% P and 64 vs 37% Sm, from the finer grain sample split. This could be a grain size effect or it could be due to phase separations. Only small amounts of soluble phases remained after the initial 10 minute extraction. Phosphorus and REE are dilute acid soluble in amounts ranging up to 70%. They have sympathetically but are not necessarily highly correlated. Acid soluble fractions of KREEP-rich breccia 14312 and highland breccia 66095 matrix and melt rock clast have chondrite normalized REE patterns similar to that of apatite from a terrestrial gabbro. A different pattern is observed for mare basalt 75055 whole rock and pyroxene and an ilmenite-rich separate. The residues after the acid leach are always HREE enriched relative to the leached fractions. No KREEP-like REE/CH pattern was observed. A systematics for highland rocks based on P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is noted. Igneous KREEP rock 15386 and Apollo-16, Fe-rich, high-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ glasses reported by Powell et al. (1975) play key roles. 5 figures, 1 table.

  5. The intensity of the ancient lunar field from magnetic studies on lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, A.; Collinson, D. W.; Runcorn, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    Palaeointensity determinations on Apollo 11, 16 and 17 rocks have indicated that 3.9 - 4.0 AE ago the strength of the surface lunar magnetic field was about 1.3 Oe while there is evidence from younger rocks that a field of about one quarter of this value was present at a later time (3.6 AE).

  6. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  7. Evidence and implications of shock metamorphism in lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Short, N M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar microbreccias and loose regolith materials contain abundant evidence of shock metamorphism related to crater-forming meteorite impacts. Diagnostic shock effects include (i) planar features in a silica phase and feldspars, and lamellae in clinopyroxene, (ii) thetomorphic feldspar glass, (iii) heterogeneous glasses of rock and mineral composition, (iv) distinctive recrystallization textures, and (v) characteristic changes in crystal structure as indicated by x-ray diffraction analysis and measurements of refractive index. The microbreccias are produced from regolith materials (ejected fromz craters) by shock lithification. Some feldsparrich fragments may represent ejecta introduced from nonlocal sources, such as the lunar highlands. PMID:17781541

  8. Ion-beam analysis of meteoritic and lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    Charged particle-induced nuclear reactions were used in the following problems: the determination of elemental abundances of boron and fluorine in carbonaceous chondritic meteorites; the identification of products of lunar vulcanism; and the study of solar wind-implanted atoms in lunar materials. The technique was seen as an important supplement to other methods of elemental and isotopic analysis. This was especially true for cases involving light elements at very low concentrations or where high resolution depth distribution information was needed in non-destructive analysis.

  9. Potassium-uranium systematics of apollo 11 and apollo 12 samples: implications for lunar material history.

    PubMed

    Fanale, F P; Nash, D B

    1971-01-22

    Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 lunar rock suites differ in their potassium-uranium abundance systematics. This difference indicates that relatively little exchange of regolith material has occurred between Mare Tranquillitatis and Oceanus Procellarum. The two suites appear to have been derived from materials of identical potassium and uranium content. It appears unlikely that bulk lunar material has the ratio of potassium to uranium found in chondrites. However, systematic differences in the potassium-uranium ratio between Apollo samples and crustal rocks of the earth do not preclude a common potassium-uranium ratio for bulk earth and lunar material. PMID:17736222

  10. Alteration of an annealed and irradiated lunar fines sample by adsorbed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Agron, P. A.; Eichler, E.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Okelley, G. D.; Gammage, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 12 lunar fines sample 12070,403 was annealed at 1000 C and subsequently irradiated with a beam of 130 MeV Fe(9+) ions. Adsorptions of nitrogen and water were measured before and after the irradiation. Prior to the irradiation, the fines were nonporous and water had no effect on the physical characteristics of the lunar fines. In contrast, after the irradiation, the interaction with water caused an increase in the specific surface area and created a pore system. These results are definitive evidence that the interaction of water with damage tracks is the prime factor involved in the alteration of lunar fines by adsorbed water.

  11. U-Th-Pb systematics of some Apollo 17 lunar samples and implications for a lunar basin excavation chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, P. D.; Tatsumoto, M.; Unruh, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    U, Th, and Pb concentrations and lead isotopic compositions of selected Apollo 17 soil and rock samples are presented. Concordia treatments of U-Pb whole samples of Apollo 17 mare basalts and highland rocks probably reflect several early thermal events about 4.5 b.y. old more consistently than do U-Pb ages of samples collected at other lunar sites. We propose that all lunar U-Th-Pb data reflect a multistate U-Pb evolution history most easily understood as being related to a complex planetesimal bombardment history of the moon which apparently dominated lunar events from about 4.5 to about 3.9 b.y. ago. Semi-distinct events at about 4.0, about 4.2, and 4.4-4.5 b.y. are evident on whole-rock frequency versus Pb-207/Pb-206 age histograms. Each of these events may reflect multiple cratering episodes. For mare basalts, complete resetting of the source rock U-Pb systems owing to Pb loss relative to U was apparently often approached after a major planetesimal impact.

  12. DSP based lunar sampling control system for the coiling-type sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yun; Song, Aiguo; Lu, Wei

    2011-12-01

    The paper develops a control system based on DSP28334 for lunar sampling, and provides the main structure of it. The critical hardware and software design of the system are introduced in detail. The emphasis is placed on the design and realization of the vibration control of the coiling-type sampler in the process of lunar sampling. A control strategy which combines manual-control and local autonomous control is applied for the lunar sampling control. And the sampling mechanism being controlled can realizes multi-motor units working at time-sharing, which reduces the power comsumption and increases the stability of the sampling system greatly. The practical application of the control strategy used for the coiling-type sampler is verified by the finite element analysis. The experiments results show that the system works with low power consumption and high efficiency, and the proposed strategy enables greater depth and better efficiency during sampling.

  13. Measurement of density and porosity of lunar rocks based on samples of Luna 16 automatic lunar station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volynets, V. F.; Florenskiy, K. P.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Three fragments of holocrystalline igneous rocks of the gabbro type, weighing 30 to 50 mg each, were investigated. The density of the fragments was established with a mercury pycnometer and was found to be 3.05 to 3.12 g/cu cm, with a relative error not more than 2 percent. The porosity was found for the difference between the volumes determined with the mercury and with the gas techniques; for all three samples together it was 13 percent, and the error of determination was 70 percent owing to the small volumes. It can be anticipated that the porosity of the rock in bulk will be higher than the value obtained based on small fragments. The porosity of lunar rocks can markedly affect the isostatic distribution of rocks and must be taken into account when developing models of lunar structure.

  14. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  15. The apollo 16 lunar samples: petrographic and chemical description.

    PubMed

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary characterization of the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site has substantiated the inference that the lunar terra are commonly underlain by plagioclase-rich or anorthositic rocks. No evidence has been found for volcanic rocks underlying the regolith in the Apollo 16 region. In their place, we have found anorthositic rocks that are thoroughly modified by crushing and partial melting. The textural and chemical variations in these rocks provide some evidence for the existence of anorthositic complexes that have differentiated on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters. The occurrence of deep-seated or plutonic rocks in place of volcanic or pyroclastic materials at this site suggests that the inference from physiographic evidence that the latter materials are widespread in terra regions may be incorrect. Several additional, more specific conclusions derived from this preliminary examination are: 1) The combination of data from the Descartes region with data from the orbital x-ray fluorescence experiment indicates that some backside, highland regions are underlain by materials that consist of more than 80 percent plagioclase. 2) The soil or upper regolith between North Ray and South Ray has not been completely homogenized since the time of formation of these craters. 3) The chemistry of the soil indicates that rocks rich in potassium, uranium, and thorium, similar to those that prevail at the Fra Mauro site, are relatively abundant (10 to 20 percent) in the Descartes region. 4) The K/U ratio of the lunar crust is similar to that of the KREEP basalts. 5) The carbon content of the premare lunar crust is even lower than that of the mare volcanic rocks. PMID:17731624

  16. Accumulated analyses of amino acid precursors in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Six amino acids (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) obtained by hydrolysis of extracts have been quantitatively determined in ten collections of fines from five Apollo missions. Although the amounts found, 7-45 ng/g, are small, the lunar amino acid/carbon ratios are comparable to those of the carbonaceous chondrites, Murchison and Murray, as analyzed by the same procedures. Since both the ratios of amino acid to carbon, and the four or five most common types of proteinous amino acid found, are comparable for the two extraterrestrial sources despite different cosmophysical histories of the moon and meteorites, common cosmochemical processes are suggested.

  17. Photomosaics of the cathodoluminescence of 60 sections of meteorites and lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akridge, D.G.; Akridge, J.M.C.; Batchelor, J.D.; Benoit, P.H.; Brewer, J.; DeHart, J.M.; Keck, B.D.; Jie, L.; Meier, A.; Penrose, M.; Schneider, D.M.; Sears, D.W.G.; Symes, S.J.K.; Yanhong, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) petrography provides a means of observing petrographic and compositional properties of geological samples not readily observable by other techniques. We report the low-magnification CL images of 60 sections of extraterrestrial materials. The images we report include ordinary chondrites (including type 3 ordinary chondrites and gas-rich regolith breccias), enstatite chondrites, CO chondrites and a CM chondrite, eucrites and a howardite, lunar highland regolith breccias, and lunar soils. The CL images show how primitive materials respond to parent body metamorphism, how the metamorphic history of EL chondrites differs from that of EH chondrites, how dark matrix and light clasts of regolith breccias relate to each other, how metamorphism affects eucrites, the texture of lunar regolith breccias and the distribution of crystallized lunar spherules ("lunar chondrules"), and how regolith working affects the mineral properties of lunar soils. More particularly, we argue that such images are a rich source of new information on the nature and history of these materials and that our efforts to date are a small fraction of what can be done. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Direct Determination of the Space Weathering Rates in Lunar Soils and Itokawa Regolith from Sample Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Christoffersen, R.; Zhang, S.

    2016-01-01

    Space weathering effects on airless bodies result largely from micrometeorite impacts and solar wind interactions. Decades of research have provided insights into space weathering processes and their effects, but a major unanswered question still remains: what is the rate at which these space weathering effects are acquired in lunar and asteroidal regolith materials? To determine the space weathering rate for the formation of rims on lunar anorthite grains, we combine the rim width and type with the exposure ages of the grains, as determined by the accumulation of solar flare particle tracks. From these analyses, we recently showed that space weathering effects in mature lunar soils (both vapor-deposited rims and solar wind amorphized rims) accumulate and attain steady state in 10(sup 6)-10(sup 7) y. Regolith grains from Itokawa also show evidence for space weathering effects, but in these samples, solar wind interactions appear to dominate over impactrelated effects such as vapor-deposition. While in our lunar work, we focused on anorthite, given its high abundance on the lunar surface, for the Itokawa grains, we focused on olivine. We previously studied 3 olivine grains from Itokawa and determined their solar flare track densities and described their solar wind damaged rims]. We also analyzed olivine grains from lunar soils, measured their track densities and rim widths, and used this data along with the Itokawa results to constrain the space weathering rate on Itokawa. We observe that olivine and anorthite have different responses to solar wind irradiation.

  19. Global Context for Lunar Nonmare Rock Types: Sample and Remote-Sensing Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; McCallum, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    Nonmare rock types known from lunar sample studies are placed in a global context using results from recent remote-sensing missions and constraints based on sample studies, including thermobarometric, geochemical, and isotopic data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, Christopher W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, NASA solicited proposals for a robotic exploration of the lunar surface. Submissions were requested for a lunar sample return mission from the South Pole-Aitken Basin. The basin is of interest because it is thought to contain some of the oldest accessible rocks on the lunar surface. A mission is under study that will land a spacecraft in the basin, collect a sample of rock fragments, and return the sample to Earth. Because the Aitken Basin is on the far side of the Moon, the lander will require a communications relay satellite (CRS) to maintain contact with the Earth during its surface operation. Design of the CRS's orbit is therefore critical. This paper describes a mission design which includes potential transfer and mission orbits, required changes in velocity, orbital parameters, and mission dates. Several different low lunar polar orbits are examined to compare their availability to the lander versus the distance over which they must communicate. In addition, polar orbits are compared to a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 point, which would permit continuous communication at a cost of increased fuel requirements and longer transmission distances. This thesis also examines some general parameters of the spacecraft systems for the mission under study. Mission requirements for the lander dictate the eventual choice of mission orbit. This mission could be the first step in a period of renewed lunar exploration and eventual human landings.

  1. Cautionary Notes on Cosmogenic W-182 and Other Nuclei in Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, Qingzhu; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    Leya et al. (2000) showed that neutron capture on Ta-181 results in a production rate of Ta-182 (decays with a half-life of 114 days to W-182) sufficiently high to cause significant shifts in W-182 abundances considering the neutron fluences due to the cosmic ray cascade that were known to occur near the lunar surface. Leya et al. concluded that this cosmogenic production of W-182 may explain the large positive epsilon(sub W-182) values that Lee et al. (1997) had reported in some lunar samples rather than being produced from decay of now extinct Hf-182 (bar tau = 13 x 10(exp 6) yr). If the large range in epsilon(sub W-182) of lunar samples (0 to +11 in whole rock samples) was due to decay of now extinct Hf-182, it would require a very early time of formation and differentiation of the lunar crust-mantle system (with high Hf/W ratios) during the earliest stages of Earth s accretion. This result was both surprising and difficult to understand. The ability to explain these results by a more plausible mechanism is therefore very attractive. In a recent report Lee et al. (2002) showed that there were excesses of W-182 and that epsilon(sub W-182) was correlated with the Ta/W ratios in the mineral phases of individual lunar rock samples. This is in accord with W-182 variations in lunar samples being produced by cosmic-ray induced neutron capture on Ta-182.

  2. Melting behavior and phase relations of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to show that feldspar would float during melting. Large anorthite crystals were placed beneath a silicate glass representative of liquid in which plagioclase accumulation is thought to have occurred. In less than 3 hours at 1,300 C, the crystals rose to the top in a Pt crucible 3 cm deep equilibrated in air and in a Mo crucible 1.5 cm deep equilibrated in an H2/CO2 gas stream of log PO2 = -10.9 (below Fe/FeO). These results suggest that lunar crustal formation by feldspar flotation is possible without special recourse to differential sinking of plagioclase versus mafic minerals or selective elutriation of plagioclase.

  3. Minerologic and Petrologic Studies of Meteorites and Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John

    2000-01-01

    In the past year this group continued essentially full time research on extraterrestrial materials, and the question of the origin of the solar system. The continuing scientific staff consists of the P.I. and Visiting Scientist Michael Petaev. Vitae for Wood and Petaev appear in Sec. 6. We benefit from the part time services of a Project Administrator (Judith Terry) and a Secretary (Muazzez Lohmiller). In January 1999 the P.I. assumed the Chairmanship of COMPLEX, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the Space Studies Board, National Research Council. Wood and Petaev were authors or coauthors of 21 publications, new manuscripts, and abstracts in the last year. These are listed above, and referenced by number [n] in the discussion below. Other references to the literature made in this Section are listed in Sec. 3.

  4. Semimicro chemical and x-ray fluorescence analysis of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, H.J., Jr.; Cuttitta, F.; Dwornik, E.J.; Carron, M.K.; Christian, R.P.; Lindsay, J.R.; Ligon, D.T.; Larson, R.R.

    1970-01-01

    Major and selected minor elements were determined in seven whole rock fragments, five portions of pulverized lunar rock, and the lunar soil. Three different rock types were represented: vesicular, fine-grained basaltic rocks; medium-to coarse-grained, vuggy gabbroic rocks; and breccia. The ranges (in percent) for the major constituents of the lunar samples are: SiO2, 38 to 42; Al2O3, 8 to 14; total iron as FeO, 15 to 20; MgO, 6 to 8; CaO, 10 to 12; Na2O, 0.5 to 1; K2O, 0.05 to 0.4; TiO2, 8 to 13; MnO, 0.2 to 0.3; and Cr2O3, 0.2 to 0.4. The high reducing capacity of the samples strongly suggests the presence of Ti(III).

  5. Cold and Cryogenic Curation of Lunar Volatile Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Allen, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    The study of volatile compounds and volatile elements, such as H, He, C, N, O, H2O, CH4, SO2, CO, CO2, NH3, HCN, etc., are commonly used for constraining evolutionary processes on planets, satellites, and asteroids, as well as formulating models of solar system formation. For Lunar science, the recent evidence of regolith and rocks containing small amounts of OH- and/or H2O has renewed scientific interest into the study of lunar volatiles [1, 2]. Future lunar sample return missions will include the study of volatiles as a high priority. Comet particles from the Stardust mission, asteroid particles from Hayabusa, meteorites, and subsurface lunar samples all occupied subfreezing environments prior to collection. Valuable geochemical information on volatiles is often lost when these samples are allowed to reach ambient temperatures on Earth. The ability to store, document, subdivide, and transport extraterrestrial geologic samples while maintaining below freezing or cryogenic temperatures is required for the complete scientific study of such samples, as well as future samples from a wide range of solar system bodies.

  6. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples. Selenochronology is getting more complicated: new results question meaning of sample ages, crater counts, crater production functions, and the solar system itself. Improved geological mapping of lunar geologic units and boundaries using multiple remote sensing datasets. High-resolution image-based crater counting of discrete geologic units and relating them to location. Improved understanding of the regolith thickness and its global variation (GRAIL). Tying the sampling of impact-melt rocks to the lunar impact flux. Using improved techniques (magnetic fields, diffusion studies, isotopic analysis) on existing samples. New sample return from benchmark craters, particularly SPA, which appears in 2013 Decadal Survey.

  7. Compositional and Geochronological Constraints on the Lunar Cataclysm from Planetary Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiometric dating and compositional clustering of lunar impact-melt rocks form the backbone of the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Precise age determinations of Apollo and Luna impact-melt rocks define the classic formulation of the cataclysm: a large number of samples 3.9 Ga old, a steep decline after 3.9 Ga, and few impact rocks older than 4.0 Ga. Lunar meteorites more randomly sample the lunar surface, but impact-melt clasts in these rocks show the same apparent age cutoff at 4.0 Ga (though their ages extend approx.500 Myr later). Neither do impact-formed glass spherules and fragments, formed by impacts of all sizes throughout lunar history, predate 4.0 Ga. Geological associations between compositional groups of impact-melt rocks and specific impact basins imply that five large basins formed on the Moon within 200 Myr but a counter-argument postulates they are all products of the Imbrium basin-forming impact; it is not yet proven whether groups of impact melt that are resolvable from each other in age and in trace-element composition represent multiple impacts. The 3.9 Ga age peak and subsequent steep decline are not well mirrored in meteorite data. Radiometric ages in ordinary chondrites and HED meteorites peak around 3.9 Ga but ages older and younger than 3.9 Ga are common. Among Martian meteorites, there is a single impact-related age: ALH 84001 was shocked at 3.92 Ga. Differences in relative impact velocity, impact-melt production, and sampling rate could explain differences between the meteorite and lunar records. One way to anchor the early end of the lunar flux is to directly sample the impact-melt sheet of a large lunar basin distant from Imbrium, such as the South Pole-Aitken basin, where melt rocks probably still resides on the basin floor and could be directly sampled by a human or robotic mission.

  8. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  9. Studies in lunar geology and geochemistry using sample analysis and remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, Katherine Helen

    The thesis reports the results of an investigation into the geochemistry and petrology of lunar meteorites and synthesises this knowledge with research into the calibration and interpretation of lunar X-ray spectroscopy from the D-CIXS instrument. I present the mineralogy, bulk composition and petrography of two lunar regolith breccia meteorites (DaG 400 and MET 01210), and a launch paired group of mare basalt meteorites (LAP 02205/02224/02226/02436/03632). Individual sample geochemistry is interpreted and geological models proposed to account for the meteorites' formation histories and subsequent impact related processes. These are compared to previously studied Apollo, Luna and meteorite lunar samples in order to understand how these new samples fit within the context of existing theories of lunar evolution. I have also utilised currently available geochemical remote sensing datasets to try and constrain possible meteorite launch localities, thus relating the microscopic perspective of lunar geological processes from the sample collection back to the 'big-picture' of global remotely sensed datasets. I review the scientific findings of the UK-built D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer, which flew to the Moon on the SMART-1 mission between 2003 and 2006. I present an overview of the instrument and discuss various hardware and software problems the mission encountered. Results of laboratory calibration work and of theoretical X-ray fluorescence modelling are also presented. This thesis introduces the first detailed examination and interpretation of D-CIXS data recorded by the instrument during lunar science phase activities in 2005. These datasets focus on X-ray flux recorded during periods of strong solar activity (i.e. solar flare associated events), with particular attention to an observation of the lunar far-side feldspathic highlands and the South Pole-Aitkin Basin, which records an X-ray flux difference between the two lithological terrains indicative of a marked

  10. Apollo 11 drive-tube core samples: an initial physical analysis of lunar surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, R; Anderson, D; Carrier, D; Greenwood, W; Heiken, G

    1970-01-30

    Two drive-tube core samples were obtained at Tranquillity Base. Fines include much glass, are unweathered, medium gray, loose, nonstructured, very weakly coherent, and demonstrate both accumulation and mixing in a waterless vacuum environment. In contrast to chemical weathering characteristic on the earth, lunar alteration processes are primarily mechanical. We infer that environmental processes of the lunar surface may be expressed as follows: R (regolith) = f(cl, p, r, t, b, a, . . .), in which climate (cl) is constant and the time (t)-de-pendent processes of bombardment (b) and accumulation (a) assume significance unparalleled on the earth because of their effects on parent material (p) and relief (r). PMID:17781569

  11. Apparatus for measuring internal friction Q factors in brittle materials. [applied to lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Curnow, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A flexural analog of the torsion pendulum for measuring the Young's modulus and the internal friction Q factor of brittle materials has been developed for Q greater than 10 to the 3rd measurements at a zero static stress and at 10 to the -7th strains of brittle materials in the Hz frequency range. The present design was motivated by the desire to measure Q in fragile lunar return samples at zero static stress to shed light on the anomalously low attenuation of seismic waves on the moon. The use of the apparatus is demonstrated with data on fused silica and on a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt.

  12. Mineralogy of the Ibitira eucrite and comparison with other eucrites and lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystal X-ray and energy dispersive electron-probe techniques are used to study the mineralogy and track history of Ibitira. The mineralogical features of the Ibitire eucrite are described and examined in relation to data for other eucrites and howardites and lunar samples. The processes which transformed a presumed igneous texture into a more complex one are discussed.

  13. Reflectance spectrophotometry extended to U.V. for terrestrial, lunar and meteoritic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollfus, A.; Cailleux, A.; Cervelle, B.; Hua, C. T.; Mandeville, J.-C.

    1980-09-01

    Extension of remote sensing of planetary bodies to the ultraviolet is now feasible up to 2000 A from earth-orbiting telescopes and spacecraft. The benefits of this extension are analysed on the basis of laboratory spectra taken on a large variety of terrestrial, lunar and meteoritic samples. Knowledge of the albedo for two wavelengths at 2300 and 6500 A permits classification of a surface into one of the following types; lunar, carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary chondrites, achondrites or acidic rocks, basaltic rocks, irons. For lunar-type surfaces, a simple albedo measurement at 6500 A can be converted into quantitative abundance determinations of silicate, aluminium oxide and iron; a large amount of telescopic lunar photometry data is available for mapping these abundances. Extension of the photometry to 2300 A permits quantitative measurement of TiO2 abundances. For asteroids and non-icy satellites, rock-type classification and constraints in chemical abundances of Si, Al, Fe and Ti can be derived from photometry at 2300 and 6500 A. The IUE telescope already orbiting the earth, the Space Telescope to come, the lunar polar orbiter and other spacecraft under prospect are potentially available to provide the photometric observations at 6500 and 2300 A required.

  14. Europium mass balance in polymict samples and implications for plutonic rocks of the lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    The mean concentrations of Sm and Eu in the lunar surface crust were analyzed by correlating the Sm concentration and the Sm/Eu ratio with Th concentration obtained from published data on a large number of polymict samples from various locations in the lunar highlands, and using the value of 0.91 microg/g for the mean Th concentration of the highlands surface crust obtained by the orbiting gamma-ray experiments. The mean concentration of Sm in the lunar surface crust was found to be between 2 and 3 microg/g, and that of Eu between 0.7 and 1.2 microg/g. The results indicate that there is no significant enrichment or depletion of Eu, compared to Sm, relative to chondritic abundances; i.e., there is no significant 'Eu anomaly' in average upper crust, contrary to predictions by some earlier investigators.

  15. High-silica /greater than 60%/ lunar glasses in an Apollo 14 soil sample - Evidence for silicic lunar volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    The major-element compositions of 93 low-specific-gravity (less than 2.60) high-silica (greater than 60%) glass particles from a sample of lunar fines (14259,20) were determined by electron microprobe analyses. The size, shape, abundance, mineralogy, and major-element composition of more than 60% of the high-silica glasses is consistent with their being fragments of interstitial glass from mare basalts. However, one group of 30 glasses with between 72% and 78% SiO2 and an average of approximately 2.6% FeO can be distinguished from other high-silica glasses both chemically and petrographically. Glass particles with this composition do not contain crystalline inclusions and are fairly homogeneous not only within a single particle but also from particle to particle. The chemistry and petrology of these glasses suggest that they are not fragments of interstitial glass or shock-melted particles from a 'granitic' source rock. Rather, the homogeneity and lack of crystalline inclusions suggest that this group of high-silica glasses was the product of lunar acidic volcanism.

  16. The Surface Chemical Composition of Lunar Samples and Its Significance for Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface iron, titanium, calcium, and silicon concentration in numerous lunar soil and rock samples was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy. All soil samples show a large increase in the iron to oxygen ratio compared with samples of pulverized rock or with results of the bulk chemical analysis. A solar wind simulation experiment using 2 keV energy alpha -particles showed that an ion dose corresponding to approximately 30,000 years of solar wind increased the iron concentration on the surface of the pulverized Apollo 14 rock sample 14310 to the concentration measured in the Apollo 14 soil sample 14163, and the albedo of the pulverized rock decreased from 0.36 to 0.07. The low albedo of the lunar soil is related to the iron + titanium concentration on its surface. A solar wind sputter reduction mechanism is discussed as a possible cause for both the surface chemical and optical properties of the soil.

  17. The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

  18. Multiple Approaches to Down Sizing of the Lunar Sample Return Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Horz, F.

    2010-01-01

    Future Lunar missions are planned for at least 7 days, significantly longer than the 3 days of the later Apollo missions. The last of those missions, A-17, returned 111 kg of samples plus another 20 kg of containers. The current Constellation program requirements for return weight for science is 100 kg with the hope of raising that limit to near 250 kg including containers and other non-geological materials. The estimated return weight for rock and soil samples will, at best, be about 175 kg. One method proposed to accomplish down-sizing of the collection is the use of a Geo-Lab in the lunar habitat to complete a preliminary examination of selected samples and facilitate prioritizing the return samples.

  19. Europium mass balance in polymict samples and implications for plutonic rocks of the lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1988-07-01

    From correlations of SM concentration and Sm/Eu ratio with Th concentration for a large number of polymict samples from various locations in the lunar highlands and the value of 0.91 {mu}g/g for the mean Th concentration of the highlands surface crust obtained by the orbiting gamma-ray experiments. The authors estimate the mean concentrations of Sm and Eu in the lunar surface crust to be between 2 and 3 {mu}g/g Sm and 0.7 and 1.2 {mu}g/g Eu. The compositional trends indicate that there is no significant enrichment or depletion of Eu, on the average, compared to Sm relative to chondritic abundances, i.e., there is no significant Eu anomaly in average upper crust. Although rich in plagioclase ({approximately}70%), the upper crust does not offer evidence for a gross vertical separation of plagioclase from the final liquid from which it crystallized. This and the chondritic ratio of Eu/Al in average highlands material imply that the net effect of the processes that led to formation of the lunar crust was to put most of the Al and incompatible elements in the crust. Among plutonic rocks, only plagioclase in rocks from the magnesian suite can supply the excess Eu in the polymict rocks. Owing to the intermediate value of the mean Mg/Fe ratio of the crust, a significant fraction of the mafic rocks of the lunar highlands must have lower Mg/Fe ratios than the norites and troctolites of the magnesian-suite of plutonic rocks. A large fraction of the plagioclase in the lunar crust is associated not with ferroan anorthosite, but with more mafic rocks. There is little evidence in the Eu data that the lunar crust ever consisted of a thick shell of nearly pure plagioclase, as envisioned in some formulations of the magma ocean model of its formation.

  20. Rock sample brought to earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  1. Using NASA-Unique Lunar Sample Disks and Resources to Inspire and Promote Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J.; Graff, P. V.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2014-01-01

    The opportunity for educators and students across the nation to hold precious, NASA lunar samples in their hands and examine materials brought back by astronauts during the Apollo era is an experience and memory that can last a lifetime. Combine that experience with the opportunity to be engaged with hands-on activities that promote scientific inquiry and an understanding of the importance of these samples...now you are preparing our nation's future scientific explorers.

  2. Breccias from the lunar highlands - Preliminary petrographic report on Apollo 16 samples 60017 and 63335.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kridelbaugh, S. J.; Mckay, G. A.; Weill, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar samples 60017,4 and 63335,14 are composed of microbreccias and devitrified glass. These components are predominantly anorthositic, with the exception of a cryptocrystalline clast found in the microbreccia portion of 63335,14 which contains 2.7% potassium oxide and 66.7% silicon dioxide. The samples have been subjected to extreme shock and thermal metamorphism. The parent materials of the microbreccias include both a coarse-grained anorthosite and a fine-grained subophitic anorthositic gabbro.

  3. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Sample ages have enabled us to infer that impact-melt breccias from Apollo 14 and 15 record the formation of the Imbrium Basin, those from the highland massifs at Apollo 17 record the age of Serenitatis, those from the KREEP-poor Apollo 16 site record the age of Nectaris, and materials from Luna 24 record the age of Crisium. Ejecta from smaller and younger craters Copernicus and Tycho were sampled at Apollo 12 and 17, respectively, and local craters such as Cone at Apollo 14, and North Ray and South Ray at Apollo 16 were also sampled and ages determined for those events. Much of what we understand about the lunar impact flux is based on these ages. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples.

  4. Resource Prospector Instrumentation for Lunar Volatiles Prospecting, Sample Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, J.; Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Zacny, Kris; Paz, A.

    2016-01-01

    the traverse path. The NS will map the water-equivalent hydrogen concentration as low as 0.5% by weight to an 80 centimeter depth as the rover traverses the lunar landscape. The NIR spectrometer will measure surficial H2O/OH as well as general mineralogy. When the prospecting instruments identify a potential volatile-rich area during the course of a traverse, the prospect is then mapped out and the most promising location identified. An augering drill capable of sampling to a depth of 100 centimeters will excavate regolith for analysis. A quick assay of the drill cuttings will be made using an operations camera and NIR spectrometer. With the water depth confirmed by this first auguring activity, a regolith sample may be extracted for processing. The drill will deliver the regolith sample to a crucible that will be sealed and heated. Evolved volatiles will be measured by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and the water will be captured and photographed. RP is a solar powered mission, which given the polar location translates to a relatively short mission duration on the order of 4-15 days. This short mission duration drives the concept of operations, instrumentation, and data analysis towards critical real time analysis and decision support. Previous payload field tests have increased the fidelity of the hardware, software, and mission operations. Current activities include a mission level field test to optimize interfaces between the payload and rover as well as better understand the interaction of the science and rover teams during the mission timeline. This paper will include the current status of the science instruments on the payload as well as the integrated field test occurring in fall of 2015. The concept of operations will be discussed, including the real time science and engineering decision-making process based on the critical data from the instrumentation. The path to flight will be discussed with the approach to this ambitious low cost mission.

  5. The Apollo Lunar Sample Image Collection: Digital Archiving and Online Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Stefanov, William L.; Garcia, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Apollo Program was to land human beings on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. This goal was achieved during six missions - Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 - that took place between 1969 and 1972. Among the many noteworthy engineering and scientific accomplishments of these missions, perhaps the most important in terms of scientific impact was the return of 382 kg (842 lb.) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand, and dust from the lunar surface to Earth. Returned samples were curated at JSC (then known as the Manned Spacecraft Center) and, as part of the original processing, high-quality photographs were taken of each sample. The top, bottom, and sides of each rock sample were photographed, along with 16 stereo image pairs taken at 45-degree intervals. Photographs were also taken whenever a sample was subdivided and when thin sections were made. This collection of lunar sample images consists of roughly 36,000 photographs; all six Apollo missions are represented.

  6. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Sample ages have enabled us to infer that impact-melt breccias from Apollo 14 and 15 record the formation of the Imbrium Basin, those from the highland massifs at Apollo 17 record the age of Serenitatis, those from the KREEP-poor Apollo 16 site record the age of Nectaris, and materials from Luna 24 record the age of Crisium. Ejecta from smaller and younger craters Copernicus and Tycho were sampled at Apollo 12 and 17, respectively, and local craters such as Cone at Apollo 14, and North Ray and South Ray at Apollo 16 were also sampled and ages determined for those events. Much of what we understand about the lunar impact flux is based on these ages. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples. The impact history of the Moon has significant implications because the lunar bombardment history mirrors that of the Earth. During the cataclysm, 80% of

  7. Temperature programmed desorption studies of water interactions with Apollo lunar samples 12001 and 72501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, Michael J.; Grieves, Gregory A.; Aleksandrov, Alexandr B.; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Dyar, M. Darby; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2015-07-01

    The desorption activation energies for water molecules chemisorbed on Apollo lunar samples 72501 (highlands soil) and 12001 (mare soil) were determined by temperature programmed desorption experiments in ultra-high vacuum. A significant difference in both the energies and abundance of chemisorption sites was observed, with 72501 retaining up to 40 times more water (by mass) and with much stronger adsorption interactions, possibly approaching 1.5 eV. The dramatic difference between the samples may be due to differences in mineralogy and surface exposure age. The distribution function of water desorption activation energies for sample 72501 was used as an initial condition to simulate water persistence through a temperature profile matching the lunar day.

  8. U-Th-Pb systematics of some Apollo 16 lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, P. D.; Tatsumoto, M.; Knight, R. J.; Unruh, D. M.; Doe, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    U, Th, and Pb concentrations and lead isotopic compositions of Apollo 16 samples are interpreted as follows: (1) an early period of lunar differentiation of either global or regional scale occurred about 4.47 b.y. ago; (2) the Imbrian impact event affected many Apollo 16 samples about 3.99 b.y. ago; (3) some Apollo 16 metaclastic rocks and breccias contain a large amount of KREEP-like material; (4) lead produced in the early history of the moon has been concentrated in lunar highland soils yielding high Pb-207/Pb-206 ratios corresponding to apparent ages of more than 4.8 b.y.; and (5) South Ray Crater soils reflect the approximately 2-b.y.-old event previously proposed for the Apollo 12 and 14 samples.

  9. Magnetic Properties of Lunar Samples: an Exhaustive Survey of the Apollo Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Andrade Lima, E.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Uehara, M.; Quesnel, Y.; Baratchart, L.; Leblond, J.; Chevillard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed paleomagnetic studies of lunar samples shed light on the existence and timing of the ancient lunar dynamo, with insights to the inner structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, as well as constraints for the lunar dynamo models [e.g., 1-6]. However these studies are usually performed on small cm-scale samples, typically below 100 mg. Such a small size, combined with anisotropy and other spurious effects have been shown to be the source of additional complexity [7]. We measured the natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of 105 large Apollo samples (mass range 40 g to 2.9 kg, median mass 350 g). For this, following the approach utilized for the initial paleomagnetic evaluation of Apollo 11 samples [8], we developed a dedicated magnetometer using a fluxgate sensor and a rotating stage, which allowed measuring the bulk samples in their original Teflon and aluminum packaging under nitrogen atmosphere. Despite a number of caveats (no demagnetization steps, existence of viscous magnetization and other soft secondary magnetization), the ratio of natural remanent magnetization to susceptibility gives a rough estimate of the paleointensity. The evolution of the paleointensity with the estimated age of the samples will provide a broad picture of the evolution of the lunar dynamo. Susceptibility, as a proxy to the bulk metal content in lunar rocks [9], is also a valuable source of information per se but is currently available only for a small fraction of the Apollo collection. Our survey will allow identification of rocks with unusual magnetic properties, and therefore potentially unusual petrogenesis. References: [1] Fuller & Cisowski 1987. In Jacobs (Ed.) Geomagnetism, 307-455 [2] Garrick-Bethell et al. 2009. Science 323:356-359 [3] Cournède et al. 2012. EPSL 33:31-42 [4] Shea et al. 2012. Science 335:453-456 [5] Suavet et al. 2013. PNAS 110:8453-8456 [6] Tikoo et al. 2014. EPSL in press [7] Tikoo et al. 2012. EPSL 337:93-103 [8] Doell & Gromm

  10. Extraction of Thermal Performance Values from Samples in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Larkin, Elizabeth M.G.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation chamber has been developed to test the performance of thermal control surfaces under dusty lunar conditions. The lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB) is a diffusion pumped vacuum chamber (10-8 Torr) built to test material samples less than about 7 cm in diameter. The LDAB has the following lunar dust stimulant processing capabilities: heating and cooling while stirring in order to degas and remove absorbed water; RF air-plasma for activating the dust and for organic contaminant removal; RF H/He-plasma to simulate solar wind; dust sieving system for controlling particle sizes; and a controlled means of introducing the activated dust to the samples under study. The LDAB is also fitted with an in situ Xe arc lamp solar simulator, and a cold box that can reach 30 K. Samples of thermal control surfaces (2.5 cm diameter) are introduced into the chamber for calorimetric evaluation using thermocouple instrumentation. The object of this paper is to present a thermal model of the samples under test conditions, and to outline the procedure to extract the absorptance, emittance, and thermal efficiency from the pristine and sub-monolayer dust covered samples

  11. Extraction of Thermal Performance Values from Samples in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Larkin, Elizabeth M. G.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation chamber has been developed to test the performance of thermal control surfaces under dusty lunar conditions. The lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB) is a diffusion pumped vacuum chamber (10(exp -8) Torr) built to test material samples less than about 7 cm in diameter. The LDAB has the following lunar dust simulant processing capabilities: heating and cooling while stirring in order to degas and remove adsorbed water; RF air-plasma for activating the dust and for organic contaminant removal; RF H/He-plasma to simulate solar wind; dust sieving system for controlling particle sizes; and a controlled means of introducing the activated dust to the samples under study. The LDAB is also fitted with an in situ Xe arc lamp solar simulator, and a cold box that can reach 30 K. Samples of thermal control surfaces (2.5 cm diameter) are introduced into the chamber for calorimetric evaluation using thermocouple instrumentation. The object of this paper is to present a thermal model of the samples under test conditions and to outline the procedure to extract the absorptance, emittance, and thermal efficiency from the pristine and sub-monolayer dust covered samples.

  12. Extraction of Thermal Performance Values from Samples in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Larkin, Elizabeth M. G.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation chamber has been developed to test the performance of thermal control surfaces under dusty lunar conditions. The lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB) is a diffusion pumped vacuum chamber (10(exp -8) Torr) built to test material samples less than about 7 cm in diameter. The LDAB has the following lunar dust simulant processing capabilities: heating and cooling while stirring in order to degas and remove adsorbed water; RF air-plasma for activating the dust and for organic contaminant removal; RF H/He-plasma to simulate solar wind; dust sieving system for controlling particle sizes; and a controlled means of introducing the activated dust to the samples under study. The LDAB is also fitted with an in situ Xe arc lamp solar simulator, and a cold box that can reach 30 K. Samples of thermal control surfaces (2.5 cm diameter) are introduced into the chamber for calorimetric evaluation using thermocouple instrumentation. The object of this paper is to present a thermal model of the samples under test conditions and to outline the procedure to extract the absorptance, emittance, and thermal efficiency from the pristine and sub-monolayer dust covered samples.

  13. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  14. First Apollo 11 Lunar Samples Arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. This photograph was taken as the mission's first loaded sample return container arrived at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. The rock box was immediately taken to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. Happily posing for the photograph with the rock container are (L-R) Richard S. Johnston (back), special assistant to the MSC Director; George M. Low, MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program manager; George S. Trimble (back), MSC Deputy Director; Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Spaceflight at NASA headquarters; Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  15. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  16. Space Weathering of Olivine in Lunar Soils: A Comparison to Itokawa Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    Regolith particles from airless bodies preserve a record of the space weathering processes that occurred during their surface exposure history. These processes have major implications for interpreting remote-sensing data from airless bodies. Solar wind irradiation effects occur in the rims of exposed grains, and impact processes result in the accumulation of vapordeposited elements and other surface-adhering materials. The grains returned from the surface of Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission allow the space weathering "style" of a chondritic, asteroidal "soil" to be compared to the lunar case. Here, we present new studies of space-weathered olivine grains from lunar soils, and compare these results to olivine grains from Itokawa. Samples and Methods: We analyzed microtome thin sections of olivine grains from the 20-45 micron fractions of three lunar soils: 71061, 71501 and 10084 (immature, submature and mature, respectively). Imaging and analytical data were obtained using a JEOL 2500SE 200kV field-emission scanning-transmission electron microscope equipped with a thin-window energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Similar analyses were obtained from three Hayabusa olivine grains. Results and Discussion: We observed lunar grains showing a range of solar flare track densities (from <10(exp 9) to approx.10(exp 12)/sq cm). The lunar olivines all show disordered, highly strained, nanocrystalline rims up to 150-nm thick. The disordered rim thickness is positively correlated with solar flare track density. All of the disordered rims are overlain by a Si-rich amorphous layer, ranging up to 50-nm thick, enriched in elements that are not derived from the host olivine (e.g., Ca, Al, and Ti). The outmost layer represents impact-generated vapor deposits typically observed on other lunar soil grains. The Hayabusa olivine grains show track densities <10(exp 10)/sq cm and display disordered rims 50- to 100-nm thick. The track densities are intermediate to those observed in olivines

  17. Analysis of Lunar Highland Regolith Samples from Apollo 16 Drive Core 64001/2 and Lunar Regolith Simulants - An Expanding Comparative Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Rickman, Doug; Stoeser, Doug; Wentworth, Susan J.; Botha, Pieter WSK; Butcher, Alan R.; McKay, David; Horsch, Hanna; Benedictus, Aukje; Gottlieb, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We present modal data from QEMSCAN(registered TradeMark) beam analysis of Apollo 16 samples from drive core 64001/2. The analyzed lunar samples are thin sections 64002,6019 (5.0-8.0 cm depth) and 64001,6031 (50.0-53.1 cm depth) and sieved grain mounts 64002,262 and 64001,374 from depths corresponding to the thin sections, respectively. We also analyzed lunar highland regolith simulants NU-LHT-1M, -2M, and OB-1, low-Ti mare simulants JSC-1, -lA, -1AF, and FJS-1, and high-Ti mare simulant MLS-1. The preliminary results comprise the beginning of an internally consistent database of lunar regolith and regolith simulant mineral and glass information. This database, combined with previous and concurrent studies on phase chemistry, bulk chemistry, and with data on particle shape and size distribution, will serve to guide lunar scientists and engineers in choosing simulants for their applications. These results are modal% by phase rather than by particle type, so they are not directly comparable to most previously published lunar data that report lithic fragments, monomineralic particles, agglutinates, etc. Of the highland simulants, 08-1 has an integrated modal composition closer than NU-LHT-1M to that of the 64001/2 samples, However, this and other studies show that NU-LHT-1M and -2M have minor and trace mineral (e.g., Fe-Ti oxides and phosphates) populations and mineral and glass chemistry closer to these lunar samples. The finest fractions (0-20 microns) in the sieved lunar samples are enriched in glass relative to the integrated compositions by approx.30% for 64002,262 and approx.15% for 64001,374. Plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine are depleted in these finest fractions. This could be important to lunar dust mitigation efforts and astronaut health - none of the analyzed simulants show this trend. Contrary to previously reported modal analyses of monomineralic grains in lunar regolith, these area% modal analyses do not show a systematic increase in plagiociase

  18. Distribution of Apollo 15 lunar samples: News release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, L.

    1971-01-01

    More than 2200 Apollo 15 samples and polished thin sections weighing a total of about three kilograms will be distributed to 201 principal investigators for study during the next year. The scientific investigations will provide detailed information on the samples' mineralogy, petrology, chemistry, age, and history and on the effects of micrometeorite impacts, solar radiation, and cosmic ray bombardment. Preliminary examination of samples show the Apollo 15 material to be of three types: dark colored iron-rich basalts associated with mare and rille formation; a few basalts enriched in feldspar collected near the Apennine front; and light colored fragmental rocks or breccias consisting of soil-like materials which were cemented together or of rock fragments which were welded together by partial remelting.

  19. Nuclear chemistry of returned lunar samples: Nuclide analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelley, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Primordial and cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations are determined nondestructively by gamma-ray spectrometry in soil and rock samples from the returned Apollo 17 sample collection from Taurus-Littrow and Descartes. Geochemical evidence in support of field geology speculation concerning layering of the subfloor basalt flows is demonstrated along with a possible correlation of magmatic fractionation of K/U as a function of depth. The pattern of radionuclide concentrations observed in these samples is distinct due to proton bombardment by the intense solar flares of August 4-9, 1972. Such radionuclide determinations are used in determining lunar sample orientation and characterizing solar flare activity.

  20. Vanadium isotopic composition and concentrations of ferromagnesian elements in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects are sought of an energetic charged particle irradiation of solar system material which is postulated as having taken place early in its history. A similar irradiation took place much more recently in the history of lunar samples and meteorites and this process is studied by means of a variety of monitors including highly sensitive noble gas nuclides, radionuclides, and tracks. Such monitors cannot be used to study the postulated early irradiation since it could have taken place under conditions such that these monitors were not retained or were subsequently lost. Accordingly, it is necessary that a nongaseous element be used to search for the effects of this irradiation, and one of the most sensitive of these is the vanadium isotopic composition. A comparative study is made of the 50 sub V/51 sub V ratios in 15 meteoritic, 5 terrestrial, and 11 lunar samples.

  1. Role of phosphorus in lunar samples - a chemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1983-02-15

    Up to 60% of the REE, P, halogens, and U in basalt 75055 and basalt mineral separates, KREEP-rich breccia 14312, and components from highland breccia 66095 are in phases that are rapidly dissolved by pH1 HNO/sub 3/ acid; these could be phosphates. The REE patterns of the pH1 acid soluble fractions are distinctly different from those of the postleach residues. The REE patterns of the dilute acid soluble fractions in the breccia samples are similar. The basalt samples also have similar acid soluble REE patterns but different from the breccia samples. Significant fractions of P (25%), LREE (40%), and HREE (16%) in whole rock basalt are ph1 acid soluble. Large fractions of P (47% and 61%) and small fractions of LREE (10%) associated with plagioclase and pyroxene mineral separates are acid soluble. Thus for this igneous rock, the acid soluble phases associated with the whole rock and with the major minerals may be different.

  2. Search for biogenic structures and viable organisms in lunar samples - A review.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, V. I.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize the examinations and tests of the lunar samples to date and point out the limitations and tentative conclusions regarding the biology of the moon. The low levels of organic carbon, the lack of hydrous minerals, and inability to hold an atmosphere all make it unlikely that the moon could provide sufficient sources of organics and water to generate even the rudimentary beginnings of chemical precursors to life.

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  4. Preliminary examination of lunar samples. Part A: A petrographic and chemical description of samples from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Chemical, petrographic, and textural characteristics of a representative collection of the Apollo 16 rock and soil samples are reported. The macroscopic and microscopic texture are the result of two or more events in the history of any given sample. Cataclastic, highly crushed rocks are common along with complex intergrowths of shock-produced glass, devitrified glass, and pre-existing clasts. The dominant chemical feature is the high abundance of aluminum and calcium. In terms of their petrogenesis, the rocks are typed as cataclastically, and cataclysmically modified anorthosites; igneous; and polymict breccias.

  5. Gamma Rays, Meteorites, Lunar Samples, and the Composition of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2005-11-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and carried on the Lunar Prospector orbiter in 1997-1998 allowed scientists to measure the concentrations of several elements on the entire lunar surface. The data have been widely used by planetary scientists to determine the chemical composition of the Moon and infer something about the processes operating when it formed. However, specialists in the study of lunar samples have been a bit uneasy about the details of the elemental compositions and have offered modest, but significant, corrections to the gamma ray data to make them more in line with what we know from samples. The latest of these approaches to correcting the gamma-ray data has been done by Paul Warren (University of California, Los Angeles), a renowned lunar sample specialist. He concentrated on correcting the analysis for the element thorium (Th), whose natural radioactive decay releases characteristic gamma rays. Thorium is an important element because we understand its behavior during the formation and subsequent evolution of magma, and because it is a refractory element-that is, it condenses at a high temperature from a gas. This means that if you know the thorium concentration, you also know the concentrations of all other refractory elements with similar geochemical behavior, which includes the rare earth elements, uranium, zirconium, titanium, calcium, and aluminum. Using his revised global thorium concentration as a springboard, Warren then estimated the concentration of numerous elements in the entire rocky portion of the Moon, which makes up more than 95% of the orb that graces the night sky. His estimates do not agree with those produced by others, which will lead to continued debate and refinement of the Moon's chemical composition.

  6. The role of phosphorus in lunar samples - A chemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Phases rapidly dissolved by pH1 HNO3 acid are found in up to 60% of the REE, P, U, and halogens in basalt 75055, basalt mineral separates, KREEP-rich breccia 14312, and components from highland breccia 66095. This suggests that they may be phosphates. The 0.1 M HNO3 soluble fractions from whole rock breccias 14312 and 66095, and 60095 matrix, and a melt rock clast, have similar REE patterns. This implies that the same major REE-bearing phase is common to all the samples. The postleach residues contain REE in other phases. The acid-soluble phases associated with separated minerals from 75055 are depleted in REE relative to P, and also relative to REE and P in the bulk igneous rock. This may be interpreted as partitioning of REE present at grain surfaces into the major minerals.

  7. Magnetic properties of lunar sample 10048-22.

    PubMed

    Larochelle, A; Schwarz, E J

    1970-01-30

    The natural remanent magnetization (3.7 x 10(4) electromagnetic units per cubic centimeter) and the susceptibility per cubic centimeter (6.3 x 10(-13)) of an 18.5-gram breccia specimen were determined with instrumentation and techniques currently used in paleomagnetism. The relatively low magnetic stability of the rock in the earth's field and in alternating demagnetizing fields precludes considering it as a reliable carrier of paleomagnetism. A magnetic balance study yields an unusually high Curie temperature (750 degrees C) which is possibly diagnostic of metallic Fe containing less than 5 percent nickel. The estimated relative abundance of the iron in the sample is about 0.5 percent. PMID:17781552

  8. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  9. Sample size and sampling errors as the source of dispersion in chemical analyses. [for high-Ti lunar basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, U. S.; Fletcher, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a Monte Carlo model for simulation of two-dimensional representations of thin sections of some of the more common igneous rock textures. These representations are extrapolated to three dimensions to develop a volume of 'rock'. The model (here applied to a medium-grained high-Ti basalt) can be used to determine a statistically significant sample for a lunar rock or to predict the probable errors in the oxide contents that can occur during the analysis of a sample that is not representative of the parent rock.

  10. Comparison of orbital chemistry with crustal thickness and lunar sample chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1977-01-01

    A correlation between orbital chemistry (FeO, Al2O3, Mg/Al, MgO/FeO, Th) and the lunar crustal thickness is examined. The correlation suggests either lack of complete homogenization by lateral or vertical mixing, or lateral variation in the differentiation process. In addition, links between orbital chemistry and lunar sample chemistry are investigated. In regions with crustal thickness between 100 and 110 km, gabbroic anorthosites are very abundant, while in regions with crustal thickness of about 80 km anorthositic gabbros are frequent. Special attention is given to the distribution of low-potassium Fra Mauro basalt, found in high concentrations in regions with 50 to 60 km crustal thickness.

  11. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  12. Volatile/mobile trace elements in meteoritic, non-lunar basalts: Guides to Martian sample contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Paul, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of genetic processes on or in extraterrestrial objects can be examined by study of volatile/mobile trace elements. Doubtless, considerable efforts will be expended on determining these elements in returned Martian samples. The purpose is to estimate levels of such elements expected to be present in returned Martian samples. Some ideas about Martian genesis were already advanced from the volatile/mobile element contents in SNC meteorites, assuming that Mars was their parent body. Even is Mars and the SNC meteorite parent body are identical, compositional ranges for returned Martian samples should exceed those of SNC meteorites. It is expected, therefore, that Martian samples returned from locations other than Polar regions will have indigenous volatile/mobile element contents within howardite-diogenite ranges. Elements with strong lithophile tendences may be more abundant, as they are in many lunar samples. Most of these elements should be at ppb levels except for Co, Ga, Zn, and Rb, which should lie at ppm levels. If Martian volcanism was accompanied by fumarolic emanations, it should be reflected in occasional huge enrichments of mobile trance elements, as in lunar meteorite Y 791197. During collection and transport Earthward, samples must be contained under conditions appropriate to ppb concentrations. Materials must be used that will not cause contamination which occurred during the Apollo program, where indium from seals contaminated many samples.

  13. Preliminary geologic investigation of the landing site: Appendix A: lunar surface orientations of Apollo 17 rock samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutton, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    The lunar surface orientations of some of the Apollo 17 rock samples at the time of their collection (table 6-V) are shown in this appendix (figs. 6-65 to 6-87). These orientations were determined by correlating lunar photographs of samples before collection with shapes and shadow characteristics of the same samples in the LRL under oblique illumination with nearly collimated light. The light source in the laboratory simulates the Sun. It is important to emphasize that the orientations shown are those at the time of collection and do not necessarily apply to the entire history of the exposure of a rock on the lunar surface. Tumbling and turning of some rock fragments on the lunar surface has already been well documented.

  14. Lunar sample 14425 - Characterization and resemblance to high-magnesium microtektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berliner, L.; Fujii, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the surface of lunar sample 14425, a large glass bead, yield a noritic composition enriched in aluminum and magnesium and, as compared with other norites, depleted in iron and especially calcium. The sample is close in composition to the most basic microtektites. Spherical inclusions of nickel-iron, flattened where they protrude, are found to be enriched in sulfur and phosphorus, at least at the surface. The inclusions form approximately 1 percent of the volume.

  15. Apollo 12 lunar samples: trace element analysis of a core and the uniformity of the regolith.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, R; Keays, R R; Anders, E

    1970-10-30

    Four core and soil samples from Apollo 12 are enriched in a number of trace elements of meteoritic origin to virtually the same degree as Apollo 11 soil. An average meteoritic influx rate of about 4 x 10(-9) gram per square centimeter per year thus seems to be valid for the entire moon. A sample from a light gray, coarse-grained layer in the core resembles lunar basalts in composition, but is enriched by factors of 10(4) to 10(5) in bismuth and cadmium. PMID:17799707

  16. Breccias from the lunar highlands: preliminary petrographic report on apollo 16 samples 60017 and 63335.

    PubMed

    Kridelbaugh, S J; McKay, G A; Weill, D F

    1973-01-01

    Lunar samples 60017,4 and 63335,14 are composed of microbreccias and devitrified glass. These components are predominantly anorthositic, with the exception of a cryptocrystalline clast found in the microbreccia portion of 63335,14 which contains 2.7 percent potassium oxide and 66.7 percent silicon dioxide. The samples have been subjected to extreme shock and thermal metamorphism. The parent materials of the microbreccias include both a coarse-grained anorthosite and a fine-grained subophitic anorthositic gabbro. PMID:17731632

  17. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  18. Reflectance Spectroscopy and Lunar Sample Science: Finally a Marriage After Far Too Long an Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Pieters, Carle; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Inferences about the igneous and impact evolution of planetary bodies are based upon spectral remote sensing of their surfaces. However, it is not the rocks of a body that are seen by the remote sensing, but rather the regolith, that may contain small pieces of rock but also many other phases as well. Indeed, recent flybys of objects even as small as asteroid Ida have shown that these objects are covered by a regolith. Thus, spectral properties cannot be directly converted into information about the igneous history of the object. It is imperative to fully understand the nature of the regolith, particularly its finer fraction termed "soil," to appreciate the possible effects of "space weathering" on the reflectance spectra. We have initiated a study of our nearest, regolith-bearing body, the Moon, as "ground truth" for further probes of planetary and asteroidal surfaces. the foundation for remote chemical and mineralogical analyses lies in the physics underlying optical absorption and the linking of spectral properties of materials measured in the laboratory to well understood mineral species and their mixtures. From this statement, it is obvious that there should be a thorough integration of the material science of lunar rocks and soils with the remote-sensing observations. That is, the lunar samples returned by the Apollo missions provide a direct means for evaluation of spectral characteristics of the Moon. However, this marriage of the remote-sensing and lunar sample communities has suffered from a prolonged unconsummated betrothal, nurtured by an obvious complacency by both parties. To make more direct and quantitative links between soil chemistry/mineralogy and spectral properties, we have initiated a program to (1) obtain accurate characterization of the petrography of lunar soils (in terms relevant to remote analyses), coupled with (2) measurement of precise reflectance spectra, with testing and use of appropriate analytical tools that identify and

  19. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  20. Crystallization history of lunar picritic basalt sample 12002 - Phase-equilibria and cooling-rate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.; Longhi, J.; Hays, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental crystallization of a lunar picrite composition (sample 12002) at controlled linear cooling rates produces systematic changes in the temperature at which crystalline phases appear, in the texture, and in crystal morphology as a function of cooling rate. Phases crystallize in the order olivine, chromium spinel, pyroxene, plagioclase, and ilmenite during equilibrium crystallization, but ilmenite and plagioclase reverse their order of appearance and silica crystallizes in the groundmass during controlled cooling experiments. The partition of iron and magnesium between olivine and liquid is independent of cooling rate, temperature, and pressure. Comparison of the olivine nucleation densities in the lunar sample and in the experiments indicates that the sample began cooling at about 1 deg C/hr. Pyroxene size, chemistry, and growth instability spacings, as well as groundmass coarseness, all suggest that the cooling rate subsequently decreased by as much as a factor of 10 or more. The porphyritic texture of this sample, then, is produced at a decreasing, rather than a discontinuously increasing, cooling rate.

  1. Microfractures produced by a laboratory scale hypervelocity impact into granite. [for lunar sample crack spectra interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfried, R. W., II; Simmons, G.; Richter, D.; Hoerz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Differential strain analysis and scanning electron microscopy are employed to study the microcracks produced in a granite block by shock waves from a hypervelocity impact. The anisotropy of the pre-shock cracks appears to control the orientations of the microcracks. Over the range 2 to 20 kbar, total crack porosity proves to be linearly related to shock pressure. The effect of the peak shock pressure on the width and median closure pressure of the crack spectra is also investigated. The results of the microcrack study may be useful in interpreting lunar samples.

  2. Shock glass veins in some lunar and meteoritic samples - Their nature and possible origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.

    1977-01-01

    Glassy veinlets, 15 microns to 1 mm thick and now in part devitrified, cut through breccias 67915, 67936, and 67955 from Outhouse Rock, and similar veins have been found in several other lunar samples and in meteorites. The veins have features suggesting injection of extremely hot material, possibly at several thousands degrees of superheat, presumably from an impact event. The vein compositions are very similar but not identical to the bulk compositions of the host rocks. Two mechanisms of injection are considered feasible-injection of hot liquid and injection of hot particulate matter (resembling a 'fluidized bed'), but neither mechanism fully explains all details of the occurrences.

  3. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of Luna 16 sample of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.; Sobornov, O. P.; Nazarkina, G. B.; Bachina, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    Using a scintillation gamma spectrometer with shielding against anticoincidences, the content of the natural radioelements (K, U, and Th) and long-lived cosmogenic radioisotopes (Al-26, Na-22, and Mn-54) in a sample of Sea of Fertility regolith was determined. Based on the content data of natural radioelements, an attempt was made to classify this sample in the scale of petrochemical types of terrestrial rocks arranged in accordance with their silicic content and alkalinity. Within the frame of reference of calcium-uranium systematics of lunar samples, a comparison was made of the K/U ratio obtained for the Sea of Fertility sample with analogous data for other regions of the moon. Also discussed are problems on the depthwise distribution of cosmogenic radioisotopes along the regolith profile.

  4. Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1972-01-01

    More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

  5. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicating many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described. Images from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions may be viewed at: www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. Introduction: During the six NASA missions to the Moon from 1969-72 a total of 382 kilograms of rocks and soils, often referred to as "the legacy of Apollo", were collected and returned to Earth. A unique collection of polished thin sections (PTSs) was made from over 400 rocks by the Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility at the Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC), Houston. These materials have been available for loan to approved PIs but of course they can't be simultaneously investigated by several researchers unless they are co-located or the sample is passed back and forward between them by mail/hand carrying which is inefficient and very risky for irreplaceable material. When The Open University (OU), the world's largest Distance Learning Higher Education Establishment found itself facing a comparable problem (how to supply thousands of undergraduate students with an interactive petrological microscope and a personal set of thin sections), it decided to develop a software tool called the Virtual Microscope (VM). As a result it is now able to make the unique and precious collection of Apollo specimens universally available as a resource for concurrent study by anybody in the world's Earth and Planetary Sciences community. Herein, we describe the first steps of a collaborative project between OU and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Curatorial Facility to record a PTS for every lunar rock, beginning with those collected by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. Method: Production of a virtual microscope dedicated to a particular theme divides into four main parts - photography, image processing, building and assembly of virtual microscope

  6. In-Situ XRF Measurements in Lunar Surface Exploration Using Apollo Samples as a Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, C.; Allen, C.; Mosie, A.; Hodges, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Samples collected during the Apollo lunar surface missions were sampled and returned to Earth by astronauts with varying degrees of geological experience. The technology used in these EVAs, or extravehicular activities, included nothing more advanced than traditional terrestrial field instruments: rock hammer, scoop, claw tool, and sample bags. 40 years after Apollo, technology is being developed that will allow for a high-resolution geochemical map to be created in the field real-time. Handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology is one such technology. We use handheld XRF to enable a broad in-situ characterization of a geologic site of interest based on fairly rapid techniques that can be implemented by either an astronaut or a robotic explorer. The handheld XRF instrument we used for this study was the Innov-X Systems Delta XRF spectrometer.

  7. Magnetic hysteresis in natural materials. [chondrites, lunar samples and terrestrial rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops and the derived hysteresis ratios R sub H and R sub I are used to classify the various natural dilute magnetic materials. R sub I is the ratio of saturation isothermal remanence (I sub R) to saturation (I sub S) magnetization, and R sub H is the ratio of remanent coercive force (H sub R) to coercive force (H sub C). The R sub H and R sub I values depend on grain size, the characteristics of separate size modes in mixtures of grains of high and low coercivity, and the packing characteristics. Both R sub H and R sub I are affected by thermochemical alterations of the ferromagnetic fraction. Hysteresis loop constriction is observed in lunar samples, chondrite meteorites, and thermochemically altered basaltic rocks, and is due to mixtures of components of high and low coercivity. Discrete ranges of R sub H and R sub I for terrestrial and lunar samples and for chondrite meteorites provide for a classification of these natural materials based on their hysteresis properties.

  8. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  9. Robotic traverse and sample return strategies for a lunar farside mission to the Schrödinger basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Nicola J.; Gullikson, Amber L.; Curran, Natalie M.; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Leader, Mark K.; Rege, Rushal N.; Klaus, Kurt K.; Kring, David A.

    2015-02-01

    Most of the highest priority objectives for lunar science and exploration (e.g., NRC, 2007) require sample return. Studies of the best places to conduct that work have identified Schrödinger basin as a geologically rich area, able to address a significant number of these scientific concepts. In this study traverses were designed for a robotic mission within previously identified crewed landing sites in Schrödinger basin. Traverse routes and sampling locations were identified using LROC imagery and LOLA topography data, combined with a theoretical rover travel and operations model. The findings of this investigation highlight the need to consider increased rover capabilities. A significant number of samples that can address many of the NRC (2007) scientific goals can be returned in a robotic mission during one period of lunar illumination (∼14 Earth days) using specifications from previous lunar rovers.

  10. Characteristics of microcracks in samples from the drill hole Noerdlingen 1973 in the Ries crater, Germany. [similarities to lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovani, E. R.; Batzle, M. L.; Simmons, G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples from the Noerdlingen 1973 drill core contain abundant shock-induced microfractures which exhibit varying amounts of healing and sealing. Many of the microcracks resemble morphologically the open microcracks present in returned lunar samples. Data derived from petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and differential strain analysis indicate that fewer microcracks were formed at greater depths and crack sealing processes are more effective for cracks associated with planar elements. Although the microcracks in the Ries core are now sealed, they are valid analogues of the open shock-induced cracks of lunar rocks and demonstrate that open cracks do form in rocks at depth during a naturally-occurring shock event. The healing of the shock-induced cracks in the Ries core also precludes their use for laboratory measurements of physical properties intended to be used as analogue measurements of lunar samples in situ.

  11. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  12. Lunar surface - Identification of the dark mantling material in the Apollo 17 soil samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C.; Charette, M. P.; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence indicates that Apollo 17 sample 74001, a soil consisting of very dark spheres, is composed almost entirely of the dark mantling material that covers a large region of the southeastern boundary of Mare Serenitatis. Other Apollo 17 samples contain only a component of this material. The underlying basalt in the Taurus-Littrow valley appears to be an extension of material forming the low-albedo ring around part of Mare Serenitatis and much of the surface of Mare Tranquillitatis. The surface of this basalt region is spectrally distinct from areas with dark mantling material. These results are derived from telescopic and laboratory measurements of the optical properties of lunar soil. Digital vidicon color images are used to map the extent of these material units in the Taurus-Littrow region.

  13. Study of carbon compounds in Apollo 12 and 14 lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, P. T.; Simoneit, B. R.; Wszolek, P. C.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results of gas-chromatography and high-resolution mass spectroscopy studies of gases released on deuterium fluoride dissolution of Apollo 12 and 14 lunar samples are reported. The results confirm previous observations that CH4 and C2H6 are released as well as CD4, C2D4, C2D6, and higher deuterated hydrocarbons. The yields correlate with the total carbon content of the samples, and the CH4 and C2H6 released may be regarded as indigenous, while the deuterated products result from hydrolysis of carbide material. The results provide the first experimental confirmation of the hypothesis that the CH4 derives from solar wind interactions.

  14. Isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen in some Apollo 14 and 15 lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Irving; Hardcastle, Kenneth G.; Gleason, Jim D.

    1974-01-01

    Isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen in some Apollo 14 and 15 lunar samples was determined by use of a newly constructed combustion line that yields low blanks for CO2 and H2. The results from combustion of fines and breccia from Apollo 14 lunar samples and of fines, breccia, and basalt from Apollo 15 were compared with data obtained by heating samples in vacuo to over 1,350°C. The two techniques gave similar results. Total carbon in the fines ranged from 51 to 110 p/m with a C13 of +12 to -8 per mil (parts per thousand) PDB. The breccias contain 22 to 50p/mcarbon with a C13 of -21 to -25 per mil. The crystalline rock (sample 15555) has a carbon content of about 7 p/m and a C13 of -28 per mil. The total hydrogen in the fines ranges from 66 to 120 p/m with a (D/H) X 10-6 of 39 to 90. The breccias contain 8 to 38p/mH2 with a (D/H) X 10-6 of 103 to 144. The crystalline rock contains about 2 p/m H2 with a (D/H) X 10-6 of about 140. Arguments are presented to show that the contamination by earth materials is not as serious a problem as has been proposed by previous authors.

  15. Long-term variations of solar corpuscular fluxes based on lunar soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, G. S.

    2013-07-01

    We report the results of age determination of a lunar soil column, delivered by the Luna 16 mission in September 1970 from the Sea of Fertility. We elaborated and applied the soil age determination method using the kinetic parameter, the regolith accumulation rate. The age of the soil delivered by Luna 16 is about 90 Myr. The isotopic ratio of 3He/4He in the column is slightly higher than in the soil column delivered by the Luna 24 mission. The abundance of helium in the fine fraction of the soil (about 100 µm) is significantly higher and is close to the maximum abundance from the Luna 24 soil column. These differences are most likely associated with the variations of solar corpuscular fluxes. Based on the measurements of the helium isotope abundance in the samples of lunar soil columns, we have estimated the values of ancient solar fluxes of protons and helium and variations thereof in the time interval of up to 600 Myr. We demonstrate that during this epoch there were two strong bursts of the helium flux, about 80 and 470 Myr ago, respectively. The existence of the first peak was assumed earlier from the paleodendrochronological data.

  16. Analysis of some lunar soil and rocks samples in terms of photon interaction and photon energy absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khayatt, A. M.; Al-Rajhi, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the space radiation environment is critical to future manned lunar missions, and this includes photons. In this paper, the attenuation properties of gamma rays in 20 lunar soil and rocks, found at landing site during the Apollo 17, are investigated. Effective atomic numbers Zeff for photon interaction and photon energy absorption for a wide range of photon energies are determined. The results indicate that within the wide compositional range of the Apollo 17 samples, three categories, each one have broadly similar attenuation properties. As well as the results showed that the Zeff has been successfully characterize and correlate the different soil samples with mixing of prevalent local rocks.

  17. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2012-12-01

    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  18. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, L.A.; Rapko, B.M.; Poloski, A.P.; Peterson, R.A.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Southwest Washington State. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate, which can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, and boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, but is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Chromium, which makes up a much smaller amount ({approx}3%) of the sludge, must also be removed because there is a low tolerance for chromium in the HLW immobilization process. In this work, the coupled dissolution kinetics of aluminum and chromium species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford HLW samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a model that provides a basis for predicting dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. (authors)

  19. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Reid A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-06-27

    The Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high level waste sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of high level waste requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove about 90 percent of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, but boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. In this work, the dissolution kinetics of aluminum species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford high level waste samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a shrinking core model that provides a basis for prediction of dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. This model is further developed to include the effects of particle size polydispersity, which is found to strongly influence the rate of dissolution.

  20. The surface chemical composition of lunar samples and its significance for optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface Fe, Ti, Ca, and Si concentrations in a variety of soil and rock samples from all the Apollo sites are determined using an Auger spectrometer plus a single-pass cylindrical-mirror analyzer with a standard 15-stage BeCu electron multiplier. It is found that there are no great differences between the surface and bulk concentrations of any of the four elements in the rock samples, but the surface Fe and Ti concentrations in soil samples are higher than the bulk concentrations. Results are also reported for solar-wind simulation experiments in which a pulverized rock sample was bombarded with 2-keV alpha-particles corresponding to about a 30,000-yr dose of the solar-wind proton component. These results indicate that the chemical change induced on the surface of a rock powder by positive-ion bombardment is similar to the change from bulk to surface chemical composition in lunar soil samples. A clear correlation is observed between the surface Fe concentration and albedo of the soil samples.

  1. Matrix characteristics and origin of lunar breccia samples no. 12034 and 12073

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, A. C.; Fisher, R. V.; Garrison, R. E.; Wax, D.

    1970-01-01

    The transmission electron microscope was used to investigate the nature of the matrix in two samples of lunar breccia. This matrix is composed largely of tiny (0.5 microns) grains of unaltered glass which are plastically fitted against one another, and tightly welded to the clastic fragments with which they are in contact. The breccias have an open framework of angular clastic particles composed mainly of anorthositic, basaltic and glassy fragments. Most of the anorthositic fragments have been shock metamorphosed. Over half of the glassy clasts, and also the former diaplectic glass particles produced from shocked plagioclase, were partly or wholly devitrified before inclusion in the present breccias. It is concluded that each breccia was deposited from a hot basesurge cloud of impact debris, and the tiny bits of glass in the matrix condensed from rock that was volatilized by the heat of major meteorite impact.

  2. Ferromagnetic phases of lunar fines and breccias - Electron magnetic resonance spectra of Apollo 16 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Electron magnetic resonance measurements have been made at 9 GHz and at temperatures from 1.2 to 400 K and 35 GHz (300 K) on samples of fines and breccias from Apollo 11-16. Unsorted Apollo 16 fines (less than 1 mm) have Delta H (average) = 580 G and specific intensities that have the same range as fines from the other Apollo collections. The magnetic properties of the 'characteristic' resonance are not in accord with those of iron particles. On the bases of the properties of the 'characteristic' resonance as a function of temperature and Apollo site, laboratory heat treatments on synthetic materials and lunar crystalline rocks and a comparison with the 'characteristic' resonance of the resonance spectra of breccia specimens for which iron particle sizes have been determined from other measurements, it is suggested that some fraction (about 20%) of the 'characteristic' resonance is due to sub-micron particles of ferric oxide phases.

  3. Lunar highland meteorite Dhofar 026 and Apollo sample 15418: Two strongly shocked, partially melted, granulitic breccias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, B. A.; James, O.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Nazarov, M.A.; Barsukova, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of lunar meteorite Dhofar 026, and comparison to Apollo sample 15418, indicate that Dhofar 026 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia (or a fragmental breccia consisting almost entirely of granulitic breccia clasts) that experienced considerable post-shock heating, probably as a result of diffusion of heat into the rock from an external, hotter source. The shock converted plagioclase to maskelynite, indicating that the shock pressure was between 30 and 45 GPa. The post-shock heating raised the rock's temperature to about 1200 ??C; as a result, the maskelynite devitrified, and extensive partial melting took place. The melting was concentrated in pyroxene-rich areas; all pyroxene melted. As the rock cooled, the partial melts crystallized with fine-grained, subophitic-poikilitic textures. Sample 15418 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia that had a similar history, but evidence for this history is better preserved than in Dhofar 026. The fact that Dhofar 026 was previously interpreted as an impact melt breccia underscores the importance of detailed petrographic study in interpretation of lunar rocks that have complex textures. The name "impact melt" has, in past studies, been applied only to rocks in which the melt fraction formed by shock-induced total fusion. Recently, however, this name has also been applied to rocks containing melt formed by heating of the rocks by conductive heat transfer, assuming that impact is the ultimate source of the heat. We urge that the name "impact melt" be restricted to rocks in which the bulk of the melt formed by shock-induced fusion to avoid confusion engendered by applying the same name to rocks melted by different processes. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  4. Meteoroid activity on the lunar surface from the Surveyor 3 sample examination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cour-Palais, B. G.; Zook, H. A.; Flaherty, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Surveyor 3 television camera shroud and polished aluminum tube, retrieved as a result of the Apollo 12 mission after 2.5 years on the lunar surface, were examined for evidence of meteoroid impact. Resulting estimates of the meteoroid flux in the lunar vicinity are shown to be in good agreement with the Lunar Orbiter penetration rates. In addition, the relationship between a derived lunar-surface meteoroid cumulative-flux model and the comparable near-earth model is discussed in the light of theoretical predictions. It is shown that the effect of the gravitational field of the earth on the near-earth environment was greater than previously predicted.

  5. A lunar-based analytical laboratory and contamination problems in analysis of Moon and Mars samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.

    1997-07-01

    A summary follows of our experiences and techniques used in the analysis of samples from Apollo Missions 11 to 17. The studies were conducted at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and the University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 1969 - 1974. Our search was directed to water-extractable compounds with emphasis on amino acids. Gas chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry were used for the analysis. It is our conclusion that amino acids are not present in the lunar regolith above the background levels of our investigation (ca. 1 - 3 ng/g). The scientific debate has become heated that primitive life existed on Mars 3.6 billion years ago as reported by the NASA-Stanford team led to David McKay. Mars is destined to receive humans early in the 21st Century, preceded by many international missions to Space Station Freedom and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. First, we must `learn to live in space'. The Moon presents a base that provides the opportunities and challenges to assemble the international interdisciplinary intellectual scientific teams and partners with many disciplines to make the next step before human exploration of Mars and the search for evidence in Martian soil and samples returned to Earth laboratories. Our experiences learned in Moon analysis will be useful in Mars exploration and returned sample study. Sensitivity at the nanogram/gram level and selectivity of analysis are highly essential. As these figures show contamination of samples is a most serious problem. However with the use of ultraclean techniques in a 100 clean room contamination can be avoided. Our speck of dust, a tiny fragment of cigarette smoke, a particle of dandruff, a droplet of saliva, all can make your results questionable. In addition, the extraction of life molecules as amino acids from the Lunar samples was a difficult process and I am sure the same difficulties

  6. Restoration and Synthesis of Lunar Geochemical and Petrological Sample Data to Support Future Science (MoonDB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Evans, C.; Todd, N.; Zeigler, R.

    2015-06-01

    We will introduce MoonDB, a project that will synthesize geochemical and petrological data of lunar samples from the literature and unpublished data that are at risk of being lost to advance access and utility of these data for future research.

  7. Crustal heterogeneity of the moon viewed from the Galileo SSI camera: Lunar sample calibrations and compositional implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Belton, M.; Becker, T.; Carr, M. H.; Chapmann, C.; Fanale, F. P.; Fischer, Erich M.; Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald; Greenberg, R.

    1991-01-01

    Summaries are given of the spectral calibration, compositional parameters, nearside color, and limb and farside color of the Moon. The farside of the Moon, a large area of lunar crust, is dominated by heavily cratered terrain and basin deposits that represent the products of the first half billion years of crustal evolution. Continuing analysis of the returned lunar samples suggest a magma ocean and/or serial magmatism model for evolution of the primordial lunar crust. However, testing either hypothesis requires compositional information about the crustal stratigraphy and lateral heterogeneity. Resolution of this important planetary science issue is dependent on additional data. New Galileo multispectral images indicate previously unknown local and regional compositional diversity of the farside crust. Future analysis will focus on individual features and a more detailed assessment of crustal stratigraphy and heterogeneity.

  8. Melting behavior and phase relations of lunar samples. [Apollo 12 rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Cooling rate studies of 12002 were conducted and the results interpreted in terms of the crystallization history of this rock and certain other picritic Apollo 12 samples. Calculations of liquid densities and viscosities during crystallization, crystal settling velocities, and heat loss by the parent rock body are discussed, as are petrographic studies of other Apollo 12 samples. The process of magmatic differentiation that must have accompanied the early melting and chemical fractionation of the moon's outer layers was investigated. The source of regions of both high- and low-titanium mare basalts were also studied.

  9. Probabilistic Classification Using Elemental Abundance Distributions and Lossless Image Compression in Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Samples from Mare Serenitatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Hoover, Richard B.; Abbas, Mian; Jerman, Gregory; Coston, James; Fisk, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We have previously outlined a strategy for the detection of fossils [Storrie-Lombardi and Hoover, 2004] and extant microbial life [Storrie-Lombaudi and Hoover, 20051 during robotic missions to Mars using co-registered structural and chemical signatures. Data inputs included image lossless compression indices to estimate relative textural complexity and elemental abundance distributions. Two exploratory classification algorithms (principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis) provide an initial tentative classification of all targets. Nonlinear stochastic neural networks are then trained to produce a Bayesian estimate of algorithm classification accuracy. The strategy previously has been successful in distinguishing regions of biotic and abiotic alteration of basalt glass from unaltered samples. [Storrie-Lombardi and Fisk, 2004; Storrie-Lombardi and Fisk, 2004] Such investigations of abiotic versus biotic alteration of terrestrial mineralogy on Earth are compromised by .the difficulty finding mineralogy completely unaffected by the ubiquitous presence of microbial life on the planet. The renewed interest in lunar exploration offers an opportunity to investigate geological materials that may exhibit signs of aqueous alteration, but are highly unlikely to contain contaminating biological weathering signatures. We here present an extension of our earlier data set to include lunar dust samples obtained during the Apollo 17 mission. Apollo 17 landed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley in Mare Serenitatis. Most of the rock samples from this region of the lunar highlands are basalts comprised primarily of plagioclase and pyroxene and selected examples of orange and black volcanic glass. SEM images and elemental abundances (C6, N7, O8, Na11, Mg12, Al13, Si14, P15, S16, Cll7, K19, Ca20, Fe26) for a series of targets in the lunar dust samples are compared to the extant cyanobacteria, fossil trilobites, Orgueil meteorite, and terrestrial basalt targets previously

  10. An analysis of Apollo lunar soil samples 12070,889, 12030,187, and 12070,891: Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site and implications for classification of small-sized lunar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Downes, Hilary; Crawford, Ian A.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the compositional diversity of the Moon's interior. Basalt fragments from the lunar regolith can potentially sample lava flows from regions of the Moon not previously visited, thus, increasing our understanding of lunar geological evolution. As part of a study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site, detailed petrological and geochemical data are provided here for 13 basaltic chips. In addition to bulk chemistry, we have analyzed the major, minor, and trace element chemistry of mineral phases which highlight differences between basalt groups. Where samples contain olivine, the equilibrium parent melt magnesium number (Mg#; atomic Mg/[Mg + Fe]) can be calculated to estimate parent melt composition. Ilmenite and plagioclase chemistry can also determine differences between basalt groups. We conclude that samples of approximately 1-2 mm in size can be categorized provided that appropriate mineral phases (olivine, plagioclase, and ilmenite) are present. Where samples are fine-grained (grain size <0.3 mm), a "paired samples t-test" can provide a statistical comparison between a particular sample and known lunar basalts. Of the fragments analyzed here, three are found to belong to each of the previously identified olivine and ilmenite basalt suites, four to the pigeonite basalt suite, one is an olivine cumulate, and two could not be categorized because of their coarse grain sizes and lack of appropriate mineral phases. Our approach introduces methods that can be used to investigate small sample sizes (i.e., fines) from future sample return missions to investigate lava flow diversity and petrological significance.

  11. An analysis of Apollo lunar soil samples 12070,889, 12030,187, and 12070,891: Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site and implications for classification of small-sized lunar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Downes, Hilary; Crawford, Ian A.

    2016-09-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the compositional diversity of the Moon's interior. Basalt fragments from the lunar regolith can potentially sample lava flows from regions of the Moon not previously visited, thus, increasing our understanding of lunar geological evolution. As part of a study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site, detailed petrological and geochemical data are provided here for 13 basaltic chips. In addition to bulk chemistry, we have analyzed the major, minor, and trace element chemistry of mineral phases which highlight differences between basalt groups. Where samples contain olivine, the equilibrium parent melt magnesium number (Mg#; atomic Mg/[Mg + Fe]) can be calculated to estimate parent melt composition. Ilmenite and plagioclase chemistry can also determine differences between basalt groups. We conclude that samples of approximately 1-2 mm in size can be categorized provided that appropriate mineral phases (olivine, plagioclase, and ilmenite) are present. Where samples are fine-grained (grain size <0.3 mm), a "paired samples t-test" can provide a statistical comparison between a particular sample and known lunar basalts. Of the fragments analyzed here, three are found to belong to each of the previously identified olivine and ilmenite basalt suites, four to the pigeonite basalt suite, one is an olivine cumulate, and two could not be categorized because of their coarse grain sizes and lack of appropriate mineral phases. Our approach introduces methods that can be used to investigate small sample sizes (i.e., fines) from future sample return missions to investigate lava flow diversity and petrological significance.

  12. The Evolution of the Lunar Crust: The View from Samples, Experiments, and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elardo, S. M.; Pieters, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    This abstract presents a very brief summary of some of the major areas of research regarding the lunar crust from a laboratory-based science perspective in order to fuel discussion and planning for the Evolution of the Lunar Crust chapter.

  13. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  14. Magnetic effects of shock and their implications for magnetism of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, S. M.; Fuller, M. D.; Wu, Y. M.; Rose, M. F.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The principal problem in lunar magnetism is to account for the surprisingly large magnitude of the remanent magnetism of lunar surface material. Experiments conducted in this connection have shown that shock is an important mechanism of both magnetization and demagnetization. A description is presented of new experimental results in the low-shock range. An attempt is made to assess the effect of shock upon estimates of the ancient lunar field intensity. The results are used as a basis for a reconsideration of the present lunar field models in the light of intensity estimates and other new results. It is found that the central questions in lunar magnetism have not yet been answered to everyone's satisfaction.

  15. Strontium and Actinides Removal from Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples by Freshly Precipitated Manganese Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    2003-10-30

    The authors investigated the performance of freshly precipitated manganese oxide and monosodium titanate (MST) for the removal of strontium (Sr) and actinides from actual high-level waste. Manganese oxide precipitation occurs upon addition of a reductant such as formate (HCO2-) or peroxide (H2O2) to a waste solution containing permanganate (MnO4-). Tests described in this document address the capability of manganese oxide treatment to remove Rs, Pu, and Np from actual high-level waste containing elevated concentrations of Pu. Additionally, tests investigate MST (using two unique batches) performance with the same waste for direct comparison to the manganese oxide performance.

  16. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  17. Microcracks in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically different, from the microcracks present today in returned lunar samples, any property that is sensitive to microcracks measured on the returned lunar samples is inappropriate for predicting that property as a function of depth in the moon. Therefore, many data that have been measured already on lunar samples simply do not apply to rocks in situ inside the moon. A plausible mechanism with which to account for the difference in microcrack characteristics of lunar samples on the surface of the moon and the microcrack characteristics of lunar rock in situ inside the moon is thermal cycling during residence on the moon's surface.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix M3 to Part 226 - Sample Calculations of Generic Repayment Estimates and Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Calculations of Generic Repayment Estimates and Actual Repayment Disclosures M3 Appendix M3 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z)...

  19. Physical properties of concrete made with Apollo 16 lunar soil sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Love, H.; Stark, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of the long-term investigation for the construction of concrete lunar bases. In this phase, petrographic and scanning electron microscope examinations showed that the morphology and elemental composition of the lunar soil made it suitable for use as a fine aggregate for concrete. Based on this finding, calcium aluminate cement and distilled water were mixed with the lunar soil to fabricate test specimens. The test specimens consisted of a 1-in cube, a 1/2-in cube, and three 0.12 x 0.58 x 3.15-in beam specimens. Tests were performed on these specimens to determine compressive strength, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and thermal coefficient of expansion. Based on examination of the material and test results, it is concluded that lunar soil can be used as a fine aggregate for concrete.

  20. Particle shape and magnetization of chondrite meteorites, lunar samples, and impactites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    Extra terrestrial materials, certain materials which have their origin at the earth's surface due to meteoritic impact, or under highly reducing conditions, such as in the case of basaltic flows in contact with coal beds or serpentenites, all contain Fe and FeNi phases with high magnetization values and spherical shape. Normally, the demagnetizing field (H sub D = NI sub S: where N is the demagnetizing factor and I is the saturation magnetization) is corrected for. In disperse systems, such as most natural materials, the particle shape effects are analyzed in terms of the saturation fields, Hs = H sub D = NI sub S and the magnetization differences (Delta I sub S). Discrete size modes of superparamagnetic (SP), multidomain (MD), and single domain (SD) particles result in reduced coercive force (Hc), increase in the value R sub H (ratio of remanent coercive force, H sub R, to H sub C), and decrease in the value R sub I (ratio of remanent magnetization, I sub R, to saturation magnetization, T sub S). The main distinctions between the various natural materials can be made by this approach. Hysteresis loops for terrestrial basalts, Fe and Ni rods and spheres, chondrite meteorites, lunar samples, impactites, and chondritic fusion crust are presented.

  1. Some correlation of rock exposure ages and regolith dynamics. [in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.; Gault, D. E.; Hartung, J. B.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Exposure age information on lunar rocks and regolith turnover rates are correlated. If plotted in a cumulative fashion, the distribution of spallogenic noble-gas exposure ages is remarkably parallel to the rate at which various fractions of the regolith surface are cratered and/or excavated. It appears that the rate at which lunar rocks are excavated from within the regolith is strongly controlled by the impact environment. Some suggestions for future refinement of regolith dynamics are presented.

  2. Rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon age of lunar sample 15555.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Evensen, N. M.; Jahn, B. M.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar mare basalt 15555 from the edge of Hadley Rille has been dated at 3.3 b.y. by both rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon techniques. Age and trace element abundances closely resemble those of the Apollo 12 mare basalts. Data from lunar basalts obtained thus far indicate that they cannot be derived by simple fractionation from a homogeneous source.

  3. The Lunar Phases Project: A Mental Model-Based Observational Project for Undergraduate Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Mon, Manuel J.; Hibbard, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    We present our Lunar Phases Project, an ongoing effort utilizing students' actual observations within a mental model building framework to improve student understanding of the causes and process of the lunar phases. We implement this project with a sample of undergraduate, nonscience major students enrolled in a midsized public university located…

  4. A remark on the theory of measuring thermal diffusivity by the modified Angstrom's method. [in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horai, K.-I.

    1981-01-01

    A theory of the measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a sample by the modified Angstrom method is developed for the case in which radiative heat loss from the end surface of the sample is not negligible, and applied to measurements performed on lunar samples. Formulas allowing sample thermal diffusivity to be determined from the amplitude decay and phase lag of a temperature wave traveling through the sample are derived for a flat disk sample for which only heat loss from the end surface is important, and a sample of finite diameter and length for which heat loss through the end and side surfaces must be considered. It is noted that in the case of a flat disk, measurements at a single angular frequency of the temperature wave are sufficient, while the sample of finite diameter and length requires measurements at two discrete angular frequencies. Comparison of the values of the thermal diffusivities of two lunar samples of dimensions approximately 1 x 1 x 2 cm derived by the present methods and by the Angstrom theory for a finite bar reveals them to differ by not more than 5%, and indicates that more refined data are required as the measurement theory becomes more complicated.

  5. Meteoroid activity on the lunar surface from the Surveyor 3 sample examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cour-Palais, B. G.; Zook, H. A.; Flaherty, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    The Surveyor 3 television camera shroud and polished aluminum tube, retrieved as a result of the Apollo 12 mission after 2-1/2 years on the lunar surface, were examined at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for evidence of meteoroid impact. The results of this examination were compared with other estimates of the meteoroid flux in the lunar vicinity and are shown to be in good agreement with the Lunar Orbiter penetration rates. In addition, the relationship between a derived lunar surface meteoroid cumulative-flux model and the comparable near-earth model is discussed in the light of theoretical predictions. It is shown that the effect of the gravitational field of the earth on the near-earth environment was greater than previously predicted. The implication is that the average meteoroid velocity relative to the earth is probably 17 km/s. The many low velocity impacts on the Surveyor 3 camera and tube are shown to be of lunar surface origin and to be primarily the result of rocket exhaust interaction.

  6. Exposure ages and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic-ray exposure ages of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher exposure ages. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.

  7. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Taylor, Larry

    2008-01-01

    useful for choosing an exposure concentration for the animal inhalation study on a selected lunar dust sample, which is included as a part of this proposal. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The simulant exposure will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of ITI and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  8. The organic analysis and carbon chemistry of lunar samples: Their significance for exobiology; Proceedings of the Conference, University of Maryland, College Park, Md., October 26-28, 1971.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Various methods used in the organic analysis of lunar samples are reviewed. The scope, advantages, and limitations of these methods are discussed, with particular emphasis on possible sources of contamination and experimental artifacts inherent in their use. A broad survey of the organogenic elements and compounds found in lunar samples covers the search for biogenic structures and viable organisms; the abundance and isotopic composition of various elements and compounds; the search for porphyrins, amino acids, or amino acid precursors; and the presence of heterocylics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and other organic compounds. The sources of the organogenic elements and compounds detected in lunar samples are discussed. The significance of the lunar organic analysis for exobiology is discussed in terms of its relevance to and implications for the studies of chemical evolution and terrestrial organic geochemistry. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  9. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  10. Survey of lunar carbon compounds. II - The carbon chemistry of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, P. H.; Eglinton, G.; Firth, J. N. M.; Maxwell, J. R.; Mays, B. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The methane and carbide concentrations of a number of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples of fines and breccias have been examined by the deuterated acid dissolution method. Location studies indicate that these carbon compounds are concentrated in the outer surfaces of the fines particles of 48-152 micron diameter; for larger particles a volume-related component may contribute. In individual samples the methane and carbide concentrations correlate with parameters indicative of lunar surface exposure. The data provide further evidence that solar wind implantation is the major source of the methane in the fines and that the carbide originates from both solar wind implantation and meteorite impacts.

  11. Traverses for lunar rovers and sample return teleoperated from Earth or cislunar orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    Most interesting sites for exploration are near the poles of the Moon where water and other ices and volatiles could be stable in the permanent shaded regions. Several instruments on multiple orbiters have indicated the presence of hydrogen or hydration but the relation with the illumination conditions are not as clear. Which other variables are involved to trap water near the poles is not known. This ignorance makes it of high interest to do in-situ research on the Moon. ESA, NASA and other agencies are studying a teleoperated mission from cislunar orbit with Orion (eg. HERACLES international lunar exploration architecture) with the possibility of long rover traverses, and human assisted sample return. This mission concept was used for this study on a rover traverse. This study focuses on both the North as South Pole. The site selection for a traverse was based on the temperature map from Diviner. Regions of interests were made as primary selection and cover areas where the maximum temperature is lower than the sublimation temperature of CO2. Data from neutron spectrometer from the Prospector, and crater epoch according to the USGS were used to make a selection of regions of interest. These selected sites where studied on their accessibility for a rover, based on the slope map made from the LOLA elevation model. A landing site was selected based on assumptions that it should be at least one kilometre in diameter and have a slope lower than 5 degrees. The temperature difference (Tmax-Tmin from the Diviner measurements) was used select a scientifically interesting site between the landing site and destination inside a PSR. It was thought that a site with a temperature difference larger than 150K is interesting to study volatile migration processes. Eventually for the traverse planning a tool in ArcGIS was used which calculates the easiest from one location to another where the slope is used as limiting factor. We give the example study of rover traverse planning

  12. Helium-3 inventory of lunar samples: A potential future energy resource for mankind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murali, A. V.; Jordan, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent public concern over the safety, cost, and environmental impact of the worldwide fission reactors has focused the attention of scientists and engineers towards perfecting fusion technology because it promises a much more environmentally acceptable 'clean' energy supply. The fusion reaction D-2 + He-3 yields p(14.7 MeV) + He-4(3.6 MeV) has long been recognized as an ideal candidate for producing commercially 'safer and cleaner' fusion power. Naturally occurring He-3 is scarce on earth; however, lunar regolith is a potential ore for He-3 because the high He-3 in solar wind has been implanted in the lunar regolith for more than 4 x 10(exp 9) years, along with other volatile species. The helium abundance in lunar soils is dependent not only on the maturity of soils (I(sub S)/FeO) but also on their mineralogy. The titanium-rich (ilmenite) lunar soils are important repositories for volatiles, which may be released by heating these soils up to approximately 700 C.

  13. Significance of Cl/P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ratios from lunar samples: a response

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the absence of quantitative measurements of schreibersite and akaganeite in lunar highland breccias, the fractions of the total Cl and P that are present in these phases cannot be ascertained. On the basis of lunar Fe/sup 0/ concentrations, Fe/sup 0//Ni ratios and KREEP elemental constituents in breccias, estimates of the amounts and mineral sites of P are made. Only minor P is related to metal. Relationships between Fe/sup 0/, Fe/sup + +/, Cl/sub r/ and P in four Apollo 16 breccias and melt rocks may be explained by the fraction of a single residual liquid that each rock contains. Previously reported Cl/sub r//P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ groupings can be based on basalts alone in two cases and on highland breccias in a third; soil and regolith breccia data are consistent with, but not necessary for identifying the groups. The systematics can only be reconciled to a fundamental characteristic of lunar samples, eatablished early and preserved.

  14. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  15. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  16. Galactic Cosmic-Ray-Produced Thermoluminescence Profiles in Meteorites Lunar Samples and a Terrestrial Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Chen, Yongheng

    1996-01-01

    The long-term radiation shielding properties of common extraterrestrial materials are poorly known, although these materials are the most likely structural elements on airless worlds such as the Moon. We report on radiation dose profiles in meteorites and lunar soil cores using specific minerals as naturally-occurring "dosimeters". We find that radiation profiles are fairly flat in typical meteoroid bodies (less than 85 cm radius) and drop by only about 40% through about 2.5 m of lunar soil. These profiles are produced by primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary proton cascade but with a significant contribution by secondary neutrons at depths of about 2 m (300 g/sq cm).

  17. The frequency dependence of the viscous component of the magnetic susceptibility of lunar rock and soil samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanneken, J. W.; Vant-Hull, L. L.; Carnes, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    The susceptibility of two lunar samples (a soil and a low metamorphic grade breccia) has been measured in a weak field - 0.001 Oe - and as a function of frequency from 0.032 to 1.0 Hz. The measurements were made using a superconducting magnetometer. The results show that the susceptibility decreases linearly with the log of frequency. This observation is in agreement with a theoretical model for viscous decay based on the Neel theory of single-domain and superparamagnetic grains. The relation derived agrees with a model in which there is a uniform distribution of relaxation times.

  18. Comprehensive Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples Using High-Resolution Image-Based 3D Reconstructions and X-Ray CT Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Established contemporary conservation methods within the fields of Natural and Cultural Heritage encourage an interdisciplinary approach to preservation of heritage material (both tangible and intangible) that holds "Outstanding Universal Value" for our global community. NASA's lunar samples were acquired from the moon for the primary purpose of intensive scientific investigation. These samples, however, also invoke cultural significance, as evidenced by the millions of people per year that visit lunar displays in museums and heritage centers around the world. Being both scientifically and culturally significant, the lunar samples require a unique conservation approach. Government mandate dictates that NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office develop and maintain protocols for "documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach" for both current and future collections of astromaterials. Documentation, considered the first stage within the conservation methodology, has evolved many new techniques since curation protocols for the lunar samples were first implemented, and the development of new documentation strategies for current and future astromaterials is beneficial to keeping curation protocols up to date. We have developed and tested a comprehensive non-destructive documentation technique using high-resolution image-based 3D reconstruction and X-ray CT (XCT) data in order to create interactive 3D models of lunar samples that would ultimately be served to both researchers and the public. These data enhance preliminary scientific investigations including targeted sample requests, and also provide a new visual platform for the public to experience and interact with the lunar samples. We intend to serve these data as they are acquired on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisistion and Curation website at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/. Providing 3D interior and exterior documentation of astromaterial

  19. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  20. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Hovland, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The study to identify and define recognizable fabrics in lunar soil in order to determine the history of the lunar regolith in different locations is reported. The fabric of simulated lunar soil, and lunar soil samples are discussed along with the behavior of simulated lunar soil under dynamic and static loading. The planned research is also included.

  1. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

  2. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  3. Heavy Isotope Composition of Oxygen in Zircon from Soil Sample 14163: Lunar Perspective of an Early Ocean on the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty oxygen analyses of a large (sub-millimetre) zircon grain from the lunar soil sample 14163 have been determined using CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The sample 14163 was returned form the Fra Mauro region by Apollo 14 mission. Zircon grain of 0.6-0.8 mm in size extracted from the sample was imaged using CL detector fitted to the Philips Electron Microscope in order to reveal internal structure. Oxygen isotopes have been analysed during two sessions. The first set of data was collected using the original mount where the grain was set in the resin attached to the glass slide. This resulted in the two complications: (i) standard zircon has to be analysed from the separate mount and (ii) the lunar zircon grain was rased in the holder compared to the standard. In order to investigate, if the elevated oxygen compositions observed during this session could have resulted from this difference in geometric configuration during the standard and sample analyses, the lunar zircon was extracted from the original mount, remounted with the standard chip in the new resin disk and reanalysed during the second session. All analyses made during the first session show delta O-18 values heavier than 6.0%. The second set of data has a wider spread of delta O-18 values with some values as low as 5.6%. Nevertheless, a half of observed delta O-18 values in this set is also higher than 6.0%. Slightly lighter oxygen compositions observed during the second session indicate possible dependence of measured delta O-18 values on the geometry of analysed samples. Presence of zircons with similar heavy oxygen isotope compositions on the Moon, which neither had liquid water or felic crust similar to that on the Earth nor ever developed regime similar to plate tectonics, suggests that other mechanisms can be responsible for elevated delta O-18 values in zircons. This implies that there is no support for the presence of an ocean on the surface of the early Earth and as the ocean appears to be an

  4. Inert gases in twelve particles and one 'dust' specimen from the Lunar-16 sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Yaniv, A.; Lakatos, S.

    1974-01-01

    Mass spectrography was used to measure inert gases in lunar breccia and basalt particles. The He-4/Ne-20 ratio (mean value of 49) in the breccia was systematically lower than in basalt (mean value of 78). Possibly, this may be due to fractionation of He and Ne during and after breccia formation. Pronounced differences observed in the He-4/Ne-3 ratio are attributed to the presence of variable quantities of cosmogenic He-3. This means that either the solar wind intensity varied in time, or that small-ratio particles were exposed to solar radiation rich in He-3 and/or H-3. The exposure ages of four particles are several hundred million years. The Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio is 0.65 for breccia and basalts.

  5. Electrical properties of Apollo 17 rock and soil samples and a summary of the electrical properties of lunar material at 450 MHz frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The dielectric constant and the voltage absorption length was measured for four Apollo 17 soil samples (73241, 74220, 75061, 76501) and for two Apollo 17 rock samples (76315 and 79135) at 450 MHz frequency. The dielectric constant and absorption length measurements made on the lunar samples are reviewed and related to the transition element concentration in these samples. The significance of the laboratory measurements for radar observations is discussed.

  6. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Taylor, L.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Astronauts on the Moon will go in and out of the base for various activities, and will inevitably bring some dust into the living quarters. Depressurizing the airlock so that astronauts can exit for outdoor activities could also bring dust inside the airlock to the habitable area. Concerned about the potential health effects on astronauts exposed to airborne lunar dust, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust. The toxicity data also will be needed by toxicologists to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts residing in the lunar habitat and by environmental engineers to design an appropriate dust mitigation strategy. We conducted a study to examine biomarkers of toxicity (inflammation and cytotoxicity) in lung lavage fluids from mice intrapharyngeally instilled with lunar dust samples; we also collected lung tissue from the mice for histopathological examination 3 months after the dust instillation. Reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) having known toxicities and industrial exposure limits were studied in parallel with lunar dust so that the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. A 6-month histopathology study has been planned. These instillation experiments will be followed by inhalation studies, which are more labor intensive and technologically difficult. The animal inhalation studies will be conducted first with an appropriate lunar dust simulant to ensure that the exposure techniques to be used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of these studies collectively will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and enable us to establish exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  7. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    actual results of the the Lunar Prospector extended mission including maneuver design, eccentricity & argument of perigee evolution, and lunar potential modeling.

  8. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    actual results of the Lunar Prospector extended mission including maneuver design, eccentricity & argument of perigee evolution, and lunar potential modeling.

  9. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-05-01

    actual results of the Lunar Prospector extended mission including maneuver design, eccentricity & argument of perigee evolution, and lunar potential modeling.

  10. An evaluation of pyrolytic techniques with regard to the Apollo 11, 12 and 14 lunar samples analyses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, B.; Jabbar Mohammed, M. A.; Modzeleski, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    The first technique involved pyrolysis at 700 C under an inert atmosphere in a flowing He system at normal pressure. The products were collected at liquid nitrogen temperature and then allowed to pass instantaneously into a combined capillary gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The second technique consisted of a vacuum pyrolysis where the sample was first degassed at 150 C and then pyrolized at 500 C and 1000 C consecutively. The products were again collected at liquid nitrogen temperature and then they were directly introduced to the ion source of the mass spectrometer through a modified gas inlet system. The experiments have shown the importance of taking into account the factors that influence pyrolytic degradation and/or the synthesis of products. Pyrolysis of Apollo 14 lunar fines and scrapings from an astronaut's glove gave different products by mass spectroscopy and showed different looking flaky materials upon scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Conceptual design of lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    Lunar exploration/development will be one of the most significant future space activities. In the initial phase of lunar exploration, various unmanned missions will be undertaken and effective transportation means will be required. This paper discusses the results of the conceptual design of a Japanese lunar lander to be used in such explorations. The lunar lander would be launched on a Japanese H-II launch vehicle and would transport a payload, such as a lunar mobile explorer or a lunar sample return vehicle, on to the Moon. Requirements definition, mission analysis, system and subsystem definition of a lunar lander were performed. Our analysis shows that it should be able to carry an 750 kg payload onto the lunar surface. This lunar lander features are summarized.

  12. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  13. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  14. Lunar Dust 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

  15. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Captain, Janine; Arens, Ellen; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith is a method allowing refinement of specific minerals in the material for processing on the moon. The use of tribocharging the regolith prior to separation was investigated on the lunar simulant MLS-I by passing the dust through static mixers constructed from different materials; aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The amount of charge acquired by the simulant was dependent upon the difference in the work function of the dust and the charging material. XPS and SEM were used to characterize the simulant after it was sieved into five size fractions (> 100 pm, 75-100 pm, 50- 75 pm, 50-25 pm, and < 25 pm), where very little difference in surface composition was observed between the sizes. Samples of the smallest (< 25 pm) and largest (> 100 pm) size fractions were beneficiated through a charge separator using the aluminum (charged the simulant negatively) and PTFE (charged positively) mixers. The mass fractions of the separated simulant revealed that for the larger particle size, significant unipolar charging was observed for both mixers, whereas for the smaller particle sizes, more bipolar charging was observed, probably due to the finer simulant adhering to the inside of the mixers shielding the dust from the charging material. Subsequent XPS analysis of the beneficiated fractions showed the larger particle size fraction having some species differentiation, but very little difference for the smaller.size. Although MLS-1 was made to have similar chemistry to actual lunar dust, its mineralogy is quite different. On-going experiments are using NASA JSC-1 lunar simulant. A vacuum chamber has been constructed, and future experiments are planned in a simulated lunar environment.

  16. The antiquity indicator argon-40/argon-36 for lunar surface samples calibrated by uranium-235-xenon-136 dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Otto; Terribilini, Dario; Polnau, Ernst; Kramers, Jan

    2001-08-01

    Several solar gas rich lunar soils and breccias have trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratios >10, although solar Ar is expected to yield a ratio of <0.01. Radiogenic 40Ar produced in the lunar crust from 40K decay was outgassed into the lunar atmosphere, ionized, accelerated in the electromagnetic field of the solar wind, and reimplanted into lunar surface material. The 40Ar loss rate depends on the decreasing abundance of 40K. In order to calibrate the time dependence of the 40Ar/36Ar ratio in lunar surface material, the period of reimplantation of lunar atmospheric ions and of solar wind Ar was determined using the 235U-136Xe dating method that relies on secondary cosmic-ray neutron-induced fission of 235U. We identified the trapped, fissiogenic, and cosmogenic noble gases in lunar breccia 14307 and lunar soils 70001-8, 70181, 74261, and 75081. Uranium and Th concentrations were determined in the 74261 soil for which we obtain the 235U-136Xe time of implantation of Ga ago. On the basis of several cosmogenic noble gas signatures we calculate the duration of this near surface exposure of 393 +/- 45 Ma and an average shielding depth below the lunar surface of 73 +/- 7 g/cm2. A second, recent exposure to solar and cosmic-ray particles occurred after this soil was excavated from Shorty crater 17.2 +/- 1.4 Ma ago. Using a compilation of all lunar data with reliable trapped Ar isotopic ratios and pre-exposure times we infer a calibration curve of implantation times, based on the trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratio. A possible trend for the increase with time of the solar 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios of about 12%/Ga and about 2%/Ga, respectively, is also discussed.

  17. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  18. Phenocryst fabric in lunar basalt sample 12052 from the Ocean of Storms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, W. R.; Morrison, D. A.; Clark, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Pyroxene phenocrysts in Apollo 12 sample 12052, a porphyritic basalt, have a weak, planar preferred orientation and a lineation as determined by crystal-elongation measurements and universal-stage measurements in orthogonal thin sections. The structures are probably the result of laminar flow. Numerous vugs and the flow foliation in sample 12052 suggest crystallization as a surface flow or a near-surface sill. Flowage appears to have ceased by the time of crystallization of the variolitic groundmass of the sample. The fabric data suggest a two-stage crystallization of sample 12052.

  19. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  20. Trajectory Design for MoonRise: A Proposed Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the mission design for the proposed MoonRise New Frontiers mission: a lunar far side lander and return vehicle, with an accompanying communication satellite. Both vehicles are launched together, but fly separate low-energy transfers to the Moon. The communication satellite enters lunar orbit immediately upon arrival at the Moon, whereas the lander enters a staging orbit about the lunar Lagrange points. The lander descends and touches down on the surface 17 days after the communication satellite enters orbit. The lander remains on the surface for nearly two weeks before lifting off and returning to Earth via a low-energy return.

  1. The lunar neutron energy spectrum inferred from the isotope compositions of rare-earth elements and hafnium in Apollo samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalat, Emmanuelle; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2015-11-01

    The isotopic abundances of Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, and Hf have been measured in nine lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The data were corrected for both instrumental mass bias and natural isotope fractionation. We used the data to calculate the total flux and energy spectrum of the neutrons absorbed by the rocks. We write the constitutive equations of the isotopic changes for these elements induced by neutrons and solve the inverse problem by computing local energy averages. Resonant absorption peaks can be used as convenient kernels to define the spectrum of epithermal neutrons. We find that 149Sm and 157Gd anomalies correlate with neutron flux density for E < 0.015 eV (r2 > 0.98) and E ≈ 0.13 eV (r2 > 0.85), while no significant correlation exists between the ratio of these anomalies and the epithermal/thermal flux ratio at any value of energy. Neutron flux density variations can be used to trace the proportions of neutrons scattered out of the samples. The spectrum in the thermal region follows the expected E - 1 / 2 dependence but with 'notches' corresponding to neutron absorption. A major notch at the lowest end of the epithermal neutron spectrum (0.2-0.8 eV) is possibly due to absorption of neutrons by 151Eu, 167Er, and 149Sm. In general, we find a rather good correlation between the neutron flux density at specific energies and the exposure age, which suggests a mean residence time of the samples at the surface of the regolith of 2-300 Ma. Another correlation of epithermal neutrons with sample wt% FeO + TiO2 is consistent with orbital reflectance observations.

  2. U-Th-Pb and Rb-Sr measurements on some Apollo 14 lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Hedge, C. E.; Doe, B. R.; Unruh, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    The concentrations of selected elements and elemental ratios in some Apollo 14 samples are presented in a table. Another table shows the isotopic composition of lead and strontium in some Apollo 14 samples. Graphs are provided with lead isotope ratio plots and a strontium evolution diagram. Rb-Sr ages are discussed together with isochron age methods of U-Th-Pb, a primary Pb-Pb isochron, a secondary Pb-Pb isochron, U-Pb concordia age relations, and U-Th-Pb concordia relations. Breccias and some soil samples as well as a basalt sample give evidence of significant enrichment of lead relative to uranium and thorium billions of years ago at the Fra Mauro site.

  3. Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Keller, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Space weathering, or alteration that occurs at the surfaces of materials exposed directly to space, has been one of the primary areas of focus of lunar studies for the past several years. It is caused by processes such as micrometeorite impacts and solar wind bombardment, and effects can include microcraters, spall zones, and vapor deposits. Much of the recent work on space weathering has been concentrated on nanoscale features, especially the amorphous rims commonly found on individual lunar soil grains. The rims typically contain nanophase Fe metal globules, which, along with Fe metal globules in agglutinates, have a profound effect on optical properties of lunar soils. The nanophase metallic iron globules cause the characteristic optical changes (reddening and darkening) found in mature lunar soils.

  4. Meteoritic material in lunar highland samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssens, M.-J.; Hertogen, J.; Palme, H.; Anderson, A. T.; Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analyses for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Te, Tl, U and Zn were carried out on 11 samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 sites (two samples of rock 12013, one granitic and one KREEPy; 4 KREEP fragments from 2-4 mm soil 12033,2; 4 anorthositic fragments from 1-3 mm soil 10085,104; 1 sample of 'Luny' rock-felsite-KREEP breccia 12013 10085,31 LR-1). Most Apollo 12 samples were found to have an Imbrium meteoritic component; others, typified by the Luny breccia, apparently contain a new meteoritic component of low Re content. Components of higher Ir/Au ratio (3L, 5L and 7) were found in Apollo 11 anorthositic samples; the fact that their enrichment in meteoritic siderophiles parallels that of Fe, Mg, REE and other KREEP elements is consistent with progressive contamination of an anorthositic crust. The Luny rock was tentatively classified Group 2, supporting the assignment of this group to Serenitatis.

  5. CAS-1 lunar soil simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongchun; Wang, Shijie; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Zou, Yongliao; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Chunlai; Li, Xiongyao; Feng, Junming

    2009-02-01

    Lunar soil simulant is a geochemical reproduction of lunar regolith, and is needed for lunar science and engineering researches. This paper describes a new lunar soil simulant, CAS-1, prepared by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, to support lunar orbiter, soft-landing mission and sample return missions of China’s Lunar Exploration Program, which is scheduled for 2004 2020. Such simulants should match the samples returned from the Moon, all collected from the lunar regolith rather than outcrops. The average mineral and chemical composition of lunar soil sample returned from the Apollo 14 mission, which landed on the Fra Mauro Formation, is chosen as the model for the CAS-1 simulant. Source material for this simulant was a low-Ti basaltic scoria dated at 1600 years from the late Quaternary volcanic area in the Changbai Mountains of northeast China. The main minerals of this rock are pyroxene, olivine, and minor plagioclase, and about 20 40% modal glass. The scoria was analyzed by XRF and found to be chemically similar to Apollo 14 lunar sample 14163. It was crushed in an impact mill with a resulting median particle size 85.9 μm, similar to Apollo soils. Bulk density, shear resistance, complex permittivity, and reflectance spectra were also similar to Apollo 14 soil. We conclude that CAS-1 is an ideal lunar soil simulant for science and engineering research of future lunar exploration program.

  6. Age of the moon: An isotopic study of uranium-thorium-lead systematics of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1970-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, and Pb in Apollo 11 samples studied are low (U. 0.16 to 0.87; Th, 0.53 to 3.4; Pb, 0.29 to 1.7, in ppm) but the extremely radiogenic lead in samples allows radiometric dating. The fine dust and the breccia have a concordant age of 4.66 billion years on the basis of 207Pb/206Pb, 206Pb/238U, 207Pb/235U, and 208Pb/232Th ratios. This age is comparable with the age of meteorites and with the age generally accepted for the earth. Six crystalline and vesicular samples are distinctly younger than the dust and breccia. The 238U/235U ratio is the same as that in earth rocks, and 234U is in radioactive equilibrium with parent 238U.

  7. Distinguishing between basalts produced by endogenic volcanism and impact processes: A non-destrwuctive method using quantitative petrography of lunar basaltic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Donohue, Patrick; Fagan, Amy L.; O'Sullivan, Katie; Oshrin, Jocelyn; Roberts, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Impact processes play an important role in shaping and reshaping the surfaces of airless planetary bodies. Such processes produce regoliths and generate melts that crystallize and record the homogenization of the geology at the impact site. If the volume of melt is substantial, the resultant crystallized product has an igneous texture and may be free of xenolithic clasts making it difficult to distinguish from melts produced by endogenic magmatic processes. This has been clearly demonstrated during the return of the Apollo samples from the Moon, where Apollo 14 basalt 14310 was initially described as a mare basalt and was only subsequently reclassified as an impact melt following detailed and time consuming crystallization experiments. Another way of distinguishing lunar impact melts from endogenically-derived mare basalts is through the quantification of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, Os), which have relatively low abundances in pristine lunar samples but are high in meteorites and, therefore, may be enriched in impact melts. However, these analyses consume relatively large quantities of valuable sample and because of mass constraints cannot be performed on many lunar samples. In this paper we present a quantitative petrographic method that has the potential to distinguish lunar impact melts from endogenically-derived mare basalts using plagioclase and olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs). The slopes and intercepts of these CSDs are used to show that olivine from impact melts displays a steeper CSD relative to olivine from mare basalts. For plagioclase, generally impacts melts display CSDs with shallower gradients than those from endogenous mare basalts and, as for olivines, plot in a distinct field on a CSD slope vs. CSD intercept plot. Using just a thin section to distinguish impact melts from mare basalts enables the goals of future robotic sample return missions to determine the age of the South Pole-Aitken basin in the Moon

  8. Major and trace element abundances in samples from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Telander, K.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for major elements, REE, Co, Cr, Cs, Ga, Hf, Ni, Rb, Sc, and Zn have been done on samples of Apollo 16 rocks 60025, 60335, 64455, 65015, 67075, and 67629 and on fines 60601, 61221, 61241, 64501, 65701, 67601, and 69941. FeO, Na2O, REE, Co, Cr, Hf, and Sc have been determined in four 4-5 mg chips from 65015 and 20 individual, 2.5-9.5 mg fragments from 65702. It appears that trace element characteristics of small fragments are similar to those of larger rocks. No simple mixing relationship was found among KREEP basalts, VHA basalts, anorthosites, fines, and meteorites. Balances could not be simultaneously achieved for Al2O3 and LIL elements, using analyzed samples as end members for mixing models. Most samples analyzed have negative Eu anomalies, in contrast to the positive anomalies expected for plagioclase cumulates. Most samples may be derived from LIL-rich liquids that flowed into highland valleys.

  9. Comparative studies of grain size separates of 60009. [lunar soil samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, D. S.; Morris, R. V.; Dungan, M. A.; Fruland, R. M.; Fuhrman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Five samples from 60009, the lower half of a double drive tube, were analyzed via grain-size methods, with particle types classified and counted in the coarser grain sizes. Studies were undertaken of particle types and distributions by petrographic methods, of magnetic fractions, of the size splits and magnetic splits as analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) techniques, of maturity (based on agglutinate content, FMR index Is/FeO, mean size of sub-cm material, magnetic fraction), of possible reworking or mixing in situ, and of depositional history. Maturity indices are in substantial agreement for all of the five samples. Strong positive correlation of percent agglutinates and percent bedrock-derived lithic fragments, combined with negative correlation of those components with percent single crystal plagioclase, argue against in situ reworking of the same soil.

  10. Analytical techniques for identification and study of organic matter in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The results of geochemical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of mass spectrometric data to the solution of specific structural problems. Information on the mass spectrometric behavior of compounds of geochemical interest is reviewed and currently available techniques of particular importance to geochemistry, such as gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer coupling, modern sample introduction methods, and computer application in high resolution mass spectrometry, receive particular attention.

  11. Our World: Lunar Rock

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about NASA'€™s Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. See how NASA protects these precious moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts. Explore t...

  12. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  13. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

  14. Three Isotopes of Oxygen in Lunar Samples - The Same as Earth or Different?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillinger, C. T.; Greenwood, R. C.; Johnson, D.; Gibson, E. K.; Miller, M. F.; Franchi, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important measurements that can be made for any extraterrestrial sample is determination of the relative abundance of O-16, O-17 and O-18. To make the comparison, investigators report their results as delta (d) values compared to terrestrial delta O-17 vs delta O-18 for a suite of specimens because for any given reservoir, i.e. a planetary parent body such as the Earth or Mars, the numbers should define a line of gradient approximately one half. Different bodies should be identified from their delta O-17 which has traditionally been defined by the equation delta O-17 = delta O-17 - (a constant, ca. 0.52) × delta O-18.

  15. Primordial radioelements and cosmogenic radionuclides in lunar samples from Apollo 15.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Kelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Schonfeld, E.

    1972-01-01

    Two basalts, two breccias, and two soils from Apollo 15 were analyzed by nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of potassium, thorium, and uranium in the basalts were similar to those in the Apollo 12 basalts, but the potassium:uranium ratios were somewhat higher. Primordial radioelements were enriched in the soils and breccia, consistent with a two-component mixture of mare basalt and up to 20 percent foreign component (KREEP). The abundance patterns for cosmogenic radionuclides implied surface sampling for all specimens. The galactic cosmic-ray production rate of vanadium-48 was determined as 57 (plus or minus 11) disintegrations per minute per kilogram of iron. Cobalt-56 concentrations were used to estimate the intensity of the solar flare of January 25, 1971.

  16. Spinel-silicate co-crystallization relations in sample 15555. [lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J.; Hollister, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    The results on the crystallization history of medium-grained mare basalt sample 15555,171, based on microprobe analyses (Dalton, 1973) of host and inclusion mineral pairs are summarized with emphasis placed on that part of the crystallization history during which chromite and ulvospinel were crystallizing. Compositional data on pyroxene olivine, chromite and ulvospinel in 15555,171 were collected using microprobe; data are based on corrected counts ratios for nine elements. It is concluded that systematic chemical relations between host and inclusion minerals suggest continuous in situ nucleation and growth of these minerals; that the data allow the possibility of some minerals, especially chromite, settling out of the melt during crystallization; and that the chromite to ulvospinel transition is correlated with a compositional change of the melt resulting from nucleation and growth of plagioclase.

  17. Evolution of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to the Astromaterial Sample Curation Facility: Technical Tensions Between Containment and Cleanliness, Between Particulate and Organic Cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Calaway, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was planned and constructed in the 1960s to support the Apollo program in the context of landing on the Moon and safely returning humans. The enduring science return from that effort is a result of careful curation of planetary materials. Technical decisions for the first facility included sample handling environment (vacuum vs inert gas), and instruments for making basic sample assessment, but the most difficult decision, and most visible, was stringent biosafety vs ultra-clean sample handling. Biosafety required handling of samples in negative pressure gloveboxes and rooms for containment and use of sterilizing protocols and animal/plant models for hazard assessment. Ultra-clean sample handling worked best in positive pressure nitrogen environment gloveboxes in positive pressure rooms, using cleanable tools of tightly controlled composition. The requirements for these two objectives were so different, that the solution was to design and build a new facility for specific purpose of preserving the scientific integrity of the samples. The resulting Lunar Curatorial Facility was designed and constructed, from 1972-1979, with advice and oversight by a very active committee comprised of lunar sample scientists. The high precision analyses required for planetary science are enabled by stringent contamination control of trace elements in the materials and protocols of construction (e.g., trace element screening for paint and flooring materials) and the equipment used in sample handling and storage. As other astromaterials, especially small particles and atoms, were added to the collections curated, the technical tension between particulate cleanliness and organic cleanliness was addressed in more detail. Techniques for minimizing particulate contamination in sample handling environments use high efficiency air filtering techniques typically requiring organic sealants which offgas. Protocols for reducing adventitious carbon on sample

  18. Lunar science. [geophysics, mineralogy and evolution of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brett, R.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the recent developments in lunar science summarizing the most important lunar findings and the known restraints on the theories of lunar evolution is presented. Lunar geophysics is discussed in sections dealing with the figure of the moon, mascons, and the lunar thermal regime; recent seismic studies and magnetic results are reported. The chemical data on materials taken from lunar orbit are analyzed, and the lunar geology is discussed. Special attention is accorded the subject of minerology, reflecting the information obtained from lunar samples of both mare and nonmare origin. A tentative timetable of lunar events is proposed, and the problem of the moon's origin is briefly treated.

  19. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took

  20. Lunar core: occam's razor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Whether or not the earth's moon has a core is a much bandied question. Like many notions about the properties of the moon, ideas of a lunar core changed drastically after the Apollo studies. A review of the development of these ideas was given a scholarly treatment by S.K. Runcorn recently (Nature, 304, 589-596, 1983). In contrast, L.L. Hood, C.P. Sonett, and L.J. Srnka have questioned the concept in serious detail (Nature, 307, 661-662, 1984).Whether or not the moon actually has or has had a fluid metallic core is of great consequence for a number of geophysical theories about the solar system. Most investigators concede that the possible existence of a lunar core remains one of the major unanswered, and yet most critical, questions about the moon. A lot rides on the answer: Can a lunar-sized body have a core? Is the core metallic? How is the core related to lunar magnetism and its paleomagnetism? Is or was a lunar core related to lunar volcanism? If the moon can have a core, is planetary core formation in the solar system a simple matter of gravitationally segregating metallic fragments that were formed elsewhere? Implications of the questions are without limit. There is, perhaps, no more valid issue about the moon to explore scientifically.

  1. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  2. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Cirlin, E. H.; Rajan, R. S.; Rambaldi, E. R.; Want, D.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented from an extensive series of new high resolution scanning electron microscope studies of the very primative group of meteorites known as unequilibrated chondrites. These include quantitative analyses of micrometer sized phases and interpretation in terms of relevant phase equilibria. Several new meteorite minerals including high chromium metal, have been discovered.

  3. Lunar Seimology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Lognonné, P.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Chenet, H.; Mosegaard, K.

    2003-04-01

    Seismology has the highest resolving power of all geophysical methods used to study the Earth's structure, and, for this reason, it carries the responsibility of determining many parameters critically important to our understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the Earth. This was probably the main scientific motivation for NASA to deploy seismometers on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. In the period from 1969 to 1972 the US Apollo missions landed seismographs on the lunar surface. These, of which four of the landed stations constituted a seismic array, were positioned in an approximate equilateral triangle with distances between stations being about 1100 km. The array recorded more than 12000 events in the period 1969-1977 which were continuously signaled to Earth. Subsequent examination of the seismograms revealed a highly complex wave train unlike anything observed on the Earth, hampering at times even the detection of the first-arriving P and S-waves, due to intense scattering in a highly porous regolith. The seismic events constitute man-made impacts, meteoroid impacts, shallow moonquakes and deep moonquakes, of which the latter are by far the most numerous. The deep moonquakes are found to occur half-way toward the center of the moon and are believed to be correlated with the tides raised on the moon by the Earth and the Sun. The shallow moonquakes occur in the depth range from 50-220 km and are thought to be akin to intraplate earthquakes. Generally, the Apollo-era studies were successful in determining the gross features of the lunar interior which resulted in the recognition of the Moon as being a differentiated body with a crust and a mantle whose lower parts were thought to be partially molten. However, details remained perfunctory with questions concerning seismic velocity variations and possible discontinuities in the mantle left unanswered. In the present study we show how we have obtained somewhat more detailed information on the lunar

  4. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  5. Property Status of Lunar Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, V.

    Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar material. Lunar samples have been returned in the past by means of the Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) missions and, while most of the material re- mains government property and is used for scientific means, a small fraction has been transferred abroad and some has entered the private market. Apollo-collected moon- rocks have been offered, symbolically, to heads of States, and some foreign nations have subsequently transferred ownership to private individuals. The same, lunar ma- terial of Soviet provenience has entered the private market, this forming a valuable legal precedent for the lawfulness of sale of lunar material. Recently, plans were made public to award the Apollo astronauts with lunar rocks. While in the US there is a popular misconception that it is illegal to own lunar material, the truth lies elsewhere. As the Apollo samples are the property of the US government and a small fraction was stolen, lost, or misplaced, the US government intends to recover this material, unlawfully owned. In the same time, a significant number of individuals have been prosecuted for offering for sale fake lunar rocks. The present paper will analyse the different categories of lunar material according to its ownership status, and will as- sert that private property of lunar material is lawful, and lunar material that will be returned in the future will be able to enter the market without hindrances.

  6. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  7. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  8. APOLLO 10: Simulated Lunar Gravity Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Training for APOLLO 10. The astronauts train in a simulated microgravity environment - underwater and in the air - to familiarise them with the effect of lunar gravity. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  9. APOLLO 10: Training for Lunar Surface Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Astronauts train on a mock-up lunar surface, practicing the procedures they will follow on the real thing, and adjusting to the demands of the workload. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  10. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1970-01-01

    Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

  11. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  12. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  13. Robotic Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler for Resource Reconnaissance and Preliminary Site Assessment for ISRU Activities at the Lunar Cold Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Wilson, J.; Bartlett, P.; Powderly, J.; Lawrence, D.; Elphic, R.; Mungas, G.; McCullough, E.; Stoker, C.; Cannon, H.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, claims have been made that water ice deposits should exist in permanently shadowed craters near both lunar poles. Recent interpretations of data from the Lunar Prospector-Neutron Spectrometer (LP- NS) confirm that significant concentrations of hydrogen exist, probably in the form of water ice, in the permanently shadowed polar cold traps. Yet, due to the large spatial resolution (45-60 Ian) of the LP-NS measurements relative to these shadowed craters (approx.5-25 km), these data offer little certainty regarding the precise location, form or distribution of these deposits. Even less is known about how such deposits of water ice might effect lunar regolith physical properties relevant to mining, excavation, water extraction and construction. These uncertainties will need to be addressed in order to validate fundamental lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) precepts by 2011. Given the importance of the in situ utilization of water and other resources to the future of space exploration a need arises for the advanced deployment of a robotic and reconfigurable system for physical properties and resource reconnaissance. Based on a collection of high-TRL. designs, the Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler (SASH) addresses these needs, particularly determining the location and form of water ice and the physical properties of regolith. SASH would be capable of: (1) subsurface access via drilling, on the order of 3-10 meters into both competent targets (ice, rock) and regolith, (2) down-hole analysis through drill string embedded instrumentation and sensors (Neutron Spectrometer and Microscopic Imager), enabling water ice identification and physical properties measurements; (3) core and unconsolidated sample acquisition from rock and regolith; (4) sample handling and processing, with minimized contamination, sample containerization and delivery to a modular instrument payload. This system would be designed with three mission enabling goals, including: (1

  14. Dielectric comparison of lunar and terrestrial fines at lunar conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, R.

    1974-01-01

    The dielectric properties of lunar fines 74241,2 in the audio-frequency range under lunarlike conditions are presented. Results suggest that volatiles are released during storage and transport of the lunar sample. Apparently, subsequent adsorption of volatiles on the sample surface alters its dielectric response. The assumed volatile influence disappears after evacuation. A comparison of the dielectric properties of lunar and terrestrial materials as a function of density, temperature, and frequency indicates that if the terrestrial sample analyzed were completely devoid of atmospheric moisture, it would present dielectric losses smaller than those of the lunar sample. It is concluded that density prevails over temperature as the controlling factor of dielectric permittivity in the lunar regolith and that dielectric losses vary slowly with depth.

  15. Dropping stones in magma oceans - Effects of early lunar cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    A new methodology is used to calculate the accumulation rate of megaregolith materials for two models of early lunar cratering, both with and without episodes of late cataclysmic cratering. Results show that the pulverization of early rock layers was an important process competing with the formation of a coherent rock lithosphere at the surface of the hypothetical lunar magma ocean. If a magma ocean existed, then its initial cooling was marked by a period of pre-lithospheric chaos in which impacts punched through the initially thin rocky skin, mixing rock fragments with splashed magma. Furthermore, the results show that intense brecciation and pulverization of rock materials must have occurred to a depth of at least tens of kilometers in the first few hundred years of lunar history regardless of whether a 'terminal lunar cataclysm' occurred around 4.0 G.y. ago. The predicted pattern of brecciation and the ages of surviving rock fragments is similar to that actually observed among lunar samples. More reliable dating of basin-forming events and models of rock exhumation and survival are needed in order to understand better the relation between the early intense bombardment of the moon and the samples collected on the moon today.

  16. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  17. The porosity of the upper lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, Bruce; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    The porosity of the upper centimeter or so of the lunar regolith strongly affects several properties that are commonly studied remotely. Hence, it is important to determine its value. We have reanalyzed the data of Ohtake et al. (Ohtake et al. [2010]. Space Sci. Rev., 154, 57-77), who used spacecraft and laboratory reflectance measurements of the Moon by Kaguya Multiband Imager instruments and an Apollo sample to infer a lunar regolith porosity of 74-87%. Our analysis was augmented by using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide and Narrow Angle Camera images. We confirm the Ohtake et al. (Ohtake et al. [2010]. Space Sci. Rev., 154, 57-77) estimate and refine it to 83 ± 3%. However, depending on the validity of key assumptions, this value could be a lower limit, so that the actual porosity could be somewhat higher. Even though the magnetic resonance index of the sample indicates that it is mature, it is appears to be optically less mature than a standard photometric site near the sample collection site.

  18. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  19. Impact processes and lunar magnetism. [shock effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, C. S.; Dunn, J. R.; Fuller, M.; Rose, M. F.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Progress reports are presented of work related to the magnetic characterization of lunar samples, taking into account total iron ratios, questions of hysteresis classification, aspects of normalized remanence to remanent coercivity plots, and a comparison of NRM of lunar samples with hysteresis characterization. Shock experiments on lunar soil are also considered, giving attention to the effect of shock on the magnetic characteristics of lunar soil and the acquisition of remanence during shock. Preliminary measurements of individual soil particles and of samples from the Lunar Crater are discussed.

  20. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  1. Hybrid quantitative simulation on the in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging of three dimensional samples under actual clinic imaging parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hong; Han Shensheng; Ding Jianhui; Jiang Zhaoxia; Peng Weijun

    2009-07-06

    A hybrid model combining Monte Carlo method with diffraction theory of wave optics has been developed and applied to quantitatively simulate the in-line diffractive phase-contrast x-ray imaging of three dimensional tissue samples under actual clinic imaging parameters. The primary microcosmic interactions of medical-energy x-ray within matter including photoabsorption, Compton scattering, and coherent scattering, have been taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation. A diffraction processing based on Fresnel diffraction theory is carried out to simulate the macroscopic diffraction effect. A comparison with experiment results has also been performed.

  2. Lunar surface operations. Volume 3: Robotic arm for lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A robotic arm for a lunar surface vehicle that can help in handling cargo and equipment, and remove obstacles from the path of the vehicle is defined as a support to NASA's intention to establish a lunar based colony by the year 2010. Its mission would include, but not limited to the following: exploration, lunar sampling, replace and remove equipment, and setup equipment (e.g. microwave repeater stations). Performance objectives for the robotic arm include a reach of 3 m, accuracy of 1 cm, arm mass of 100 kg, and lifting capability of 50 kg. The end effectors must grip various sizes and shapes of cargo; push, pull, turn, lift, or lower various types of equipment; and clear a path on the lunar surface by shoveling, sweeping aside, or gripping the obstacle present in the desired path. The arm can safely complete a task within a reasonable amount of time; the actual time is dependent upon the task to be performed. The positioning of the arm includes a manual backup system such that the arm can be safely stored in case of failure. Remote viewing and proximity and positioning sensors are incorporated in the design of the arm. The following specific topic are addressed in this report: mission and requirements, system design and integration, mechanical structure, modified wrist, structure-to-end-effector interface, end-effectors, and system controls.

  3. The search for indigenous lunar organic matter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    It is argued that the absence of organic compounds from returned lunar samples is to be expected even for a lunar history rich in primordial organics. The sites most likely to yield lunar organic compounds have not been investigated, and there may be an area of investigation conceivably critical to problems in prebiological chemistry and the early history of the solar system awaiting continued lunar exploration, manned or unmanned.

  4. Lunar Riometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  5. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  6. Sample taking problems in measuring actual histamine levels of human gastroduodenal mucosa: specific and general relevance in clinical trials on peptic ulcer pathogenesis and selective proximal vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Thon, K P; Lorenz, W; Ohmann, C; Weber, D; Rohde, H; Röher, H D

    1985-01-01

    Changes in histamine storage in the oxyntic mucosa of duodenal ulcer patients and their reversal by vagotomy and the histamine H2-antagonist cimetidine supported the hypothesis that histamine could be a causal factor in peptic ulcer pathogenesis. The specificity of these findings was impaired by problems in biopsy taking, however, and in the preparative steps before measuring the actual histamine contents in all parts of the gastric mucosa and in the duodenum. A prospective trial was carried out in 190 patients to identify these sources of bias and to overcome them by appropriate study designs. Usually a direct correlation was found between weight of biopsy and mucosal histamine content. This problem was solved by selecting a biopsy forceps producing smaller variations in sample size, by limiting the time of cold ischaemia to four to five minutes only and by taking three biopsy specimens for each single histamine value. The actual histamine content of mucosal biopsies remained constant for about four to five minutes only. The 'disappearance' rate was faster in control subjects than in duodenal ulcer patients. Hence by variation of the cold ischaemia time any artefacts of differences between mucosal histamine levels in controls and duodenal ulcer patients could be produced. Using the optimised sample taking procedure mucosal histamine contents of several gastric regions and the duodenal bulb were measured in 24 patients with duodenal ulcer, after selective proximal vagotomy without drainage and in control subjects without any stomach disease (randomised controlled trial). The histamine content was lower in all parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract in duodenal ulcer patients than in controls and was raised again in all regions after selective proximal vagotomy. As the most likely hypothesis it is suggested that vagal reflexes with afferent fibres coming from the oxyntic mucosa stimulate histamine release in duodenal ulcer patients by efferent peptidergic neurones

  7. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  8. Lunar Roving Vehicle parked in lunar depression on slope of Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle appears to be parked in a deep lunar depression on the slope of Stone Mountain in this photograph of the lunar scene at Station no. 4, taken during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. A sample collection bag is in the right foreground. Note field of small boulders at upper right.

  9. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  10. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  11. APOLLO 11: Lunar Module Separates for descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Separation of the Lunar module for descent to the Lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 11:'The eagle Has Landed'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 11: First manned lunar landing and return to Earth with Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin. Landed in the Sea of Tranquilityon July 20, 1969; deployed TV camera and EASEP experiments, performed lunar surface EVA, returned lunar soil samples. Mission Duration 195 hrs 18 min 35sec

  12. Rayleigh wave studies in lunar rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    An ultrasonic surface wave technique described by the author (1971) is used to verify a hypothesis that links the seismic wave propagation velocities in lunar crust, much too low as compared to those on earth, to the extensive fracturing of lunar rock in the absence of liquids and gases which changed drastically the elastic and inelastic properties of lunar rock. Measurements on lunar rock samples and synthetic analogs suggest that the presence of microfractures have influence on both the wave velocity and Q factor in lunar rocks.

  13. Lunar troilite: Crystallography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Fine, euhedral crystals of troilite from lunar sample 10050 show a hexagonal habit consistent with the high-temperature NiAs-type structure. Complete three-dimensional counter intensity data have been measured and used to confirm and refine Bertaut's proposed low-temperature crystal structure.

  14. Investigations of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In the particle track work, a series of dating techniques for learning about the surface history of soil and rock samples was developed. The surface behavior and history of diverse lunar rocks and soils, erosion rates, and deposition rates were studied, along with incident heavy cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Are the Clast Lithologies Contained in Lunar Breccia 64435 Mixtures of Anorthositic Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The anorthositic crust of the Moon is often used as the archtypical example of a primary planetary crust. The abundance and purity of anorthosite in the Apollo sample collection and remote sensing data are generally attributed to an early global magma ocean which produced widespread floating plagioclase cumulates (the ferroan anorthosites; FANs. Recent geochronology studies report evidence of young (less than 4.4 Ga) FAN ages, which suggest that either some may not be directly produced from the magma ocean or that the final solidification age of the magma ocean was younger than previous estimates. A greater diversity of anorthositic rocks have been identified among lunar meteorites as compared to returned lunar samples. Granted that these lithologies are often based on small clasts in lunar breccias and therefore may not represent their actual whole rock composition. Nevertheless, as suggested by the abundance of anorthositic clasts with Mg# [Mg/(Mg+Fe)] less than 0.80 and the difficulty of producing the extremely high plagioclase contents observed in Apollo samples and the remote sensing data, modification of the standard Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) model may be in order. To ground truth mission science and to further test the LMO and other hypotheses for the formation of the lunar crust, additional coordinated petrology and geochronology studies of lunar anorthosites would be informative. Here we report new mineral chemistry and trace element geochemistry studies of thick sections of a composite of FAN-suite igneous clasts contained in the lunar breccia 64435 in order to assess the significance of this type of sample for petrogenetic studies of the Moon. This work follows recent isotopic studies of the lithologies in 64435 focusing on the same sample materials and expands on previous petrology studies who identified three lithologies in this sample and worked on thin sections.

  16. Lunar prospector mission design and trajectory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, David; Galal, Ken; Folta, David; Beckman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector mission is the first dedicated NASA lunar mapping mission since the Apollo Orbiter program which was flown over 25 years ago. Competitively selected under the NASA Discovery Program, Lunar Prospector was launched on January 7, 1998 on the new Lockheed Martin Athena 2 launch vehicle. The mission design of Lunar Prospector is characterized by a direct minimum energy transfer trajectory to the moon with three scheduled orbit correction maneuvers to remove launch and cislunar injection errors prior to lunar insertion. At lunar encounter, a series of three lunar orbit insertion maneuvers and a small circularization burn were executed to achieve a 100 km altitude polar mapping orbit. This paper will present the design of the Lunar Prospector transfer, lunar insertion and mapping orbits, including maneuver and orbit determination strategies in the context of mission goals and constraints. Contingency plans for handling transfer orbit injection and lunar orbit insertion anomalies are also summarized. Actual flight operations results are discussed and compared to pre-launch support analysis.

  17. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  18. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Lunar soils grain size catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This catalog compiles every available grain size distribution for Apollo surface soils, trench samples, cores, and Luna 24 soils. Original laboratory data are tabled, and cumulative weight distribution curves and histograms are plotted. Standard statistical parameters are calculated using the method of moments. Photos and location comments describe the sample environment and geological setting. This catalog can help researchers describe the geotechnical conditions and site variability of the lunar surface essential to the design of a lunar base.

  20. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  1. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  2. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583

  3. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  4. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also

  5. Evaluations of lunar regolith simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Pieters, Carle M.; Britt, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Apollo lunar regolith samples are not available in quantity for engineering studies with In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Therefore, with expectation of a return to the Moon, dozens of regolith (soil) simulants have been developed, to some extent a result of inefficient distribution of NASA-sanctioned simulants. In this paper, we review many of these simulants, with evaluations of their short-comings. In 2010, the NAC-PSS committee instructed the Lunar Exploration Advisory Group (LEAG) and CAPTEM (the NASA committee recommending on the appropriations of Apollo samples) to report on the status of lunar regolith simulants. This report is reviewed here-in, along with a list of the plethora of lunar regolith simulants and references. In addition, and importantly, a special, unique Apollo 17 soil sample (70050) discussed, which has many of the properties sought for ISRU studies, should be available in reasonable amounts for ISRU studies.

  6. Regolith Volatile Recovery at Simulated Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Schmidt, Sherry; Boucher, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Lunar Polar Volatiles: Permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles contain water, 5 wt according to LCROSS. Interest in water for ISRU applications. Desire to ground truth water using surface prospecting e.g. Resource Prospector and RESOLVE. How to access subsurface water resources and accurately measure quantity. Excavation operations and exposure to lunar environment may affect the results. Volatile capture tests: A series a ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations. Sample removal and transfer. Volatiles loss during sampling operations. Concept of operations, Instrumentation. This presentation is a progress report on volatiles capture results from these tests with lunar polar drill prototype hardware.

  7. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  8. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials: Role and Some Possible Implications of Potential Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Reinhold, c.

    2010-01-01

    Solar-wind induced sputtering of the lunar surface includes, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering. The role of the latter mechanism, however, in many focused studies has not been properly ascertained due partly to lack of data but can also be attributed to the assertion that the contribution of solar-wind heavy ions to the total sputtering is quite low due to their low number density compared to solar-wind protons. Limited laboratory measurements show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. Lunar surface sputtering yields are important as they affect, e.g., estimates of the compositional changes in the lunar surface, its erosion rate, as well as its contribution to the exosphere as well as estimates of hydrogen and water contents. Since the typical range of solar-wind ions at 1 keV/amu is comparable to the thickness of the amorphous rim found on lunar soil grains, i.e. few 10s nm, lunar simulant samples JSC-1A AGGL are specifically enhanced to have such rims in addition to the other known characteristics of the actual lunar soil particles. However, most, if not all laboratory studies of potential sputtering were carried out in single crystal targets, quite different from the rim s amorphous structure. The effect of this structural difference on the extent of potential sputtering has not, to our knowledge, been investigated to date.

  9. Lunar Rocks: Available for Year of the Solar System Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA is actively exploring the moon with our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Grail Discovery Mission will launch next year, and each year there is an International Observe the Moon Night providing many events and lunar science focus opportunities to share rocks from the moon with students and the public. In our laboratories, we have Apollo rocks and soil from six different places on the moon, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable ground truth to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information and actual lunar samples are available for public display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. The lunar rocks and soils continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting Apollo samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. Mr. Parker will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets of twelve thin sections of Apollo lunar samples are available for short-term loan from JSC Curation. The thin

  10. Solar Reflectance Measurements of Apollo Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, E.; Paige, D.; Shepard, M.; Johnson, J.; Grundy, W.; Biggar, S.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.

    2012-09-01

    The moon is the one planetary object from which we have returned samples. The goal of this work is to analyze and understand the solar reflectance of the Moon. Our approach is to compare Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner orbital solar albedo measurements at the Apollo soil sample sites with laboratory bidirectional reflectance measurements. CAPTEM provided us with five representative lunar soil samples: a typical low albedo mare sample (10084, Apollo 11), a low titanium basaltic sample with impact breccias (12001, Apollo 12), an Apollo 15 sample (15071), a high albedo lunar highlands soil (68810 & 61141, Apollo 16) and an Apollo 17 soil sample (70181). The laboratory and Diviner datasets provide complementary and independent insights into the photometric properties of the lunar surface. We have made the most extensive set of laboratory bidirectional measurements of lunar soil to date and have successfully fit photometric models to the laboratory data.

  11. Lunar highland meteorites and the composition of the lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Jochum, K.P.; Dreibus, G.; Weber, H.; Weckwerth, G.; Waenke, H. ); Bischoff, A.; Stoeffler, D. )

    1991-11-01

    Major, minor, and trace element data obtained by neutron activation techniques and by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) on two lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 are reported. Both MAC samples were also analyzed for their contents and isotopic compositions of rare gases. Additional SSMS-data were obtained on four lunar highland meteorites previously found in Antarctica: ALHA81005, Y791197, Y82192, and Y86032. MAC88104 and MAC88105 are very similar in chemistry, suggesting that they are pieces of a single fall event. The bulk chemical composition of MAC88104/5 is not very different from the other lunar highland meteorites: highly aluminous with relatively low contents of REE and siderophile element concentrations slightly above 1% of a CI-chondritic level. The contents of solar rare gases in the two MAC samples are low, indicating only a small regolith contribution in agreement with rare petrographically identifiable regolith components. There is no correlation among lunar meteorites between peak shock pressures and solar gas contents, indicating that peak shock pressures of up to 25 GPa do not lead to gas loss. A low {sup 26}Al activity (VOGT et al., 1990) and high contents of cosmogenic rare gases in MAC88104/5 suggest a long exposure (400,000 years) in the lunar sub-surface. K-Ar ages are in excess of 3.9 by. Since lunar highland meteorites are associated with at least three but probably four different fall events, and since they are not derived from chemically exotic front-side terranes, they may represent a better sampling of the average chemical composition of the lunar crust than previous estimates based on returned lunar samples and remote sensing data.

  12. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  13. Apollo 17 Astronaut and United States Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 Astronaut standing upon the lunar surface with the United States flag in the background. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE)and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  14. Vibratory compaction method for preparing lunar regolith drilling simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chongbin; Quan, Qiquan; Deng, Zongquan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2016-07-01

    Drilling and coring is an effective way to acquire lunar regolith samples along the depth direction. To facilitate the modeling and simulation of lunar drilling, ground verification experiments for drilling and coring should be performed using lunar regolith simulant. The simulant should mimic actual lunar regolith, and the distribution of its mechanical properties should vary along the longitudinal direction. Furthermore, an appropriate preparation method is required to ensure that the simulant has consistent mechanical properties so that the experimental results can be repeatable. Vibratory compaction actively changes the relative density of a raw material, making it suitable for building a multilayered drilling simulant. It is necessary to determine the relation between the preparation parameters and the expected mechanical properties of the drilling simulant. A vibratory compaction model based on the ideal elastoplastic theory is built to represent the dynamical properties of the simulant during compaction. Preparation experiments indicated that the preparation method can be used to obtain drilling simulant with the desired mechanical property distribution along the depth direction.

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic studies of cores 60009/60010 and 60003 - Compositional and surface-exposure stratigraphy. [of Apollo deep drill lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Gose, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and static magnetic measurements were made on 131 samples from core 60009/60010 and on 40 samples from section 60003 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. These studies provided depth profiles for composition, in terms of the concentration of FeO, and relative surface exposure age (or maturity), in terms of the values of the specific FMR intensity normalized to the FeO content. For core 60009/60010, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 1.6 wt.% to 5.8 wt.% with a mean value of 4.6 wt.% and the maturity ranged from immature to mature with most of the soils being submature. A systematic decrease in maturity from the lunar surface to a depth of about 12.5 cm was observed in core section 60010. For core section 60003, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 5.2 wt.% to 7.5 wt.% with a mean value of 6.4 wt.% and the maturity ranged from submature to mature with most of the soils being mature.

  16. Investigations of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The investigations were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.

  17. Micropaleontological study of lunar material.

    PubMed

    Barghoorn, E S; Phillpott, D; Turnbill, C

    1970-01-30

    Samples of the lunar dust, rock chips, and thin sections of rocks from Tranquillity Base have been examined by use of white light and electron optics. In transmitted and in dark-and bright-field incident light and in the scanning electron beam the material reveals no indication of biological morphology. It is inferred that the lunar regolith has always been devoid of life. section preparations. PMID:5410555

  18. Search for porphyrins in lunar dust.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, G W; Peterson, E; Kvenvolden, K A; Bunnenberg, E; Halpern, B; Ponnamperuma, C

    1970-01-30

    Evidence for porphyrins was obtained in the Apollo 11 bulk sample of lunar dust by fluorescence spectrometry and analytical demetallation. The indicated porphyrins showed major fluorescence excitation at 390 nanometers. Abundance was about 10(-10) gram of porphyrin per gram of dust. Similar pigments were found in exhaust products from tests of a lunar descent engine. The similarity of results suggests that most if not all of the indicated porphyrin aggregate of the lunar sample probably was synthesized from rocket fuel during the landing of the lunar module. These compounds may be the product of a novel high-temperature synthesis of cosmochemical interest. PMID:17781584

  19. Lunar resources: Oxygen from rocks and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Kanamori, H.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The first set of hydrogen reduction experiments to use actual lunar material was recently completed. The sample, 70035, is a coarse-grained vesicular basalt containing 18.46 wt. percent FeO and 12.97 wt. percent TiO2. The mineralogy includes pyroxene, ilmenite, plagioclase, and minor olivine. The sample was crushed to a grain size of less than 500 microns. The crushed basalt was reduced with hydrogen in seven tests at temperatures of 900-1050 C and pressures of 1-10 atm for 30-60 minutes. A capacitance probe, measuring the dew point of the gas stream, was used to follow reaction progress. Experiments were also conducted using a terrestrial basalt similar to some lunar mare samples. Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS-1) contains 13.29 wt. percent FeO, 2.96 wt. percent Fe2O3, and 6.56 wt. percent TiO2. The major minerals include plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, ilmenite, and magnetite. The rock was ground and seived, and experiments were run on the less than 74- and 500-1168-micron fractions. Experiments were also conducted on less than 74-micron powders of olivine, pyroxene, synthetic ilmenite, and TiO2. The terrestrial rock and mineral samples were reduced with flowing hydrogen at 1100 C in a microbalance furnace, with reaction progress monitored by weight loss. Experiments were run at atmospheric pressure for durations of 3-4 hr. Solid samples from both sets of experiments were analyzed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Apollo 17 soil 78221 was examined for evidence of natural reduction in the lunar environment. This sample was chosen based on its high maturity level (I sub s/FeO = 93.0). The FeO content is 11.68 wt. percent and the TiO2 content is 3.84 wt. percent. A polished thin section of the 90-150 micron size fraction was analyzed by petrographic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  1. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; Ritz, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar dust can jeopardize exploration activities due to its ability to cling to most surfaces. In this paper, we report on our measurements of the electrostatic properties of the lunar soil simulants. Methods have been developed to measure the volume resistivity, dielectric constant, chargeability, and charge decay of lunar soil. While the first two parameters have been measured in the past [Olhoeft 1974], the last two have never been measured directly on the lunar regolith or on any of the Apollo samples. Measurements of the electrical properties of the lunar samples are being performed in an attempt to answer important problems that must be solved for the development of an effective dust mitigation technology, namely, how much charge can accumulate on the dust and how long does the charge remain on surfaces. The measurements will help develop coatings that are compatible with the intrinsic electrostatic properties of the lunar regolith.

  2. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  3. Lunar philosophers.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    A close associate of the Lunar Society, Joseph Wright of Derby painted several industrial and scientific scenes. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows how two of his works - featuring an orrery and an alchemist - reveal the ideas and aspirations of the provincial philosophers who made up the Society. PMID:17336378

  4. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  5. Lunar surface operations. Volume 4: Lunar rover trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to design a lunar rover trailer for exploration missions. The trailer was designed to carry cargo such as lunar geological samples, mining equipment and personnel. It is designed to operate in both day and night lunar environments. It is also designed to operate with a maximum load of 7000 kilograms. The trailer has a ground clearance of 1.0 meters and can travel over obstacles 0.75 meters high at an incline of 45 degrees. It can be transported to the moon fully assembled using any heavy lift vehicle with a storage compartment diameter of 5.0 meters. The trailer has been designed to meet or exceed the performance of any perceivable lunar vehicle.

  6. Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar igneous rocks, properly interpreted, can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Though intensely brecciated, terra rocks reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 Gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 Gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites (also cumulates?) at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 Gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

  7. Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar igneous rocks are interpreted, which can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Terra rocks, though intensely brecciated, reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

  8. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  9. Lunar Surface Radiation Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, James; Albalat, Andrea Jaime; Tlustos, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Effects of the lunar surface environment can be observed with a simple passive experiment consisting of small material samples placed in view of a lander or rover camera. This paper will describe, advocate and demonstrate the creation, ideally by students or young professionals, of a small standard sample holder, for example a string of different glass beads in front of a white or detector background, that can be replicated and installed on any of the coming series of lunar surface spacecraft. Effects of solar and cosmic ionizing radiation and local temperature, such as darkening and annealing, will be readily apparent in different kinds of glass, plastic and crystalline beads. Costs of preparation and installation, and impact on the main mission, can be kept to a level essentially negligible in proportion to project budgets.

  10. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  11. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  12. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  13. Magnetization of the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carley, R. A.; Whaler, K. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Halekas, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields measured by the satellite Lunar Prospector show large scale features resulting from remanently magnetized crust. Vector data synthesized at satellite altitude from a spherical harmonic model of the lunar crustal field, and the radial component of the magnetometer data, have been used to produce spatially continuous global magnetization models for the lunar crust. The magnetization is expressed in terms of localized basis functions, with a magnetization solution selected having the smallest root-mean square magnetization for a given fit to the data, controlled by a damping parameter. Suites of magnetization models for layers with thicknesses between 10 and 50 km are able to reproduce much of the input data, with global misfits of less than 0.5 nT (within the uncertainties of the data), and some surface field estimates. The magnetization distributions show robust magnitudes for a range of model thicknesses and damping parameters, however the magnetization direction is unconstrained. These global models suggest that magnetized sources of the lunar crust can be represented by a 30 km thick magnetized layer. Average magnetization values in magnetized regions are 30-40 mA/m, similar to the measured magnetizations of the Apollo samples and significantly weaker than crustal magnetizations for Mars and the Earth. These are the first global magnetization models for the Moon, providing lower bounds on the magnitude of lunar crustal magnetization in the absence of multiple sample returns, and can be used to predict the crustal contribution to the lunar magnetic field at a particular location.

  14. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  15. Concepts and Benefits of Lunar Core Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Bogard, D. D.; Derkowski, B. J.; George, J. A.; Askew, R. S.; Lindsay, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding lunar material at depth is critical to nearly every aspect of NASA s Vision and Strategic Plan. As we consider sending human s back to the Moon for brief and extended periods, we will need to utilize lunar materials in construction, for resource extraction, and for radiation shielding and protection. In each case, we will be working with materials at some depth beneath the surface. Understanding the properties of that material is critical, thus the need for Lunar core drilling capability. Of course, the science benefit from returning core samples and operating down-hole autonomous experiments is a key element of Lunar missions as defined by NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study. Lunar missions will be targeted to answer specific questions concerning lunar science and re-sources.

  16. Lunar Reference Suite to Support Instrument Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge I.; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to "high-grade" their samples - to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth - and to leave others on the Moon. Instruments that may be useful for such high-grading are under development. Instruments are also being developed for possible use on future lunar robotic landers, for lunar field work, and for more sophisticated analyses at a lunar outpost. The Johnson Space Center Astromaterials acquisition and Curation Office (JSC Curation) wll support such instrument testing by providing lunar sample "ground truth".

  17. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    South polar regions that satisfy the stated goals. Lunar titanium: Objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbital (LRO) mission are to find potential safe landing sites and locate potential resources. New imaging from NASA' LRO has shown the Moon has areas that are rich in titanium ore. Some lunar rocks have ten times as much titanium ore as rocks on Earth. The titanium deposits were observed with the help of visible and ultraviolet imaging. The researchers scanned the lunar surface, collecting roughly 4,000 images, and compared the brightness in the range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to visible light. The scientists then cross-referenced their findings with lunar samples that were brought back to Earth from NASA's Apollo flights and the Russian Luna missions. The abundance of titanium has puzzled researchers. While rocks on Earth contain around one percent titanium at most, the lunar rocks ranged from one percent all the way up to ten percent. Researchers still don't why the titanium levels are higher on the moon, but do believe it gives insight into the conditions of the Moon shortly after it formed. The titanium seems to be found primarily in the mineral ilmenite, a compound containing iron, titanium, and oxygen. Lunar rare earth elements: The Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) dominates the nearside of the Moon. "KREEP" is an acronym for lunar rocks that are high in potassium (K), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorous (P). The PKT is a mixture of assorted rocks, including most of the mare basalts on the Moon, and is characterized by high Th (about 5 parts per million on average). This region has also been called the "high-Th Oval Region". PKT occupies about 16% of the lunar surface.

  18. LUNSORT list of lunar orbiter data by LAC area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, S.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar orbiter (missions 1-5) photographic data are listed sequentially according to the number (1 to 147) LAC (Lunar Aeronautical Chart) areas by use of a computer program called LUNSORT. This listing, as well as a similar one from Apollo would simplify the task of identifying images of a given Lunar area. Instructions and sample case are included.

  19. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  20. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  1. Significance of major and minor element variations in plagioclase in sodic ferrogabbro and breccia matrix in lunar highlands sample 67915

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiblen, P. W.; Day, W. C.; Miller, J. D., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to the significance of the results of a study of Ca, K, Ti, Fe, Mn, and Mg variations in plagioclase in highlands sample 67915,84. This polymict breccia from Outhouse Rock station 11 at the Apollo 16 site has been selected for study because it contains a wide variety of clast types, including a differentiated type-sodic ferrogabbro. It is found that the data on Ca, K, Ti, Fe, Mn, and Mg in plagioclase show no evidence of reaction between sodic ferrogabbro and breccia matrix clasts. Two groups of plagioclase compositions have been recognized in the breccia matrix. The data suggest that the prebreccia characteristics of plagioclase compositions have been preserved in 67915. Data on Mg/(Mg+FE) ratios suggest that the sodic ferrogabbro and the intermediate-Ca plagioclase clasts could be related to the Mg-rich plutonic rock suite and the high-Ca plagioclase clasts to the ferroan anorthosites.

  2. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  3. Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.

  4. Workshop on Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A workshop entitled, Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials, was convened to define the need for simulated lunar materials and examine related issues in support of extended space exploration and development. Lunar samples are a national treasure and cannot be sacrificed in sufficient quantity to test lunar resource utilization process adequately. Hence, the workshop focused on a detailed examination of the variety of potential simulants and the methods for their production.

  5. Trace geochemistry of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar samples from the Apollo 16 and 17 flights which were analyzed include soil, igneous rock, anorthositic gabbro, orange soil, subfloor basalt, and norite breccia. Up to 57 elements including majors, minors, rare earths and other trace elements were determined in the lunar samples. The analytical techniques used were spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The latter was done either instrumentally or with group radiochemical separations. The differences in abundances of the elements in lunar soils at the various sites are discussed. With regard to the major elements only Si is about the same at all the sites. A detailed analysis which was performed on a sample of the Allende meteorite is summarized.

  6. Lunar regolith as a probe of solar history --Abstract only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerridge, J. F.

    1994-06-01

    Several long-term variations in elements of apparently solar origin, implanted in lunar regolith over roughly 4Gyr, have been inferred from analysis of Apollo samples. These include: (1) A decrease by a factor of a few, in the overall solar-wind flux; (2) An approximately 40% increase in the ratio N-15/N-14; (3) A decrease of about 50% in the proportions of Xe and He relative to other noble gases; (4) A roughly 20% increase in the ratio He-3/He-4; (5) An increase of about 3% in the ratio Ne-20/Ne-22. The actual time dependence of these changes is presently uncertain; for N the variation is apparently a complex function of time. In addition, systematic isotopic differences, of about 20% /amu apparently as a function of implantation energy, have been observed for solar-derived N and Ne. Further study employing both improved lunar surface and/or spacecraft experiments and specifically selected samples from future lunar missions is needed to elucidate the solar physics responsible for these phenomena, none of which are currently well understood.

  7. A Radiation Safety Analysis for Lunar Lava Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an assessment of the lunar lava tubes physical characteristics and an evaluation of the their actual safety features from the point of view of the ionizing radiation environment as potential habitats for future lunar exploration crews. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Lunar Regoliths: Solving Geochemical Mysteries Using Lunar Impact Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, N.; Delano, J.; Swindle, T.

    2010-12-01

    This report provides an update of the on-going geochemical and geochronological results obtained from the study of lunar impact glasses extracted from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 regolith samples. Lunar impact glasses are droplets of melt produced by energetic cratering events that were quenched during ballistic flight and possess the unmodified refractory element ratios of the original fused target materials at the sites of impacts. They are quite abundant in the lunar regolith and their compositions can be used to not only constrain the impact history of the Moon but also to decipher how the lunar regolith has evolved over time. Previously, we showed that Clementine color image data of the regional provenance of the Apollo 14 site provided a context in which to interpret the geochemistry of Apollo 14 lunar impact glasses. The results suggest that the highlands in the Frau Mauro region of the Moon consist of a basaltic debris layer that overlies a more feldspathic terrain in some areas (Zellner et al. 2002). Thus, the mapping effort demonstrated the efficacy of using Clementine image data to place lunar sample information into a regional context. Apollo 16 impact glasses have also been studied, and orbital geochemical data indicate that the region is KREEP-poor and representative of typical highland basalt; a large fraction of glasses extracted from the Apollo 16 regolith sample studied possess this composition. Geochemical studies of some of the glasses, however, indicate a source region that is comprised of low-Mg high-K Frau Mauro materials. The 40Ar/39Ar ages from these four impact glasses show that the Moon experienced a significant impact at ~3730 Ma, somewhere in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing site (Delano et al. 2007). However, while evident in the lunar impact glass samples, this composition has not yet been revealed explicitly by orbital data. On-going analyses of the lunar impact glasses, interpreted in conjunction with their age, have identified

  9. Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

  10. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  11. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  12. A long-lived lunar core dynamo.

    PubMed

    Shea, Erin K; Weiss, Benjamin P; Cassata, William S; Shuster, David L; Tikoo, Sonia M; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Grove, Timothy L; Fuller, Michael D

    2012-01-27

    Paleomagnetic measurements indicate that a core dynamo probably existed on the Moon 4.2 billion years ago. However, the subsequent history of the lunar core dynamo is unknown. Here we report paleomagnetic, petrologic, and (40)Ar/(39)Ar thermochronometry measurements on the 3.7-billion-year-old mare basalt sample 10020. This sample contains a high-coercivity magnetization acquired in a stable field of at least ~12 microteslas. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by 500 million years. Such a long-lived lunar dynamo probably required a power source other than thermochemical convection from secular cooling of the lunar interior. The inferred strong intensity of the lunar paleofield presents a challenge to current dynamo theory. PMID:22282809

  13. Interaction between Escherichia coli and lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of mature lunar fines (10084.151) was solubilized to a high degree (about 17 percent) by the chelating agent salicylic acid (0.01. M). The neutralized (pH adjusted to 7.0) leachate was found to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 259922) in a minimial mineral salts glucose medium; however, the inhibition was somewhat less than that caused by neutralized salicylic acid alone. The presence of lunar fines in the minimal medium was highly stimulatory to growth of E. coli following an early inhibitory response. The bacterium survived less well in the lunar leachate than in distilled water, no doubt because of the salicylate. It was concluded that the sample of lunar soil tested has nutritional value to E. coli and that certain products of fermentation helped to solubilize the lunar soil.

  14. Lunar regolith densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly intervals when the moon and earth are closest to one another. A test bed was designed to study regolith densification. This test bed uses Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) to conduct shaking experiments in the geotechnical centrifuge with an inflight shake table system. By reproducing realistic in-situ regolith properties, the experiment also serves to test penetrator concepts. The shake table system was designed and used for simulation experiments to study effects of earthquakes on terrestrial soil structures. It is mounted on a 15 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge in which the self-weight induced stresses are replicated by testing an n-th scale model in a gravity field which is n times larger than Earth's gravity. A similar concept applies when dealing with lunar prototypes, where the gravity ratio required for proper simulation of lunar gravity effects is that between the centrifugal acceleration and the lunar gravity. Records of lunar seismic tremors, or moonquakes, were obtained. While these records are being prepared for use as the input data to drive the shake table system, records from the El Centro earthquake of 1940 are being used to perform preliminary tests, using a soil container which was previously used for earthquake studies. This container has a laminar construction, with the layers free to slide on each other, so that the soil motion during the simulated earthquake will not be constrained by the otherwise rigid boundaries. The soil model is prepared by pluviating the MLS from a hopper into the laminar container to a depth of 6 in. The container is mounted on the shake table and the

  15. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  16. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  17. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  18. Lunar Landing Research Facility At Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A reproduction of a portion of the lunar surface was constructed on the concrete pad where the Lunar Excursion Module Simulator (LEMS) was tested at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The LEMS was a manned rocket-powered vehicle used to familiarize the Apollo astronaut with the handling characteristics of a lunar-landing type vehicle. The vehicle was designed and fabricated at Langley. On July 20,1969, as the Eagle was landing on the Moon, Apollo astronaut Neil Armstrong reported, I see my shadow, exactly as he had during the Langley tests. Armstrong returned to Langley following his historic flight and piloted the lunar module once more. He verified that it was a very valid simulation of the actual experience. The LEMS, designated a national historic landmark in 1986, is on display in the Virginia Air and Space Center/Hampton Roads History Center.

  19. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  20. Lunar SETI: a justification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, Alexey V.; Graham, Francis G.

    1996-06-01

    The problem of alien artifacts on the Earth's Moon has been re-examined. There are many reasons why the Moon is one of the best places to possess evidences of past visitations to the inner solar system by technological alien life, and the reasons are elaborated. The Moon has not been yet examined closely enough to rule out alien artifacts. We must not be too exclusionary of candidates for more in-depth examination if aliens have deliberately camouflaged or simply discarded artifacts without intending for them to noticed. In light of this, search strategies which involve statistical examination of anomalous pixels or searches near unusual resource-bearing places on the Moon (such as the lunar poles, where there may be ice) may prove fruitful, especially if we carefully distinguish between anomalous candidates and actual discoveries of alien artifacts.

  1. The Use of Field Portable Instrumentation in Preparing for the Next Generation of Lunar Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; Evans, C. A.; McAdam, A.; Garry, W. B.; Carter, L.; Graff, T.; Scheidt, S.; Glotch, T. D.; Zeigler, R.; Niles, P.; Abell, P.

    2016-05-01

    While Apollo sample collection was enabled by basic sampling tools, in situ analytical instrumentation is now being developed for fieldwork. It is critical that the lunar community develop this technology for the future of lunar surface exploration.

  2. Astrometric Support for the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxiang; Yu, Yong; Cao, Li; Cai, Hongbo; Qiu, Yunlei; Wei, Jianyan; Tang, Zhenghong; Wang, Jing; Deng, Jinsong; Liao, Shilong; Guo, Sufen

    2015-11-01

    The Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) is an astronomical instrument aboard Chang'e 3, the lunar probe of China's Lunar Exploration Program that successfully landed on the northern part of the Moon's Mare Imbrium (340.4884E, 44.1214N) in late 2013. LUT is charting an ultraviolet map of the plane of the Milky Way and is also providing long-term light variability monitoring for a sample of RR Lyrae stars. However, the principal goal of the computer-controlled landing of the probe was a safe descent to a stable resting-place, and therefore, the precise orientation of LUT was never a priority. For this reason, at least theoretically, touch-down could have occurred anywhere and, for LUT, at any attitude, which would make the pointing and tracking of the wanted celestial objects practically impossible. Moreover, to reduce the data transmission load, the whole frame of every exposure could not be downloaded: only the image data containing the objects can make it to the ground; also, in order to save on electricity, the telescope does not usually track objects, which means that targets' accurate positions and velocities (within the focal plane CCD) are both needed. This paper presents the astrometric solution devised to solve these problems: feasibility is first shown with experiments done from Earth, and then confirmed with actual LUT observations from the Moon's surface.

  3. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  4. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  5. Search for magnetic monopoles in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Eberhard, P. H.; Ross, R. R.; Watt, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic monopoles in 19.8 kg. of lunar material returned by Apollo 11, 12 and 14 missions were investigated. The search was done with a detector which is capable of detecting any single monopole of any charge equal to or larger than the minimum value compatible with Dirac's theory. Two experiments were performed, each one with different lunar material. In each experiment the lunar material was divided into several measurement samples. No monopole was found. The magnetic charge of each sample was consistent with zero.

  6. Lunar soil grain size distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, W. D., III

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review has been made of the currently available data for lunar grain size distributions. It has been concluded that there is little or no statistical difference among the large majority of the soil samples from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions. The grain size distribution for these soils has reached a steady state in which the comminution processes are balanced by the aggregation processes. The median particle size for the steady-state soil is 40 to 130 microns. The predictions of lunar grain size distributions based on the Surveyor television photographs have been found to be quantitatively in error and qualitatively misleading.

  7. Planetary science: A lunar perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretative synthesis of current knowledge on the moon and the terrestrial planets is presented, emphasizing the impact of recent lunar research (using Apollo data and samples) on theories of planetary morphology and evolution. Chapters are included on the exploration of the solar system; geology and stratigraphy; meteorite impacts, craters, and multiring basins; planetary surfaces; planetary crusts; basaltic volcanism; planetary interiors; the chemical composition of the planets; the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and the significance of lunar and planetary exploration. Photographs, drawings, graphs, tables of quantitative data, and a glossary are provided.

  8. Experimental petrology of lunar material: the nature of mascons, seas, and the lunar interior.

    PubMed

    O'hara, M J; Biggar, G M; Richardson, S W

    1970-01-30

    One-atmosphere melting data show that Apollo 11 samples are near cotectic. Melting relations at pressures up to 35 kilobars show that clinopyroxenite or amphibole peridotite are possible lunar interiors. Mascons cannot be eclogite; they may be ilmenite accumulate. Hot lunar surface material will boil off alkalis. PMID:17781513

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference was held March 17-21, 2003. Topics included planetary exploration, crater research on Mars, Earth, Moon, and other planets or satellites, imaging techniques and image analysis, age determination, albedo studies, petrographic studies, isotope composition studies, instrument design, sampling methods, landform analysis, asteroids, impact analysis, impact melts, and related research.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  11. Lunar neutron stratigraphy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russ, G. P., III; Burnett, D. S.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the isotopic composition of gadolinium and samarium in four soil and seven drill stem samples returned by the Apollo 15 mission. The results show the possibility to date sedimentary processes on the lunar surface for time scales of around 100 million years because of the particular dependence of neutron capture reactions on depth. The neutron flux has a distinct peak as a function of depth. This peak appears to lie below the level of shallow cratering for time scales of less than one billion years and consequently forms a readily identified marker layer of both depth and time.

  12. Feasibility Study on Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hidehiko; Takazawa, Yoshisada; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Takano, Yutaka; Namura, Eijiro

    1996-10-01

    This technical memorandum summarizes the results of an in-house study on lunar and Mars drone explorations - observation, landing and mobile explorations and sample returns for lunar and Mars respectively. So far, lunar and planet explorations have been primarily performed by the United States and the Soviet Union. ISAS and ESA have also contributed to some extent. The main purpose has been scientific exploration. There are some arguments that lunar and planet explorations should be performed for scientific purposes and the exploitation of them is not necessary. However, most scientific research involve the existence and survival of humankind, so it is not the fact that they cannot be organized from the side of exploitation. Especially, if NASDA makes approaches to lunar and Mars exploration, it should inevitably embrace exploitation plans. In this preface we provide the outline of lunar and Mars exploitation scenarios set up as a premise of the review on lunar and Mars unmanned exploration plans. Various reviews have been performed on whether the Moon or Mars would allow for human activities or survival. Among them, He mill, the solar powered satellite material mill and construction project of relay station to Mars as well as Mars teraforming plan have important issues. These projects have not yet become feasible because their expected investments are too large to make them practical. However, the present time seems the most appropriate to get with lunar and Mars exploitation projects under international cooperation since the realization of a space station is imminent and the international cooperation is being created with the participation of Russia. The international space station project will be continued until the year 2015. The post project has not yet been decided. Therefore, we expect that Japan would propose two successive projects, one is to construct an orbital service station combining manned abilities of the station and orbital service system and the

  13. Models of an early lunar dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.; Mendenhall, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that a dynamo once existed in the moon, and hence was the source of lunar paleomagnetism, is tested using a model for the global thermoremanent magnetization of spherical lithospheres. Various models of an ancient lunar dipole field are used which incorporate intensity variations and reversals, and which are consistent with lunar sample paleointensities. It is found that non-reversing lunar dynamos which have simple exponential decay histories beginning at 4.6 b.y. ago are inconsistent with this limit, unless the moon has been thoroughly demagnetized to a depth of tens of kilometers by impacts or other processes. An early lunar dynamo cannot be excluded by global scalar measurements unless the permanent lunar dipole moment is shown to be significantly less than 10 to the 13th power G/cu cm by future spacecraft measurements, which may be technologically impossible; vector measurements of lunar magnetic anomalies over the whole moon offer a possibility of determining the source of the field which magnetized the lunar crust.

  14. Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T. (Compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

    1990-01-01

    Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

  15. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  16. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  17. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  18. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  19. Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?

    NASA Video Gallery

    New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusse...

  20. LOLA: Defining Lunar Terrain

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board NASA's LRO spacecraft builds the highest detail topography currently available of the lunar terrain. In this video David Smith, LOLA's P...

  1. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  2. Lunar Science for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and monitoring. This abstract focuses on some of the key lunar science objectives that can be addressed with robotic and human missions. Even after 35+ years of study of Apollo samples and data, and global remote sensing missions of the 1990's, key lunar science questions remain. Apollo provided ground truth for the central nearside, but ground truth is lacking for the lunar farside and poles. Lunar meteorites provide knowledge about areas potentially far distant from the central nearside, but ground truth in key areas such as the farside South Pole-Aitken Basin, which provides access to the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle, will enable more direct correlations between the lunar meteorites and global remotely sensed data. Extending and improving knowledge of surface compositions, including partially buried basalt deposits, globally, is needed to better understand the composition of the Moon's crust as a function of depth and of the mantle, and to provide new tests of the Moon's origin and early surface and internal evolution. These issues can be addressed in part with robotic measurements on the surface; however, samples cached for return to Earth are needed for detailed chemical, lithologic, and geochronologic investigations. Apollo experience has shown that regolith samples and/or rock fragments sieved from regolith provide a wealth of information that can be interpreted within the context of regional geology. Targeted sampling by humans and human/robotic teams can optimize sampling strategies. Detailed knowledge of specific

  3. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  4. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  5. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  6. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  7. Bean Samples The Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the Lunar Module pilot.

  8. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  9. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  10. Onboard Photo of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 onboard photo of an astronaut beside the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on the lunar surface. Designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Boeing Company, the LRV was first used on the Apollo 15 mission and increased the range of astronauts' mobility and productivity on the lunar surface. This lightweight electric car had battery power sufficient for about 55 miles. It weighed 462 pounds (77 pounds on the Moon) and could carry two suited astronauts, their gear, cameras, and several hundred pounds of bagged samples. The LRV's mobility was quite high. It could climb and descend slopes of about 25 degrees.

  11. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1970-01-30

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elemizents and the initial compositions of the earth and moon. PMID:17781481

  12. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.

    1970-01-01

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elements and the initial compositions of the earth and moon.

  13. Lunar soil and surface processes studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    Glass particles in lunar soil were characterized and compared to terrestrial analogues. In addition, useful information was obtained concerning the nature of lunar surface processes (e.g. volcanism and impact), maturity of soils and chemistry and heterogeneity of lunar surface material. It is felt, however, that the most important result of the study was that it demonstrated that the investigation of glass particles from the regolith of planetary bodies with little or no atmospheres can be a powerful method for learning about the surface processes and chemistry of planetary surfaces. Thus, the return of samples from other planetary bodies (especially the terrestrial planets and asteroids) using unmanned spacecraft is urged.

  14. Expanding the REE Partitioning Database for Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. This is taken as evidence of a large-scale differentation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were later derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Some plagioclase grains in a lunar impact rock (60635) have been reported to display a negative Eu anomaly, or in some cases single grains display both positive and neagtive anomalies. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that some crystals have a negative anomaly in the core and positive at the rim, or vice versa, and the negative anomalies are not associated with crystal overgrowths. Oxygen fugacity is known to affect Eu partitioning into plagioclase, as under low fO2 conditions Eu can be divalent, and has an ionic radius similar to Ca2+ - significant in lunar samples where plagioclase compositions are predominantly anorthitic. However, there are very few experimental studies of rare earth element (REE) partitioning in plagioclase relevant to lunar magmatism, with only two plagioclase DEu measurements from experiments using lunar materials, and little data in low fO2 conditions relevant to the Moon. We report on REE partitioning experiments on lunar compositions. We investigate two lunar basaltic compositions, high-alumina basalt 14072 and impact melt breccia 60635. These samples span a large range of lunar surface bulk compositions. The experiments are carried out at variable fO2 in 1 bar gas mixing furnaces, and REE are analysed by and LA-ICP-MS. Our results not only greatly expand the existing plagioclase DREE database for lunar compositions, but also investigate the significance of fO2 in Eu partitioning, and in the interpretation of Eu anomalies in lunar materials.

  15. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of heavy oxygen in zircons from the Jack Hills conglomerates Wilde et al. and Mojzsis et al. was interpreted as an indication of presence of liquid water on the surface of Early Earth. The distribution of ages of Jack Hills zircons and lunar zircons appears to be very similar and therefore analysis of oxygen in the lunar grains may provide a reference frame for further study of the early history of the Earth as well as give additional information regarding processes that operated on the Moon. In the present study we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition of zircon grains from three lunar samples using the Swedish Museum of Natural History CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The samples were selected as likely tests for variations in lunar oxygen isotopic composition. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. Lunar Crater Rays Point to a New Lunar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2004-09-01

    The Lunar Time Scale should be reevaluated -- suggest remote sensing studies of lunar crater rays by B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii) and colleagues at the University of Hawaii, NovaSol, Cornell University, National Air and Space Museum, and Northwestern University. These scientists have found that the mere presence of crater rays is not a reliable indicator that the crater is young, as once thought, and that the working definition of the Copernican/Eratosthenian (C/E) boundary should be reconsidered. The team used Earth-based spectral and radar data with FeO, TiO2, and optical maturity maps derived from Clementine UVVIS images to determine the origin and composition of selected lunar ray segments. They conclude that the optical maturity parameter, which uses chemical analyses of lunar samples as its foundation, should be used to redefine the C/E boundary. Under this classification, the Copernican System would be defined as the time required for an immature surface to reach full optical maturity.

  17. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Basalts; Chemical and Physical Properties of the Lunar Regolith; Lunar Dust and Transient Surface Phenomena; Lunar Databases and Data Restoration; Meteoritic Samples of the Moon; Chondrites, Their Clasts, and Alteration; Achondrites: Primitive and Not So Primitive; Iron Meteorites; Meteorite Methodology; Antarctic Micrometeorites; HEDs and Vesta; Dust Formation and Transformation; Interstellar Organic Matter; Early Solar System Chronology; Comparative Planetology; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta; Mars: Volcanism; Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Martian Stratigraphy: Understanding the Geologic History of Mars Through the Sedimentary Rock Record; Mars: Valleys and Valley Networks; Mars: Aqueous Processes in Valles Marineris and the Southern Highlands; Mars: Aqueous Geomorphology; Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Remote Sensing; Mars: Geologic Mapping, Photogrammetry, and Cratering; Martian Mineralogy: Constraints from Missions and Laboratory Investigations; Mars Analogs: Chemical and Physical; Mars Analogs: Sulfates and Sulfides; Missions: Approaches, Architectures, Analogs, and Actualities; Not Just Skin Deep: Electron Microscopy, Heat Flow, Radar, and Seismology Instruments and Planetary Data Systems, Techniques, and Interpretation.

  18. Compressional velocity measurements for a highly fractured lunar anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sondergeld, C. H.; Granryd, L. A.; Spetzler, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The compressional wave (V sub p) velocities in three mutually perpendicular directions have been measured in lunar sample 60025,174, lunar anorthosite. V sub p measurements were made at ambient temperature and pressure and a new technique was developed to measure the velocities because of the tremendous acoustic wave attenuation of the lunar sample. The measured velocities were all less than 1 km/sec and displayed up to a 21% departure from the mean value of the three directions. The velocities agree with seismic wave velocities determined for the lunar surface at the collection site.

  19. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Lunar Soils and Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar soil and breccia samples show a narrow range in 187Os/188Os, in the range for H-chondrites and unfractionated irons. All samples show enrichments in 187Re/188Os, possibly reflecting loss of Os, associated with the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. An investigation of the thermal shock resistance of lunar regolith and the recovery of hydrogen from lunar soil heated using microwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, T. T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to develop a better understanding of the thermal shock properties of lunar regolith sintered using 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation and to do a preliminary study into the recovery of bound hydrogen in lunar soil heated using 2.45 GHz radiation. During the first phase of this work, lunar simulant material was used to test whether or not microhardness data could be used to infer thermal shock resistance and later actual lunar regolith was used. Results are included on the lunar regolith since this is of primary concern and not the simulant results. They were similar, however. The second phase investigated the recovery of hydrogen from lunar regolith and results indicate that microwave heating of lunar regolith may be a good method for recovery of bound gases in the regolith.

  1. Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar exploration requires studies using standardized testing procedures. Previous lunar simulants focused on physical aspects of the lunar regolith. Renewed lunar exploration requires standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials that simulate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the regolith [l]. A root simulant models an end-member, and a derivative is formed by addition of material [2]. The 2005 Workshop recommended a low-Ti mare basalt and a high-Ca highland anorthosite set of roots. Derivatives involve addition of ilmenite and glassy agglutinates [3]. An ideal SLRS material is homogeneous. Geochemical standards are finely-ground to reduce chemical variability, but lunar simulants have a grain size variation and mineralogy that must match the lunar regolith. The simulant homogeneity is monitored using major, minor, and trace element data of progressively smaller samples compared to bulk material. Both chemical and geotechnical properties depend on the contrast from grain to grain. The variability of simulant material is an inherent property that must be taken into account. Simulant production requires monitoring of adherence to simulant requirements and homogeneity during production. Quality control establishes a traceability to a master set of reference standards.

  2. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  3. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  4. Early lunar geology and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Despite a number of human and robotic missions to the Moon, there are still important unanswered questions about its early evolution, and how it came to be the object we observe today. Here we use observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques to examine three important events that took place early in lunar history and have left a lasting signature. The first event is the formation of the largest basin on the Moon, the South Pole-Aitken Basin. We develop a systematic method to define the previously unknown boundaries of this degraded structure and quantify its gross shape. We also combine a number of remote sensing data sets to constrain the origin of heat producing elements in its interior. The second event we examine is the evolution of the lunar orbit, and the coupling between the Moon's early geophysical properties and the growth of orbital eccentricity. We use analytical models for tidal deformations and orbit evolution to show that the shape of the Moon suggests its early orbit was highly eccentric. However, we are also able to explain the presently high eccentricity entirely by traditional, secular tidal growth while the early Moon was hot. The third event we examine is the magnetization of lunar samples. We perform extensive paleomagnetic measurements of an ancient, deep-seated lunar sample, and determine that a long-lived magnetic field like that of a core dynamo is the most plausible explanation for its magnetic remanence. In sum, the earliest portion of lunar history has been largely obscured by later geologic events, but a great deal can still be learned from this formative epoch. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  5. Method for Processing Lunar Regolith Using Microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Steinfeld, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A paper describes a method of using microwave heating experiments on lunar simulants to determine the mechanism that causes lunar regolith to be such an excellent microwave absorber. The experiments initially compared the effects of sharp particle edges to round particle edges on the heating curves. For most compositions, sharp particle edged samples were more effective in being heated by microwaves than round particle edged materials. However, the experiments also showed an unexpected effect for both types of particles. Upon heating the sample surface above 400 C, the sample experienced some sort of internal structure change that caused it to heat much more efficiently. This enhancement may be associated with the unique microwave volumetric heating that can produce a large temperature gradient within the sample leading to melting of some components at the center of the sample. This new effect that may also be happening in lunar regolith samples is probably the cause of the previously observed enhanced heating of a sample of lunar regolith. Properly designed microwave applicators could heat and solidify the lunar regolith to form roads and building blocks for structures needed on the Moon

  6. Kinetics of hydrogen release from lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, Roberta

    1990-01-01

    With increasing interest in a lunar base, there is a need for extensive examination of possible lunar resources. Hydrogen will be needed on a lunar base for many activities including providing fuel, making water, and serving as a reducing agent in the extraction of oxygen from its ores. Previous studies have shown the solar wind has implanted hydrogen in the lunar regolith and that hydrogen is present not only in the outer layer of soil but to considerable depths, depending on the sampling site. If this hydrogen is to be mined and used on the lunar surface, a number of questions need to be answered. How much energy must be expended in order to release the hydrogen from the soil. What temperatures must be attained, and how long must the soil be heated. This study was undertaken to provide answers to practical questions such as these. Hydrogen was determined using a Pyrolysis/GC technique in which hydrogen was released by heating the soil sample contained in a quartz tube in a resistance wire furnace, followed by separation and quantitative determination using a gas chromatograph with a helium ionization detector. Heating times and temperatures were varied, and particle separates were studied in addition to bulk soils. The typical sample size was 10 mg of lunar soil. All of the soils used were mature soils with similar hydrogen abundances. Pre-treatments with air and steam were used in an effort to find a more efficient way of releasing hydrogen.

  7. Kinetics of hydrogen release from lunar soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustin, Roberta

    1990-10-01

    With increasing interest in a lunar base, there is a need for extensive examination of possible lunar resources. Hydrogen will be needed on a lunar base for many activities including providing fuel, making water, and serving as a reducing agent in the extraction of oxygen from its ores. Previous studies have shown the solar wind has implanted hydrogen in the lunar regolith and that hydrogen is present not only in the outer layer of soil but to considerable depths, depending on the sampling site. If this hydrogen is to be mined and used on the lunar surface, a number of questions need to be answered. How much energy must be expended in order to release the hydrogen from the soil. What temperatures must be attained, and how long must the soil be heated. This study was undertaken to provide answers to practical questions such as these. Hydrogen was determined using a Pyrolysis/GC technique in which hydrogen was released by heating the soil sample contained in a quartz tube in a resistance wire furnace, followed by separation and quantitative determination using a gas chromatograph with a helium ionization detector. Heating times and temperatures were varied, and particle separates were studied in addition to bulk soils. The typical sample size was 10 mg of lunar soil. All of the soils used were mature soils with similar hydrogen abundances. Pre-treatments with air and steam were used in an effort to find a more efficient way of releasing hydrogen.

  8. Radioactivites in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmic-ray, solar-flare, and solar-wind bombardments of lunar rocks and soils and meteorites were studied by measurements of tritium, carbon-14 and argon radioactivity. The radioactivity integrates the bombardment for a time period equal to several half-lines. H-3, Ar-37, Ar-39, C-14. For the interior samples of lunar rocks and for deep lunar soil samples, the amounts of the radioactivities were equal to those calculated for galactic cosmic-ray interactions. The top near-surface samples of lunar rocks and the shallow lunar soil samples show excess amounts of the radioactivities attributable to solar flares. Lunar soil fines contain a large amount of hydrogen due to implanted solar wind. Studies of the H-3 in lunar soils and in recovered Surveyor-3 materials gave an upper limit for the H-3/H ratio in the solar wind of 10 to the -11th power. Solar wind carbon is also implanted on lunar soil fines. Lunar soils collected on the surface contained a 0.14 component attributable to implanted solar wind C-14. The C-14/H ratio attributed to the solar wind from this C-14 excess is approximately 4 x 10 to the -11th power.

  9. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  10. Russian plans for lunar investiagtions. Stage 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Mitrofanov, I.; Petrukovich, A.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    Lunar Race of 60-ies and 70-ies between US and Soviet Union produced outstanding results for lunar science. For many technical reasons mostly near equatorial and mid-latitude Lunar regions were investigated at this glorious time. New epoch of Lunar investigations began at the late 90-ies. It gradually shaped the image of a new wet moon at least at the vicinity of its polar regions. Strong interest to the mechanisms of the formation of a near polar volatiles deposits, their migration and their composition (including the bisotope one) became the central theme of the Russian program of lunar investigations for next 10 years. Certainly the number of other outstanding scientific topics like the properties of Lunar dust, peculiarities of regolith interaction with the supersonic solar wind flow, characteristics of the Lunar magnetic and gravitational anomalies, etc., are planned to be studied both from the orbit and from the surface. First stage of the Russian Lunar Program consists of a four missions: Lunas 25, 26, 27, 28. (The numeration follows Lunar missions of a Soviet Epoch - last successful regolith sample delivery have been accomplished by Luna 24 in 1976). Luna 25 will land to the southern polar site, which would be the most suitable for engineering reasons and also interesting for the science. Second lander Luna 27 will have more sophisticated payload with the additional instruments in comparison with Luna 25. Luna 27 should be landed to the selected landing site at the vicinity of the South Pole, which could be the most promising for installation of the future Lunar Base. It is very important that Luna 27 will be equipped by the subsurface drill to get samples from the permafrost shallow subsurface (one attractive option now is that this drill will be provided by our ESA colleagues having the experience of designing and manufacturing of a similar drill for the Exomars project). The principal difference of the drilling at Luna 27 in comparison with the early

  11. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  12. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  13. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment: Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Table-top views of one of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiments. This view is of the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Lunar Mass Spectrometer), Experiment S-205, one of the experiments of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. The LACE will measrue components in the ambient lunar atmosphere in the range of one to 110 atomic mass units (AMU).

  14. Evaluation of infrared emission spectroscopy for mapping the Moon's surface composition from lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Salisbury, John W.; Conel, James E.; Lucey, Paul G.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermal emission spectroscopy is evaluated for its possible application to compositional mapping of the Moon's surface from lunar orbit. Principles of the mid-IR (approximately 4-25 microns) technique, previous lunar ground-based observations, and laboratory studies of Moon samples are reviewed and summarized. A lunar thermal emission spectrometer experiment is described, patterned after a similar instrument on the Mars Observer spacecraft. Thermal emission spectrometry from a polar-orbiting lunar spacecraft could provide a valuable mapping tool to aid in exploration for lunar resources and help provide understanding of the origin of the Moon and history of lunar surface processes.

  15. Shock metamorphism of lunar and terrestrial basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Hoerz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Lonar Crater (India) basalt and lunar basalt 75035 were shock loaded under controlled laboratory conditions up to 1000 kbar, generally in a CO/CO2 (1:1) environment evacuated to 10 to the minus seventh power torr. The Kieffer et al. (1976) classification scheme of progressive shock metamorphism is found to apply to lunar basalts. The major shock features of the five classes that span the range 0 to 1000 kbar are described. Only three out of 152 basalt specimens show shock effects in their natural state as severe as Class 2 features. The scarcity of shocked basalt hand samples in contrast to the abundance of shock-produced agglutinates and homogeneous glass spheres in the lunar regolith indicates the dominant role of micrometeorite impact in the evolution of the lunar regolith. The overall glass content in asteroidal and Mercurian regoliths is considered.

  16. Cold press sintering of simulated lunar basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to predict the conditions for which the lunar regolith may be adequately sintered, experiments were conducted in which samples of simulated lunar basalt (MLS-1) were pressed at high pressures and then heated in an electric furnace. This sintering process may be referred to as cold press sintering since the material is pressed at room temperature. Although test articles were produced which possessed compressive strengths comparable to that of terrestrial concrete, the cold press sintering process requires very high press pressures and sintering temperatures in order to achieve that strength. Additionally, the prospect of poor internal heat transfer adversely affecting the quality of sintered lunar material is a major concern. Therefore, it is concluded that cold press sintering will most likely be undesirable for the production of lunar construction materials.

  17. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  18. Lunar Surface Operations. Part 2; Surface Duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to review the activities on the lunar surface during the stay. The objectives include (1) Summarize Lunar Module Basics emphasizing module layout and storage. (2) Identify the primary activities occurring during each of the lunar s urface timelines, (3) List the EVA Prep tasks, (4) Identify the EVA Objectives, (5) Identify the activities associated with Post EVA (6) Describe the lessons learned during both EVA and Non EVA activities. Included are overview drawings of the Lunar Roving Vehicle, pictures of the tools, and sample return containers. There are also time lines for the Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 through 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17. Diagrams of the EVA suits are shown, including the Liquid Cooling Garment, and the Pressure Garment Assembly. The activity prior to the EVA are reviewed. The science mission assignments of each mission are viewed. The activities after the EVA are reviewed

  19. Risk-Assessment for Equipment Operating on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. C.; Kusiak, A.; Ramachandran, N.

    2008-01-01

    Particle-size distribution of lunar dust simulant is evaluated using scanning electron spectroscopy in order to consider approaches to evaluating risk to individual mechanical components operating on the lunar surface. Assessing component risk and risk-mitigation during actual operations will require noninvasive continuous data gathering on numerous parameters. Those data sets would best be evaluated using data-mining algorithms to assess risk, and recovery from risk, of individual mechanical components in real-time.

  20. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda. PMID:20446867

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  2. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  3. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  4. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  5. Examining the Uppermost Surface of the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the examination of the uppermost surface of the lunar regolith. It shows the mechanism (i.e. a Clam Shell Sampling Device) that was used to retrieve samples of the surface of the lunar soil. Samples were obtained from the devices, and they were examined in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using a lunar simulant, JSC-1a, test were run to ascertain if the sample from the clam shell device were biased due to the collection. The results of the test were that all the fine grains analyzed to the limit of the capabilities were found to be lunar in composition, though non-lunar contaminants may exist in the submicron population. Further work is required, though the initial study shows that the uppermost surface is enriched in fine (< 2 micron grains) compared to the bulk soil.

  6. Lunar granulites and their precursor anorthositic norites of the early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lunar granulities, which are ancient and KREEP-free, represent the best samples of early lunar crust. They can be divided into ferroan and magnesium groups, and each group can be subdivided on the basis of mineral composition and REE concentrations. It is shown that some of the granulites may be derived from distinct anorthitic norite precursors, while some others are clearly polymict, though it is believed that even these granulites had anorthositic norites as their dominant precursors. The granulites have compositions similar to those of the two lunar meteorites, one of which is ferroan, the other magnesian. These meteorites are soil breccias from an unknown location distant from the Apollo landing sites and contain anorthositic norites as abundant clasts. Granulite and lunar-meteorite compositions more closely resemble the average composition of lunar highlands than those of any other returned lunar samples. The predominance of plutonic anorthositic norite precursors in material having the composition typical of highlands suggests that plutonic anorthositic norites were more abundant in the early lunar crust than is implied by their scarcity in Apollo pristine rocks.

  7. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  8. Lunar Geoscience: Key Questions for Future Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James

    2014-05-01

    Lunar Geoscience: Key Questions for Future Lunar Exploration James W. Head, Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 USA. (Invited paper/solicited talk for EGU 2014 PS2.3 Lunar session, Bernard H. Foing, Convener EGU PS2.3) The last several decades of intensive robotic exploration of the Moon has built on early Apollo and Luna exploration to provide fundamental knowledge of Earth's satellite and an excellent perspective on the most well-documented planetary body other than Earth. This new planetological perspective has raised substantial new questions about the nature of the origin of the Moon, its early differentiation and bombardment history, its internal thermal evolution, the production of its secondary crust as exemplified by the lunar maria, and tertiary crust as potentially seen in steep-sided domes and impact melt differentiates, the abundance of interior volatiles and their role in volcanic eruptions, and the abundance of surface volatiles and their concentration in polar regions. On the basis of this new information, a series of specific outstanding geoscience questions can be identified that can serve as guides for future human and robotic exploration. These include: 1) What is the nature and abundance of impact melt seas and what rock types do they produce upon differentiation and solidification? 2) Where are lunar mantle samples located on the lunar surface and what processes are responsible for placing them there? 3) What processes are responsible for producing the silica-rich viscous domes, such as those seen at Gruithuisen? 4) What are the volatile species involved in the emplacement of lunar pyroclastic deposits and what clues do they provide about deep magmatic volatiles and shallow volatile formation processes? 5) How do we account for the differing characteristics of regional dark mantling pyroclastic deposits? 6) When did mare basalt volcanism begin (earliest cryptmaria) and how and where is it manifested? 7

  9. A theoretical model for lunar surface material thermal conductivity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khader, M. S.; Vachon, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical thermal conductivity model for the uppermost layer of lunar surface material under the lunar vacuum environment. The model assumes that the lunar soil can be simulated by spherical particles in contact with each other and that the effective thermal conductivity is a function of depth, temperature, porosity, particle dimension, and mechanical-thermal properties of the solid particles. Two modes of heat transport are considered, conduction and radiation - with emphasis on the contact resistance between particles. The model gives effective conductivity values that compare favorably with the experimental data from lunar surface samples obtained on Apollo 11 and 12 missions.

  10. TOPLEX: Teleoperated Lunar Explorer. Instruments and Operational Concepts for an Unmanned Lunar Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, James D.

    1992-01-01

    A Teleoperated Lunar Explorer, or TOPLEX, consisting of a lunar lander payload in which a small, instrument-carrying lunar surface rover is robotically landed and teleoperated from Earth to perform extended lunar geoscience and resource evaluation traverses is proposed. The rover vehicle would mass about 100 kg and carry approximately 100 kg of analytic instruments. Four instruments are envisioned: (1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for geochemical analysis at ranges up to 100 m, capable of operating in three different modes; (2) a combined x-ray fluorescence and x-ray diffraction (XRF/XRD) instrument for elemental and mineralogic analysis of acquired samples; (3) a mass spectrometer system for stepwise heating analysis of gases released from acquired samples; and (4) a geophysical instrument package for subsurface mapping of structures such as lava tubes.

  11. Lunar Data Information Center: A Shortcut to the Riddle of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waranius, Frances B.; Heiken, Jody H.

    1975-01-01

    The Lunar Data Information Center is a reference and lending collection for researchers, educators, and students of lunar science, worldwide. Such methods as a classification scheme for mission-oriented documentation, sample photo browse files, lunar feature index, and color coding have resulted in a user-oriented collection. Search capability is…

  12. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  13. Lunar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Shahin

    The climatic conditions of Earth and human trends for discover the space, make these questions that how we can design a camp on the moon as a base for traveling in space or how we can live on that condition and what kind of camp we can have on the moon?!The first step in this way was creating the International Space Station on earth's orbit. (International Space Station, 2001) Settlement on moon was proposed since knowledge about it growth. Regarding to new technologies, architects parallel to engineers are trying to design and invent new ways for human settlement on moon because of its suitable conditions. Proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft lander or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Due to the researches until now, the first requirement for the living on other planets is water existence for human breath and fuel and after that we need to solve air pressure and gravity difference. (Colonization of the Moon, 2004) The Goal of this research is to answer to the question which is designing a camp on the Moon. But for this goal, there is need to think and study more about the subject and its factors. With qualitative and comparative methodology, the conditions of the Earth and the Moon will be comparing in different categories such as nature, human and design. I think that after water discovery, with using local materials and appropriate building design which can be on surface or underground, along with new sciences, we can plan for long period living on Moon. The important point is to consider Function, Form and Structure together in designing on the Moon. References: Colonization of the Moon. (2004). Retrieved December 14, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonizationo ft heM oonStructure, InternationalSpaceStation.(2001).Retrie http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternationalS paceS tation

  14. Mice examined in Animal Laboratory of Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Landrum Young (seated), Brown and Root-Northrup, and Russell Stullken, Manned Spacecraft Center, examine mice in the Animal laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory which have been inoculated with lunar sample material. wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  15. Production of continuous glass fiber using lunar simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    The processing parameters and mechanical properties of glass fibers pulled from simulated lunar basalt are tested. The simulant was prepared using a plasma technique. The composition is representative of a low titanium mare basalt (Apollo sample 10084). Lunar gravity experiments are to be performed utilizing parabolic aircraft free-fall maneuvers which yield 30 seconds of 1/6-g per maneuver.

  16. View Nine of Lunar Panoramic Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12, launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. This is the ninth of 25 images captured by the crew in attempt to provide a 360 degree Lunar surface scene. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  17. Sulfur 'Concrete' for Lunar Applications - Environmental Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. For the purpose of this Technical Memorandum, it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. With this stipulation, it is then noted that the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. The work presented here evaluates two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant as an aggregate addition. One set was subjected to extended periods in high vacuum to evaluate sublimation issues, and the other was cycled between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate their subsequent mechanical integrity. Results are presented from both investigations, discussed, and put into the context of the lunar environment.

  18. Sulfur "Concrete" for Lunar Applications - Sublimation Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

    2006-01-01

    Melting sulfur and mixing it with an aggregate to form "concrete" is commercially well established and constitutes a material that is particularly well-suited for use in corrosive environments. Discovery of the mineral troilite (FeS) on the moon poses the question of extracting the sulfur for use as a lunar construction material. This would be an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. However, the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. Here it is assumed that the lunar ore can be mined, refined, and the raw sulfur melded with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. This study evaluates pure sulfur and two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar stimulant and SiO2 powder as aggregate additions. Each set was subjected to extended periods in a vacuum environment to evaluate sublimation issues. Results from these experiments are presented and discussed within the context of the lunar environment.

  19. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  20. Shock-treated Lunar Soil Simulant: Preliminary Assessment as a Construction Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  1. Shock-treated lunar soil simulant: Preliminary assessment as a construction material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  2. Heterogeneity in titaniferous lunar basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Longhi, J.; Hays, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Small but real chemical differences exist between subsamples of fine-grained quench-textured titaniferous lunar basalts. The existence of different textural domains with different chemistries is thought to account for most of this variation. In addition to the textural domains, lunar sample 74275 has a population of olivine 'megacrysts' as well as dunite fragments. These materials are thought to be extraneous and to compromise the primary nature of 74275. Recognition of the small chemical variations present may aid in understanding some discrepancies in the experimental-petrology literature. However, these small variations have a distressing petrogenetic significance since they severely limit resolution in recognizing the number and depth of origin of primary magmas.

  3. Wolf: What's On the Lunar Farside?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    WOLF (What's On the Lunar Farside?) is a lunar sample return mission to the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin, located on the farside of the moon, seeking to answer some of the remaining questions about our solar system. Through the return and analysis of SPA samples, scientists can constrain the period of inner solar system late heavy bombardment and gain momentous knowledge of the SPA basin. WOLF provides the opportunity for mankind's progression in further understanding our solar system, its history, and unknowns surrounding the lunar farside. The orbiter will provide intermittent, direct communication between the lander and ground operations via the Deep Space Network (DSN). Received images and spectrometry will aid in real-time sample selection.

  4. Lunar exploration phase III: Launch window and trajectory design for a lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyang; Yang, Hongwei; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-09-01

    The lunar exploration phase III mission is a part of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation's lunar exploration program that will perform a soft-landing and sample return from the Moon to test the key technologies that are required for human lunar missions. This paper focuses primarily on the trajectory design and orbital launch window generation for a lunar probe that are consistent with the constraints imposed by third phase of lunar exploration. Two categories of trajectories are explored: Earth-to-Moon and Moon-to-Earth. With the patched conic technique, the analytical and modified analytical models of the transfer trajectories are developed. The requirement of high-latitude landing for the return phase trajectory is considered in the modified model. By varying the initial input conditions and with a fast convergence iteration scheme, different characteristics of the transfer trajectory are generated. The orbital launch windows are established to study the mission sensitivities to time and fuel consumption and to provide a launch timetable that is compatible with this mission's requirements. The lunar surface stay time is analyzed for different conditions. The high-fidelity gravitational model is introduced to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence behavior of the analytical solution. The design method can also be used as a basis for the future human lunar missions.

  5. Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    materials can be modeled by mixing programs utilizing a low-Ti basalt, ilmenite, KREEP component, high-Ca anorthosite, and meteoritic components. This approach has been used for genetic studies of lunar samples via chemical and modal analysis. A reduced composition space may be appropriate for simulant development, but it is necessary to determine the controlling properties that affect the physical, chemical and mineralogical components of the simulant.

  6. Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why a lunar orbiting mission is attractive to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), instrument selection, major milestones, and the organization of the LRM/LGS Program Office.

  7. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the Lunar Module 'Spider' has been deployed. Note Lunar Module's upper hatch and docking tunnel.

  8. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  9. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  10. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  11. Apollo 17 Astronaut Cernan Adjusts U.S. Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan adjusts the U.S. flag deployed upon the Moon. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center developed LRV. The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  12. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  13. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are the following: to investigate the feasibility of the use of local lunar resources for construction of a lunar base structure; to develop a material processing method and integrate the method with design and construction of a pressurized habitation structure; to estimate specifications of the support equipment necessary for material processing and construction; and to provide parameters for systems models of lunar base constructions, supply, and operations. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: comparison of various lunar structures; guidelines for material processing methods; cast lunar regolith; examples of cast basalt components; cast regolith process; processing equipment; mechanical properties of cast basalt; material properties and structural design; and future work.

  14. Lunar Surface Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Lane, A. L.; Miller, D.

    1992-01-01

    Many questions of lunar science remain unanswered because of a lack of specific data. With the potential for returning humans to the Moon and establishing a long-term presence there, a new realm of exploration is possible. Numerous plans have been outlined for orbital and surface missions. The capabilities and objectives of a small class of rovers to be deployed on the lunar surface are described. The objective of these small rovers is to collect detailed in situ information about the composition and distribution of materials on the lunar surface. Those data, in turn, would be applied to a variety of lunar geoscience questions and form a basis for planning human activities on the lunar surface.

  15. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  16. Synthesis of SMART-1 lunar results: Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We shall give a synthesis on SMART-1 lunar highlights relevant for science and exploration. The SMART-1 spacecraft reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year extension until impact on 3 September 2006. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission addresses several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of rocky planets, and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. SMART-1 AMIE camera has been used to map sites of interest that are relevant to the study of cataclysm bombardment, and to preview future sites for sampling return. Lunar North polar maps and South pole repeated high resolution images have been obtained, giving a monitoring of illumination to map potential sites relevant for future exploration. The SMART-1 observations have been coordinated with upcoming missions. SMART-1 has been useful in the preparation of Selene Kaguya, the Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1, Chinese Chang'E 1 , the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LCROSS, and subsequent lunar landers. SMART-1 is contributing to prepare the next steps for exploration: survey of resources, search for ice, monitoring polar illumination, and mapping of sites for potential landings, international robotic villages and for future human activities and lunar bases.

  17. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  18. Lunar Dust Simulant in Mechanical Component Testing - Paradigm and Practicality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, T.; Street, K.; Abel, P.; Richmond, R.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uniquely harsh lunar surface environment, terrestrial test activities may not adequately represent abrasive wear by lunar dust likely to be experienced in mechanical systems used in lunar exploration. Testing to identify potential moving mechanism problems has recently begun within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center Mechanical Systems Lunar Dust Assessment activity in coordination with the Exploration Technology and Development Program Dust Management Project, and these complimentary efforts will be described. Specific concerns about differences between simulant and lunar dust, and procedures for mechanical component testing with lunar simulant will be considered. In preparing for long term operations within a dusty lunar environment, the three fundamental approaches to keeping mechanical equipment functioning are dust avoidance, dust removal, and dust tolerance, with some combination of the three likely to be found in most engineering designs. Methods to exclude dust from contact with mechanical components would constitute mitigation by dust avoidance, so testing seals for dust exclusion efficacy as a function of particle size provides useful information for mechanism design. Dust of particle size less than a micron is not well documented for impact on lunar mechanical components. Therefore, creating a standardized lunar dust simulant in the particulate size range of ca. 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer is useful for testing effects on mechanical components such as bearings, gears, seals, bushings, and other moving mechanical assemblies. Approaching actual wear testing of mechanical components, it is beneficial to first establish relative wear rates caused by dust on commonly used mechanical component materials. The wear mode due to dust within mechanical components, such as abrasion caused by dust in grease(s), needs to be considered, as well as the effects of vacuum, lunar thermal cycle, and electrostatics on wear rate.

  19. Compositional Ground Truth of Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal emission of an airless body. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo sites to compositional and spectral measurements of Apollo lunar soil samples in simulated lunar environment (SLE).

  20. Some complexities in the determination of lunar paleointensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, G. W.; Hoye, G. S.; Strangway, D. W.; Walker, B. M.; Taylor, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Application of a variant of the Thellier-Thellier method for paleomagnetic field intensity determination to an analog lunar sample revealed a peak at about 250 C on the partial thermoremanent magnetization (PTRM). Evidence suggests that this can be best explained by a partial self-reversal involving troilite becoming reversely magnetized in the presence of already magnetized intergrown iron. In lunar samples, an additional peak was observed. The results suggest that natural remanent magnetization of lunar samples is in part carried by interacting grains, so that paleointensity determinations on the basis of the assumption of noninteracting grains have to be discarded.

  1. Introduction to the Apollo collections: Part 2: Lunar breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, P. E.; Simonds, C. H.; Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Basic petrographic, chemical and age data for a representative suite of lunar breccias are presented for students and potential lunar sample investigators. Emphasis is on sample description and data presentation. Samples are listed, together with a classification scheme based on matrix texture and mineralogy and the nature and abundance of glass present both in the matrix and as clasts. A calculus of the classification scheme, describes the characteristic features of each of the breccia groups. The cratering process which describes the sequence of events immediately following an impact event is discussed, especially the thermal and material transport processes affecting the two major components of lunar breccias (clastic debris and fused material).

  2. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  3. Toward a Suite of Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for NASA's Lunar Missions: Recommendations of the 2005 Workshop of Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, R. A.; Sibille, L.; Carpenter, P.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The conclusions from the workshop and considerations concerning the feasibility (both technical and programmatic) of producing such materials will be presented here.

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  5. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen,, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Cohen, B. A.; Sellar, G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanentlyshadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system.

  6. Magnetic beneficiation of lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, D. S; Oder, R. R.; Graf, J.; Taylor, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    We will present a review of recent laboratory results obtained in dry magnetic separation of one gram samples of the minus 1 mm size fraction of five lunar soils of widely differing maturities. Two highland soils were investigated as potential sources of low iron content feed stocks for space manufacture of metals, including aluminum, silicon, and calcium. Pure anorthite was separated from the diamagnetic fraction of immature highland regolith. Three high titanium mare soils were investigated as potential sources of ilmenite for production of hydrogen and for recovery of He-3. Ilmenite and pyroxene were separated from the paramagnetic fractions of the mare basalts. Agglutinates and other fused soil components containing metallic iron were separated from the strongly magnetic fractions of all soils. We will present conceptual magnetic separation flow sheets developed from the laboratory data and designed for production of anorthite from highland soils and for production of ilmenite from mare soils. Using these flow sheets, we will discuss problems and opportunities associated with the magnetic separation of lunar soils. Separation of high-grade anorthite or other diamagnetic components at moderately high recovery can be achieved in processing immature highland soils. Further, while magnet weight is always an issue in magnetic separation technology, recent developments in both low temperature and high temperature superconductivity present unusual opportunities for magnet design specific to the lunar environment.

  7. Lunar Receiving Laboratory Project History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, Susan; Larsen, William

    2004-01-01

    As early as 1959, the Working Group on Lunar Exploration within NASA advocated that 'one of the prime objectives of the first lunar landing mission should be the collection of samples for return to Earth, where they could be subjected to detailed study and analysis.' Within NASA, neither this group nor any other scientists working with the Agency were concerned about back contamination issues. Outside of NASA, back contamination concerns had been raised as early as 1960. Although NASA did not seem to pay any attention to the concerns at that time, the scientific community continued to be interested in the topic. In 1962 and again in 1963, as the Apollo Program loomed large, further discussions were held. These early discussions of back contamination did not make their way into NASA's administration, however, and when Manned Spacecraft Center personnel began to articulate early concepts for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), the back contamination issue was not considered. Once this concern became a major focus, however, the LRL's development became increasingly complex. This is the history of that development.

  8. Lunar material resources: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of returned lunar samples and a comparison of the physical and chemical processes operating on the Moon and on the Earth provide a basis for predicting both the possible types of material resources (especially minerals and rocks) and the physical characteristics of ore deposits potentially available on the Moon. The lack of free water on the Moon eliminates the classes of ore deposits that are most exploitable on Earth; namely, (1) hydrothermal, (2) secondary mobilization and enrichment, (3) precipitation from a body of water, and (4) placer. The types of lunar materials available for exploitation are whole rocks and their contained minerals, regolith, fumarolic and vapor deposits, and nonlunar materials, including solar wind implantations. Early exploitation of lunar material resources will be primarily the use of regolith materials for bulk shielding; the extraction from regolith fines of igneous minerals such as plagioclase feldspars and ilmenite for the production of oxygen, structural metals, and water; and possibly the separation from regolith fines of solar-wind-implanted volatiles. The only element, compound, or mineral, that by itself has been identified as having the economic potential for mining, processing, and return to Earth is helium-3.

  9. Moessbauer search for ferric oxide phases in lunar materials and simulated lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forester, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Moessbauer studies were carried out on lunar fines and on simulated lunar glasses containing magnetic-like precipitates with the primary objective of determining how much, if any, ferric oxide is present in the lunar soils. Although unambiguous evidence of lunar Fe(3+) phases was not obtained, an upper limit was estimated from different portions of the Moessbauer spectra to be between 0.1 and 0.4 wt.% (as Fe3O4). A smaller than 62 microns fraction of 15021,118 showed 0.5 wt.% ferromagnetic iron at 300 K in as-returned condition. After heating to 650 C in an evacuated, sealed quartz tube for 1400 hours, the same sample exhibited 1 wt.% ferromagnetic iron at room temperature. An accompanying decrease in excess absorption area near zero velocity was noted. Thus, the result of the vacuum heat treatment was to convert fine grained iron to larger particles, apparently without the oxidation effects commonly reported.

  10. Progress of the NASA/USGS Lunar Regolith Simulant Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; MLemore, Carole; Wilson, Steve; Stoeser, Doug; Schrader, Christian; Fikes, John; Street, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in 2004 personnel at MSFC began serious efforts to develop a new generation of lunar simulants. The first two products were a replication of the previous JSC-1 simulant under a contract to Orbitec and a major workshop in 2005 on future simulant development. Beginning in 2006 the project refocused its efforts and approached simulant development in a new and more comprehensive manner, examining new approaches in simulant development and ways to more accurately compare simulants to actual lunar materials. This led to a multi-year effort with five major tasks running in parallel. The five tasks are Requirements, Lunar Analysis, Process Development, Feed Stocks, and Standards. Major progress has been made in all five areas. A substantial draft of a formal requirements document now exists and has been largely stable since 2007. It does evolve as specific details of the standards and Lunar Analysis efforts proceed. Lunar Analysis has turned out to be vastly more difficult than anticipated. After great effort to mine existing published and gray literature, the team has realized the necessity of making new measurements of the Apollo samples, an effort that is currently in progress. Process development is substantially ahead of expectations in 2006. It is now practical to synthesize glasses of appropriate composition and purity. It is also possible to make agglutinate particles in significant quantities. A series of minerals commonly found on the Moon has been synthesized. Separation of mineral constituents from starting rock material is also proceeding. Customized grinding and mixing processes have been developed and tested are now being documented. Identification and development of appropriate feedstocks has been both easier and more difficult than anticipated. The Stillwater Mining Company, operating in the Stillwater layered mafic intrusive complex of Montana, has been an amazing resource for the project, but finding adequate sources for some of the components

  11. Special report, diffuse reflectivity of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The far ultraviolet diffuse reflectivity of samples of lunar dust material is determined. Equipment for measuring the diffuse reflectivity of materials (e.g. paint samples) is already in existence and requires only minor modification for the proposed experiment which will include the measurement of the polarizing properties of the lunar samples. Measurements can be made as a function of both illumination angle and angle of observation.

  12. Mobility performance of the lunar roving vehicle: Terrestrial studies: Apollo 15 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costes, N. C.; Farmer, J. E.; George, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The constriants of the Apollo 15 mission dictated that the average and limiting performance capabilities of the first manned lunar roving vehicle be known or estimated within narrow margins. Extensive studies were conducted and are compared with the actual performance of the lunar roving vehicle during the Apollo 15 mission. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn relating to the capabilities and limitation of current terrestrial methodology in predicting the mobility performance of lunar roving vehicles under in-situ environmental conditions, and recommendations are offered concerning the performance of surface vehicles on future missions related to lunar or planetary exploration.

  13. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  14. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. PMID:25114312

  15. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Sara S.; Joy, Katherine H.; Jeffries, Teresa E.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. PMID:25114312

  16. Review of methods used in lunar organic analysis - Extraction and hydrolysis techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Extraction, hydrolysis, and crushing procedures have been useful in discovering some of the carbon compounds in lunar samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. The nonaqueous solvent system used mostly in lunar sample work has been benzene:methanol. Two methods of extraction have been sonication and Soxhlet extraction, sonication appearing to be the preferred method. Extraction of lunar samples with water and acid hydrolysis of the water extract has proved to be the best method in the search for amino acids or their precursors. Direct acid hydrolysis of lunar samples provided evidence for the presence of carbides or carbide-like materials in lunar surface samples. Hydrolysis of lunar samples with DF, DC1, and NaOD has shown that methane and ethane are indigenous to the moon.

  17. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  18. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  19. Mobile Lunar Base Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marc M.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes three innovative concepts for a mobile lunar base. These concept combine design research for habitat architecture, mobility systems, habitability, radiation protection, human factors, and living and working environments on the lunar surface. The mobile lunar base presents several key advantages over conventional static base notions. These advantages concern landing zone safety, the requirement to move modules over the lunar surface, and the ability to stage mobile reconnaissance with effective systemic redundancy. All of these concerns lead to the consideration of a mobile walking habitat module and base design. The key issues involve landing zone safety, the ability to transport habitat modules across the surface, and providing reliability and redundancy to exploration traverses in pressurized vehicles. With self-ambulating lunar base modules, it will be feasible to have each module separate itself from its retro-rocket thruster unit, and walk five to ten km away from the LZ to a pre-selected site. These mobile modules can operate in an autonomous or teleoperated mode to navigate the lunar surface. At the site of the base, the mobile modules can combine together; make pressure port connections among themselves, to create a multi-module pressurized lunar base.

  20. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.