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Sample records for actual lying behavior

  1. Children's Knowledge of Deceptive Gaze Cues and Its Relation to Their Actual Lying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Anjanie; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Eye gaze plays a pivotal role during communication. When interacting deceptively, it is commonly believed that the deceiver will break eye contact and look downward. We examined whether children's gaze behavior when lying is consistent with this belief. In our study, 7- to 15-year-olds and adults answered questions truthfully ("Truth" questions)…

  2. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  3. Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Orsel, K

    2016-03-01

    Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Québec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22 cm high, the use of sand or >2 cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06 h/d, respectively. Feed alleys ≥ 350 cm wide or stalls ≥ 114 cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33 h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47 h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time ≥ 14 h/d, ≤ 5 lying bouts per day, bout duration ≥ 110 min

  4. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  5. Social and Cognitive Correlates of Children's Lying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The relation between children's lie-telling and their social and cognitive development was examined. Children (3-8 years) were told not to peek at a toy. Most children peeked and later lied about peeking. Children's subsequent verbal statements were not always consistent with their initial denial and leaked critical information revealing their…

  6. Technical note: validation of data loggers for recording lying behavior in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Zobel, G; Weary, D M; Leslie, K; Chapinal, N; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2015-02-01

    Changes in standing and lying behavior are frequently used in farm animals as indictors of comfort and health. In dairy goats, these behaviors have primarily been measured using labor-intensive video and live observation methodologies. The aim of this study was to validate accelerometer-based data loggers for use in goats. Two commercial dairy goat farms in Ontario were enrolled; goats were fitted with data loggers on their rear left legs and the pens were equipped with video. Data loggers compared well with video in identifying lying and standing events on both farms (farm 1 and 2, respectively: sensitivity=99.7 and 99.8%, specificity=99.5 and 99.4%, false readings=0.43 and 0.36%). The loggers were also able to record if the goat was lying on her left or right side (farm 1 only: sensitivity=99.9%, specificity=99.3%, false readings=0.38%), but these measures were only accurate if the loggers were attached with sufficient tension to prevent logger rotation. The mature does enrolled on farm 1 spent 14.5±1.0h/d lying down and frequently changed lying side even within a single lying bout (24±5 shifts/d between left and right sides and 16±5 lying bouts/d). The young goats on the second farm averaged just 8.5±3.2h/d in lying time, and spread this time over 8±4 bouts/d. Data loggers accurately measured lying time and lying bouts in mature does and younger goats on both farms, and lying laterality (e.g., left and right lying sides) in mature does on farm 1. PMID:25497810

  7. Short communication: Association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A total of 339 dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) on 4 commercial dairy farms were monitored for lying behavior and SCK from 14d before calving until 28 d after calving. Lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and average lying bout length were measured using automated data loggers 24h/d. Cows were tested for SCK 1×/wk by taking a blood sample and analyzing for β-hydroxybutyrate; cows with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2mmol/L postpartum were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy (HLT) cows had no SCK or any other health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least 1 health issue other than SCK (n=50); SCK (HYK) cows with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or subclinically ketotic plus (HYK+) cows that had SCK and 1 or more other health problems (n=53). Daily lying time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT, HYK, and HYK+, respectively. We found no difference among health categories in lying time, bout frequency, or bout length fromwk -2 towk +4 relative to calving for first-lactation cows. Differences in lying time for multiparous cows were seen inwk +1, when HYK+ cows spent 92±24.0 min/d more time lying down than HLT cows, and duringwk +3 and +4 when HYK cows spent 44±16.7 and 41±18.9 min/d, respectively, more time lying down than HLT cows. Increased odds of HYK+ were found to be associated with higher parity, longer dry period, and greater stall stocking density inwk -1 and longer lying time duringwk +1. When comparing HYK to HLT cows, the same variables were associated with odds of SCK; however, lying time was not retained in the final model. These results suggest that monitoring lying time may contribute to identifying multiparous cows

  8. Effects of bedding material on the lying behavior in stabled horses.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Shigeru; Aoyama, Masato; Ujiie, Yumiko; Kusunose, Ryo; Kuwano, Atsutoshi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of straw, sawdust, coconut husk (husk), and coconut fiber (fiber) on the welfare of stable horses by observing their resting behavior. Twenty horses with ages ranging from 3 to 21 years were used at the Equine Research Institute of the Japan Racing Association, Utsunomiya, Japan. Five horses were allocated to each bedding condition. The behavior of each horse was recorded by video camera for 3 days and was continuously sampled from 17:00 to 05:00. The total duration, the number of bouts, and the mean and the maximum duration of bouts in standing rest, sternal lying, and lateral lying were calculated and analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Steel-Dwass test. There was no difference in the standing rest and the sternal lying among beddings. Significant differences were observed in these values in the lateral lying among the different beddings (P<0.05). The values of the means of the total duration, the number of bouts, and the mean and the maximum duration of bout in the lateral lying were greater when husk was used as the bedding material than when sawdust were used (P<0.05). The results of the observations show that the new bedding materials would be as usable as straw. However, lateral lying was observed less frequently when sawdust were used as bedding; this indicates that use of sawdust as bedding material will decrease the welfare of stabled horses.

  9. A validation of technologies monitoring dairy cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behaviors.

    PubMed

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Tsai, I C; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate commercially available precision dairy technologies against direct visual observations of feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=24) lactating Holstein dairy cattle (mean ± standard deviation; 223.4±117.8 d in milk, producing 29.2±8.2kg of milk/d) were fitted with 6 different triaxial accelerometer technologies evaluating cow behaviors at or before freshening. The AfiAct Pedometer Plus (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) was used to monitor lying time. The CowManager SensOor (Agis, Harmelen, Netherlands) monitored rumination and feeding time. The HOBO Data Logger (HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) monitored lying time. The CowAlert IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland) monitored lying time. The Smartbow (Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria) monitored rumination time. The Track A Cow (ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel) monitored lying time and time spent around feeding areas for the calculation of feeding time. Over 8 d, 6 cows per day were visually observed for feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors for 2 h after morning and evening milking. The time of day was recorded when each behavior began and ended. These times were used to generate the length of time behaviors were visually observed. Pearson correlations (r; calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS Version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and concordance correlations (CCC; calculated using the epiR package of R version 3.1.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) evaluated association between visual observations and technology-recorded behaviors. Visually recorded feeding behaviors were moderately correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0.88, CCC=0.82) and Track A Cow (r=0.93, CCC=0.79) monitors. Visually recorded rumination behaviors were strongly correlated with the Smartbow (r=0.97, CCC=0.96), and weakly correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0

  10. Lie-Telling Behavior in Children with Autism and Its Relation to False-Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goulden, Keith J.; Manji, Shazeen; Loomes, Carly; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Children's lie-telling behavior and its relation to false-belief understanding was examined in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 26) and a comparison group of typically developing children (n = 27). Participants were assessed using a temptation resistance paradigm, in which children were told not to peek at a forbidden toy while…

  11. Humans as Lie Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaulo, Bella; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses several studies of whether and how well humans can detect lies. Examines the accuracy of such persons as well as the process of how they actually detect lies, how they think they detect lies, and whether the actual and perceived processes of lie detection correspond to one another. (JMF)

  12. Predicting actual behavior from the explicit and implicit self-concept of personality.

    PubMed

    Back, Mitja D; Schmukle, Stefan C; Egloff, Boris

    2009-09-01

    The authors present a behavioral process model of personality that specifies explicit and implicit aspects of the self-concept of personality as predictors of actual behavior. An extensive behavioral study (N = 130) including a variety of relevant social situations was conducted. This approach allowed reliable measurement of more than 50 behavioral indicators. A priori assignment of indicators to the Big Five dimensions was conducted on the basis of theory and expert ratings. In line with the authors' model, 3 main findings were revealed: First, direct measures (questionnaires) of personality predicted actual behavior for all Big Five dimensions. Second, indirect measures (implicit association tests) of neuroticism and extraversion also predicted actual behavior. Third, the predictive validity of these indirect measures was incremental. The authors were additionally able to show that controlling for valence did not affect any of these results. Implications and future prospects for the study of personality and actual behavior are discussed.

  13. Actualization of Social Cognitions into Aggressive Behavior toward Disliked Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peets, Katlin; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The basic premise that social cognitions guide behavior (aggression) was evaluated within relationships marked by dislike. At Time 1, a disliked target was identified for each participant (195 fifth-grade children; 109 boys; 11-12 years old at Time 1) who then responded to questions about different aggression-supporting social cognitions with…

  14. Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals.

    PubMed

    Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than

  15. Ketonemia in dairy goats: effect of dry period length and effect on lying behavior.

    PubMed

    Zobel, G; Leslie, K; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2015-09-01

    In dairy animals, a successful transition from one lactation to the next includes minimizing negative energy balance. Cows experiencing excessive negative energy balance typically develop metabolic complications following parturition (e.g., ketosis); does are also susceptible before kidding (e.g., pregnancy toxemia). It is not known to what extent the provision and the length of the dry period affect these conditions in does. Furthermore, whereas clinical symptoms of these conditions include lethargy, behavioral changes resulting from ketosis and pregnancy toxemia have not been quantified in small ruminants. The aims of this study were to (1) describe the relationship between the dry period and negative energy balance, and (2) determine if lying behavior changes are indicative of the metabolic status of dairy goats. A total of 420 does on 10 commercial dairy goat farms in southern Ontario, Canada, were enrolled in the study (mean ± SD: 42±18 does/farm). Each doe was affixed with a data logger to measure lying behavior from 12 d before to 12 d after kidding. Blood samples were collected at least once before and at least once following kidding to determine blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration as an indicator of negative energy balance. Does were categorized as healthy (HLTH; both pre- and postkidding samples BHBA <0.9 mmol/L), PREGTOX (prekidding BHBA ≥1.7 mmol/L), or KET (postkidding BHBA ≥1.7 mmol/L). Behaviors were analyzed according to 5 periods: P-2 (d -12 to d -2 relative to kidding), P-1 (d -1 relative to kidding), P0 (d 0, kidding day), P1 (d 1 relative to kidding), and P2 (d 2 to 12 relative to kidding). Dry period length and milk production after kidding were recorded when available. Farms ranged from 0 to 15% and 0 to 50% in prekidding and postkidding ketonemia, respectively. The HLTH does had shorter dry periods compared with PREGTOX and KET does (43 vs. 55 d, SE of the differences of means=4 d). One farm kept some does milking, while

  16. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.

    PubMed

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-09-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.

  17. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions.

  18. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. PMID:25903243

  19. Binding lies

    PubMed Central

    Merzel, Avraham; Ritov, Ilana; Kareev, Yaakov; Avrahami, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Do we feel bound by our own misrepresentations? Does one act of cheating compel the cheater to make subsequent choices that maintain the false image even at a cost? To answer these questions we employed a two-task paradigm such that in the first task the participants could benefit from false reporting of private observations whereas in the second they could benefit from making a prediction in line with their actual, rather than their previously reported observations. Thus, for those participants who inflated their report during the first task, sticking with that report for the second task was likely to lead to a loss, whereas deviating from it would imply that they had lied. Data from three experiments (total N = 116) indicate that, having lied, participants were ready to suffer future loss rather than admit, even if implicitly, that they had lied. PMID:26528219

  20. Everybody Else Is Doing It: Exploring Social Transmission of Lying Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Houser, Daniel; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Lying is a common occurrence in social interactions, but what predicts whether an individual will tell a lie? While previous studies have focused on personality factors, here we asked whether lying tendencies might be transmitted through social networks. Using an international sample of 1,687 socially connected pairs, we investigated whether lying tendencies were related in socially connected individuals, and tested two moderators of observed relationships. Participants recruited through a massive open online course reported how likely they would be to engage in specific lies; a friend or relative responded to the same scenarios independently. We classified lies according to their beneficiary (antisocial vs. prosocial lies), and their directness (lies of commission vs. omission), resulting in four unique lying categories. Regression analyses showed that antisocial commission, antisocial omission, and prosocial commission lying tendencies were all uniquely related in connected pairs, even when the analyses were limited to pairs that were not biologically related. For antisocial lies of commission, these relationships were strongest, and were moderated by amount of time spent together. Randomly paired individuals from the same countries were also related in their antisocial commission lying tendencies, signifying country-level norms. Our results indicate that a person's lying tendencies can be predicted by the lying tendencies of his or her friends and family members. PMID:25333483

  1. Lying and Truth-Telling in Children: From Concept to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fen; Bao, Xuehua; Fu, Genyue; Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on children's moral knowledge about lying and truth-telling and their actual lie- or truth-telling behaviors, research to examine the relation between these two is extremely rare. This study examined one hundred and twenty 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds' moral understanding of lies and their actual lying…

  2. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Beginning Weight Training Class: Their Relations to Students' Behavioral Intention and Actual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…

  3. Predictors of Intentions to Participate in Politics and Actual Political Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Gniewosz, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on data from a three-wave longitudinal study, the present research examined predictors of young adults' intentions to participate in politics and their actual political activities while referring to the broader assumptions of the theory of planned behavior. The analyses were based on a sample of university students from the federal…

  4. Differences between Actual and Perceived Student Norms: An Examination of Alcohol Use, Drug Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Page, Jennifer C.; Mowry, Emily S.; Damann, Krista M.; Taylor, Kari K.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2006-01-01

    Researchers in the social norms area have previously focused primarily on alcohol consumption, paying comparatively less attention to drug use and sexual behavior. The major purposes of this study were to (1) compare perceptions of peer norms in the areas of alcohol use, drug use, and sexual behavior with actual behavior and (2) determine if a…

  5. Lying in the name of the collective good

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Wang, Lingfeng; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental origin of ‘blue lies’, a pervasive form of lying in the adult world that is told purportedly to benefit a collective. Seven, 9-, and 11-year-old Chinese children were surreptitiously placed in a real-life situation where they decided whether to lie to conceal their group’s cheating behavior. Children were also assessed in terms of their willingness in hypothetical situations to endorse lying or truth-telling that benefits a collective but at the same time harms an individual. Results showed that as age increased, children became more inclined to endorse lying in the name of the collective good, and to tell lies for their group themselves. Furthermore, children’s endorsement about blue lies in hypothetical situations predicted their actual lying behavior. PMID:18576957

  6. Evaluating the caregiver's intervention in the elder's task performance: capacity versus actual behavior.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, T; Gurland, B

    1997-09-01

    As an elder's functional impairment increases, so in general does the tendency for the caregiver to intervene in the elder's daily activities and initiatives. To a certain extent, such intervention is necessary to compensate for the elder's loss of independent ability, and without such intervention, adverse outcomes for the elder are a possibility. The need for some intervention is usually clear-cut for advanced dementia, given its associated severe disability and handicap, but less clear in elders who are just beginning to show signs of cognitive decline. This study used the paradigm of medication management to look at whether the discrepancy between capacity for self-medication administration and actual self-administration behavior as demonstrated by the Medication Management Test (MMT) is greater for elders with poorer cognitive functioning. A sample of 51 cognitively impaired elders and 74 cognitively normal elders was used to look at the relationship between predicted capacity and actual self-administration of medication, stratifying by level of cognitive status. The highly significant concordance between the MMT score and caregivers' report of medication administration supports the expectation that capacity is influenced by cognitive status. In those discordant cases, further information is needed to interpret help in medication administration as excessive or insufficient intervention. PMID:9309470

  7. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theme of a statement is called "lie motif" by the authors when schizophrenic patients say "I have lied to anybody". We tried to analyse of the psychopathological characteristics and anthropological meanings of the lie motifs in schizophrenia, which has not been thematically examined until now, based on 4 cases, and contrasting with the lie motif (Lügenmotiv) in depression taken up by A. Kraus (1989). We classified the lie motifs in schizophrenia into the following two types: a) the past directive lie motif: the patients speak about their real lie regarding it as a 'petty fault' in their distant past with self-guilty feeling, b) the present directive lie motif: the patients say repeatedly 'I have lied' (about their present speech and behavior), retreating from their previous commitments. The observed false confessions of innocent fault by the patients seem to belong to the present directed lie motif. In comparison with the lie motif in depression, it is characteristic for the lie motif in schizophrenia that the patients feel themselves to already have been caught out by others before they confess the lie. The lie motif in schizophrenia seems to come into being through the attribution process of taking the others' blame on ones' own shoulders, which has been pointed out to be common in the guilt experience in schizophrenia. The others' blame on this occasion is due to "the others' gaze" in the experience of the initial self-centralization (i.e. non delusional self-referential experience) in the early stage of schizophrenia (S. Kato 1999). The others' gaze is supposed to bring about the feeling of amorphous self-revelation which could also be regarded as the guilt feeling without content, to the patients. When the guilt feeling is bound with a past concrete fault, the patients tell the past directive lie motif. On the other hand, when the patients cannot find a past fixed content, and feel their present actions as uncertain and experience them as lies, the

  8. Lying in the name of the collective good: a developmental study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D; Wang, Lingfeng; Lee, Kang

    2008-07-01

    The present study examined the developmental origin of 'blue lies', a pervasive form of lying in the adult world that is told purportedly to benefit a collective. Seven, 9-, and 11-year-old Chinese children were surreptitiously placed in a real-life situation where they decided whether to lie to conceal their group's cheating behavior. Children were also assessed in terms of their willingness in hypothetical situations to endorse lying or truth-telling that benefits a collective but at the same time harms an individual. Results showed that as age increased, children became more inclined to endorse lying in the name of the collective good, and to tell lies for their group themselves. Furthermore, children's endorsement about blue lies in hypothetical situations predicted their actual lying behavior.

  9. Do Implicit Attitudes Predict Actual Voting Behavior Particularly for Undecided Voters?

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Malte; Smith, Colin Tucker; Plischke, Thomas; Bluemke, Matthias; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of voting behavior of undecided voters poses a challenge to psychologists and pollsters. Recently, researchers argued that implicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for undecided voters whereas explicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for decided voters. We tested this assumption in two studies in two countries with distinct political systems in the context of real political elections. Results revealed that (a) explicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better than implicit attitudes for both decided and undecided voters, and (b) implicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better for decided than undecided voters. We propose that greater elaboration of attitudes produces stronger convergence between implicit and explicit attitudes resulting in better predictive validity of both, and less incremental validity of implicit over explicit attitudes for the prediction of voting behavior. However, greater incremental predictive validity of implicit over explicit attitudes may be associated with less elaboration. PMID:22952898

  10. The Structure of Communication Behavior in Simulated and Actual Crisis Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul J.; Donald, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This research extends recent efforts to differentiate communication in crisis negotiations (Taylor, 2002) by examining how negotiators' behavior differs across context. Data were 108 interaction episodes transcribed from 12 simulated crisis negotiations and coded at the level of thought units across 41 behavioral variables. Results of a smallest…

  11. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10−11 ~ 10−9 molL−1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  12. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10‑11 ~ 10‑9 molL‑1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  13. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10-11 ~ 10-9 molL-1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  14. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the (137)Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of (137)Cs (10(-11) ~ 10(-9 )molL(-1) of (137)Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed "weathered biotite" (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed (137)Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of (137)Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed (137)Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  15. Apparent and Actual Trajectory Control Depend on the Behavioral Context in Upper Limb Motor Tasks.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    A central problem in motor neuroscience is to understand how we select, plan, and control motor actions. An influential idea is that the motor system computes and implements a desired limb trajectory, an intermediary control process between the behavioral goal (reach a spatial goal) and motor commands to move the limb. The most compelling evidence for trajectory control is that corrective responses are directed back toward the unperturbed trajectory when the limb is disturbed during movement. However, the idea of trajectory control conflicts with optimal control theories that emphasize goal-directed motor corrections. Here we show that corrective responses in human subjects can deviate back toward the unperturbed trajectory, but these reversals were only present when there were explicit limits on movement time. Our second experiment asked whether trajectory control could be generated if the trajectory was made an explicit goal of the task. Participants countered unexpected loads while reaching to a static goal, tracking a moving target, or maintaining their hand within a visually constrained path to a static goal. Corrective responses were directed back toward the constrained path or to intercept the moving target. However, corrections back to the unperturbed path disappeared when reaching to the static target. Long-latency muscle responses paralleled changes in the behavioral goal in both sets of experiments, but goal-directed responses were delayed by 15-25 ms when tracking the moving goal. Our results show the motor system can behave like a trajectory controller but only if a "desired trajectory" is the goal of the task. Significance statement: One of the most influential ideas in motor control is that the motor system computes a "desired trajectory" when reaching to a spatial goal. Here we revisit the experimental paradigm from seminal papers supporting trajectory control to illustrate that corrective responses appear to return to the original trajectory of the

  16. Automated and visual measurements of estrous behavior and their sources of variation in Holstein heifers. II: Standing and lying patterns.

    PubMed

    Silper, Bruna F; Polsky, Liam; Luu, John; Burnett, Tracy A; Rushen, Jeffrey; de Passillé, Anne Marie; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-08-01

    Lying (LY) and standing (ST) behavior of Holstein heifers (n = 57) was studied from Day -7 to Day +2 relative to estrus (Day 0) using leg-mounted accelerometers. A total of 269 estrus episodes were studied. The objectives were to quantify the effects of estrus on ST and LY patterns, identify sources of variation, and provide insight into new approaches for the use of sensors in estrus detection. The sensors were used to obtain ST bout frequency (bouts per day), total daily ST time, and mean bout duration and duration of the longest bout for ST and LY on a daily basis. Estrus episodes were identified using walking activity peaks and validated by ovarian ultrasonography. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of estrus order (pubertal vs. second and greater), season, time of estrus onset, category of baseline walking activity, and number of heifers simultaneously in estrus on ST and LY variables. Overall, ST bout frequency was lower, whereas mean ST bout duration, duration of the longest ST bout, and total daily ST time were longer on Day 0 (P < 0.05). The longest ST bout increased from 232 ± 5 minutes on Day -7 to 488 ± 16 minutes on Day 0 (P < 0.05), and on Day 0, it started within -2 to 4 hours of time of estrus onset. Measurements of ST bouts varied the most on Day 0 (coefficient of variation = 21.5%-52.8%). The pubertal estrus was characterized by smaller increase in mean ST bout duration, longest ST bout duration, and total daily ST time (P < 0.05) compared to the second and greater episodes. Second and greater episodes had greater longest LY bout on Day +1, but on Day 0 it was not different from other nonestrus days (P < 0.01). The longest ST bout on Day 0 was longer for heifers with high baseline walking activity and for episodes occurring during the cold season (P < 0.05). The effect of estrus on ST variables for morning-onset episodes was observed only on Day 0. Episodes with afternoon and night onset showed the effect of estrus spread

  17. Association of standing and lying behavior patterns and incidence of intramammary infection in dairy cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Deming, J A; Rodenburg, J; Seguin, G; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W

    2011-08-01

    The standing and lying behavior patterns of dairy cows, particularly the length of time cows spend standing after milking, have the potential to influence the incidence of intramammary infection (IMI). The objectives were to describe the standing and lying behavior patterns of cows milked with an automatic milking system (AMS) and to determine how these patterns relate to the incidence of IMI. One hundred and eleven lactating Holstein dairy cows were monitored over a 4-mo period. These cows were kept in a sand-bedded freestall barn with 2 pens, each with a free cow traffic AMS. Feed was delivered once daily, and pushed up 2 to 3 times daily. Quarter milk samples were collected for bacteriological culture from each cow once every 4 wk. A new IMI was defined as a positive culture sample following a negative culture. For 7 d before each of the last 3 milk samplings, standing and lying behavior, and times of milking and feed manipulation (feed delivery and push up) were recorded. Daily lying time and lying bout length were negatively related with milk yield (r=-0.23 and -0.20, respectively) and milking frequency (r=-0.32 and -0.20, respectively); milk yield was positively related to milking frequency (r=0.58). Feed manipulation near the time cows were milked (1h before 2h after) resulted in the longest post-milking standing times (mean=86 min; 95% confidence interval=78, 94 min), whereas feed manipulation occurring outside that time frame resulted in shorter post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 171 new IMI were detected. Of these new IMI detected, those caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci were the only ones associated with post-milking standing time; as post-milking standing time increased past 2.5h after milking, the odds of acquiring a new IMI tended to also increase. In summary, standing and lying behavior patterns of cows milked with an AMS were affected by both feed manipulation and their milking activity. Further, the post-milking standing

  18. Why do lie-catchers fail? A lens model meta-analysis of human lie judgments.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Maria; Bond, Charles F

    2011-07-01

    Decades of research has shown that people are poor at detecting lies. Two explanations for this finding have been proposed. First, it has been suggested that lie detection is inaccurate because people rely on invalid cues when judging deception. Second, it has been suggested that lack of valid cues to deception limits accuracy. A series of 4 meta-analyses tested these hypotheses with the framework of Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Meta-Analysis 1 investigated perceived cues to deception by correlating 66 behavioral cues in 153 samples with deception judgments. People strongly associate deception with impressions of incompetence (r = .59) and ambivalence (r = .49). Contrary to self-reports, eye contact is only weakly correlated with deception judgments (r = -.15). Cues to perceived deception were then compared with cues to actual deception. The results show a substantial covariation between the 2 sets of cues (r = .59 in Meta-Analysis 2, r = .72 in Meta-Analysis 3). Finally, in Meta-Analysis 4, a lens model analysis revealed a very strong matching between behaviorally based predictions of deception and behaviorally based predictions of perceived deception. In conclusion, contrary to previous assumptions, people rarely rely on the wrong cues. Instead, limitations in lie detection accuracy are mainly attributable to weaknesses in behavioral cues to deception. The results suggest that intuitive notions about deception are more accurate than explicit knowledge and that lie detection is more readily improved by increasing behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers than by informing lie-catchers of valid cues to deception.

  19. Intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior among Adélie penguins (Pygocelis adeliae) breeding at Cape Hallett, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyver, P.O.B.; MacLeod, C.J.; Ballard, G.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Adams, J.; Ainley, D.G.; Wilson, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior of chick-rearing Adélie penguins,Pygoscelis adeliae, during two consecutive summers at Cape Hallett, northwestern Ross Sea. Although foraging behavior of this species has been extensively studied throughout the broad continental shelf region of the Ross Sea, this is the first study to report foraging behaviors and habitat affiliations among birds occupying continental slope waters. Continental slope habitat supports the greatest abundances of this species throughout its range, but we lack information about how intra-specific competition for prey might affect foraging and at-sea distribution and how these attributes compare with previous Ross Sea studies. Foraging trips increased in both distance and duration as breeding advanced from guard to crèche stage, but foraging dive depth, dive rates, and vertical dive distances travelled per hour decreased. Consistent with previous studies within slope habitats elsewhere in Antarctic waters, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) dominated chick meal composition, but fish increased four-fold from guard to crèche stages. Foraging-, focal-, and core areas all doubled during the crèche stage as individuals shifted distribution in a southeasterly direction away from the coast while simultaneously becoming more widely dispersed (i.e., less spatial overlap among individuals). Intra-specific competition for prey among Adélie penguins appears to influence foraging behavior of this species, even in food webs dominated by Antarctic krill.

  20. Intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior among Adélie penguins (Pygocelis adeliae) breeding at Cape Hallett, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyver, P.O.B.; MacLeod, C.J.; Ballard, G.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Adams, J.; Ainley, D.G.; Wilson, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior of chick-rearing Adélie penguins, Pygoscelis adeliae, during two consecutive summers at Cape Hallett, northwestern Ross Sea. Although foraging behavior of this species has been extensively studied throughout the broad continental shelf region of the Ross Sea, this is the first study to report foraging behaviors and habitat affiliations among birds occupying continental slope waters. Continental slope habitat supports the greatest abundances of this species throughout its range, but we lack information about how intra-specific competition for prey might affect foraging and at-sea distribution and how these attributes compare with previous Ross Sea studies. Foraging trips increased in both distance and duration as breeding advanced from guard to crèche stage, but foraging dive depth, dive rates, and vertical dive distances travelled per hour decreased. Consistent with previous studies within slope habitats elsewhere in Antarctic waters, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) dominated chick meal composition, but fish increased four-fold from guard to crèche stages. Foraging-, focal-, and core areas all doubled during the crèche stage as individuals shifted distribution in a southeasterly direction away from the coast while simultaneously becoming more widely dispersed (i.e., less spatial overlap among individuals). Intra-specific competition for prey among Adélie penguins appears to influence foraging behavior of this species, even in food webs dominated by Antarctic krill.

  1. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Goenner, Hubert

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  2. The Incremental Validity of a Short Form of the Ideational Behavior Scale and Usefulness of Distractor, Contraindicative, and Lie Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.; Walczyk, Jeffrey John; Acar, Selcuk; Cowger, Ernest L.; Simundson, Melissa; Tripp, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an empirical refinement of the "Runco Ideational Behavior Scale" (RIBS). The RIBS seems to be associated with divergent thinking, and the potential for creative thinking, but it was possible that its validity could be improved. With this in mind, three new scales were developed and the unique benefit (or…

  3. Feeding and lying behavior of heat-stressed early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing roughage and nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Junlapho, W; Karnjanasirm, K

    2015-02-01

    In addition to reduced nutrient intake, an environmental thermal load may directly affect milk yield in heat-stressed dairy cows. Feeding and lying behaviors of early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from roughage and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Immediately after calving, 30 multiparous cows (87.5% Holstein × 12.5% Sahiwal) were randomly allocated to dietary treatments for 63 d in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments contained 25% of dry matter (DM) as dietary NDF. The control diet consisted of 13.9% roughage NDF from rice straw (RS). Two additional treatments were created by replacing 3.9% of DM with NDF from either soy hulls (SH) or cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) residues (CR), so that the roughage NDF content was reduced to 10%. During the experimental period, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity indices (THI) were 86.4±2.5 and 91.5±2.7 during the day and 74.2±2.1 and 81.0±2.5 during the night, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for induction of extreme heat stress. The duration of feeding and lying bouts decreased linearly with increasing THI. The DM intake during the day was greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR than for those fed the diet containing NDF from RS. The number of meals during the day and night was lower, whereas meal size and meal length during the day and night were greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR. Cows fed diets containing SH and CR lay down less frequently and longer during the day. These results suggest that under the severe heat stress during the day, early lactation cows fed the diet containing NFFS increased DM intake by increasing meal length and meal size rather than by increasing meal frequency and they spent more time lying. Cows fed diets containing NDF from SH and CR produced more 4% fat-corrected milk, lost less body weight, and had lower rectal temperatures

  4. Feeding and lying behavior of heat-stressed early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing roughage and nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Junlapho, W; Karnjanasirm, K

    2015-02-01

    In addition to reduced nutrient intake, an environmental thermal load may directly affect milk yield in heat-stressed dairy cows. Feeding and lying behaviors of early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from roughage and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Immediately after calving, 30 multiparous cows (87.5% Holstein × 12.5% Sahiwal) were randomly allocated to dietary treatments for 63 d in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments contained 25% of dry matter (DM) as dietary NDF. The control diet consisted of 13.9% roughage NDF from rice straw (RS). Two additional treatments were created by replacing 3.9% of DM with NDF from either soy hulls (SH) or cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) residues (CR), so that the roughage NDF content was reduced to 10%. During the experimental period, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity indices (THI) were 86.4±2.5 and 91.5±2.7 during the day and 74.2±2.1 and 81.0±2.5 during the night, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for induction of extreme heat stress. The duration of feeding and lying bouts decreased linearly with increasing THI. The DM intake during the day was greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR than for those fed the diet containing NDF from RS. The number of meals during the day and night was lower, whereas meal size and meal length during the day and night were greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR. Cows fed diets containing SH and CR lay down less frequently and longer during the day. These results suggest that under the severe heat stress during the day, early lactation cows fed the diet containing NFFS increased DM intake by increasing meal length and meal size rather than by increasing meal frequency and they spent more time lying. Cows fed diets containing NDF from SH and CR produced more 4% fat-corrected milk, lost less body weight, and had lower rectal temperatures

  5. Comparing Models of Helper Behavior to Actual Practice in Telephone Crisis Intervention: A Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Chagnon, Francois; Daigle, Marc; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bardon, Cecile; Campbell, Julie K.; Berman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Models of telephone crisis intervention in suicide prevention and best practices were developed from a literature review and surveys of crisis centers. We monitored 2,611 calls to 14 centers using reliable behavioral ratings to compare actual interventions with the models. Active listening and collaborative problem-solving models describe help…

  6. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  7. Emergence of Lying in Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…

  8. Perceived Growth versus Actual Growth in Executive Leadership Competencies: An Application of the Stair-Step Behaviorally Anchored Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Michael J.; Dooley, Kim E.; Lindner, James R.; Cummins, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe student learning in executive leadership core competencies after being engaged in a two-semester leadership education sequence. The researchers used evaluative research techniques to compare perceived and actual growth in learning of executive leadership competencies. Data collection consisted of a…

  9. Estimating the economic impact of a repository from scenario-based surveys: Models of the relation of stated intent to actual behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.; Morwitz, V.; Kunreuther, H.

    1990-12-01

    The task of estimating the economic impact of a facility as novel and long-lived as a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository is fraught with uncertainty. One approach to the forecasting problems is to survey economic agents as to how they would respond when confronted with hypothetical repository scenarios. A series of such studies conducted for the state of Nevada have examined the potential impact of a Yucca Mountain repository on behavior such as planning conventions, attending conventions, vacationing, outmigration, immigration, and business location. In each case, respondents drawn from a target population report on whether a particular repository event (either some form of an accident, or simply the presence of the facility) would cause them to act any differently than they otherwise would. The responses to such a survey provide an indication of whether or not economic behavior would be altered. However, the analysis is inevitably plagued with the question of how much credence to place in the reports of intended behavior; can we believe what people report they would do in a hypothetical situation? The present study examines a more precise version of this question regarding the validity of stated intent data. After reviewing a variety of literature in the area of intent versus actual behavior, we provide an answer to the question, ``What levels of actual behavior are consistent with the intent data that have been observed in the repository surveys?`` More formally, we assume that we are generally interested in predicting the proportion of a sample who will actually perform a target behavior. 86 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Objectives and Actual HIV and AIDS Education Programme Delivery and Behavioral Changes among Kenyan Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongunya, R. O.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Although there seems to be a high level of awareness of the HIV and AIDS menace among the youth, their behavior does not reflect this level of awareness. There seems to be a mismatch between HIV and AIDS Programme objectives and behavior change among the youth. However, this level of mismatch has not been established for effective intervention…

  11. Parenting by Lying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

  12. Resentment of paternalism as system change sentiment: hostile sexism toward men and actual behavior in the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    PubMed

    Tate, Charlotte Chuck

    2014-01-01

    Taking inspiration from Glick and colleagues (2004), this study tested the idea that resentment of paternalism (which is part of the hostile sexism toward men construct) might approximate desire for system change by correlating this variable with actual behavior associated with system change in a single culture. Specifically, voting behavior in the 2008 U.S. presidential election was predicted from political party affiliation, measures of hostile and benevolent sexism toward both women and men, and egalitarian racial attitudes using a U.S. college student sample. Results indicated that the only significant predictors of voting behavior were political party affiliation, resentment of paternalism, and egalitarian racial attitudes. Higher levels of resentment of paternalism were in fact associated with voting for the ticket that represented system change-holding the other predictors constant.

  13. Parenting by lying

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2010-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of `parenting by lying', in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n = 127), parents reported lying to their children and considered doing so to be acceptable under some circumstances, even though they also reported teaching their children that lying is unacceptable. As compared to European American parents, Asian American parents tended to hold a more favourable view of lying to children for the purpose of promoting behavioural compliance. PMID:20930948

  14. The truth about lying.

    PubMed

    Turri, Angelo; Turri, John

    2015-05-01

    The standard view in social science and philosophy is that lying does not require the liar's assertion to be false, only that the liar believes it to be false. We conducted three experiments to test whether lying requires falsity. Overall, the results suggest that it does. We discuss some implications for social scientists working on social judgments, research on lie detection, and public moral discourse. PMID:25754242

  15. Special Feature: Why Young Children Lie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Frances

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses why children tell a lie and how to help a child develop morality and responsibility for his or her actions. When viewed as part of a child's emotional and intellectual development, it is found that telling lies doesn't condemn a child to a life of betrayal or serious behavior problems. Recent research has shown that lying…

  16. From attitude to action: What shapes attitude toward walking to/from school and how does it influence actual behaviors?

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-09-01

    Walking to/from school could promote children's physical activity and help combat childhood obesity. Parental attitudes have been identified as one of the important predictors. But it is unclear what factors shape parental attitudes, and how those in turn influence children's school travel. This study addresses this gap of knowledge by examining the mediating effect of parental attitudes for the relationships between personal, social, and built environmental factors and children's walking-to/from-school behaviors. Survey data (N=2597) were collected from 20 public elementary schools in Austin, Texas, measuring students' typical school travel mode; personal, social, and built environmental factors related to walking-to/from-school; and relevant parental attitudes. The analysis was conducted in M-plus 6.11 to test the proposed conceptual framework using a structural equation model (SEM). Parental attitudes showed significant mediating effects on walking-to/from-school behaviors. Older child, positive peer influence, walkable home-to-school distance, and favorable walking environments were associated with more enjoyment and lower attitudinal barriers, and in turn increased likelihood of walking to/from school. Being Hispanic, increased car ownership, and stronger traffic safety concerns reduced enjoyment and increased attitudinal barriers, and thus decreased likelihood of walking to/from school. This study highlighted the importance of using multilevel interventions to reduce attitudinal barriers and increase enjoyment of walking to/from school. Collaborations among different stakeholders are needed to address environmental issues (e.g., safety concerns) and social factors (e.g., peer influence), while being sensitive to personal factors (e.g., age, ethnicity, and car ownership). PMID:27374942

  17. Whoppers and White Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermillion, Marti

    1985-01-01

    Lying is a symptom of a much broader problem. Primary motivations are need for acceptance, fear of punishment, and desire for attention. Children learn about honesty through observation, both directly and indirectly. Admitting mistakes, especially to children, is invaluable and can help break the lying syndrome. (MT)

  18. Lay or Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Barbara R.

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: LEVEL: High school and college. AUTHOR'S COMMENT: Many would like to abandon the distinction between "lay" and "lie," but I still receive enough questions about it to continue teaching it. Finding that students did not believe me when I taught them to substitute "recline" for "lie," because "The rug…

  19. Medicine, lies and deceptions.

    PubMed

    Benn, P

    2001-04-01

    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities.

  20. Predictors of children's prosocial lie-telling: Motivation, socialization variables, and moral understanding.

    PubMed

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-11-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders and 36 fourth graders) participated in a disappointing gift paradigm in either a high-cost condition (lost a good gift for a disappointing one) or a low-cost condition (received a disappointing gift). More children lied in the low-cost condition (94%) than in the high-cost condition (72%), with no age difference. In Study 2, 117 children (42 preschoolers, 41 early elementary school age, and 34 late elementary school age) participated in either a high- or low-cost disappointing gift paradigm and responded to prosocial vignette scenarios. Parents reported on their parenting practices and family emotional expressivity. Again, more children lied in the low-cost condition (68%) than in the high-cost condition (40%); however, there was an age effect among children in the high-cost condition. Preschoolers were less likely than older children to lie when there was a high personal cost. In addition, compared with truth-tellers, prosocial liars had parents who were more authoritative but expressed less positive emotion within the family. Finally, there was an interaction between children's prosocial lie-telling behavior and their evaluations of the protagonist's and recipient's feelings. Findings contribute to understanding the trajectory of children's prosocial lie-telling, their reasons for telling such lies, and their knowledge about interpersonal communication.

  1. On lying and deceiving.

    PubMed

    Bakhurst, D

    1992-06-01

    This article challenges Jennifer Jackson's recent defence of doctors' rights to deceive patients. Jackson maintains there is a general moral difference between lying and intentional deception: while doctors have a prima facie duty not to lie, there is no such obligation to avoid deception. This paper argues 1) that an examination of cases shows that lying and deception are often morally equivalent, and 2) that Jackson's position is premised on a species of moral functionalism that misconstrues the nature of moral obligation. Against Jackson, it is argued that both lying and intentional deception are wrong where they infringe a patient's right to autonomy or his/her right to be treated with dignity. These rights represent 'deontological constraints' on action, defining what we must not do whatever the functional value of the consequences. Medical ethics must recognise such constraints if it is to contribute to the moral integrity of medical practice.

  2. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision.

  3. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. PMID:25306079

  4. [Lie, whacking lie and pseudologia phantastica--pathological lying in factitious disorder].

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Pseudologia phantastica refers to chronic pathological lying without a clear motive. It is a symptom in the factitious disorder in adults, Munchausen syndrome and an illness made up for or inflicted on a child. Child abuse is often involved. Patients making up or causing symptoms for themselves of their child may have been exposed to similar behavior as a child. Some of them have received care and attention only through an illness. Pseudologia phantastica may then in adulthood be directed to making up or causing illnesses for oneself or another person. PMID:25558592

  5. Lied Transplant Center

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1143) evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the proposed Lied Transplant Center at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Statement in not required.

  6. On lie detection "wizards".

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; Uysal, Ahmet

    2007-02-01

    M. O'Sullivan and P. Ekman (2004) claim to have discovered 29 wizards of deception detection. The present commentary offers a statistical critique of the evidence for this claim. Analyses reveal that chance can explain results that the authors attribute to wizardry. Thus, by the usual statistical logic of psychological research, O'Sullivan and Ekman's claims about wizardry are gratuitous. Even so, there may be individuals whose wizardry remains to be uncovered. Thus, the commentary outlines forms of evidence that are (and are not) capable of diagnosing lie detection wizardry. PMID:17221309

  7. Police lie detection accuracy: the effect of lie scenario.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Maureen; Frank, Mark G; Hurley, Carolyn M; Tiwana, Jaspreet

    2009-12-01

    Although most people are not better than chance in detecting deception, some groups of police professionals have demonstrated significant lie detection accuracy. One reason for this difference may be that the types of lies police are asked to judge in scientific experiments often do not represent the types of lies they see in their profession. Across 23 studies, involving 31 different police groups in eight countries, police officers tested with lie detection scenarios using high stakes lies (i.e., the lie was personally involving and/or resulted in substantial rewards or punishments for the liar) were significantly more accurate than law enforcement officials tested with low stakes lies. Face validity and construct validity of various lie scenarios are differentiated.

  8. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future. PMID:23888745

  9. Blue Lies and Police Placebos: The Moralities of Police Lying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockars, Carl B.

    1984-01-01

    The concession that the lie is preferred over force as a means of social control forms the basis for the morality of policy lying, i.e., in any situation in which police have a legitimate right to use force they acquire a moral right to achieve the same ends by lying. (RM)

  10. Telling Lies: The Irrepressible Truth?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emma J.; Bott, Lewis A.; Patrick, John; Lewis, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Telling a lie takes longer than telling the truth but precisely why remains uncertain. We investigated two processes suggested to increase response times, namely the decision to lie and the construction of a lie response. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were directed or chose whether to lie or tell the truth. A colored square was presented and participants had to name either the true color of the square or lie about it by claiming it was a different color. In both experiments we found that there was a greater difference between lying and telling the truth when participants were directed to lie compared to when they chose to lie. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared response times when participants had only one possible lie option to a choice of two or three possible options. There was a greater lying latency effect when questions involved more than one possible lie response. Experiment 5 examined response choice mechanisms through the manipulation of lie plausibility. Overall, results demonstrate several distinct mechanisms that contribute to additional processing requirements when individuals tell a lie. PMID:23573277

  11. The colour spectrum of lies.

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix; Orlins, Emily

    2015-09-01

    In this reply to Ceci, Burd, and Helm, we discuss future directions for developmental research to (1) study the motivations underlying white lies and (2) how to classify lies that reflect other-regard and self-interest simultaneously.

  12. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  13. Renormalized Lie perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another.

  14. How People Really Detect Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.; Morrison, Kelly; Ferrara, Merissa

    2002-01-01

    Considers that participants in previous deception detection experiments may not have had access to the types of information people most often use to detect real-life lies. Suggests that people most often rely on information from third parties and physical evidence when detecting lies, and that the detection of a lie is a process that takes days,…

  15. When does feeling moral actually make you a better person? Conceptual abstraction moderates whether past moral deeds motivate consistency or compensatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Conway, Paul; Peetz, Johanna

    2012-07-01

    According to the moral licensing literature, moral self-perceptions induce compensatory behavior: People who feel moral act less prosocially than those who feel immoral. Conversely, work on moral identity indicates that moral self-perceptions motivate behavioral consistency: People who feel moral act more prosocially than those who feel less so. In three studies, the authors reconcile these propositions by demonstrating the moderating role of conceptual abstraction. In Study 1, participants who recalled performing recent (concrete) moral or immoral behavior demonstrated compensatory behavior, whereas participants who considered temporally distant (abstract) moral behavior demonstrated behavioral consistency. Study 2 confirmed that this effect was unique to moral self-perceptions. Study 3 manipulated whether participants recalled moral or immoral actions concretely or abstractly, and replicated the moderation pattern with willingness to donate real money to charity. Together, these findings suggest that concrete moral self-perceptions activate self-regulatory behavior, and abstract moral self-perceptions activate identity concerns.

  16. Predictors of Children's Prosocial Lie-Telling: Motivation, Socialization Variables, and Moral Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…

  17. Therapy of Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  18. Lying relies on the truth.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the truth, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert truth activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the truth or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the truth, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by truth distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of truth distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of truth telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the truth activation in the lying process.

  19. Prepared Lies, Spontaneous Lies, Machiavellianism, and Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, Henry D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated cue leakage during deception. Demonstrated that during a prepared lie (one that is rehearsed or mentally prepared), liars exhibited shorter response latencies and message durations, less smiling, more affirmative nodding and body adaptors than truth tellers did. During a spontaneous lie, liars exhibited more body adapters than truth…

  20. Theatres of the lie: 'crazy' deception and lying as drama.

    PubMed

    Dongen, Els van

    2002-08-01

    In this article, the author argues that lying is drama, theatre, which brings about transition, reflection, reversal and involvement of the participants in the drama. By means of ethnographic data of a psychiatric ward, the author shows that lying of mental patients is not pathological, but a ritual of affliction. By using Turner's theory about rituals and performance and Goffman's theory about presentation of the self it will be showed that lying serves the redefinition of reciprocity and solidarity. With the help of Bakhtin's work on Rabelais, the author discusses the nature of the drama of the lie. It is concluded that a perspective on lying as theatre may be of use outside psychiatric wards and will occur in imbalanced power relationships.

  1. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  2. Nonstandard Methods in Lie Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbring, Isaac Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we apply model theory to Lie theory and geometric group theory. These applications of model theory come via nonstandard analysis. In Lie theory, we use nonstandard methods to prove two results. First, we give a positive solution to the local form of Hilbert's Fifth Problem, which asks whether every locally euclidean local…

  3. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  4. The colour spectrum of lies.

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix; Orlins, Emily

    2015-09-01

    In this reply to Ceci, Burd, and Helm, we discuss future directions for developmental research to (1) study the motivations underlying white lies and (2) how to classify lies that reflect other-regard and self-interest simultaneously. PMID:26223740

  5. Global Cue Usage in Behavioral Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; deTurck, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that subjects primarily used a communicator's verbal plausibility, nervousness, and nonverbal expectancies violation to guide veracity judgments. Shows that accuracy was higher for participants judging truthful communicators than for subjects judging deceptive communicators. Discusses a truth bias and the use of global heuristics as possible…

  6. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  7. Group discussion improves lie detection

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a “wisdom-of-crowds” effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the “truth bias”). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment. PMID:26015581

  8. Lying despite telling the truth.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Alex; Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    According to the standard definition of lying an utterance counts as a lie if the agent believes the statement to be false. Thus, according to this view it is possible that a lie states something that happens to be true. This subjective view on lying has recently been challenged by Turri and Turri (2015) who presented empirical evidence suggesting that people only consider statements as lies that are objectively false (objective view). We argue that the presented evidence is in fact consistent with the standard subjective view if conversational pragmatics is taken into account. Three experiments are presented that directly test and support the subjective view. An additional experiment backs up our pragmatic hypothesis by using the uncontroversial case of making a promise. PMID:26848734

  9. Lying despite telling the truth.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Alex; Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    According to the standard definition of lying an utterance counts as a lie if the agent believes the statement to be false. Thus, according to this view it is possible that a lie states something that happens to be true. This subjective view on lying has recently been challenged by Turri and Turri (2015) who presented empirical evidence suggesting that people only consider statements as lies that are objectively false (objective view). We argue that the presented evidence is in fact consistent with the standard subjective view if conversational pragmatics is taken into account. Three experiments are presented that directly test and support the subjective view. An additional experiment backs up our pragmatic hypothesis by using the uncontroversial case of making a promise.

  10. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment. PMID:26015581

  11. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  12. Commentary: getting at the truth about pathological lying.

    PubMed

    Grubin, Don

    2005-01-01

    Lying is common, and in its many aspects forms a normal part of social interchange. In this issue, Dike et al. review the literature on what has been referred to as pathological lying, highlighting the lack of information available about this phenomenon. In this commentary on Dike et al., it is noted that if pathological lying exists, it is not the lie, but the liar that is abnormal, with the abnormality relating not to the nature of the lies told, but to the mental state associated with the behavior. Before forensic opinions regarding pathological lying can be given with confidence, we need more data to help determine whether it is in fact a psychiatric entity, and if it is, about the physical and psychological characteristics that underpin it.

  13. Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Sarah; Gao, Xiaoqing; Brunet, Megan; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT), which employs the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), to automatically code children's facial expressions while lying. Using CERT, children's facial expressions during antisocial and prosocial lying were accurately and reliably differentiated significantly above chance-level accuracy. The basic expressions of emotion that distinguished antisocial lies from prosocial lies were joy and contempt. Children expressed joy more in prosocial lying than in antisocial lying. Girls showed more joy and less contempt compared with boys when they told prosocial lies. Boys showed more contempt when they told prosocial lies than when they told antisocial lies. The key action units (AUs) that differentiate children's antisocial and prosocial lies are blink/eye closure, lip pucker, and lip raise on the right side. Together, these findings indicate that children's facial expressions differ while telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. The reliability of CERT in detecting such differences in facial expression suggests the viability of using computer vision technology in deception research.

  14. Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Sarah; Gao, Xiaoqing; Brunet, Megan; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT), which employs the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), to automatically code children's facial expressions while lying. Using CERT, children's facial expressions during antisocial and prosocial lying were accurately and reliably differentiated significantly above chance-level accuracy. The basic expressions of emotion that distinguished antisocial lies from prosocial lies were joy and contempt. Children expressed joy more in prosocial lying than in antisocial lying. Girls showed more joy and less contempt compared with boys when they told prosocial lies. Boys showed more contempt when they told prosocial lies than when they told antisocial lies. The key action units (AUs) that differentiate children's antisocial and prosocial lies are blink/eye closure, lip pucker, and lip raise on the right side. Together, these findings indicate that children's facial expressions differ while telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. The reliability of CERT in detecting such differences in facial expression suggests the viability of using computer vision technology in deception research. PMID:27318957

  15. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    PubMed

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  16. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    PubMed Central

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  17. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    PubMed

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  18. Phantoms and Fabrications: Young Children's Detection of Implausible Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kang; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Doucette, Joanne; Talwar, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Five experiments examined whether young children believe a lie tellers' implausible statement about a misdeed when the statement violates their developing knowledge of the reality- fantasy distinction. Findings suggested that 5- and 6-year-olds tended to report that the individual making the implausible statement actually committed the misdeed; 3-…

  19. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  20. Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students’ alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  1. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking.

  2. Form and Actuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    A basic choice underlies physics. It consists of banishing actual situations from theoretical descriptions, in order to reach a universal formal construct. Actualities are then thought of as mere local appearances of a transcendent reality supposedly described by the formal construct. Despite its impressive success, this method has left major loopholes in the foundations of science. In this paper, I document two of these loopholes. One is the problem of time asymmetry in statistical thermodynamics, and the other is the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. Then, adopting a broader philosophical standpoint, I try to turn the whole picture upside down. Here, full priority is given to actuality (construed as a mode of the immanent reality self-reflectively being itself) over formal constructs. The characteristic aporias of this variety of "Copernican revolution" are discussed.

  3. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    PubMed

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  4. Parabolic curves in Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, Michael

    2010-05-15

    To interpolate a sequence of points in Euclidean space, parabolic splines can be used. These are curves which are piecewise quadratic. To interpolate between points in a (semi-)Riemannian manifold, we could look for curves such that the second covariant derivative of the velocity is zero. We call such curves Jupp and Kent quadratics or JK-quadratics because they are a special case of the cubic curves advocated by Jupp and Kent. When the manifold is a Lie group with bi-invariant metric, we can relate JK-quadratics to null Lie quadratics which arise from another interpolation problem. We solve JK-quadratics in the Lie groups SO(3) and SO(1,2) and in the sphere and hyperbolic plane, by relating them to the differential equation for a quantum harmonic oscillator00.

  5. [Counter-acception or abort and lie].

    PubMed

    Maruani, G

    1979-09-01

    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct. PMID:12158286

  6. Teaching medical students to lie

    PubMed Central

    Young, T A

    1997-01-01

    Although truthfulness and honesty have long been considered fundamental values within the medical profession, lying and deception have become standard practices within medicine's resident-selection process. Dishonesty is incorporated into and encouraged during this process, and there is little need for medical students and other participants to reflect upon their actions. This essay, which won the $1500 first prize in CMAJs 1996 Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest, looks at the serious consequences of this lying and deception. Dr. Tara Young discusses the moral dilemma applicants for residencies face during their final year of undergraduate training. PMID:9012725

  7. Does Simulator-Based Clinical Performance Correlate with Actual Hospital Behavior? The Effect of Extended Work Hours on Patient Care Provided by Medical Interns

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, James A.; Alexander, Erik K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Flynn-Evans, Erin; Venkatan, Suresh K.; Landrigan, Christopher P.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The correlation between simulator-based medical performance and real-world behavior remains unclear. The authors conducted this study to explore whether the effects of extended work hours on clinical performance, as reported in prior hospital-based studies, could be observed in a simulator-based testing environment. Method Intern volunteers reported to the simulator laboratory in a rested state and again in a sleep-deprived state (after a traditional 24–30 hour overnight shift [n=17]). A subset also presented after a shortened overnight shift (maximum of 16 scheduled hours [n=8]). During each laboratory visit, participants managed two critically ill patients. An on-site physician scored each case, as did a blinded rater later watching videotapes of the performances (score=1 [worst] to 8 [best]; average of both cases = session score). Results Among all participants, the average simulator session score was 6.0 (95% CI: 5.6–6.4) in the rested state, and declined to 5.0 (95% CI: 4.6–5.4) after the traditional overnight shift (P<0.001). Among those who completed the shortened overnight shift, the average post-shift simulator session score was 5.8 (95% CI: 5.0–6.6) compared to 4.3 [95%CI: 3.8–4.9]) after a traditional extended shift (P<0.001). Conclusions In a clinical simulation test, medical interns performed significantly better after working a shortened overnight shift compared to a traditional extended shift. These findings are consistent with real-time hospital studies using the same shift schedule. Such an independent correlation not only confirms the detrimental impact of extended work hours on medical performance, but also supports the validity of simulation as a clinical performance assessment tool. PMID:20881679

  8. Lying in the Public Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, W. Peter

    1993-01-01

    Discusses lying by public officials and governments. Reviews history textbook research, and concludes that the content is selected and written to preserve political and economic power. Questions whether or not societies should allow children to be brought up with false beliefs about their own history. (CFR)

  9. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie tellers from…

  10. Lying in the Name of the Collective Good: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Wang, Lingfeng; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental origin of "blue lies", a pervasive form of lying in the adult world that is told purportedly to benefit a collective. Seven, 9-, and 11-year-old Chinese children were surreptitiously placed in a real-life situation where they decided whether to lie to conceal their group's cheating behavior. Children…

  11. The effects of variability in Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) spawning behavior and sex/maturity stage distribution on Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Fraser, William R.

    2010-04-01

    Factors that control variability in energy density of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) populations, and the consequences of this variability for growth and fledging mass of Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks, were investigated using an individual-based energetics model. Lipid content as a function of sex/maturity stage and season was used to calculate the energy density of krill ingested by chicks. Simulations tested the influence of variability in krill size-class distribution, sex-ratio, length-at-maturity, and the timing of spawning on krill population energy density and penguin chick fledging mass. Of the parameters included in simulations, variability in the timing of krill spawning had the greatest influence on predicted Adélie penguin fledging mass, with fledging mass decreasing from 3.30 to 2.92 kg when peak spawning was shifted from early December to early March. Adélie penguin chicks that fledge from colonies along the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP) and survive to recruit into the breeding population are 0.117 kg heavier than those that do not survive to breed. Thus, it appears that small differences in fledging mass potentially have significant implications for Adélie penguin chick survivorship. Therefore, the timing of krill spawning may have important consequences for Adélie penguins, and other top-predator species, that may time critical activities to coincide with a period of dependable prey availability with maximum energy density.

  12. Examining the Efficacy of Truth/Lie Discussions in Predicting and Increasing the Veracity of Children's Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Kamala; Nunez, Narina

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether 4- to 6-year-olds' ability to reason about truths and lies influenced their truth-telling behavior. Found that children's performance on truth/lie questions did not predict their truth-telling. Regardless of performance on truth/lie questions, children receiving developmentally appropriate truth/lie discussions gave more…

  13. Unconscious processes improve lie detection.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Marc-André; Greifeneder, Rainer; Scharmach, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The capacity to identify cheaters is essential for maintaining balanced social relationships, yet humans have been shown to be generally poor deception detectors. In fact, a plethora of empirical findings holds that individuals are only slightly better than chance when discerning lies from truths. Here, we report 5 experiments showing that judges' ability to detect deception greatly increases after periods of unconscious processing. Specifically, judges who were kept from consciously deliberating outperformed judges who were encouraged to do so or who made a decision immediately; moreover, unconscious thinkers' detection accuracy was significantly above chance level. The reported experiments further show that this improvement comes about because unconscious thinking processes allow for integrating the particularly rich information basis necessary for accurate lie detection. These findings suggest that the human mind is not unfit to distinguish between truth and deception but that this ability resides in previously overlooked processes.

  14. Unconscious processes improve lie detection.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Marc-André; Greifeneder, Rainer; Scharmach, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The capacity to identify cheaters is essential for maintaining balanced social relationships, yet humans have been shown to be generally poor deception detectors. In fact, a plethora of empirical findings holds that individuals are only slightly better than chance when discerning lies from truths. Here, we report 5 experiments showing that judges' ability to detect deception greatly increases after periods of unconscious processing. Specifically, judges who were kept from consciously deliberating outperformed judges who were encouraged to do so or who made a decision immediately; moreover, unconscious thinkers' detection accuracy was significantly above chance level. The reported experiments further show that this improvement comes about because unconscious thinking processes allow for integrating the particularly rich information basis necessary for accurate lie detection. These findings suggest that the human mind is not unfit to distinguish between truth and deception but that this ability resides in previously overlooked processes. PMID:24219784

  15. Can lies be detected unconsciously?

    PubMed Central

    Moi, Wen Ying; Shanks, David R.

    2015-01-01

    People are typically poor at telling apart truthful and deceptive statements. Based on the Unconscious Thought Theory, it has been suggested that poor lie detection arises from the intrinsic limitations of conscious thinking and can be improved by facilitating the contribution of unconscious thought (UT). In support of this hypothesis, Reinhard et al. (2013) observed improved lie detection among participants engaging in UT. The present study aimed to replicate this UT advantage using a similar experimental procedure but with an important improvement in a key control condition. Specifically, participants judged the truthfulness of eight video recordings in three thinking modes: immediately after watching them or after a period of unconscious or conscious deliberation. Results from two experiments (combined N = 226) failed to reveal a significant difference in lie detection accuracy between the thinking modes, even after efforts were made to facilitate the occurrence of an UT advantage in Experiment 2. The results imply that the UT advantage in deception detection is not a robust phenomenon. PMID:26379575

  16. Lie Group Analysis of Plasma-Fluid Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Raul

    1995-01-01

    Lie group methods for nonlinear partial differential equations are implemented to study, analytically, a subset of the full solution space of a family of plasma-fluid models. The solutions obtained by this method are known as group invariant solutions. The basic set of equations considered comprise the three-field fluid model due to Hazeltine (HTFM), which was obtained to describe nonlinear large aspect ratio tokamak physics. This model contains as particular limits the physics of the Charney-Hasegawa -Mima equation (CHM) and reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), which are two other models known to describe some features of nonlinear behavior of tokamak plasmas. Lie's method requires a large number of systematic calculations to determine the Lie point symmetries of the system of differential equations. These symmetries form a Lie group and describe the geometrical invariance of the equations. The Lie symmetries have been calculated for the systems mentioned above by using a symbolic manipulation program. A detailed analysis of the physical meaning of these symmetries is given. Using the Lie algebraic properties of the generators of the symmetries, a reduction of the number of independent variables for the full nonlinear systems of equations is calculated, which in turn yields simplified equations that sometimes can be solved analytically. A discussion of some of the reductions and solutions generated by this technique is presented. The results show the feasibility of using Lie methods to obtain analytical results for complicated nonlinear systems of partial differential equations that describe physically interesting situations.

  17. Supportive Peer Groups: A Behavior Management Program for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virden, Tim

    A supportive peer group management program for behaviorally disordered students is described. Children learn to confront one another about problems in a helpful, structured way. A generic problem list based on actual classroom experiences is composed of such elements as aggravation, hurting, lying, and disrespect for self and others. Children are…

  18. Beliefs about Lying and Spreading of Dishonesty: Undetected Lies and Their Constructive and Destructive Social Dynamics in Dice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rauhut, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments have shown that observing other people littering, stealing or lying can trigger own misconduct, leading to a decay of social order. However, a large extent of norm violations goes undetected. Hence, the direction of the dynamics crucially depends on actors’ beliefs regarding undetected transgressions. Because undetected transgressions are hardly measureable in the field, a laboratory experiment was developed, where the complete prevalence of norm violations, subjective beliefs about them, and their behavioral dynamics is measurable. In the experiment, subjects could lie about their monetary payoffs, estimate the extent of liars in their group and make subsequent lies contingent on information about other people’s lies. Results show that informed people who underestimate others’ lying increase own lying more than twice and those who overestimate, decrease it by more than half compared to people without information about others’ lies. This substantial interaction puts previous results into perspective, showing that information about others’ transgressions can trigger dynamics in both directions: the spreading of normative decay and restoring of norm adherence. PMID:24236007

  19. Beliefs about lying and spreading of dishonesty: undetected lies and their constructive and destructive social dynamics in dice experiments.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments have shown that observing other people littering, stealing or lying can trigger own misconduct, leading to a decay of social order. However, a large extent of norm violations goes undetected. Hence, the direction of the dynamics crucially depends on actors' beliefs regarding undetected transgressions. Because undetected transgressions are hardly measureable in the field, a laboratory experiment was developed, where the complete prevalence of norm violations, subjective beliefs about them, and their behavioral dynamics is measurable. In the experiment, subjects could lie about their monetary payoffs, estimate the extent of liars in their group and make subsequent lies contingent on information about other people's lies. Results show that informed people who underestimate others' lying increase own lying more than twice and those who overestimate, decrease it by more than half compared to people without information about others' lies. This substantial interaction puts previous results into perspective, showing that information about others' transgressions can trigger dynamics in both directions: the spreading of normative decay and restoring of norm adherence.

  20. Filiform Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, R. M.

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this work is to generalize a very important type of Lie algebras and superalgebras, i.e., filiform Lie (super)algebras, into the theory of Lie algebras of order F. Thus, the concept of filiform Lie algebras of order F is obtained. In particular, for F = 3 it has been proved that by using infinitesimal deformations of the associated model elementary Lie algebra it can be obtained families of filiform elementary lie algebras of order 3, analogously as that occurs into the theory of Lie algebras [M. Vergne, “Cohomologie des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes. Application à l’étude de la variété des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes,” Bull. Soc. Math. France 98, 81–116 (1970)]. Also we give the dimension, using an adaptation of the sl(2,C)-module Method, and a basis of such infinitesimal deformations in some generic cases.

  1. Covariant Lie derivatives and Frölicher-Nijenhuis bracket on Lie algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nicola, Antonio; Yudin, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    We define covariant Lie derivatives acting on vector-valued forms on Lie algebroids and study their properties. This allows us to obtain a concise formula for the Frölicher-Nijenhuis bracket on Lie algebroids.

  2. To Lie or Not to Lie? The Influence of Parenting and Theory-of-Mind Understanding on Three-Year-Old Children's Honesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Fengling; Evans, Angela D.; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xianming; Xu, Fen

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that social-cognitive factors such as children's false-belief understanding and parenting style are related to children's lie-telling behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate how earlier forms of theory-of-mind understanding contribute to children's lie-telling as well as how parenting practices are related…

  3. Characteristic Numbers of Matrix Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Fan, En-Gui

    2008-04-01

    A notion of characteristic number of matrix Lie algebras is defined, which is devoted to distinguishing various Lie algebras that are used to generate integrable couplings of soliton equations. That is, the exact classification of the matrix Lie algebras by using computational formulas is given. Here the characteristic numbers also describe the relations between soliton solutions of the stationary zero curvature equations expressed by various Lie algebras.

  4. Some applications of Lie groups in astrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. A.

    1983-01-01

    Differential equations that arise in astrodynamics are examined from the standpoint of Lie group theory. A summary of the Lie method is given for first degree differential equations. The Kepler problem in Hamiltonian form is treated by this method. Extension of the Lie method to optimal trajectories is outlined.

  5. Empirical Evidence for a Typology of Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    A study was conducted to test the empirical merit of R. M. Chisholm's and T. D. Feehan's proposed typology of deception: (1) commission versus omission (lies of commission are those where the liar contributes causally to the receiver's believing the lie, perhaps by telling the falsehood; lies of omission would occur if the liar could have…

  6. From little white lies to filthy liars: the evolution of honesty and deception in young children.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Though it is frequently condemned, lie-telling is a common and frequent activity in interpersonal interactions, with apparent social risks and benefits. The current review examines the development of deception among children. It is argued that early lying is normative, reflecting children's emerging cognitive and social development. Children lie to preserve self-interests as well as for the benefit of others. With age, children learn about the social norms that promote honesty while encouraging occasional prosocial lie-telling. Yet, lying can become a problem behavior with frequent or inappropriate use over time. Chronic lie-telling of any sort risks social consequences, such as the loss of credibility and damage to relationships. By middle childhood, chronic reliance on lying may be related to poor development of conscience, weak self-regulatory control, and antisocial behavior, and it could be indicative of maladjustment and put the individual in conflict with the environment. The goal of the current chapter is to capture the complexity of lying and build a preliminary understanding of how children's social experiences with their environments, their own dispositions, and their developing cognitive maturity interact, over time, to predict their lying behavior and, for some, their chronic and problem lying. Implications for fostering honesty in young children are discussed.

  7. Low-dimensional filiform Lie superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    The present work is regarding filiform Lie superalgebras which is an important type of nilpotent Lie superalgebras. In general, classifying nilpotent Lie superalgebras is at present an open and unsolved problem. Throughout the present work we contribute to the resolution of this wide problem by classifying filiform Lie superalgebras of low dimensions, in particular less or equal to 7. Furthermore we would establish a method that could be applied to obtain similar results for higher dimensions. Thus, this method would mainly consist in using infinitesimal deformations of the model filiform Lie superalgebra.

  8. Differential Geometry and Lie Groups for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Marián.

    2006-10-01

    Introduction; 1. The concept of a manifold; 2. Vector and tensor fields; 3. Mappings of tensors induced by mappings of manifolds; 4. Lie derivative; 5. Exterior algebra; 6. Differential calculus of forms; 7. Integral calculus of forms; 8. Particular cases and applications of Stoke's Theorem; 9. Poincaré Lemma and cohomologies; 10. Lie Groups - basic facts; 11. Differential geometry of Lie Groups; 12. Representations of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras; 13. Actions of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras on manifolds; 14. Hamiltonian mechanics and symplectic manifolds; 15. Parallel transport and linear connection on M; 16. Field theory and the language of forms; 17. Differential geometry on TM and T*M; 18. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian equations; 19. Linear connection and the frame bundle; 20. Connection on a principal G-bundle; 21. Gauge theories and connections; 22. Spinor fields and Dirac operator; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  9. Invertible linear transformations and the Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Tam, Honwah; Guo, Fukui

    2008-07-01

    With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a way to generate new Lie algebras is given. These Lie algebras obtained have a common feature, i.e. integrable couplings of solitary hierarchies could be obtained by using them, specially, the Hamiltonian structures of them could be worked out. Some ways to construct the loop algebras of the Lie algebras are presented. It follows that some various loop algebras are given. In addition, a few new Lie algebras are explicitly constructed in terms of the classification of Lie algebras proposed by Ma Wen-Xiu, which are bases for obtaining new Lie algebras by using invertible linear transformations. Finally, some solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy are obtained, whose Hamiltonian form-expressions are manifested by using the quadratic-form identity.

  10. Differential Geometry and Lie Groups for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Marián.

    2011-03-01

    Introduction; 1. The concept of a manifold; 2. Vector and tensor fields; 3. Mappings of tensors induced by mappings of manifolds; 4. Lie derivative; 5. Exterior algebra; 6. Differential calculus of forms; 7. Integral calculus of forms; 8. Particular cases and applications of Stoke's Theorem; 9. Poincaré Lemma and cohomologies; 10. Lie Groups - basic facts; 11. Differential geometry of Lie Groups; 12. Representations of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras; 13. Actions of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras on manifolds; 14. Hamiltonian mechanics and symplectic manifolds; 15. Parallel transport and linear connection on M; 16. Field theory and the language of forms; 17. Differential geometry on TM and T*M; 18. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian equations; 19. Linear connection and the frame bundle; 20. Connection on a principal G-bundle; 21. Gauge theories and connections; 22. Spinor fields and Dirac operator; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  11. Estimation Using an Enhancement Factor on Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Behavior of High-lying Energy Levels of Neutral Atom in Argon Radio-Frequency Inductively-Coupled Plasma.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Satoh, Kozue

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a plasma-diagnostic method using an enhancement factor on the Boltzmann distribution among emission lines of iron atom in an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). It indicated that Boltzmann plots of the atomic lines having lower excitation energies (3.4 to 4.8 eV) were well fitted on a straight line while those having more than 5.5 eV deviated upwards from a linear relationship. This observation could be explained by the fact that ICP is not in a complete thermodynamic equilibrium between direct excitation to energy levels of iron atom, ionization of iron atom, and radiative decay processes to the ground state. Especially, the recombination of iron ion with captured electron should accompany cascade de-excitations between closely-spaced excited levels just below the ionization limit, the rates of which become slower as a whole; as a result, these high-lying levels might be more populated than the low-lying levels as if a different LTE condition coexists on the high energy side. This overpopulation could be quantitatively estimated using an enhancement factor (EF), which was a ratio of the observed intensity to the expected value extrapolated from the normal distribution on the low energy side. The EFs were generally small (less than 3); therefore, the cascade de-excitation process would slightly contribute to the population of these excited levels. It could be considered from variations of the EF that the overpopulation proceeded to a larger extent at lower radio-frequency forward powers, at higher flow rates of the carrier gas, or at higher observation heights. The reason for this is that the kinetic energy of energetic particles, such as electrons, becomes reduced under all of these plasma conditions, thus enabling the high-lying levels to be more populated by cascade de-excitation processes from iron ion rather than by collisional excitation processes with the energetic particles. A similar Boltzmann analysis using the EF

  12. Estimation Using an Enhancement Factor on Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Behavior of High-lying Energy Levels of Neutral Atom in Argon Radio-Frequency Inductively-Coupled Plasma.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Satoh, Kozue

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a plasma-diagnostic method using an enhancement factor on the Boltzmann distribution among emission lines of iron atom in an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). It indicated that Boltzmann plots of the atomic lines having lower excitation energies (3.4 to 4.8 eV) were well fitted on a straight line while those having more than 5.5 eV deviated upwards from a linear relationship. This observation could be explained by the fact that ICP is not in a complete thermodynamic equilibrium between direct excitation to energy levels of iron atom, ionization of iron atom, and radiative decay processes to the ground state. Especially, the recombination of iron ion with captured electron should accompany cascade de-excitations between closely-spaced excited levels just below the ionization limit, the rates of which become slower as a whole; as a result, these high-lying levels might be more populated than the low-lying levels as if a different LTE condition coexists on the high energy side. This overpopulation could be quantitatively estimated using an enhancement factor (EF), which was a ratio of the observed intensity to the expected value extrapolated from the normal distribution on the low energy side. The EFs were generally small (less than 3); therefore, the cascade de-excitation process would slightly contribute to the population of these excited levels. It could be considered from variations of the EF that the overpopulation proceeded to a larger extent at lower radio-frequency forward powers, at higher flow rates of the carrier gas, or at higher observation heights. The reason for this is that the kinetic energy of energetic particles, such as electrons, becomes reduced under all of these plasma conditions, thus enabling the high-lying levels to be more populated by cascade de-excitation processes from iron ion rather than by collisional excitation processes with the energetic particles. A similar Boltzmann analysis using the EF

  13. Learning to lie: effects of practice on the cognitive cost of lying.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, B; Verschuere, B; Moens, T; Suchotzki, Kristina; Debey, Evelyne; Spruyt, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive theories on deception posit that lying requires more cognitive resources than telling the truth. In line with this idea, it has been demonstrated that deceptive responses are typically associated with increased response times and higher error rates compared to truthful responses. Although the cognitive cost of lying has been assumed to be resistant to practice, it has recently been shown that people who are trained to lie can reduce this cost. In the present study (n = 42), we further explored the effects of practice on one's ability to lie by manipulating the proportions of lie and truth-trials in a Sheffield lie test across three phases: Baseline (50% lie, 50% truth), Training (frequent-lie group: 75% lie, 25% truth; control group: 50% lie, 50% truth; and frequent-truth group: 25% lie, 75% truth), and Test (50% lie, 50% truth). The results showed that lying became easier while participants were trained to lie more often and that lying became more difficult while participants were trained to tell the truth more often. Furthermore, these effects did carry over to the test phase, but only for the specific items that were used for the training manipulation. Hence, our study confirms that relatively little practice is enough to alter the cognitive cost of lying, although this effect does not persist over time for non-practiced items.

  14. Learning to Lie: Effects of Practice on the Cognitive Cost of Lying

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, B.; Verschuere, B.; Moens, T.; Suchotzki, Kristina; Debey, Evelyne; Spruyt, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive theories on deception posit that lying requires more cognitive resources than telling the truth. In line with this idea, it has been demonstrated that deceptive responses are typically associated with increased response times and higher error rates compared to truthful responses. Although the cognitive cost of lying has been assumed to be resistant to practice, it has recently been shown that people who are trained to lie can reduce this cost. In the present study (n = 42), we further explored the effects of practice on one’s ability to lie by manipulating the proportions of lie and truth-trials in a Sheffield lie test across three phases: Baseline (50% lie, 50% truth), Training (frequent-lie group: 75% lie, 25% truth; control group: 50% lie, 50% truth; and frequent-truth group: 25% lie, 75% truth), and Test (50% lie, 50% truth). The results showed that lying became easier while participants were trained to lie more often and that lying became more difficult while participants were trained to tell the truth more often. Furthermore, these effects did carry over to the test phase, but only for the specific items that were used for the training manipulation. Hence, our study confirms that relatively little practice is enough to alter the cognitive cost of lying, although this effect does not persist over time for non-practiced items. PMID:23226137

  15. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    PubMed

    Ströfer, Sabine; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Ufkes, Elze G; Giebels, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie.

  16. Effect of lie labelling on children's evaluation of selfish, polite, and altruistic lies.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Him; Chan, Yawen; Tsui, Wan Chi Gigi

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates how 5- and 6-year-olds' evaluations of selfish, polite, and altruistic lies change as a result of whether these false statements are explicitly labelled as lies. We are also interested in how interpretive theory of mind may correlate with such evaluations with and without a lie label. Our results showed that labelling lowered children's evaluations for the polite and altruistic lies, but not for the selfish lies. Interpretive theory of mind correlated positively with the evaluation difference between the polite and altruistic lies and that between the selfish and altruistic lies in the label, but not in the non-label condition. Correlation between the selfish and altruistic lies and that between the polite and altruistic lies were stronger with than without labelling, after controlling for age, and verbal and non-verbal intelligence. We conclude that lie labelling biases children towards more negative evaluations for non-selfish lies and makes them see lies of different motives as more similar. If a lie label is applied, whether lies of different motives are still evaluated differently depends on interpretive theory of mind, which reflects the child's ability to represent and allow different interpretations of an ambiguous reality.

  17. Effect of lie labelling on children's evaluation of selfish, polite, and altruistic lies.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Him; Chan, Yawen; Tsui, Wan Chi Gigi

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates how 5- and 6-year-olds' evaluations of selfish, polite, and altruistic lies change as a result of whether these false statements are explicitly labelled as lies. We are also interested in how interpretive theory of mind may correlate with such evaluations with and without a lie label. Our results showed that labelling lowered children's evaluations for the polite and altruistic lies, but not for the selfish lies. Interpretive theory of mind correlated positively with the evaluation difference between the polite and altruistic lies and that between the selfish and altruistic lies in the label, but not in the non-label condition. Correlation between the selfish and altruistic lies and that between the polite and altruistic lies were stronger with than without labelling, after controlling for age, and verbal and non-verbal intelligence. We conclude that lie labelling biases children towards more negative evaluations for non-selfish lies and makes them see lies of different motives as more similar. If a lie label is applied, whether lies of different motives are still evaluated differently depends on interpretive theory of mind, which reflects the child's ability to represent and allow different interpretations of an ambiguous reality. PMID:26748882

  18. The roles of liar intention, lie content, and theory of mind in children's evaluation of lies.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Him; Siu, Tik-Sze Carrey; Chen, Lan

    2015-04-01

    This study found that 7-, 9-, and 11-year-old children and young adults identified prosocial lies as lies less frequently and evaluated them less negatively than selfish lies (liar intention effect); lies about opinions were identified as lies less frequently and evaluated less negatively than those about reality (lie content effect). The lie content effect was more pronounced in the prosocial lies than in the selfish lies for both identification and evaluation. Overall, the older participants considered liar intention more than the younger participants in lie evaluation. For the child participants, second-order belief understanding correlated marginally with sensitivity to liar intention in the opinion lies, but not with content sensitivity. Finally, lie identification correlated with evaluation in the prosocial-opinion lies for all of the children. The independent effects of intention and content could potentially explain children's development in "white lie" understanding demonstrated in the literature. Although the content effect appears to stem from a more general concern for whether communication is about objective reality, the intention effect may involve theory of mind.

  19. When All Signs Point to You: Lies Told in the Face of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Angela D.; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young children's ability to tell a strategic lie by making it consistent with the physical evidence of their transgression was investigated along with the sociocognitive correlates of such lie-telling behaviors. In Experiment 1, 247 Chinese children between 3 and 5 years of age (126 boys) were left alone in a room and asked not to lift a cup to…

  20. Does Valence Matter? Effects of Negativity on Children's Early Understanding of the Truth and Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandrey, Lindsay; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Early deceptive behavior often involves acts of wrongdoings on the part of children. As a result, it has often been assumed, although not tested directly, that children are better at identifying lies about wrongdoing than lies about other activities. We tested this assumption in two studies. In Study 1, 67 3- to 5-year-olds viewed vignettes in…

  1. Developmental Changes in Ideas about Lying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Videotaped stories depicting deliberate lies and unintentionally untrue statements were presented to 200 subjects evenly divided into the following age groups: 5, 8, 9, 11 years, and adult. Definitions of lying were seen to change gradually over this age range. (Author/RH)

  2. Conformal field theory on affine Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Clubok, K.S.

    1996-04-01

    Working directly on affine Lie groups, we construct several new formulations of the WZW model, the gauged WZW model, and the generic affine-Virasoro action. In one formulation each of these conformal field theories (CFTs) is expressed as a one-dimensional mechanical system whose variables are coordinates on the affine Lie group. When written in terms of the affine group element, this formulation exhibits a two-dimensional WZW term. In another formulation each CFT is written as a two-dimensional field theory, with a three- dimensional WZW term, whose fields are coordinates on the affine group. On the basis of these equivalent formulations, we develop a translation dictionary in which the new formulations on the affine Lie group are understood as mode formulations of the conventional formulations on the Lie group. Using this dictionary, we also express each CFT as a three-dimensional field theory on the Lie group with a four-dimensional WZW term. 36 refs.

  3. Some evidence for unconscious lie detection.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Stimson, Dayna; Carney, Dana R

    2014-05-01

    To maximize survival and reproductive success, primates evolved the tendency to tell lies and the ability to accurately detect them. Despite the obvious advantage of detecting lies accurately, conscious judgments of veracity are only slightly more accurate than chance. However, findings in forensic psychology, neuroscience, and primatology suggest that lies can be accurately detected when less-conscious mental processes (as opposed to more-conscious mental processes) are used. We predicted that observing someone tell a lie would automatically activate cognitive concepts associated with deception, and observing someone tell the truth would activate concepts associated with truth. In two experiments, we demonstrated that indirect measures of deception detection are significantly more accurate than direct measures. These findings provide a new lens through which to reconsider old questions and approach new investigations of human lie detection.

  4. Some evidence for unconscious lie detection.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Stimson, Dayna; Carney, Dana R

    2014-05-01

    To maximize survival and reproductive success, primates evolved the tendency to tell lies and the ability to accurately detect them. Despite the obvious advantage of detecting lies accurately, conscious judgments of veracity are only slightly more accurate than chance. However, findings in forensic psychology, neuroscience, and primatology suggest that lies can be accurately detected when less-conscious mental processes (as opposed to more-conscious mental processes) are used. We predicted that observing someone tell a lie would automatically activate cognitive concepts associated with deception, and observing someone tell the truth would activate concepts associated with truth. In two experiments, we demonstrated that indirect measures of deception detection are significantly more accurate than direct measures. These findings provide a new lens through which to reconsider old questions and approach new investigations of human lie detection. PMID:24659190

  5. Characteristics of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Lie Scale and of Extreme Lie Scorers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Results of statistical analyses suggest that high lie-scorers respond honestly, and that the Lie Scale for the Eysenck Personality Inventory may reflect a personality dimension of interest rather than an extraneous and undesirable factor to be eliminated. (Author)

  6. Lie-detection biases among male police interrogators, prisoners, and laypersons.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2009-12-01

    Beliefs of 28 male police interrogators, 30 male prisoners, and 30 male laypersons about their skill in detecting lies and truths told by others, and in telling lies and truths convincingly themselves, were compared. As predicted, police interrogators overestimated their lie-detection skills. In fact, they were affected by stereotypical beliefs about verbal and nonverbal cues to deception. Prisoners were similarly affected by stereotypical misconceptions about deceptive behaviors but were able to identify that lying is related to pupil dilation. They assessed their lie-detection skill as similar to that of laypersons, but less than that of police interrogators. In contrast to interrogators, prisoners tended to rate lower their lie-telling skill than did the other groups. Results were explained in terms of anchoring and self-assessment bias. Practical aspects of the results for criminal interrogation were discussed.

  7. The Prevalence of Lying in America: Three Studies of Self-Reported Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serota, Kim B.; Levine, Timothy R.; Boster, Franklin J.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the frequency and the distribution of reported lying in the adult population. A national survey asked 1,000 U.S. adults to report the number of lies told in a 24-hour period. Sixty percent of subjects report telling no lies at all, and almost half of all lies are told by only 5% of subjects; thus, prevalence varies widely and…

  8. The role of executive functions and theory of mind in children's prosocial lie-telling.

    PubMed

    Williams, Shanna; Moore, Kelsey; Crossman, Angela M; Talwar, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Children's prosocial lying was examined in relation to executive functioning skills and theory of mind development. Prosocial lying was observed using a disappointing gift paradigm. Of the 79 children (ages 6-12 years) who completed the disappointing gift paradigm, 47 (59.5%) told a prosocial lie to a research assistant about liking their prize. In addition, of those children who told prosocial lies, 25 (53.2%) maintained semantic leakage control during follow-up questioning, thereby demonstrating advanced lie-telling skills. When executive functioning was examined, children who told prosocial lies were found to have significantly higher performance on measures of working memory and inhibitory control. In addition, children who lied and maintained semantic leakage control also displayed more advanced theory of mind understanding. Although children's age was not a predictor of lie-telling behavior (i.e., truthful vs. lie-teller), age was a significant predictor of semantic leakage control, with older children being more likely to maintain their lies during follow-up questioning.

  9. Lying about facial recognition: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, S; Mbwana, J; Adeyemo, A; Sawyer, A; Hailu, A; Vanmeter, J

    2009-03-01

    Novel deception detection techniques have been in creation for centuries. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroscience technology that non-invasively measures brain activity associated with behavior and cognition. A number of investigators have explored the utilization and efficiency of fMRI in deception detection. In this study, 18 subjects were instructed during an fMRI "line-up" task to either conceal (lie) or reveal (truth) the identities of individuals seen in study sets in order to determine the neural correlates of intentionally misidentifying previously known faces (lying about recognition). A repeated measures ANOVA (lie vs. truth and familiar vs. unfamiliar) and two paired t-tests (familiar vs. unfamiliar and familiar lie vs. familiar truth) revealed areas of activation associated with deception in the right MGF, red nucleus, IFG, SMG, SFG (with ACC), DLPFC, and bilateral precuneus. The areas activated in the present study may be involved in the suppression of truth, working and visuospatial memories, and imagery when providing misleading (deceptive) responses to facial identification prompts in the form of a "line-up". PMID:18848742

  10. Lie symmetry theorem of fractional nonholonomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Chen, Ben-Yong; Fu, Jing-Li

    2014-11-01

    The Lie symmetry theorem of fractional nonholonomic systems in terms of combined fractional derivatives is established, and the fractional Lagrange equations are obtained by virtue of the d'Alembert—Lagrange principle with fractional derivatives. As the Lie symmetry theorem is based on the invariance of differential equations under infinitesimal transformations, by introducing the differential operator of infinitesimal generators, the determining equations are obtained. Furthermore, the limit equations, the additional restriction equations, the structural equations, and the conserved quantity of Lie symmetry are acquired. An example is presented to illustrate the application of results.

  11. Yangian of the Queer Lie Superalgebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Maxim

    Consider the complex matrix Lie superalgebra with the standard generators , where . Define an involutory automorphism η of by . The twisted polynomial current Lie superalgebra has a natural Lie co-superalgebra structure. We quantise the universal enveloping algebra as a co-Poisson Hopf superalgebra. For the quantised algebra we give a description of the centre, and construct the double in the sense of Drinfeld. We also construct a wide class of irreducible representations of the quantised algebra.

  12. Lying in the Elementary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Victoria; Gordon, Heidi M.; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The development of lying to conceal one’s own transgression was examined in school-age children. Children (N = 172) between 6 and 11 years of age were asked not to peek at the answer to a trivia question while left alone in a room. Half of the children could not resist temptation and peeked at the answer. When the experimenter asked them whether they had peeked, the majority of children lied. However, children’s subsequent verbal statements, made in response to follow-up questioning, were not always consistent with their initial denial and, hence, leaked critical information to reveal their deceit. Children’s ability to maintain consistency between their initial lie and subsequent verbal statements increased with age. This ability is also positively correlated with children’s 2nd-order belief scores, suggesting that theory of mind understanding plays an important role in children’s ability to lie consistently. PMID:17484589

  13. Representations of filtered solvable Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, Alexander N

    2012-01-31

    The representation theory of filtered solvable Lie algebras is constructed. In this framework a classification of irreducible representations is obtained and spectra of some reducible representations are found. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  14. Lie theoretic aspects of the Riccati equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, R.; Martin, C.

    1977-01-01

    Various features of the application of Lie theory to matrix Riccati equations, of basic importance in control and system theories, are discussed. Particular consideration is given to centralizer foliation, the Cartan decomposition, matrix Riccati equations as Lie systems on Grassmanians, local analysis near a zero point of a vector field, linearization in homogeneous space, the tangent bundle in terms of partitioned matrices, and stability properties of fixed points of Riccati vector fields.

  15. Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2011-07-01

    We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.

  16. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  17. El Observatorio Gemini - Status actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Se hace una breve descripción de la situación actual del Observatorio Gemini y de las últimas decisiones del Board para incrementar la eficiencia operativa. Se hace también una breve referencia al uso argentino del observatorio.

  18. Neural correlates of inferring speaker sincerity from white lies: an event-related potential source localization study.

    PubMed

    Rigoulot, Simon; Fish, Karyn; Pell, Marc D

    2014-05-27

    During social interactions, listeners weigh the importance of linguistic and extra-linguistic speech cues (prosody) to infer the true intentions of the speaker in reference to what is actually said. In this study, we investigated what brain processes allow listeners to detect when a spoken compliment is meant to be sincere (true compliment) or not ("white lie"). Electroencephalograms of 29 participants were recorded while they listened to Question-Response pairs, where the response was expressed in either a sincere or insincere tone (e.g., "So, what did you think of my presentation?"/"I found it really interesting."). Participants judged whether the response was sincere or not. Behavioral results showed that prosody could be effectively used to discern the intended sincerity of compliments. Analysis of temporal and spatial characteristics of event-related potentials (P200, N400, P600) uncovered significant effects of prosody on P600 amplitudes, which were greater in response to sincere versus insincere compliments. Using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), we determined that the anatomical sources of this activity were likely located in the (left) insula, consistent with previous reports of insular activity in the perception of lies and concealments. These data extend knowledge of the neurocognitive mechanisms that permit context-appropriate inferences about speaker feelings and intentions during interpersonal communication.

  19. Representations of some quantum tori Lie subalgebras

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Song

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, we define the q-analog Virasoro-like Lie subalgebras in x{sub {infinity}}=a{sub {infinity}}(b{sub {infinity}}, c{sub {infinity}}, d{sub {infinity}}). The embedding formulas into x{sub {infinity}} are introduced. Irreducible highest weight representations of A(tilde sign){sub q}, B(tilde sign){sub q}, and C(tilde sign){sub q}-series of the q-analog Virasoro-like Lie algebras in terms of vertex operators are constructed. We also construct the polynomial representations of the A(tilde sign){sub q}, B(tilde sign){sub q}, C(tilde sign){sub q}, and D(tilde sign){sub q}-series of the q-analog Virasoro-like Lie algebras.

  20. Nijenhuis Operators on n-Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie-Feng; Sheng, Yun-He; Zhou, Yan-Qiu; Bai, Cheng-Ming

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study (n - 1)-order deformations of an n-Lie algebra and introduce the notion of a Nijenhuis operator on an n-Lie algebra, which could give rise to trivial deformations. We prove that a polynomial of a Nijenhuis operator is still a Nijenhuis operator. Finally, we give various constructions of Nijenhuis operators and some examples. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11471139, 11271202, 11221091, 11425104, Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20120031110022, and National Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province under Grant No. 20140520054JH

  1. Nijenhuis Operators on n-Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie-Feng; Sheng, Yun-He; Zhou, Yan-Qiu; Bai, Cheng-Ming

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study (n ‑ 1)-order deformations of an n-Lie algebra and introduce the notion of a Nijenhuis operator on an n-Lie algebra, which could give rise to trivial deformations. We prove that a polynomial of a Nijenhuis operator is still a Nijenhuis operator. Finally, we give various constructions of Nijenhuis operators and some examples. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11471139, 11271202, 11221091, 11425104, Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20120031110022, and National Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province under Grant No. 20140520054JH

  2. Integrability of Lie Systems Through Riccati Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, José F.; de Lucas, Javier

    Integrability conditions for Lie systems are related to reduction or transformation processes. We here analyse a geometric method to construct integrability conditions for Riccati equations following these approaches. This approach provides us with a unified geometrical viewpoint that allows us to analyse some previous works on the topic and explain new properties. Moreover, this new approach can be straightforwardly generalised to describe integrability conditions for any Lie system. Finally, we show the usefulness of our treatment in order to study the problem of the linearisability of Riccati equations.

  3. Impression management ("lie") scales are associated with interpersonally oriented self-control, not other-deception.

    PubMed

    Uziel, Liad

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the status of impression management (IM) scales ("lie scales," notably, BIDR-IM) as measures of response bias, offers theory-driven substantive meaning to them, and compares them with self-deception enhancement (SDE). Study 1 (N = 99) compared self-descriptions of actual self and ideal self given in a non-anonymous setting. High similarity indicates self-enhancement. Study 2 (70 dyads) analyzed self-other agreement about IM and SDE. Agreement indicates substantive basis to the scales' scores. Study 3 (N = 182) explored the centrality of self-control in the self-perception of individuals varying in IM and SDE. Study 4 (95 dyads) corroborated self-reports about self-control using informants' reports. In Study 1, IM was associated with relative humility, whereas SDE was associated with self-enhancement. In Study 2, strong self-other agreement was found only for IM, indicating that high IM (but not SDE) is grounded in real-life behavior. In Study 3, self-control was central in the self-perception of high IM and high SDE individuals. In Study 4, strong relations with self-control were corroborated by informants only for IM. IM scales measure substantive content associated with self-control aimed at social adaptation, whereas the SDE scale depicts individuals with a grandiose self-perception, who fail to impress knowledgeable others. PMID:23750550

  4. Lie, truth, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between truth telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less accurate responding compared to truth telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and truth telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the truth to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from truth telling to lying and from lying to truth telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of truth telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered. PMID:24923778

  5. Teaching the Truth about Lies to Psychology Students: The Speed Lying Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Richardson, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    To teach the importance of deception in everyday social life, an in-class activity called the "Speed Lying Task" was given in an introductory social psychology class. In class, two major research findings were replicated: Individuals detected deception at levels no better than expected by chance and lie detection confidence was unrelated…

  6. Lie, truth, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between truth telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less accurate responding compared to truth telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and truth telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the truth to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from truth telling to lying and from lying to truth telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of truth telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered.

  7. Why Do Lie-Catchers Fail? A Lens Model Meta-Analysis of Human Lie Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Maria; Bond, Charles F., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research has shown that people are poor at detecting lies. Two explanations for this finding have been proposed. First, it has been suggested that lie detection is inaccurate because people rely on invalid cues when judging deception. Second, it has been suggested that lack of valid cues to deception limits accuracy. A series of 4…

  8. Lie algebras and linear differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Rahimi, A.

    1972-01-01

    Certain symmetry properties possessed by the solutions of linear differential equations are examined. For this purpose, some basic ideas from the theory of finite dimensional linear systems are used together with the work of Wei and Norman on the use of Lie algebraic methods in differential equation theory.

  9. Charge operators in simple Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, A.

    1984-03-01

    Charge operators for representations of dimension less than or equal to 16 are computed in all simple Lie groups. The representations for which the charge operator reproduces the charge spectrum of leptons and quarks of one family are analyzed from a GUT point of view.

  10. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  11. Technical note: Validation of sensor-recorded lying bouts in lactating dairy cows using a 2-sensor approach.

    PubMed

    Kok, A; van Knegsel, A T M; van Middelaar, C E; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    Lying behavior is a relevant indicator for the evaluation of cow welfare. Lying can be recorded automatically by data loggers attached to one of the hind legs of a cow. A threshold for the duration of a lying bout (LB) record is required, however, to discard false records caused by horizontal leg movements, such as scratching. Previously determined thresholds for similar sensors ranged from 25s to 4min. We aimed to validate LB recorded by the IceQube sensor (with IceManager software; IceRobotics, South Queensferry, UK) and to determine a threshold to distinguish true from false LB records in lactating dairy cows. A novel method of validation, which does not require time-consuming behavioral observations, was used to generate a larger data set with potentially more incidental short LB records. Both hind legs of 28 lactating dairy cows were equipped with an IceQube sensor for a period of 6d and used as each other's validation. Classification of LB records as true (actual LB) or false (recorded while standing) was based on 3 assumptions. First, all standing records (absence of LB records) were assumed to occur while standing. Second, false LB records due to short leg movements could not occur in both hind legs simultaneously. Third, true LB only occurred if the LB records of the paired sensors coincided. False LB records constituted 4% of the records. Based on a maximum accuracy of 0.99, a minimum duration of LB records of 33 s was determined, implying a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.98. Applying this threshold of 33 s hardly affected estimates of daily lying time, but improved estimates of frequency and mean duration of LB for individual cows. The importance of distinguishing short LB was demonstrated specifically for detection of calving. The 2-sensor approach, using sensor outputs on both hind legs as each other's validation, is a time-efficient method to validate LB records that can be applied to different sensors and husbandry conditions.

  12. Meditation and college students' self-actualization and rated stress.

    PubMed

    Janowiak, J J; Hackman, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper concerns the efficacy of meditation and relaxation in promoting self-actualization and changes in self-reported stress among 62 college students. Two groups were given mantra meditation and a yogic relaxation technique referred to as Shavasana. Pre- and posttest measures were taken on the Personal Orientation Inventory and the Behavioral Relaxation Scale. Both groups showed significant increases in scores on self-actualization; however, no differences were found between groups. Meditation training was associated with larger gains in scores on measures of systematic relaxed behavior than of the relaxation training.

  13. Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

  14. Twining characters and orbit Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Ray, Urmie; Schellekens, Bert; Schweigert, Christoph

    1996-12-05

    We associate to outer automorphisms of generalized Kac-Moody algebras generalized character-valued indices, the twining characters. A character formula for twining characters is derived which shows that they coincide with the ordinary characters of some other generalized Kac-Moody algebra, the so-called orbit Lie algebra. Some applications to problems in conformal field theory, algebraic geometry and the theory of sporadic simple groups are sketched.

  15. Preschoolers' Understanding of Lies and Innocent and Negligent Mistakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Michael; Peterson, Candida C.

    1998-01-01

    Examined preschoolers' ability to distinguish innocent and negligent mistakes from lies. Found that, when asked to identify a mistake or lie about a food's contact with contaminants and identify a bystander's reaction, children distinguished mistakes from lies; they could also discriminate between lies and both negligent mistakes that generate…

  16. Lie algebra of conformal Killing–Yano forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-06-01

    We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing–Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing–Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten–Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing–Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing–Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing–Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases.

  17. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  18. Let the man choose what to do: Neural correlates of spontaneous lying and truth-telling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijun; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    Many previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on deception used a paradigm of "instructed lies", which is different than other, more spontaneous forms of lying behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the neural processes underlying spontaneous and instructed lying and truth-telling, and to investigate the different mechanisms involved. This study used a modified sic bo gambling game with real payoffs in order to induce lying. In the spontaneous sessions, the participants themselves decided whether or not to lie, whereas in the instructed sessions they were explicitly told to respond either honestly or dishonestly. In the spontaneous lying (vs. truth-telling) condition, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) showed significantly higher activity, whereas the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) were more strongly activated when participants spontaneously told the truth (vs. lied). Our results suggest that the extra cognitive control required for suppressing the self-interest motives in spontaneous truth-telling is associated with higher activity in the fronto-parietal network, while the process of negative emotion in spontaneous lying induced greater involvement of the sACC. Although similar to spontaneous deception, instructed deception engenders greater involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), IPL and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) compared to baseline, instructed decisions did not elicit similar activation patterns in the regions of sACC, DLPFC, VLPFC and IPL which were sensitive to either spontaneous truth-telling or lying.

  19. Cohomological Resolutions for Anomalous Lie Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiewicz, Zbigniew; Walczyk, Cezary J.

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that the BRST resolution of the spaces of physical states of the systems with anomalies can be consistently defined. The appropriate anomalous complexes are obtained by canonical restrictions of the ghost extended spaces to the kernel of anomaly operator without any modifications of the 'matter' sector. The cohomologies of the anomalous complex for the case of constraints constituting a centrally extended simple Lie algebra of compact type are calculated and analyzed in details within the framework of Hodge-deRham-Kähler theory: the vanishing theorem of the relative cohomologies is proved and the absolute cohomologies are reconstructed.

  20. Vector fields and nilpotent Lie algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Matthew; Grossman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An infinite-dimensional family of flows E is described with the property that the associated dynamical system: x(t) = E(x(t)), where x(0) is a member of the set R to the Nth power, is explicitly integrable in closed form. These flows E are of the form E = E1 + E2, where E1 and E2 are the generators of a nilpotent Lie algebra, which is either free, or satisfies some relations at a point. These flows can then be used to approximate the flows of more general types of dynamical systems.

  1. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  2. Lie algebraic methods for particle tracking calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.R.; Dragt, A.J.

    1983-08-01

    A study of the nonlinear stability of an accelerator or storage ring lattice typically includes particle tracking simulations. Such simulations trace rays through linear and nonlinear lattice elements by numerically evaluating linear matrix or impulsive nonlinear transformations. Using the mathematical tools of Lie groups and algebras, one may construct a formalism which makes explicit use of Hamilton's equations and which allows the description of groups of linear and nonlinear lattice elements by a single transformation. Such a transformation will be exactly canonical and will describe finite length linear and nonlinear elements through third (octupole) order. It is presently possible to include effects such as fringing fields and potentially possible to extend the formalism to include nonlinearities of higher order, multipole errors, and magnet misalignments. We outline this Lie algebraic formalism and its use in particle tracking calculations. A computer code, MARYLIE, has been constructed on the basis of this formalism. We describe the use of this program for tracking and provide examples of its application. 6 references, 3 figures.

  3. Detecting children's lies: comparing true accounts about highly stressful injuries with unprepared, prepared, and coached lies.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kelly L; Dodd, Elyse; Raynor, Graham; Peterson, Carole

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, 514 university students judged whether children were telling the truth about highly emotional events. Eight children (half female, half 8-9 and the remainder 12-14 years old) had been injured seriously enough to require emergency room treatment and were interviewed a few days later. Each was yoked to three other children matched in age and gender who fabricated accounts under one of three conditions: lies that were unprepared, prepared (24 hours to prepare), and coached by parents. Participants were at chance when judging true accounts as well as unprepared and prepared lies. However, 74% of the coached lies were judged as true. Participants' confidence in their judgments, age, experience with children, and relevant coursework/training did not improve judgments. PMID:22566366

  4. Why physicians ought to lie for their patients.

    PubMed

    Tavaglione, Nicolas; Hurst, Samia A

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes physicians lie to third-party payers in order to grant their patients treatment they would otherwise not receive. This strategy, commonly known as gaming the system, is generally condemned for three reasons. First, it may hurt the patient for the sake of whom gaming was intended. Second, it may hurt other patients. Third, it offends contractual and distributive justice. Hence, gaming is considered to be immoral behavior. This article is an attempt to show that, on the contrary, gaming may sometimes be a physician's duty. Under specific circumstances, gaming may be necessary from the viewpoint of the internal morality of medicine. Moreover, the objections against gaming are examples of what we call the idealistic fallacy, that is, the fallacy of passing judgments in a nonideal world according to ideal standards. Hence, the objections are inconclusive. Gaming is sometimes justified, and may even be required in the name of beneficence.

  5. Saving Tibet? An inquiry into modernity, lies, truths, and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne

    2005-01-01

    Social theorists have explored the ways in which quantification serves as an instrument of governance in the modern state, whether tied to concerns of population size and quality or to problems of social behavior. Biopolitics are as visible in the modern socialist states as they are in free-market democratic states, and they are perhaps nowhere more visible today than in the new global standards of "evidence-based medicine," wherein it is assumed that only quantifiable evidence can serve to establish policy, procedure, and outcome. When it comes to creating ways to "civilize" and organize their target citizenry through health development, Socialist China as relied on such technologies as much as have health development funding agencies from donor countries. In this article, I look at quantitative methods in relation to assumptions that morality can be severed from truth and that numbers are potentially morally neutral. This idea is tied not only to forms of modern subjectivity but also to the distinct ways in which certain linguistic and theoretical practices relate to provisional notions of "lying," "truth-telling," and ways of "believing." An exploration of the effects of attempts to quantify maternal behavior, morbidity, and morality in rural Tibet highlights the problem of morality within an environment in which numbers are never free-standing but, rather, are always presumed to carry moral messages, and in which domains that cannot be quantified serve as a primary basis for knowing truth. Through an exploration of rural Tibetan encounters with health development programs for safe motherhood, I provide a critique of quantification and return to questions about "belief" as a rubric that interrupts modern dichotomies of lies versus truths.

  6. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  7. When All Signs Point to You: Lies Told in the Face of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Angela D.; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Young children’s ability to tell a strategic lie by making it consistent with the physical evidence of their transgression was investigated along with the sociocognitive correlates of such lie-telling behaviors. In Experiment 1, 247 Chinese children between 3 and 5 years of age (126 boys) were left alone in a room and asked not to lift a cup to see the contents. If children lifted up the cup, the contents would be spilled and evidence of their transgression would be left behind. Upon returning to the room, the experimenter asked children whether they peeked and how the contents of the cup ended up on the table. Experiment 1 revealed that young children are able to tell strategic lies to be consistent with the physical evidence by about 4 or 5 years of age, and this ability increases in sophistication with age. Experiment 2, which included 252 Chinese 4-year-olds (127 boys), identified 2 sociocognitive factors related to children’s ability to tell strategic lies. Specifically, both children’s theory-of-mind understanding and inhibitory control skills were significantly related to their ability to tell strategic lies in the face of physical evidence. The present investigation reveals that contrary to the prevailing views, even young children are able to tell strategic lies in some contexts. PMID:21244148

  8. 5-dimensional indecomposable contact Lie algebras as double extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Vallarte, M. C.; Salgado, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we shall show that a suitable double extension of a finite dimensional indecomposable contact Lie algebra is a contact Lie algebra again. In particular, with exception of the family of 5-dimensional indecomposable contact solvable Lie algebras A5,35, any 5-dimensional indecomposable contact solvable Lie algebra can be obtained as a double extension of a 3-dimensional Lie algebra. The family A5,35 can be generalized to a family of (4 n + 1) -dimensional indecomposable contact solvable Lie algebras that cannot be obtained neither as a suspension of a symplectic Lie algebra of codimension 1 or as a double extension of a contact Lie subalgebra of codimension 2.

  9. Pants on fire: the electrophysiological signature of telling a lie.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Even though electroencephalography has played a prominent role for lie detection via personally relevant information, the electrophysiological signature of active lying is still elusive. We addressed this signature with two experiments in which participants helped a virtual police officer to locate a knife. Crucially, before this response, they announced whether they would lie or tell the truth about the knife's location. This design allowed us to study the signature of lie-telling in the absence of rare and personally significant oddball stimuli that are typically used for lie detection via electrophysiological markers, especially the P300 component. Our results indicate that active lying attenuated P300 amplitudes as well as N200 amplitudes for such non-oddball stimuli. These results support accounts that stress the high cognitive demand of lie-telling, including the need to suppress the truthful response and to generate a lie.

  10. Pants on fire: the electrophysiological signature of telling a lie.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Even though electroencephalography has played a prominent role for lie detection via personally relevant information, the electrophysiological signature of active lying is still elusive. We addressed this signature with two experiments in which participants helped a virtual police officer to locate a knife. Crucially, before this response, they announced whether they would lie or tell the truth about the knife's location. This design allowed us to study the signature of lie-telling in the absence of rare and personally significant oddball stimuli that are typically used for lie detection via electrophysiological markers, especially the P300 component. Our results indicate that active lying attenuated P300 amplitudes as well as N200 amplitudes for such non-oddball stimuli. These results support accounts that stress the high cognitive demand of lie-telling, including the need to suppress the truthful response and to generate a lie. PMID:24972014

  11. Relativity symmetries and Lie algebra contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Dai-Ning; Kong, Otto C. W.

    2014-12-01

    We revisit the notion of possible relativity or kinematic symmetries mutually connected through Lie algebra contractions under a new perspective on what constitutes a relativity symmetry. Contractions of an SO(m , n) symmetry as an isometry on an m + n dimensional geometric arena which generalizes the notion of spacetime are discussed systematically. One of the key results is five different contractions of a Galilean-type symmetry G(m , n) preserving a symmetry of the same type at dimension m + n - 1, e.g. a G(m , n - 1) , together with the coset space representations that correspond to the usual physical picture. Most of the results are explicitly illustrated through the example of symmetries obtained from the contraction of SO(2 , 4) , which is the particular case for our interest on the physics side as the proposed relativity symmetry for "quantum spacetime". The contractions from G(1 , 3) may be relevant to real physics.

  12. Dimensional-duality and Its Lie Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Nilotpal

    2009-01-01

    For a claim to a dimensional duality, we consider here that, the relativity is depending on a "double-fold" complex number for locally dense fourth axis within an enveloping 3D-space. This dimensional duality has been made here for locally dense m-dimensional geometry within n-space, for m > n, if every axis of m-space is dimensional-dual to its enveloping n-space. This locally dense m-dimensional geometry describes a reflexive complex function, viz., "transfusion" transformation, which establishes that, Lie group U(2) is the simply connected 1 to 2 enveloping group of SO(3, 1) within D-dual spaces only. Again, using the weight vectors, it is found that, there exists a SU(4) group, which may be a symmetry group for gravitons.

  13. Radiating stars with exponential Lie symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanlal, R.; Maharaj, S. D.; Tiwari, Ajey K.; Narain, R.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the general model of a radiating star in general relativity. A group analysis of the under determined, nonlinear partial differential equation governing the model's gravitational potentials is performed. This analysis is an extension of previous group analyses carried out and produces new group invariant solutions. We find that the gravitational potentials depend on exponential functions owing to the choice of the Lie symmetry generator. The fundamental boundary equation to be solved is in general a Riccati equation. Several new exact families of solutions to the boundary condition are generated. Earlier models of Euclidean stars and generalized Euclidean stellar models are regained as special cases. Linear equations of state can be found for shear-free and shearing spacetimes.

  14. The motor cost of telling lies: electrocortical signatures and personality foundations of spontaneous deception.

    PubMed

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Pavone, Enea F; Mancini, Alessandra; Merla, Arcangelo; Grisoni, Luigi; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2014-01-01

    Although universal, lying is generally considered immoral behavior. Most neuroscience studies on lying sanction or instruct deceptive behaviors and thus might fail to acknowledge the significance of lie-related moral conflicts. By combining electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with a novel paradigm in which participants decided freely whether to deceive another person, we have generated indices of the cognitive (reaction times and stimulus-locked event-related components) and moral (readiness potential and its correlations with deception-related personality traits) cost of spontaneous deception. Our data fail to support the consensus that deception is cognitively more demanding than truth telling, suggesting that spontaneous deception, as opposed to lying out of requirement, might not mandate additional cognitive workload. Interestingly, lying was associated with decreased motor readiness, an event-related potential (ERP) component that is linked to motor preparation of self-determined actions and modulated when we face moral dilemmas. Notably, this reduction was less extensive in manipulative participants and greater in those who cared highly about their impression management. Our study expands on previous findings on deception by associating a cortical marker of reduced preparation to act with individual differences in moral cognition. PMID:24979665

  15. To Lie or Not to Lie: To Whom and under What Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Serena A.; Turiel, Elliot

    2007-01-01

    This research examined adolescents' judgments about lying to circumvent directives from parents or friends in the moral, personal, and prudential domains. One hundred and twenty-eight adolescents (12.1-17.3 years) were presented with situations in which an adolescent avoids a directive through deception. The majority of adolescents judged some…

  16. An empirical test of the decision to lie component of the Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT).

    PubMed

    Masip, Jaume; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; de la Riva, Clara; Herrero, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers are small. To facilitate lie detection, researchers are currently developing interviewing approaches to increase these differences. Some of these approaches assume that lying is cognitively more difficult than truth telling; however, they are not based on specific cognitive theories of lie production, which are rare. Here we examined one existing theory, Walczyk et al.'s (2014) Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT). We tested the Decision component. According to ADCAT, people decide whether to lie or tell the truth as if they were using a specific mathematical formula to calculate the motivation to lie from (a) the probability of a number of outcomes derived from lying vs. telling the truth, and (b) the costs/benefits associated with each outcome. In this study, participants read several hypothetical scenarios and indicated whether they would lie or tell the truth in each scenario (Questionnaire 1). Next, they answered several questions about the consequences of lying vs. telling the truth in each scenario, and rated the probability and valence of each consequence (Questionnaire 2). Significant associations were found between the participants' dichotomous decision to lie/tell the truth in Questionnaire 1 and their motivation to lie scores calculated from the Questionnaire 2 data. However, interestingly, whereas the expected consequences of truth telling were associated with the decision to lie vs. tell the truth, the expected consequences of lying were not. Suggestions are made to refine ADCAT, which can be a useful theoretical framework to guide deception research.

  17. An empirical test of the decision to lie component of the Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT).

    PubMed

    Masip, Jaume; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; de la Riva, Clara; Herrero, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers are small. To facilitate lie detection, researchers are currently developing interviewing approaches to increase these differences. Some of these approaches assume that lying is cognitively more difficult than truth telling; however, they are not based on specific cognitive theories of lie production, which are rare. Here we examined one existing theory, Walczyk et al.'s (2014) Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT). We tested the Decision component. According to ADCAT, people decide whether to lie or tell the truth as if they were using a specific mathematical formula to calculate the motivation to lie from (a) the probability of a number of outcomes derived from lying vs. telling the truth, and (b) the costs/benefits associated with each outcome. In this study, participants read several hypothetical scenarios and indicated whether they would lie or tell the truth in each scenario (Questionnaire 1). Next, they answered several questions about the consequences of lying vs. telling the truth in each scenario, and rated the probability and valence of each consequence (Questionnaire 2). Significant associations were found between the participants' dichotomous decision to lie/tell the truth in Questionnaire 1 and their motivation to lie scores calculated from the Questionnaire 2 data. However, interestingly, whereas the expected consequences of truth telling were associated with the decision to lie vs. tell the truth, the expected consequences of lying were not. Suggestions are made to refine ADCAT, which can be a useful theoretical framework to guide deception research. PMID:27219533

  18. Kinematical superalgebras and Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2008-06-15

    We study and classify kinematical algebras which appear in the framework of Lie superalgebras or Lie algebras of order 3. All these algebras are related through generalized Inonue-Wigner contractions from either the orthosymplectic superalgebra or the de Sitter Lie algebra of order 3.

  19. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  20. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  1. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  2. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  3. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  4. Polygraph lie detection on real events in a laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; Cullen, M C

    1993-06-01

    This laboratory study dealt with real-life intense emotional events. Subjects generated embarrassing stories from their experience, then submitted to polygraph testing and, by lying, denied their stories and, by telling the truth, denied a randomly assigned story. Money was given as an incentive to be judged innocent on each story. An interrogator, blind to the stories, used Control Question Tests and found subjects more deceptive when lying than when truthful. Stories interacted with order such that lying on the second story was more easily detected than lying on the first. Embarrassing stories provide an alternative to the use of mock crimes to study lie detection in the laboratory.

  5. Deformable target tracking method based on Lie algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Shi, Zelin; Li, Guangwei

    2007-11-01

    Conventional approaches to object tracking use area correlation, but they are difficult to solve the problem of deformation of object region during tracking. A novel target tracking method based on Lie algebra is presented. We use Gabor feature as target token, model deformation using affine Lie group, and optimize parameters directly on manifold, which can be solved by exponential mapping between Lie Group and its Lie algebra. We analyze the essence of our method and test the algorithm using real image sequences. The experimental results demonstrate that Lie algebra method outperforms other traditional algorithms in efficiency, stabilization and accuracy.

  6. Low-lying excitations in 72Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoyborg, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Shaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-lying excited states in 72Ni have been investigated in an in-flight fission experiment at the RIBF facility of the RIKEN Nishina Center. The combination of the state-of-the-art BigRIPS and EURICA setups has allowed for a very accurate study of the β decay from 72Co to 72Ni, and has provided first experimental information on the decay sequence 72Fe→72Co→72Ni and on the delayed neutron-emission branch 73Co→72Ni . Accordingly, we report nearly 60 previously unobserved γ transitions which deexcite 21 new levels in 72Ni. Evidence for the location of the so-sought-after (42+) ,(62+) , and (81+) seniority states is provided. As well, the existence of a low-spin β -decaying isomer in odd-odd neutron-rich Co isotopes is confirmed for mass A =72 . The new experimental information is compared to simple shell-model calculations including only neutron excitations across the f p g shells. It is shown that, in general, the calculations reproduce well the observed states.

  7. On invariants of free restricted Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrogradsky, V. M.; Subbotin, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    We prove that the invariant subalgebra L^G is infinitely generated, where L=L(X) is the free restricted Lie algebra of finite rank k with free generating set X=\\{x_1,\\dots,x_k\\} over an arbitrary field of positive characteristic and G is a non-trivial finite group of homogeneous automorphisms of L(X). We show that the sequence \\vert Y_n\\vert, n≥1, grows exponentially with base k, where Y=\\bigcupn=1^∞ Y_n is a free homogeneous generating set of L^G and all the elements of Y_n are of degree n in X, n≥1. We prove that the radius of convergence of the generating function H(Y,t)=\\sumn=1^∞\\vert Y_n\\vert t^n is equal to 1/k and find an asymptotic formula for the growth of H(Y,t) as t\\to1/k-0.

  8. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mark A.

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  9. Relativity symmetries and Lie algebra contractions

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Dai-Ning; Kong, Otto C.W.

    2014-12-15

    We revisit the notion of possible relativity or kinematic symmetries mutually connected through Lie algebra contractions under a new perspective on what constitutes a relativity symmetry. Contractions of an SO(m,n) symmetry as an isometry on an m+n dimensional geometric arena which generalizes the notion of spacetime are discussed systematically. One of the key results is five different contractions of a Galilean-type symmetry G(m,n) preserving a symmetry of the same type at dimension m+n−1, e.g. a G(m,n−1), together with the coset space representations that correspond to the usual physical picture. Most of the results are explicitly illustrated through the example of symmetries obtained from the contraction of SO(2,4), which is the particular case for our interest on the physics side as the proposed relativity symmetry for “quantum spacetime”. The contractions from G(1,3) may be relevant to real physics.

  10. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    PubMed

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues.

  11. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    PubMed

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues. PMID:26301728

  12. Shading the truth: the patterning of adolescents' decisions to avoid issues, disclose, or lie to parents.

    PubMed

    Cumsille, Patricio; Darling, Nancy; Martínez, M Loreto

    2010-04-01

    Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to examine the patterning of adolescents' strategy choice when discussing issues with parents in a sample of 1678 Chilean 11-19 year olds (mean age=14.9). Adolescents reported whether they fully disclosed, partially disclosed, avoided the issue, or lied for six core areas that bridged personal autonomy and safety concerns. Five patterns were identified: two in which adolescents were likely to either share information about all issues or lie about them and three in which adolescents used a combination of strategies that included sharing some information while concealing other. Membership in the full disclosure class was highest among middle class youth and those who reported the highest obedience, legitimacy beliefs, parental agreement, maternal warmth and knowledge, and the fewest problem behaviors. Interestingly, adolescents in the Lie class reported both the highest level of parental monitoring and low maternal knowledge. PMID:19926123

  13. Renormalization group flows and continual Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2003-08-01

    We study the renormalization group flows of two-dimensional metrics in sigma models using the one-loop beta functions, and demonstrate that they provide a continual analogue of the Toda field equations in conformally flat coordinates. In this algebraic setting, the logarithm of the world-sheet length scale, t, is interpreted as Dynkin parameter on the root system of a novel continual Lie algebra, denoted by Script G(d/dt;1), with anti-symmetric Cartan kernel K(t,t') = delta'(t-t'); as such, it coincides with the Cartan matrix of the superalgebra sl(N|N+1) in the large-N limit. The resulting Toda field equation is a non-linear generalization of the heat equation, which is integrable in target space and shares the same dissipative properties in time, t. We provide the general solution of the renormalization group flows in terms of free fields, via Bäcklund transformations, and present some simple examples that illustrate the validity of their formal power series expansion in terms of algebraic data. We study in detail the sausage model that arises as geometric deformation of the O(3) sigma model, and give a new interpretation to its ultra-violet limit by gluing together two copies of Witten's two-dimensional black hole in the asymptotic region. We also provide some new solutions that describe the renormalization group flow of negatively curved spaces in different patches, which look like a cane in the infra-red region. Finally, we revisit the transition of a flat cone C/Zn to the plane, as another special solution, and note that tachyon condensation in closed string theory exhibits a hidden relation to the infinite dimensional algebra Script G(d/dt;1) in the regime of gravity. Its exponential growth holds the key for the construction of conserved currents and their systematic interpretation in string theory, but they still remain unknown.

  14. Low-lying excitations of polydiacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, A.; Barford, W.; Bursill, R. J.

    2001-07-01

    The Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian is used to calculate and identify the nature of the low-lying vertical transition energies of polydiacetylene. The model is solved using the density matrix renormalization group method for a fixed acetylenic geometry for chains of up to 102 atoms. The nonlinear optical properties of polydiacetylene are considered, which are determined by the third-order susceptibility. The experimental 1Bu data of Giesa and Schultz are used as the geometric model for the calculation. For short chains, the calculated E(1Bu) agrees with the experimental value, within solvation effects (~0.3 eV). The charge gap is used to characterize bound and unbound states. The nBu state is above the charge gap and hence a continuum state; the 1Bu, 2Ag, and mAg states are not and hence are bound excitons. For large chain lengths, the nBu state tends towards the charge gap as expected, strongly suggesting that the nBu state is the conduction band edge. The conduction band edge for polydiacetylene is agreed in the literature to be ~3.0 eV. Accounting for the strong polarization effects of the medium and polaron formation gives our calculated E∞(nBu)~3.6 eV, with an exciton binding energy of ~1.0 eV. The 2Ag state is found to be above the 1Bu state, which does not agree with relaxed transition experimental data. However, this could be resolved by including explicit lattice relaxation in the Pariser-Parr-Pople-Peierls model. Particle-hole separation data further suggest that the 1Bu, 2Ag, and mAg states are bound excitons, and that the nBu is an unbound exciton.

  15. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, M Raheel; Hong, Melissa J; Kim, Yun-Hee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into "true" and "lie" classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph. PMID:26082733

  16. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, M Raheel; Hong, Melissa J; Kim, Yun-Hee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into "true" and "lie" classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  17. Classification and Casimir Invariants of Lie--Poisson Brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Morrison, P. J.

    1997-11-01

    Several types of fluid and plasma systems admit a Hamiltonian formulation using Lie-Poisson brackets, including Euler's equation for fluids, reduced MHD for plasmas, and others. Lie-Poisson brackets, which are examples of noncanonical Poisson brackets, consist of an inner product, < , >, and the bracket, [ , ], of a Lie algebra which we call the inner bracket. The Lie-Poisson bracket is then lF,Gr = l<Ψ, l[F_Ψ , G_Ψr]r>. Here Ψ is a vector of field variables, and subscripts denote functional differentiation. The algebras corresponding to the inner brackets are algebras by extension: they are defined for multiple field variables from the bracket for a single variable. We derive a classification scheme for all such brackets using cohomology theory for Lie algebras. We then derive the Casimir invariants for the classes of Lie-Poisson brackets where the inner bracket is of canonical type.

  18. Rozansky-Witten-Type Invariants from Symplectic Lie Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voglaire, Yannick; Xu, Ping

    2015-05-01

    We introduce symplectic structures on "Lie pairs" of (real or complex) Lie algebroids as studied by Chen et al. (From Atiyah classes to homotopy Leibniz algebras. arXiv:1204.1075, 2012), encompassing homogeneous symplectic spaces, symplectic manifolds with a -action, and holomorphic symplectic manifolds. We show that to each such symplectic Lie pair are associated Rozansky-Witten-type invariants of three-manifolds and knots, given respectively by weight systems on trivalent and chord diagrams.

  19. Computation of multiple Lie derivatives by algorithmic differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robenack, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Lie derivatives are often used in nonlinear control and system theory. In general, these Lie derivatives are computed symbolically using computer algebra software. Although this approach is well-suited for small and medium-size problems, it is difficult to apply this technique to very complicated systems. We suggest an alternative method to compute the values of iterated and mixed Lie derivatives by algorithmic differentiation.

  20. Killing Sections and Sigma Models with Lie Algebroid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Andrew James

    2016-08-01

    We define and examine the notion of a Killing section of a Riemannian Lie algebroid as a natural generalisation of a Killing vector field. We show that the various expression for a vector field to be Killing naturally generalise to the setting of Lie algebroids. As an application we examine the internal symmetries of a class of sigma models for which the target space is a Riemannian Lie algebroid. Critical points of these sigma models are interpreted as generalised harmonic maps.

  1. What Lies Below a Martian Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Surveyor mission.

    NPLD stands for the north polar layered deposits.

    BU stands for basal unit, an ice-sand deposit that lies beneath parts of the north polar layered deposits.

    The Shallow Radar instrument was provided by the Italian Space Agency. Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its data are analyzed by a joint U.S.-Italian science team. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  2. Metric Lie 3-algebras in Bagger-Lambert theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, Paul; Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Méndez-Escobar, Elena

    2008-08-01

    We recast physical properties of the Bagger-Lambert theory, such as shift-symmetry and decoupling of ghosts, the absence of scale and parity invariance, in Lie 3-algebraic terms, thus motivating the study of metric Lie 3-algebras and their Lie algebras of derivations. We prove a structure theorem for metric Lie 3-algebras in arbitrary signature showing that they can be constructed out of the simple and one-dimensional Lie 3-algebras iterating two constructions: orthogonal direct sum and a new construction called a double extension, by analogy with the similar construction for Lie algebras. We classify metric Lie 3-algebras of signature (2, p) and study their Lie algebras of derivations, including those which preserve the conformal class of the inner product. We revisit the 3-algebraic criteria spelt out at the start of the paper and select those algebras with signature (2, p) which satisfy them, as well as indicate the construction of more general metric Lie 3-algebras satisfying the ghost-decoupling criterion.

  3. Young children can tell strategic lies after committing a transgression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated whether young children make strategic decisions about whether to lie to conceal a transgression based on the lie recipient's knowledge. In Experiment 1, 168 3- to 5-year-olds were asked not to peek at the toy in the experimenter's absence, and the majority of children peeked. Children were questioned about their transgression in either the presence or absence of an eyewitness of their transgression. Whereas 4- and 5-year-olds were able to adjust their decisions of whether to lie based on the presence or absence of the eyewitness, 3-year-olds did not. Experiments 2 and 3 manipulated whether the lie recipient appeared to have learned information about children's peeking from an eyewitness or was merely bluffing. Results revealed that when the lie recipient appeared to be genuinely knowledgeable about their transgression, even 3-year-olds were significantly less likely to lie compared with when the lie recipient appeared to be bluffing. Thus, preschool children are able to make strategic decisions about whether to lie or tell the truth based on whether the lie recipient is genuinely knowledgeable about the true state of affairs. PMID:22704035

  4. Lie algebra extensions of current algebras on S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kori, Tosiaki; Imai, Yuto

    2015-06-01

    An affine Kac-Moody algebra is a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S1 to the complexification of a Lie algebra. In this paper, we shall introduce a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S3 to the quaternization of a Lie algebra and investigate its root space decomposition. We think this extension of current algebra might give a mathematical tool for four-dimensional conformal field theory as Kac-Moody algebras give it for two-dimensional conformal field theory.

  5. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Charles Mack

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  6. Predictive power of the polygraph: can the "lie detector" really detect liars?

    PubMed

    Brett, A S; Phillips, M; Beary, J F

    1986-03-01

    Expanded use of the polygraph as a detector of lies has been proposed in the United States and the United Kingdom. The positive predictive value of the polygraph (ie, the proportion of positive test results that are true positives) was assessed, on the evidence of the best published data for the sensitivity and specificity of the device. In many screening or investigative situations, the predictive value would be poor; most of the positive results would be false positives. Consequently, truthful persons incriminated as liars by the polygraph would outnumber actual liars with a positive result on the test.

  7. Let's not, and say we would: imagined and actual responses to witnessing homophobia.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Jennifer Randall; Wilson, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We compared imagined versus actual affective and behavioral responses to witnessing a homophobic slur. Participants (N = 72) witnessed a confederate using a homophobic slur, imagined the same scenario, or were not exposed to the slur. Those who imagined hearing the slur reported significantly higher levels of negative affect than those who actually witnessed the slur, and nearly one half of them reported that they would confront the slur, whereas no participants who actually heard the slur confronted it. These findings reveal a discrepancy between imagined and real responses to homophobic remarks, and they have implications for the likelihood that heterosexuals will actually confront homophobic remarks.

  8. Children's Lies and Their Detection: Implications for Child Witness Testimony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    The veracity of child witness testimony is central to the justice system where there are serious consequences for the child, the accused, and society. Thus, it is important to examine how children's lie-telling abilities develop and the factors that can influence their truthfulness. The current review examines children's lie-telling ability in…

  9. Extracting Low-Lying Lambda Resonances Using Correlation Matrix Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Menadue, Benjamin J.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Mahbub, M. S.

    2011-05-24

    The lowest-lying negative-parity state of the Lambda is investigated in (2+1)-flavour full-QCD on the PACS-CS configurations made available through the ILDG. We show that a variational analysis using multiple source and sink smearings can extract a state lying lower than that obtained by using a standard fixed smeared source and sink operator alone.

  10. Lying in Children's Fiction: Morality and the Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringrose, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The telling of lies is significant in fiction written for children, and is often (though not in all cases) performed by child protagonists. Lying can be examined from at least three perspectives: philosophical, moral and aesthetic. The moral and the aesthetic are the most significant for children's literature. Morality has been subtly dealt with…

  11. Accuracy in Detecting Truths and Lies: Documenting the "Veracity Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Park, Hee Sun; McCornack, Steven A.

    1999-01-01

    Conducts four studies on detecting truth and lies. Suggest that the single best predictor of detection accuracy may be the veracity of message being judged. Finds that truths are judged with substantially greater accuracy than lies. Findings suggest that there is a need for reassessment of many commonly held conclusions about deceptive…

  12. Young Children Can Tell Strategic Lies after Committing a Transgression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether young children make strategic decisions about whether to lie to conceal a transgression based on the lie recipient's knowledge. In Experiment 1, 168 3- to 5-year-olds were asked not to peek at the toy in the experimenter's absence, and the majority of children peeked. Children were questioned about their…

  13. Second cohomology space of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra with coefficients in the Lie superalgebra of superpseudodifferential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ncib, Othmen; Omri, Salem

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the second cohomology space associated with the embedding of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(n | 2) on the (1 , n) -dimensional superspace R 1 | n in the Lie superalgebra SΨDO(n) of superpseudodifferential operators with smooth coefficients, where n = 0 , 1 , 2. We show that this space is purely even and we give explicit expressions of the basis cocycles.

  14. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  15. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, M. Raheel; Hong, Melissa J.; Kim, Yun-Hee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into “true” and “lie” classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph. PMID:26082733

  16. Lie-specific involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in deception.

    PubMed

    Priori, Alberto; Mameli, F; Cogiamanian, F; Marceglia, S; Tiriticco, M; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Ferrucci, R; Zago, S; Polezzi, D; Sartori, G

    2008-02-01

    Lies are intentional distortions of event knowledge. No experimental data are available on manipulating lying processes. To address this issue, we stimulated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested before and after tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham). Two types of truthful (truthful selected: TS; truthful unselected: TU) and deceptive (lie selected: LS; lie unselected: LU) responses were evaluated using a computer-controlled task. Reaction times (RTs) and accuracy were collected and used as dependent variables. In the baseline task, the RT was significantly longer for lie responses than for true responses ([mean +/- standard error] 1153.4 +/- 42.0 ms vs. 1039.6 +/- 36.6 ms; F(1,14) = 27.25, P = 0.00013). At baseline, RT for selected pictures was significantly shorter than RT for unselected pictures (1051.26 +/- 39.0 ms vs. 1141.76 +/- 41.1 ms; F(1,14) = 34.85, P = 0.00004). Whereas after cathodal and sham stimulation, lie responses remained unchanged (cathodal 5.26 +/- 2.7%; sham 5.66 +/- 3.6%), after anodal tDCS, RTs significantly increased but did so only for LS responses (16.86 +/- 5.0%; P = 0.002). These findings show that manipulation of brain function with DLPFC tDCS specifically influences experimental deception and that distinctive neural mechanisms underlie different types of lies.

  17. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  18. [Actual diet of patients with gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Shakhovskaia, A K; Pavliuchkova, M S

    2000-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition of patients with erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal zone and of patients with operated ulcer has revealed defects in intake of essential nutrients by these patients: overeating of animal fat and refined carbohydrates, deficiency of oil, vitamins A, B2, C, D and food fibers.

  19. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  20. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  1. Teenagers' Perceived and Actual Probabilities of Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namerow, Pearila Brickner; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescent females' (N=425) actual and perceived probabilities of pregnancy. Subjects estimated their likelihood of becoming pregnant the last time they had intercourse, and indicated the dates of last intercourse and last menstrual period. Found that the distributions of perceived probability of pregnancy were nearly identical for both…

  2. A pilot study on the improvement of the lying area of finishing pigs by a soft lying mat.

    PubMed

    Savary, Pascal; Gygax, Lorenz; Jungbluth, Thomas; Wechsler, Beat; Hauser, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested whether a soft mat (foam covered with a heat-sealed thermoplastic) reduces alterations and injuries at the skin and the leg joints.The soft mat in the lying area of partly slatted pens was compared to a lying area consisting of either bare or slightly littered (100 g straw per pig and day) concrete flooring. In this study we focused on skin lesions on the legs of finishing pigs as indicators of impaired welfare. Pigs were kept in 19 groups of 8-10 individuals and were examined for skin lesions around the carpal and tarsal joints either at a weight of <35 kg, or at close to 100 kg. The likelihood of hairless patches and wounds at the tarsal joints was significantly lower in pens with the soft lying mat than in pens with a bare concrete floor. Pens with a littered concrete floor did not differ compared to pens with a bare concrete floor. The soft lying mat thus improved floor quality in the lying area in terms of preventing skin lesions compared to bare and slightly littered concrete flooring. Such soft lying mats have thus the potential to improve lying comfort and welfare of finishing pigs.

  3. Functional MRI-based lie detection: scientific and societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations.

  4. Leibniz algebras associated with representations of filiform Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayupov, Sh. A.; Camacho, L. M.; Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigate Leibniz algebras whose quotient Lie algebra is a naturally graded filiform Lie algebra nn,1. We introduce a Fock module for the algebra nn,1 and provide classification of Leibniz algebras L whose corresponding Lie algebra L / I is the algebra nn,1 with condition that the ideal I is a Fock nn,1-module, where I is the ideal generated by squares of elements from L. We also consider Leibniz algebras with corresponding Lie algebra nn,1 and such that the action I ×nn,1 → I gives rise to a minimal faithful representation of nn,1. The classification up to isomorphism of such Leibniz algebras is given for the case of n = 4.

  5. Multidimensional integrable systems and deformations of Lie algebra homomorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Dunajski, Maciej; Grant, James D. E.; Strachan, Ian A. B.

    2007-09-15

    We use deformations of Lie algebra homomorphisms to construct deformations of dispersionless integrable systems arising as symmetry reductions of anti-self-dual Yang-Mills equations with a gauge group Diff(S{sup 1})

  6. A Lie based 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    We present and study a model of 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory, special Chern-Simons (SCS) theory, instances of which have appeared in the string literature, whose symmetry is encoded in a skeletal semistrict Lie 2-algebra constructed from a compact Lie group with non discrete center. The field content of SCS theory consists of a Lie valued 2-connection coupled to a background closed 3-form. SCS theory enjoys a large gauge and gauge for gauge symmetry organized in an infinite dimensional strict Lie 2-group. The partition function of SCS theory is simply related to that of a topological gauge theory localizing on flat connections with degree 3 second characteristic class determined by the background 3-form. Finally, SCS theory is related to a 3-dimensional special gauge theory whose 2-connection space has a natural symplectic structure with respect to which the 1-gauge transformation action is Hamiltonian, the 2-curvature map acting as moment map.

  7. Children trust people who lie to benefit others.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Chen, Guowei; Liu, Peilong; Lee, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined whether children consider who benefits from lies when judging the trustworthiness of liars. Across two studies (total N=214), 6- to 11-year-olds trusted individuals who lied to promote the interests of others, but not those who lied to promote their own interests. In contrast, children trusted individuals who told the truth regardless of who benefited. Trust in individuals who lied to promote the interests of others was evident even in the absence of moral approval for their actions. These results demonstrate that children take into account both the truth value of a speaker's statements and who benefits when assessing trustworthiness and that moral approval is not a prerequisite for trust.

  8. Functional MRI-based lie detection: scientific and societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations. PMID:24588019

  9. On Lie systems and Kummer-Schwarz equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2013-03-01

    A Lie system is a system of first-order differential equations admitting a superposition rule, i.e., a map that expresses its general solution in terms of a generic family of particular solutions and certain constants. In this work, we use the geometric theory of Lie systems to prove that the explicit integration of second- and third-order Kummer-Schwarz equations is equivalent to obtaining a particular solution of a Lie system on SL(2,{R}). This same result can be extended to Riccati, Milne-Pinney, and to the here defined generalised Kummer-Schwarz equations, which include several types of Kummer-Schwarz equations as particular cases. We demonstrate that all the above-mentioned equations related to the same Lie system on SL(2,{R}) can be integrated simultaneously, which retrieves and generalizes in a unified and simpler manner previous results appearing in the literature. As a byproduct, we recover various properties of the Schwarzian derivative.

  10. On the low-lying states of TiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Siegbahn, P. E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The ground and low-lying excited states of TiC are investigated using a CASSCF-externally contracted CI approach. The calculations yield a 3Sigma(+) ground state, but the 1Sigma(+) state is only 780/cm higher and cannot be ruled out. The low-lying states have some triple bond character. The nature of the bonding and origin of the states are discussed.

  11. Community walking speed, sedentary or lying down time, and mortality in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tian, Lu; Kibbe, Melina R; Greenland, Philip; Green, David; Liu, Kiang; Zhao, Lihui; Wilkins, John T; Huffman, Mark D; Shah, Sanjiv J; Liao, Yihua; Gao, Ying; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Criqui, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    We studied whether slower community walking speed and whether greater time spent lying down or sleeping were associated with higher mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.90 were identified from Chicago medical centers. At baseline, participants reported their usual walking speed outside their home and the number of hours they spent lying down or sleeping per day. Cause of death was adjudicated using death certificates and medical record review. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, and other confounders. Of 1314 PAD participants, 189 (14.4%) died, including 63 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Mean follow-up was 34.9 months ± 18.1. Relative to average or normal pace (2-3 miles/hour), slower walking speed was associated with greater CVD mortality: no walking at all: hazard ratio (HR) = 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.46-11.89; casual strolling (0-2 miles/hour): HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.16-4.32; brisk or striding (>3 miles/hour): HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.07-4.30. These associations were not significant after additional adjustment for the six-minute walk. Relative to sleeping or lying down for 8-9 hours, fewer or greater hours sleeping or lying down were associated with higher CVD mortality: 4-7 hours: HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.06-4.05; 10-11 hours: HR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.86-8.89; ⩾ 12 hours: HR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.47-9.62. These associations were maintained after adjustment for the six-minute walk. In conclusion, slower walking speed outside the home and less than 8 hours or more than 9 hours lying down per day are potentially modifiable behaviors associated with increased CVD mortality in patients with PAD. PMID:26873873

  12. Lie Markov models with purine/pyrimidine symmetry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Jesús; Sumner, Jeremy G; Jarvis, Peter D; Woodhams, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Continuous-time Markov chains are a standard tool in phylogenetic inference. If homogeneity is assumed, the chain is formulated by specifying time-independent rates of substitutions between states in the chain. In applications, there are usually extra constraints on the rates, depending on the situation. If a model is formulated in this way, it is possible to generalise it and allow for an inhomogeneous process, with time-dependent rates satisfying the same constraints. It is then useful to require that, under some time restrictions, there exists a homogeneous average of this inhomogeneous process within the same model. This leads to the definition of "Lie Markov models" which, as we will show, are precisely the class of models where such an average exists. These models form Lie algebras and hence concepts from Lie group theory are central to their derivation. In this paper, we concentrate on applications to phylogenetics and nucleotide evolution, and derive the complete hierarchy of Lie Markov models that respect the grouping of nucleotides into purines and pyrimidines-that is, models with purine/pyrimidine symmetry. We also discuss how to handle the subtleties of applying Lie group methods, most naturally defined over the complex field, to the stochastic case of a Markov process, where parameter values are restricted to be real and positive. In particular, we explore the geometric embedding of the cone of stochastic rate matrices within the ambient space of the associated complex Lie algebra.

  13. Longitudinal evaluation of foetal transverse lie using ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Olalekan I; Okoyomo, Alexander A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of persistence of transverse lie detected earlier in pregnancy and associated predisposing factors using follow-up ultrasound (US). A longitudinal study was carried out from January 2004 to august 2004 at Federal Medical centre, Lokoja, Nigeria. All singleton pregnancies, with ultrasound diagnosis of transverse lie, between 24-28 weeks were followed to term. At 24-28 weeks, 183 fetuses presented with transverse lie. Thirty seven were lost to follow-up; out of the remaining 146 babies, 22 persisted to term. Overall persistence rate was 15.1%. No identifiable predisposing factors were seen in 91.1%, placenta previa in 5.5%, lower segment fibroids in 2.7%, and ectopic kidney in 0.7%. In conclusion, transverse lie detected early in pregnancy is transient, and majority would convert to a longitudinal lie at term. Potential predisposing factors highlighted above increases the risk of persistent transverse lie at term, with placenta previa and lower segment fibroids being the major predisposing factors.

  14. Emotion and lying in a non-native language.

    PubMed

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L; Ayçiçeği-Dinn, Ayşe

    2009-03-01

    Bilingual speakers frequently report experiencing greater emotional resonance in their first language compared to their second. In Experiment 1, Turkish university students who had learned English as a foreign language had reduced skin conductance responses (SCRs) when listening to emotional phrases in English compared to Turkish, an effect which was most pronounced for childhood reprimands. A second type of emotional language, reading out loud true and false statements, was studied in Experiment 2. Larger SCRs were elicited by lies compared to true statements, and larger SCRs were evoked by English statements compared to Turkish statements. In contrast, ratings of how strongly participants felt they were lying showed that Turkish lies were more strongly felt than English lies. Results suggest that two factors influence the electrodermal activity elicited when bilingual speakers lie in their two languages: arousal due to emotions associated with lying, and arousal due to anxiety about managing speech production in non-native language. Anxiety and emotionality when speaking a non-naive language need to be better understood to inform practices ranging from bilingual psychotherapy to police interrogation of suspects and witnesses.

  15. Reproducing Actual Morphology of Planetary Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.

    1996-03-01

    Assuming that lava flows behave as non-isothermal laminar Bingham fluids, we developed a numerical code of lava flows. We take the self gravity effects and cooling mechanisms into account. The calculation method is a kind of cellular automata using a reduced random space method, which can eliminate the mesh shape dependence. We can calculate large scale lava flows precisely without numerical instability and reproduce morphology of actual lava flows.

  16. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  17. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses.

  18. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses. PMID:24634058

  19. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  20. Deceit and dishonesty as practice: the comfort of lying.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melody

    2016-07-01

    Lying and deceit are instruments of power, used by social actors in the pursuit of their practices as they seek to maintain social order. All social actors, nurses included, have deceit and dishonesty within their repertoire of practice. Much of this is benign, well intentioned and a function of being sociable and necessary in the pursuit of social order in the healthcare environment. Lying and deceit from a sociological point of view, is a reflection of the different modes of domination that exist within a social space. French philosopher Pierre Bourdieu theorized about the way that symbolic power works within social space. The social structures and the agency of individual actors moving within it are interrelated and interdependent. Bourdieu's ideas will be used to theorize about real clinical experiences where acts of deceit can be identified and a case example will be presented. Nurses are actors in the social space of clinical care, and their world is complex, challenging, and often fraught with the contradictory demands and choices that reflect and influence their behaviours. An exploration of lying and deceit in nursing as an instrument in the modes of domination that persist enables us to challenge some of the assumptions that are made about the motives that cause or tempt nurses to lie as well as to understand the way on which they are sometimes lied to, according to the acts of domination that exist in the field. Lying or acting dishonestly is a powerful act that is intent on retaining stability and social order and could be seen to be a justification of lying and deceit. However, we need to pause and consider, in whose interests are we striving to create social order? Is it in the end about the comfort of patients or for the comfort of professionals?

  1. Deceit and dishonesty as practice: the comfort of lying.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melody

    2016-07-01

    Lying and deceit are instruments of power, used by social actors in the pursuit of their practices as they seek to maintain social order. All social actors, nurses included, have deceit and dishonesty within their repertoire of practice. Much of this is benign, well intentioned and a function of being sociable and necessary in the pursuit of social order in the healthcare environment. Lying and deceit from a sociological point of view, is a reflection of the different modes of domination that exist within a social space. French philosopher Pierre Bourdieu theorized about the way that symbolic power works within social space. The social structures and the agency of individual actors moving within it are interrelated and interdependent. Bourdieu's ideas will be used to theorize about real clinical experiences where acts of deceit can be identified and a case example will be presented. Nurses are actors in the social space of clinical care, and their world is complex, challenging, and often fraught with the contradictory demands and choices that reflect and influence their behaviours. An exploration of lying and deceit in nursing as an instrument in the modes of domination that persist enables us to challenge some of the assumptions that are made about the motives that cause or tempt nurses to lie as well as to understand the way on which they are sometimes lied to, according to the acts of domination that exist in the field. Lying or acting dishonestly is a powerful act that is intent on retaining stability and social order and could be seen to be a justification of lying and deceit. However, we need to pause and consider, in whose interests are we striving to create social order? Is it in the end about the comfort of patients or for the comfort of professionals? PMID:27197791

  2. Towards clinical trials of lie detection with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Hakun, J G; Ruparel, K; Seelig, D; Busch, E; Loughead, J W; Gur, R C; Langleben, D D

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports of successful fMRI-based discrimination between lie and truth in single subjects raised the interest of prospective users and a public concern about the potential scope of this technology. The increased scrutiny highlighted the lack of controlled "real life", i.e. prospective clinical trials of this technology that conform to the common standards of medical device development. The ethics of conducting such trials given the paucity of data on fMRI-based lie detection has also been questioned. To probe the potential issues of translating the laboratory research into practice, we conducted a case study in which we adapted the standard Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT), a well-established model of producing deception, to the common scenario of lying on a resume. The task consisted of questions about pertinent items on the subject's resume, three of which could be independently verified as truth (KNOWN) and three that could not be verified and were thus termed UNKNOWN. The subject had an incentive to lie on all UNKNOWN items, and on debriefing confirmed that he had done so. Data was preprocessed, masked with a priori regions of interest, thresholded, and qualitatively evaluated for consistency with the previously reported prefronto-parietal Lie > Truth pattern. Deceptive responses to two out of the three UNKNOWN items were associated with the predicted prefronto-parietal fMRI pattern. In the third UNKNOWN this pattern was absent, and instead, increased limbic (amygdala and hippocampus) response was observed. Based on published prefronto-parietal Lie response pattern, only the first two items could be categorized as Lie. If confirmed, this demonstration of amygdala and hippocampus activation in a Lie > Truth contrast illustrates the need to integrate the limbic system and its emotional and cognitive correlates into the existing model of deception. Our experiment suggests an approach to a naturalistic scenario and the research questions that need to be answered

  3. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  4. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  5. On squares of representations of compact Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Zeier, Robert; Zimborás, Zoltán

    2015-08-15

    We study how tensor products of representations decompose when restricted from a compact Lie algebra to one of its subalgebras. In particular, we are interested in tensor squares which are tensor products of a representation with itself. We show in a classification-free manner that the sum of multiplicities and the sum of squares of multiplicities in the corresponding decomposition of a tensor square into irreducible representations has to strictly grow when restricted from a compact semisimple Lie algebra to a proper subalgebra. For this purpose, relevant details on tensor products of representations are compiled from the literature. Since the sum of squares of multiplicities is equal to the dimension of the commutant of the tensor-square representation, it can be determined by linear-algebra computations in a scenario where an a priori unknown Lie algebra is given by a set of generators which might not be a linear basis. Hence, our results offer a test to decide if a subalgebra of a compact semisimple Lie algebra is a proper one without calculating the relevant Lie closures, which can be naturally applied in the field of controlled quantum systems.

  6. Transcranial Current Stimulation of the Temporoparietal Junction Improves Lie Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, Sophie; Wright, Gordon R.T.; Banissy, Michael J.; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ability to detect deception is of vital importance in human society, playing a crucial role in communication, cooperation, and trade between societies, businesses, and individuals. However, numerous studies have shown, remarkably consistently, that we are only slightly above chance when it comes to detecting deception [1]. Here we investigate whether inconsistency between one’s own opinion and the stated opinion of another impairs judgment of the veracity of that statement, in the same way that one’s own mental, affective, and action states, when inconsistent, can interfere with representation of those states in another [2]. Within the context of lie detection, individuals may be less accurate when judging the veracity of another’s opinion when it is inconsistent with their own opinion. Here we present a video-mediated lie-detection task to confirm this prediction: individuals correctly identified truths or lies less often when the other’s expressed opinion was inconsistent with their own (experiment 1). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) has previously been shown to improve the ability to selectively represent the self or another [3–5]. We therefore predicted that TPJ stimulation would enable lie detectors to inhibit their own views, enhance those of the other, and improve their ability to determine whether another was presenting their true opinion. Experiment 2 confirmed this second prediction: anodal tDCS of the TPJ improved lie detection specifically when one’s own and others’ views were conflicting. PMID:26344092

  7. Transcranial Current Stimulation of the Temporoparietal Junction Improves Lie Detection.

    PubMed

    Sowden, Sophie; Wright, Gordon R T; Banissy, Michael J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-09-21

    The ability to detect deception is of vital importance in human society, playing a crucial role in communication, cooperation, and trade between societies, businesses, and individuals. However, numerous studies have shown, remarkably consistently, that we are only slightly above chance when it comes to detecting deception. Here we investigate whether inconsistency between one's own opinion and the stated opinion of another impairs judgment of the veracity of that statement, in the same way that one's own mental, affective, and action states, when inconsistent, can interfere with representation of those states in another. Within the context of lie detection, individuals may be less accurate when judging the veracity of another's opinion when it is inconsistent with their own opinion. Here we present a video-mediated lie-detection task to confirm this prediction: individuals correctly identified truths or lies less often when the other's expressed opinion was inconsistent with their own (experiment 1). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) has previously been shown to improve the ability to selectively represent the self or another. We therefore predicted that TPJ stimulation would enable lie detectors to inhibit their own views, enhance those of the other, and improve their ability to determine whether another was presenting their true opinion. Experiment 2 confirmed this second prediction: anodal tDCS of the TPJ improved lie detection specifically when one's own and others' views were conflicting.

  8. Transcranial Current Stimulation of the Temporoparietal Junction Improves Lie Detection.

    PubMed

    Sowden, Sophie; Wright, Gordon R T; Banissy, Michael J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-09-21

    The ability to detect deception is of vital importance in human society, playing a crucial role in communication, cooperation, and trade between societies, businesses, and individuals. However, numerous studies have shown, remarkably consistently, that we are only slightly above chance when it comes to detecting deception. Here we investigate whether inconsistency between one's own opinion and the stated opinion of another impairs judgment of the veracity of that statement, in the same way that one's own mental, affective, and action states, when inconsistent, can interfere with representation of those states in another. Within the context of lie detection, individuals may be less accurate when judging the veracity of another's opinion when it is inconsistent with their own opinion. Here we present a video-mediated lie-detection task to confirm this prediction: individuals correctly identified truths or lies less often when the other's expressed opinion was inconsistent with their own (experiment 1). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) has previously been shown to improve the ability to selectively represent the self or another. We therefore predicted that TPJ stimulation would enable lie detectors to inhibit their own views, enhance those of the other, and improve their ability to determine whether another was presenting their true opinion. Experiment 2 confirmed this second prediction: anodal tDCS of the TPJ improved lie detection specifically when one's own and others' views were conflicting. PMID:26344092

  9. INFORMATION-THEORETIC INEQUALITIES ON UNIMODULAR LIE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Classical inequalities used in information theory such as those of de Bruijn, Fisher, Cramér, Rao, and Kullback carry over in a natural way from Euclidean space to unimodular Lie groups. These are groups that possess an integration measure that is simultaneously invariant under left and right shifts. All commutative groups are unimodular. And even in noncommutative cases unimodular Lie groups share many of the useful features of Euclidean space. The rotation and Euclidean motion groups, which are perhaps the most relevant Lie groups to problems in geometric mechanics, are unimodular, as are the unitary groups that play important roles in quantum computing. The extension of core information theoretic inequalities defined in the setting of Euclidean space to this broad class of Lie groups is potentially relevant to a number of problems relating to information gathering in mobile robotics, satellite attitude control, tomographic image reconstruction, biomolecular structure determination, and quantum information theory. In this paper, several definitions are extended from the Euclidean setting to that of Lie groups (including entropy and the Fisher information matrix), and inequalities analogous to those in classical information theory are derived and stated in the form of fifteen small theorems. In all such inequalities, addition of random variables is replaced with the group product, and the appropriate generalization of convolution of probability densities is employed. An example from the field of robotics demonstrates how several of these results can be applied to quantify the amount of information gained by pooling different sensory inputs. PMID:21113416

  10. Quantized Nambu-Poisson manifolds and n-Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBellis, Joshua; Sämann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the geometric interpretation of quantized Nambu-Poisson structures in terms of noncommutative geometries. We describe an extension of the usual axioms of quantization in which classical Nambu-Poisson structures are translated to n-Lie algebras at quantum level. We demonstrate that this generalized procedure matches an extension of Berezin-Toeplitz quantization yielding quantized spheres, hyperboloids, and superspheres. The extended Berezin quantization of spheres is closely related to a deformation quantization of n-Lie algebras as well as the approach based on harmonic analysis. We find an interpretation of Nambu-Heisenberg n-Lie algebras in terms of foliations of {{R}}^n by fuzzy spheres, fuzzy hyperboloids, and noncommutative hyperplanes. Some applications to the quantum geometry of branes in M-theory are also briefly discussed.

  11. Adherence and the Lie in a HIV Prevention Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Jonathan; Scorgie, Fiona; van der Straten, Ariane; Saethre, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    The lie has been presented as a performance that protects identities against moral judgment in the context of power imbalances. We explore this assertion from the perspective of a pre-exposure prophylaxis trial to prevent HIV for African women in South Africa, in which context biological evidence of widespread lying about product adherence was produced, resulting in a moral discourse that opposed altruistic and selfish motivations. In this article, we seek to understand the meaning of the lie from the perspective of women trial participants. Seeing the trial as representing a hopeful future, and perfect adherence as sustaining their investment in this, participants recited scripted accounts of adherence and performed the role of the perfect adherer, while identifying other participants as dishonest. Given that clinical trials create moral orders and adherence is key to this, we argue that women embraced the apparatus of the clinical trial to assert their moral subjectivities. PMID:26575611

  12. Adaptive registration of diffusion tensor images on lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, LeiTing; Cai, HongBin; Qiu, Hang; Fei, Nanxi

    2016-08-01

    With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), more exquisite information on tissue microstructure is provided for medical image processing. In this paper, we present a locally adaptive topology preserving method for DTI registration on Lie groups. The method aims to obtain more plausible diffeomorphisms for spatial transformations via accurate approximation for the local tangent space on the Lie group manifold. In order to capture an exact geometric structure of the Lie group, the local linear approximation is efficiently optimized by using the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes on the given set of data points. Furthermore, numerical comparative experiments are conducted on both synthetic data and real DTI data to demonstrate that the proposed method yields a higher degree of topology preservation on a dense deformation tensor field while improving the registration accuracy.

  13. Thermal imaging as a lie detection tool at airports.

    PubMed

    Warmelink, Lara; Vrij, Aldert; Mann, Samantha; Leal, Sharon; Forrester, Dave; Fisher, Ronald P

    2011-02-01

    We tested the accuracy of thermal imaging as a lie detection tool in airport screening. Fifty-one passengers in an international airport departure hall told the truth or lied about their forthcoming trip in an interview. Their skin temperature was recorded via a thermal imaging camera. Liars' skin temperature rose significantly during the interview, whereas truth tellers' skin temperature remained constant. On the basis of these different patterns, 64% of truth tellers and 69% of liars were classified correctly. The interviewers made veracity judgements independently from the thermal recordings. The interviewers outperformed the thermal recordings and classified 72% of truth tellers and 77% of liars correctly. Accuracy rates based on the combination of thermal imaging scores and interviewers' judgements were the same as accuracy rates based on interviewers' judgements alone. Implications of the findings for the suitability of thermal imaging as a lie detection tool in airports are discussed.

  14. Quantized Nambu-Poisson manifolds and n-Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    DeBellis, Joshua; Saemann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the geometric interpretation of quantized Nambu-Poisson structures in terms of noncommutative geometries. We describe an extension of the usual axioms of quantization in which classical Nambu-Poisson structures are translated to n-Lie algebras at quantum level. We demonstrate that this generalized procedure matches an extension of Berezin-Toeplitz quantization yielding quantized spheres, hyperboloids, and superspheres. The extended Berezin quantization of spheres is closely related to a deformation quantization of n-Lie algebras as well as the approach based on harmonic analysis. We find an interpretation of Nambu-Heisenberg n-Lie algebras in terms of foliations of R{sup n} by fuzzy spheres, fuzzy hyperboloids, and noncommutative hyperplanes. Some applications to the quantum geometry of branes in M-theory are also briefly discussed.

  15. Prospects of functional magnetic resonance imaging as lie detector.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Following the demise of the polygraph, supporters of assisted scientific lie detection tools have enthusiastically appropriated neuroimaging technologies "as the savior of scientifically verifiable lie detection in the courtroom" (Gerard, 2008: 5). These proponents believe the future impact of neuroscience "will be inevitable, dramatic, and will fundamentally alter the way the law does business" (Erickson, 2010: 29); however, such enthusiasm may prove premature. For in nearly every article published by independent researchers in peer reviewed journals, the respective authors acknowledge that fMRI research, processes, and technology are insufficiently developed and understood for gatekeepers to even consider introducing these neuroimaging measures into criminal courts as they stand today for the purpose of determining the veracity of statements made. Regardless of how favorable their analyses of fMRI or its future potential, they all acknowledge the presence of issues yet to be resolved. Even assuming a future where these issues are resolved and an appropriate fMRI lie-detection process is developed, its integration into criminal trials is not assured for the very success of such a future system may necessitate its exclusion from courtrooms on the basis of existing legal and ethical prohibitions. In this piece, aimed for a multidisciplinary readership, we seek to highlight and bring together the multitude of hurdles which would need to be successfully overcome before fMRI can (if ever) be a viable applied lie detection system. We argue that the current status of fMRI studies on lie detection meets neither basic legal nor scientific standards. We identify four general classes of hurdles (scientific, legal and ethical, operational, and social) and provide an overview on the stages and operations involved in fMRI studies, as well as the difficulties of translating these laboratory protocols into a practical criminal justice environment. It is our overall conclusion

  16. Prospects of functional magnetic resonance imaging as lie detector.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Following the demise of the polygraph, supporters of assisted scientific lie detection tools have enthusiastically appropriated neuroimaging technologies "as the savior of scientifically verifiable lie detection in the courtroom" (Gerard, 2008: 5). These proponents believe the future impact of neuroscience "will be inevitable, dramatic, and will fundamentally alter the way the law does business" (Erickson, 2010: 29); however, such enthusiasm may prove premature. For in nearly every article published by independent researchers in peer reviewed journals, the respective authors acknowledge that fMRI research, processes, and technology are insufficiently developed and understood for gatekeepers to even consider introducing these neuroimaging measures into criminal courts as they stand today for the purpose of determining the veracity of statements made. Regardless of how favorable their analyses of fMRI or its future potential, they all acknowledge the presence of issues yet to be resolved. Even assuming a future where these issues are resolved and an appropriate fMRI lie-detection process is developed, its integration into criminal trials is not assured for the very success of such a future system may necessitate its exclusion from courtrooms on the basis of existing legal and ethical prohibitions. In this piece, aimed for a multidisciplinary readership, we seek to highlight and bring together the multitude of hurdles which would need to be successfully overcome before fMRI can (if ever) be a viable applied lie detection system. We argue that the current status of fMRI studies on lie detection meets neither basic legal nor scientific standards. We identify four general classes of hurdles (scientific, legal and ethical, operational, and social) and provide an overview on the stages and operations involved in fMRI studies, as well as the difficulties of translating these laboratory protocols into a practical criminal justice environment. It is our overall conclusion

  17. Prospects of functional magnetic resonance imaging as lie detector

    PubMed Central

    Rusconi, Elena; Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Following the demise of the polygraph, supporters of assisted scientific lie detection tools have enthusiastically appropriated neuroimaging technologies “as the savior of scientifically verifiable lie detection in the courtroom” (Gerard, 2008: 5). These proponents believe the future impact of neuroscience “will be inevitable, dramatic, and will fundamentally alter the way the law does business” (Erickson, 2010: 29); however, such enthusiasm may prove premature. For in nearly every article published by independent researchers in peer reviewed journals, the respective authors acknowledge that fMRI research, processes, and technology are insufficiently developed and understood for gatekeepers to even consider introducing these neuroimaging measures into criminal courts as they stand today for the purpose of determining the veracity of statements made. Regardless of how favorable their analyses of fMRI or its future potential, they all acknowledge the presence of issues yet to be resolved. Even assuming a future where these issues are resolved and an appropriate fMRI lie-detection process is developed, its integration into criminal trials is not assured for the very success of such a future system may necessitate its exclusion from courtrooms on the basis of existing legal and ethical prohibitions. In this piece, aimed for a multidisciplinary readership, we seek to highlight and bring together the multitude of hurdles which would need to be successfully overcome before fMRI can (if ever) be a viable applied lie detection system. We argue that the current status of fMRI studies on lie detection meets neither basic legal nor scientific standards. We identify four general classes of hurdles (scientific, legal and ethical, operational, and social) and provide an overview on the stages and operations involved in fMRI studies, as well as the difficulties of translating these laboratory protocols into a practical criminal justice environment. It is our overall

  18. Ideals and primitive elements of some relatively free Lie algebras.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Naime; Esmerligil, Zerrin; Ersalan, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Let F be a free Lie algebra of finite rank over a field K. We prove that if an ideal [Formula: see text] of the algebra [Formula: see text] contains a primitive element [Formula: see text] then the element [Formula: see text] is primitive. We also show that, in the Lie algebra [Formula: see text] there exists an element [Formula: see text] such that the ideal [Formula: see text] contains a primitive element [Formula: see text] but, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are not conjugate by means of an inner automorphism.

  19. Lie theory and control systems defined on spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that in constructing a theory for the most elementary class of control problems defined on spheres, some results from the Lie theory play a natural role. To understand controllability, optimal control, and certain properties of stochastic equations, Lie theoretic ideas are needed. The framework considered here is the most natural departure from the usual linear system/vector space problems which have dominated control systems literature. For this reason results are compared with those previously available for the finite dimensional vector space case.

  20. Ideals and primitive elements of some relatively free Lie algebras.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Naime; Esmerligil, Zerrin; Ersalan, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Let F be a free Lie algebra of finite rank over a field K. We prove that if an ideal [Formula: see text] of the algebra [Formula: see text] contains a primitive element [Formula: see text] then the element [Formula: see text] is primitive. We also show that, in the Lie algebra [Formula: see text] there exists an element [Formula: see text] such that the ideal [Formula: see text] contains a primitive element [Formula: see text] but, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are not conjugate by means of an inner automorphism. PMID:27386282

  1. Reduction method for representations of queer Lie superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Whi

    2016-05-01

    We develop a reduction procedure which provides an equivalence from an arbitrary block of the BGG category for the queer Lie superalgebra 𝔮(n) to a "ℤ ± s-weights" (s ∈ ℂ) block of a BGG category for finite direct sum of queer Lie superalgebras. We give descriptions of blocks. We also establish equivalences between certain maximal parabolic subcategories for 𝔮(n) and blocks of atypicality-one of the category of finite-dimensional modules for 𝔤𝔩(ℓ|n - ℓ).

  2. Average Exceptional Lie Group Hierarchy and High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    El Naschie, M. S.

    2008-05-29

    Starting from an invariant total dimension for an exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy, we drive all the essential characteristic and coupling constants of the fundamental interactions of physics. It is shown in a most simplistic fashion that all physical fields are various transfinite scaling transformation and topological deformation of each other. An extended standard model on the other hand turned out to be a compact sub group H of a version of E7 exceptional Lie group E7(-5) with dim H = 69. Thus particle physics, electromagnetism as well as gravity and the bulk are all representable via modular spaces akin to the famous compactified version of F. Klein's modular curve.

  3. On a Lie Algebraic Characterization of Vector Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Pierre B. A.; Leuther, Thomas; Zihindula Mushengezi, Elie

    2012-01-01

    We prove that a vector bundle π: E→M is characterized by the Lie algebra generated by all differential operators on E which are eigenvectors of the Lie derivative in the direction of the Euler vector field. Our result is of Pursell-Shanks type but it is remarkable in the sense that it is the whole fibration that is characterized here. The proof relies on a theorem of [Lecomte P., J. Math. Pures Appl. (9) 60 (1981), 229-239] and inherits the same hypotheses. In particular, our characterization holds only for vector bundles of rank greater than 1.

  4. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  5. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  6. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. q-bosons and the Lie-deformed Heisenberg algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hui-yun; Zhao, Zu Sen

    1998-02-01

    It is shown that the non-Hermitian realization of a Lie-deformed Heisenberg algebra given by Jannussis et al. is closely related with the q-Heisenberg-Weyl algebra of Biedenharn and Macfarlane with q being a phase ( q = eiθ, with θ real). The physical implications of this result are stressed.

  12. The Saturation Campaign of Lies and Distortions about Educational Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Howard L.

    This paper asserts that a campaign of "distortions and lies" about educational vouchers is being conducted by opponents of expanded educational options for low-income parents. It suggests that aspects of the voucher debate are subject to frequent distortion, refuting myths that are being spread. These focus on such issues as: overall admission…

  13. 29 CFR 801.4 - Prohibitions on lie detector use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.4 Prohibitions on lie detector use. (a... a polygraph test to an employee(s) suspected of involvement in the reported incident. Employers who... activity to submit to a polygraph test during the employee's tour of duty since, as a general rule,...

  14. 29 CFR 801.4 - Prohibitions on lie detector use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.4 Prohibitions on lie detector use. (a... a polygraph test to an employee(s) suspected of involvement in the reported incident. Employers who... activity to submit to a polygraph test during the employee's tour of duty since, as a general rule,...

  15. Classical mechanics on noncommutative space with Lie-algebraic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Yangang; Wang Xudong; Yu Shaojie

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Suggest a useful method to look for new Lie-algebraic noncommutative spaces. > Find out two new Lie-algebraic noncommutative spaces. > Derive Newton and Hamilton equations that present unimaginable extra forces. > Analyse the source of unimaginable extra forces from space noncummutativity. > Provide various intriguing classical trajectories. - Abstract: We investigate the kinetics of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with a constant external force on a Lie-algebraic noncommutative space. The structure constants of a Lie algebra, also called noncommutative parameters, are constrained in general due to some algebraic properties, such as the antisymmetry and Jacobi identity. Through solving the constraint equations the structure constants satisfy, we obtain two new sorts of algebraic structures, each of which corresponds to one type of noncommutative spaces. Based on such types of noncommutative spaces as the starting point, we analyze the classical motion of the particle interacting with a constant external force by means of the Hamiltonian formalism on a Poisson manifold. Our results not only include that of a recent work as our special cases, but also provide new trajectories of motion governed mainly by marvelous extra forces. The extra forces with the unimaginable tx-dot-,(xx-dot)-, and (xx-double dot)-dependence besides with the usual t-, x-, and x-dot-dependence, originating from a variety of noncommutativity between different spatial coordinates and between spatial coordinates and momenta as well, deform greatly the particle's ordinary trajectories we are quite familiar with on the Euclidean (commutative) space.

  16. Ethics, Malingering, and a lie-detector at the bedside.

    PubMed

    Candilis, P J

    1998-05-01

    A psychiatric consultation is presented in which the physician uses a cardiac monitor in the manner of a lie-detector. Ethical analysis of a clinician's duties in cases of suspected malingering addresses both the standard of informed consent necessary for such assessments and the potential forensic consequences of unanticipated clinical findings.

  17. "America's Histories" Revisited: The Case of "Tell Them They Lie."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalter, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Euro-American historians have not allowed Native American scholars to participate as intellectual equals in academic debates concerning Native history. A comparison of received histories of Sequoyah and the emergence of the Cherokee syllabary and Traveller Bird's 1971 "Tell Them They Lie" reveals that Traveller Bird's argument is at least as…

  18. Lies and Distortions: The Campaign against School Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Howard; Caire, Kaleem

    This report suggests that organized opponents of tax-supported school vouchers purposely issue inaccurate statements about parental school choice, suggesting that their widespread efforts seriously contaminate discussion of this policy issue. Section one suggests that a "big lie" strategy is being used by organized school voucher opponents,…

  19. Using Statistics to Lie, Distort, and Abuse Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William; Moore, Sara; Adams, Cheryll; Pierce, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Statistics is a branch of mathematics that involves organization, presentation, and interpretation of data, both quantitative and qualitative. Data do not lie, but people do. On the surface, quantitative data are basically inanimate objects, nothing more than lifeless and meaningless symbols that appear on a page, calculator, computer, or in one's…

  20. Response Latency Detection of Lying on Personnel Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Ronald R.

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the use of response latencies in psychological assessment. Some research has suggested that response times associated with answering personality and integrity questionnaires may be useful in differentiating among honest responders and individuals who are lying. Using an experimental paradigm…

  1. Almost Poisson brackets for nonholonomic systems on Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Naranjo, Luis Constantino

    We present a geometric construction of almost Poisson brackets for nonholonomic mechanical systems whose configuration space is a Lie group G. We study the so-called LL and LR systems where the kinetic energy defines a left invariant metric on G and the constraints are invariant with respect to left (respectively right) translation on G. For LL systems, the equations on the momentum phase space, T*G , can be left translated onto g *, the dual space of the Lie algebra g . We show that the reduced equations on g * can be cast in Poisson form with respect to an almost Poisson bracket that is obtained by projecting the standard Lie-Poisson bracket onto the constraint space. For LR systems we use ideas of semidirect product reduction to transfer the equations on T*G into the dual Lie algebra, s *, of a semidirect product. This provides a natural Lie algebraic setting for the equations of motion commonly found in the literature. We show that these equations can also be cast in Poisson form with respect to an almost Poisson bracket that is obtained by projecting the Lie-Poisson structure on s * onto a constraint submanifold. In both cases the constraint functions are Casimirs of the bracket and are satisfied automatically. Our construction is a natural generalization of the classical ideas of Lie-Poisson and semidirect product reduction to the nonholonomic case. It also sets a convenient stage for the study of Hamiltonization of certain nonholonomic systems. Our examples include the Suslov and the Veselova problems of constrained motion of a rigid body, and the Chaplygin sleigh. In addition we study the almost Poisson reduction of the Chaplygin sphere. We show that the bracket given by Borisov and Mamaev in [7] is obtained by reducing a nonstandard almost Poisson bracket that is obtained by projecting a non-canonical bivector onto the constraint submanifold using the Lagrange-D'Alembert principle. The examples that we treat show that it is possible to cast the reduced

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  3. Physically scarce (vs. enriched) environments decrease the ability to tell lies successfully.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Khambatta, Poruz; Carney, Dana R

    2015-10-01

    The successful detection of deception is of critical importance to adaptive social relationships and organizations, and perhaps even national security. However, research in forensic, legal, and social psychology demonstrates that people are generally very successful deceivers. The goal of the current research was to test an intervention with the potential to decrease the likelihood of successful deception. We applied findings in the architectural, engineering, and environmental sciences that has demonstrated that enriched environments (vs. scarce ones) promote the experience of comfort, positive emotion, feelings of power and control, and increase productivity. We hypothesized that sparse, impoverished, scarcely endowed environments (vs. enriched ones) would decrease the ability to lie successfully by making liars feel uncomfortable and powerless. Study 1 examined archival footage of an international sample of criminal suspects (N = 59), including innocent relatives (n = 33) and convicted murderers (n = 26) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing person. Liars in scarce environments (vs. enriched) were significantly more likely to reveal their lies through behavioral cues to deception. Study 2 (N = 79) demonstrated that the discomfort and subsequent powerlessness caused by scarce (vs. enriched) environments lead people to reveal behavioral cues to deception. Liars in scarce environments also experienced greater neuroendocrine stress reactivity and were more accurately detected by a sample of 66 naïve observers (Study 3). Taken together, data suggest that scarce environments increase difficulty, and decrease success, of deception. Further, we make available videotaped stimuli of Study 2 liars and truth-tellers. PMID:26301794

  4. Physically scarce (vs. enriched) environments decrease the ability to tell lies successfully.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Khambatta, Poruz; Carney, Dana R

    2015-10-01

    The successful detection of deception is of critical importance to adaptive social relationships and organizations, and perhaps even national security. However, research in forensic, legal, and social psychology demonstrates that people are generally very successful deceivers. The goal of the current research was to test an intervention with the potential to decrease the likelihood of successful deception. We applied findings in the architectural, engineering, and environmental sciences that has demonstrated that enriched environments (vs. scarce ones) promote the experience of comfort, positive emotion, feelings of power and control, and increase productivity. We hypothesized that sparse, impoverished, scarcely endowed environments (vs. enriched ones) would decrease the ability to lie successfully by making liars feel uncomfortable and powerless. Study 1 examined archival footage of an international sample of criminal suspects (N = 59), including innocent relatives (n = 33) and convicted murderers (n = 26) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing person. Liars in scarce environments (vs. enriched) were significantly more likely to reveal their lies through behavioral cues to deception. Study 2 (N = 79) demonstrated that the discomfort and subsequent powerlessness caused by scarce (vs. enriched) environments lead people to reveal behavioral cues to deception. Liars in scarce environments also experienced greater neuroendocrine stress reactivity and were more accurately detected by a sample of 66 naïve observers (Study 3). Taken together, data suggest that scarce environments increase difficulty, and decrease success, of deception. Further, we make available videotaped stimuli of Study 2 liars and truth-tellers.

  5. The Relationship between EFL Teachers' Beliefs and Actual Practices of Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Heidarzad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing Iranian EFL teachers' beliefs toward classroom management and the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their actual practices of classroom management in regard with individual variables such as gender, education degree, and teaching experience. The data were collected using a behavior and instructional…

  6. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  7. Generalized quantum statistics and Lie (super)algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, N. I.

    2016-03-01

    Generalized quantum statistics, such as paraboson and parafermion statistics, are characterized by triple relations which are related to Lie (super)algebras of type B. The correspondence of the Fock spaces of parabosons, parafermions as well as the Fock space of a system of parafermions and parabosons to irreducible representations of (super)algebras of type B will be pointed out. Example of generalized quantum statistics connected to the basic classical Lie superalgebra B(1|1) ≡ osp(3|2) with interesting physical properties, such as noncommutative coordinates, will be given. Therefore the article focuses on the question, addressed already in 1950 by Wigner: do the equation of motion determine the quantum mechanical commutation relation?

  8. On the exceptional generalised Lie derivative for d ≥ 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosabal, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we revisit the {E}_8× {{R}}+ generalised Lie derivative encoding the algebra of diffeomorphisms and gauge transformations of compactifications of M-theory on eight-dimensional manifolds, by extending certain features of the {E}_7× {{R}}+ one. Compared to its {E}_d× {{R}}+ , d ≤ 7 counterparts, a new term is needed for consistency. However, we find that no compensating parameters need to be introduced, but rather that the new term can be written in terms of the ordinary generalised gauge parameters by means of a connection. This implies that no further degrees of freedom, beyond those of the field content of the E 8 group, are needed to have a well defined theory. We discuss the implications of the structure of the {E}_8× {{R}}+ generalised transformation on the construction of the d = 8 generalised geometry. Finally, we suggest how to lift the generalised Lie derivative to eleven dimensions.

  9. Children's Categorization and Evaluation of Different Types of Lies and Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigated 4-, 8-, and 11-year-olds' ability to categorize intentionally false and true statements as lies and truths. Found that older children were more likely to categorize false statements as lies and true statements as truths than were 4-year-olds. Antisocial lies were rated as most serious, and "white lies" as least serious. Anticipated…

  10. The Concept of Lying in Adolescents and Young Adults: Testing Sweetser's Folkloristic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kang; Ross, Hollie J.

    1997-01-01

    Tested E. E. Sweetser's (1987) model of lying, which emphasizes critical contribution of social factors to definitions of lie. Presented vignettes to 12-, 16-, and 19-year olds--half with prototypic lie-telling, half with truth-telling--and asked them to indicate degree of agreement that statement was a lie. Found that effects of age, help-harm…

  11. Children's Antisocial and Prosocial Lies to Familiar and Unfamiliar Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shanna Mary; Kirmayer, Miriam; Simon, Tarek; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Although parents frequently instruct children not to lie, children often observe lie-telling within the family environment. To date, no empirical research has examined children's spontaneous lie-telling to different lie-recipients. The current study examined children's spontaneous deceptive behaviour to parents and unfamiliar adults. In…

  12. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar.

    PubMed

    Tyack, Peter L; Zimmer, Walter M X; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L; Claridge, Diane E; Durban, John W; Clark, Christopher W; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L

    2011-03-14

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2-3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2-3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  13. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  14. Analysis on singular spaces: Lie manifolds and operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Victor

    2016-07-01

    We discuss and develop some connections between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras, as presented in my sequence of four lectures at the conference Noncommutative geometry and applications, Frascati, Italy, June 16-21, 2014. Therefore this paper is mostly a survey paper, but the presentation is new, and there are included some new results as well. In particular, Sections 3 and 4 provide a complete short introduction to analysis on noncompact manifolds that is geared towards a class of manifolds-called "Lie manifolds" -that often appears in practice. Our interest in Lie manifolds is due to the fact that they provide the link between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras. The groupoids integrating Lie manifolds play an important background role in establishing this link because they provide operator algebras whose structure is often well understood. The initial motivation for the work surveyed here-work that spans over close to two decades-was to develop the index theory of stratified singular spaces. Meanwhile, several other applications have emerged as well, including applications to Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods. These will be mentioned only briefly, however, due to the lack of space. Instead, we shall concentrate on the applications to Index theory.

  15. Less is more? Detecting lies in veiled witnesses.

    PubMed

    Leach, Amy-May; Ammar, Nawal; England, D Nicole; Remigio, Laura M; Kleinberg, Bennett; Verschuere, Bruno J

    2016-08-01

    Judges in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada have ruled that witnesses may not wear the niqab-a type of face veil-when testifying, in part because they believed that it was necessary to see a person's face to detect deception (Muhammad v. Enterprise Rent-A-Car, 2006; R. v. N. S., 2010; The Queen v. D(R), 2013). In two studies, we used conventional research methods and safeguards to empirically examine the assumption that niqabs interfere with lie detection. Female witnesses were randomly assigned to lie or tell the truth while remaining unveiled or while wearing a hijab (i.e., a head veil) or a niqab (i.e., a face veil). In Study 1, laypersons in Canada (N = 232) were more accurate at detecting deception in witnesses who wore niqabs or hijabs than in those who did not wear veils. Concealing portions of witnesses' faces led laypersons to change their decision-making strategies without eliciting negative biases. Lie detection results were partially replicated in Study 2, with laypersons in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands (N = 291): observers' performance was better when witnesses wore either niqabs or hijabs than when witnesses did not wear veils. These findings suggest that, contrary to judicial opinion, niqabs do not interfere with-and may, in fact, improve-the ability to detect deception. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27348716

  16. The Relative Lie Algebra Cohomology of the Weil Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Jacob

    We study the relative Lie algebra cohomology of so(p,q) with values in the Weil representation piof the dual pair Sp(2k, R) x O(p,q ). Using the Fock model defined in Chapter 2, we filter this complex and construct the associated spectral sequence. We then prove that the resulting spectral sequence converges to the relative Lie algebra cohomology and has E0 term, the associated graded complex, isomorphic to a Koszul complex, see Section 3.4. It is immediate that the construction of the spectral sequence of Chapter 3 can be applied to any reductive subalgebra g ⊂ sp(2k(p + q), R). By the Weil representation of O( p,|q), we mean the twist of the Weil representation of the two-fold cover O(pq)[special character omitted] by a suitable character. We do this to make the center of O(pq)[special character omitted] act trivially. Otherwise, all relative Lie algebra cohomology groups would vanish, see Proposition 4.10.2. In case the symplectic group is large relative to the orthogonal group (k ≥ pq), the E 0 term is isomorphic to a Koszul complex defined by a regular sequence, see 3.4. Thus, the cohomology vanishes except in top degree. This result is obtained without calculating the space of cochains and hence without using any representation theory. On the other hand, in case k < p, we know the Koszul complex is not that of a regular sequence from the existence of the class ϕkq of Kudla and Millson, see te{KM2}, a nonzero element of the relative Lie algebra cohomology of degree kq. For the case of SO0(p, 1) we compute the cohomology groups in these remaining cases, namely k < p. We do this by first computing a basis for the relative Lie algebra cochains and then splitting the complex into a sum of two complexes, each of whose E0 term is then isomorphic to a Koszul complex defined by a regular sequence. This thesis is adapted from the paper, [BMR], this author wrote with his advisor John Millson and Nicolas Bergeron of the University of Paris.

  17. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actual SO2 emissions rate. 74.22... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions... actual SO2 emissions rate shall be 1985. (2) For combustion sources that commenced operation...

  18. Actualization and the Fear of Death: Retesting an Existential Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith; Robinson, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrates that within a group of highly actualized individuals, the degree to which "own death" is integrated into constructs of self is a far more powerful predictor of fear of death than actualization. Findings suggest that actualization and integration are independent in their overall effect on fear of death. (Author)

  19. Functions of Media Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffres, Leo W.

    Individuals engage in media behavior several times daily. If a medium is actually used, that decision is one of a series of points which constitute a media behavior unit. The media behavior unit is used in several ways. First, by looking at particular attributes, researchers can determine whether an individual is consistent in medium…

  20. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  1. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  2. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  3. Generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function Model for Actual Stocks Markets Indexes with Nonlinear Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Yu, C.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to simulate the dynamical behavior of actual financial markets indexes effectively, especially when they have nonlinear characteristics. So it is significant to propose a mathematical model with these characteristics. In this paper, we investigate a generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function (WMF) model with two nonlinear characteristics: fractal dimension D where 2 > D > 1.5 and Hurst exponent (H) where 1 > H > 0.5 firstly. And then we study the dynamical behavior of H for WMF as D and the spectrum of the time series γ change in three-dimensional space, respectively. Because WMF and the actual stock market indexes have two common features: fractal behavior using fractal dimension and long memory effect by Hurst exponent, we study the relationship between WMF and the actual stock market indexes. We choose a random value of γ and fixed value of D for WMF to simulate the S&P 500 indexes at different time ranges. As shown in the simulation results of three-dimensional space, we find that γ is important in WMF model and different γ may have the same effect for the nonlinearity of WMF. Then we calculate the skewness and kurtosis of actual Daily S&P 500 index in different time ranges which can be used to choose the value of γ. Based on these results, we choose appropriate γ, D and initial value into WMF to simulate Daily S&P 500 indexes. Using the fit line method in two-dimensional space for the simulated values, we find that the generalized WMF model is effective for simulating different actual stock market indexes in different time ranges. It may be useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of many different financial markets.

  4. Astronaut Owen Garriott lies in Lower Body Negative Pressure Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, lies in the Lower Body Negative Pressure Device (LBNPD) in the work and experiments area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. The LBNPD (M092) Experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight and to provide inflight data for predicting the degress of orthostatic intolerance and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon return to Earth environment. The bicycle ergometer is in the right foreground.

  5. Similarity analysis of differential equations by Lie group.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Na, T. Y.; Hansen, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    Methods for transforming partial differential equations into forms more suitable for analysis and solution are investigated. The idea of Lie's infinitesimal contact transformation group is introduced to develop a systematic method which involves mostly algebraic manipulations. A thorough presentation of the application of this general method to the problem of similarity analysis in a broader sense - namely, the similarity between partial and ordinary differential equations, boundary value and initial value problems, and nonlinear and linear equations - is given with new and very general methods evolved for deriving the possible groups of transformations.

  6. Lie symmetry and integrability of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, R. Z.

    1998-12-01

    Combining a Lie algebraic approach that is due to Wei and Norman [J. Math. Phys. 4, 475 (1963)] and the ideas suggested by Drach [Compt. Rend. 168, 337 (1919)], we have constructed several classes of systems of linear ordinary differential equations that are integrable by quadratures. Their integrability is ensured by integrability of the corresponding stationary cubic Schrödinger, KdV, and Harry-Dym equations. Next, we obtain a hierarchy of integrable reductions of the Dirac equation of an electron moving in the external field. Their integrability is shown to be in correspondence with integrability of the stationary mKdV hierarchy.

  7. Representations of centrally extended Lie superalgebra psl(2|2)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Molev, Alexander

    2014-09-15

    The symmetries provided by representations of the centrally extended Lie superalgebra psl(2|2) are known to play an important role in the spin chain models originated in the planar anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence and one-dimensional Hubbard model. We give a complete description of finite-dimensional irreducible representations of this superalgebra thus extending the work of Beisert which deals with a generic family of representations. Our description includes a new class of modules with degenerate eigenvalues of the central elements. Moreover, we construct explicit bases in all irreducible representations by applying the techniques of Mickelsson–Zhelobenko algebras.

  8. Properties of low-lying heavy-light mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Anthony; Eichten, Estia; El-Khadra, Aida X.; Flynn, Jonathan M.; Hill, Brian R.; Thacker, Hank

    1993-03-01

    We present preliminary results for fB and masses of low-lying heavy-light mesons in the static limit. Calculations were performed in the quenched approximation using multistate smearing functions generated from a Hamiltonian for a spinless relativistic quark. The 2 S-1 S and 1 P-1 S mass splitting are measured. Using the 1 P-1 S charmonium splitting to set the overall scale, the ground state decay constant fB, is 319 ± 11 (stat) MeV.

  9. Lie-Poisson bifurcations for the Maxwell-Bloch equations

    SciTech Connect

    David, D.

    1990-01-01

    We present a study of the set of Maxwell-Bloch equations on R{sup 3} from the point of view of Hamiltonian dynamics. These equations are shown to be bi-Hamiltonian, on the one hand, and to possess several inequivalent Lie-Poisson structures, on the other hand, parametrized by the group SL(2,R). Each structure is characterized by a particular distinguished function. The level sets of this function provide two-dimensional surfaces onto which the motion takes various symplectic forms. 4 refs.

  10. Generalized Lotka—Volterra systems connected with simple Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambides, Stelios A.; Damianou, Pantelis A.; Evripidou, Charalambos A.

    2015-06-01

    We devise a new method for producing Hamiltonian systems by constructing the corresponding Lax pairs. This is achieved by considering a larger subset of the positive roots than the simple roots of the root system of a simple Lie algebra. We classify all subsets of the positive roots of the root system of type An for which the corresponding Hamiltonian systems are transformed, via a simple change of variables, to Lotka-Volterra systems. For some special cases of subsets of the positive roots of the root system of type An, we produce new integrable Hamiltonian systems.

  11. Transition properties of low-lying states in atomic indium

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.

    2011-07-15

    We present here the results of our relativistic many-body calculations of various properties of the first six low-lying excited states of indium. The calculations were performed using the relativistic coupled-cluster method in the framework of the singles, doubles, and partial triples approximation. The lifetime of the [4p{sup 6}]5s{sup 2}5p{sub 3/2} state in this atom is determined. Our results could be used to shed light on the reliability of the lifetime measurements of the excited states of atomic indium that we have considered in the present work.

  12. Spectroscopic study of low-lying {sup 16}N levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bardayan, D. W.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Smith, M. S.; O'Malley, P. D.; Cizewski, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Peters, W. A.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K. Y.; Jones, K. L.; Moazen, B. H.; Paulauskas, S.; Pittman, S. T.; Schmitt, K. T.; Chipps, K. A.; Kozub, R. L.; Shriner, J. F. Jr.; Matei, C.

    2008-11-15

    The magnitude of the {sup 15}N(n,{gamma}){sup 16}N reaction rate in asymptotic giant branch stars depends directly on the neutron spectroscopic factors of low-lying {sup 16}N levels. A new study of the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N reaction is reported populating the ground and first three excited states in {sup 16}N. The measured spectroscopic factors are near unity as expected from shell model calculations, resolving a long-standing discrepancy with earlier measurements that had never been confirmed or understood. Updated {sup 15}N(n,{gamma}){sup 16}N reaction rates are presented.

  13. The Word Problem for Solvable Lie Algebras and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlampovich, O. G.

    1990-02-01

    The variety of groups Z\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A} is given by the identity \\displaystyle \\lbrack\\lbrack x_1,\\,x_2\\rbrack,\\,\\lbrack x_3,\\,x_4\\rbrack,\\,\\lbrack x_5,\\, x_6\\rbrack,\\, x_7\\rbrack = 1,and the analogous variety of Lie algebras is given by the identity \\displaystyle (x_1x_2)(x_3x_4)(x_5x_6)x_7=0.Previously the author proved the unsolvability of the word problem for any variety of groups (respectively: Lie algebras) containing Z\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A}, and its solvability for any subvariety of \\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A}. Here the word problem is investigated in varieties of Lie algebras over a field of characteristic zero and in varieties of groups contained in Z\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A}. It is proved that in the lattice of subvarieties of Z\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A} there exist arbitrary long chains in which the varieties with solvable and unsolvable word problems alternate. In particular, the variety Z\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A}\\cap\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{N}_c has a solvable word problem for any c, while the variety \\mathfrak{Y}_2, given within Z\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A} by the identity \\displaystyle \\lbrack\\lbrack x_1,\\,\\dots,\\,x_{2c+2}\\rbrack,\\,\\lbrack y_1,\\,\\dots,\\,y_{2c+2}\\rbrack,\\lbrack z_1,\\,\\dots,\\,z_{2c}\\rbrack\\rbrack = 1,in the case of groups and by the identity \\displaystyle (x_1\\dotsb x_{2c+2})(y_1\\dotsb y_{2c+2})(z_1\\dotsb z_{2c})=0in the case of Lie algebras, has an unsolvable word problem. It is also proved that in Z\\mathfrak{N}_2\\mathfrak{A} there exists an infinite series of minimal varieties with an unsolvable word problem, i.e. varieties whose proper subvarieties all have solvable word problems.Bibliography: 17 titles.

  14. On the intersection of irreducible components of the space of finite-dimensional Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V

    2012-07-31

    The irreducible components of the space of n-dimensional Lie algebras are investigated. The properties of Lie algebras belonging to the intersection of all the irreducible components of this kind are studied (these Lie algebras are said to be basic or founding Lie algebras). It is proved that all Lie algebras of this kind are nilpotent and each of these Lie algebras has an Abelian ideal of codimension one. Specific examples of founding Lie algebras of arbitrary dimension are described and, to describe the Lie algebras in general, we state a conjecture. The concept of spectrum of a Lie algebra is considered and some of the most elementary properties of the spectrum are studied. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  15. Psychopathic Traits and Their Relationship with the Cognitive Costs and Compulsive Nature of Lying in Offenders.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; In T Hout, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth. By coupling monetary loss to slow and erroneous responding, we hypothesized that the frequency of lying despite likely negative consequences, would provide an index of compulsive lying. Offenders were slower and erred more often when lying than when telling the truth, and there was no robust association between psychopathy and the cognitive cost of lying. From an applied perspective, this suggests that psychopathy may not threaten the validity of computerized cognition-based lie detection. In the face of probable negative consequences, high grandiose-manipulative offenders chose to lie three times as often as low grandiose-manipulative offenders. Our new lying frequency index is a first attempt to create a much needed tool to empirically examine compulsive lying, and provides preliminary support for the compulsive nature of lying in grandiose-manipulative offenders. Alternative interpretation of the findings are discussed. PMID:27391854

  16. Psychopathic Traits and Their Relationship with the Cognitive Costs and Compulsive Nature of Lying in Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Bruno; in ´t Hout, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth. By coupling monetary loss to slow and erroneous responding, we hypothesized that the frequency of lying despite likely negative consequences, would provide an index of compulsive lying. Offenders were slower and erred more often when lying than when telling the truth, and there was no robust association between psychopathy and the cognitive cost of lying. From an applied perspective, this suggests that psychopathy may not threaten the validity of computerized cognition-based lie detection. In the face of probable negative consequences, high grandiose-manipulative offenders chose to lie three times as often as low grandiose-manipulative offenders. Our new lying frequency index is a first attempt to create a much needed tool to empirically examine compulsive lying, and provides preliminary support for the compulsive nature of lying in grandiose-manipulative offenders. Alternative interpretation of the findings are discussed. PMID:27391854

  17. Bianchi type I cyclic cosmology from Lie-algebraically deformed phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Vakili, Babak; Khosravi, Nima

    2010-11-15

    We study the effects of noncommutativity, in the form of a Lie-algebraically deformed Poisson commutation relations, on the evolution of a Bianchi type I cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factors of this model in x, y, and z directions. According to the conditions that the structure constants (deformation parameters) should satisfy, we argue that there are two types of noncommutative phase space with Lie-algebraic structure. The exact classical solutions in commutative and type I noncommutative cases are presented. In the framework of this type of deformed phase space, we investigate the possibility of building a Bianchi I model with cyclic scale factors in which the size of the Universe in each direction experiences an endless sequence of contractions and reexpansions. We also obtain some approximate solutions for the type II noncommutative structure by numerical methods and show that the cyclic behavior is repeated as well. These results are compared with the standard commutative case, and similarities and differences of these solutions are discussed.

  18. When Pinocchio's nose does not grow: belief regarding lie-detectability modulates production of deception

    PubMed Central

    Sip, Kamila E.; Carmel, David; Marchant, Jennifer L.; Li, Jian; Petrovic, Predrag; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William B.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie-detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched-off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true vs. false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), during the production of false (compared to true) claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie-detector was switched-off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one's actions and recollections. PMID:23382715

  19. Sex, lies and fMRI--gender differences in neural basis of deception.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Artur; Jednorog, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Grabowska, Anna; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants' subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization.

  20. Radiative Decays of Low-Lying Excited-State Hyperons

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Taylor

    2000-05-01

    The quark wave-functions of the lower-lying excited-state hyperons Lambda(1405), Sigma(1385), and Lambda(1520) are not well understood. For example, the Lambda(1405) may not be a regular three-quark state but a {bar K}N molecule. Several competing models have been proposed, but none have been convincingly eliminated. Measuring radiative decays provides a means of discriminating between the models. The radiative branching of ratios are predicted to be small ({approx}1%), but the radiative widths vary by factors of 2-10 from model to model. The existing experimental data is sparse and inconsistent; moreover, the radiative decay of the Sigma(1385) has never been observed before (except for one event). These lower-lying excited state hypersons were produced in a tagged photon-beam experiment in the CLAS detector at TJNAF in the reaction gamma p {yields} K{sup +} Y* for photon energies from threshold to 2.4 GeV. The radiative branching ration for the Sigma{sup 0}(1385) relative to the Sigma{sup 0}(1385) {yields} Lambda pi{sup 0} channel was measured to be 0.021 {+-} 0.008{sub -0.007}{sup +0.004}, corresponding to a partial width of 640 {+-} 270{sub -220}{sup +130} keV.

  1. The Lie algebraic significance of symmetric informationally complete measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, D. M.; Flammia, Steven T.; Fuchs, Christopher A.

    2011-02-15

    Examples of symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) have been constructed in every dimension {<=}67. However, it remains an open question whether they exist in all finite dimensions. A SIC-POVM is usually thought of as a highly symmetric structure in quantum state space. However, its elements can equally well be regarded as a basis for the Lie algebra gl(d,C). In this paper we examine the resulting structure constants, which are calculated from the traces of the triple products of the SIC-POVM elements and which, it turns out, characterize the SIC-POVM up to unitary equivalence. We show that the structure constants have numerous remarkable properties. In particular we show that the existence of a SIC-POVM in dimension d is equivalent to the existence of a certain structure in the adjoint representation of gl(d,C). We hope that transforming the problem in this way, from a question about quantum state space to a question about Lie algebras, may help to make the existence problem tractable.

  2. Koszul information geometry and Souriau Lie group thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaresco, Frédéric

    2015-01-13

    The François Massieu 1869 idea to derive some mechanical and thermal properties of physical systems from 'Characteristic Functions', was developed by Gibbs and Duhem in thermodynamics with the concept of potentials, and introduced by Poincaré in probability. This paper deals with generalization of this Characteristic Function concept by Jean-Louis Koszul in Mathematics and by Jean-Marie Souriau in Statistical Physics. The Koszul-Vinberg Characteristic Function (KVCF) on convex cones will be presented as cornerstone of 'Information Geometry' theory, defining Koszul Entropy as Legendre transform of minus the logarithm of KVCF, and Fisher Information Metrics as hessian of these dual functions, invariant by their automorphisms. In parallel, Souriau has extended the Characteristic Function in Statistical Physics looking for other kinds of invariances through co-adjoint action of a group on its momentum space, defining physical observables like energy, heat and momentum as pure geometrical objects. In covariant Souriau model, Gibbs equilibriums states are indexed by a geometric parameter, the Geometric (Planck) Temperature, with values in the Lie algebra of the dynamical Galileo/Poincaré groups, interpreted as a space-time vector, giving to the metric tensor a null Lie derivative. Fisher Information metric appears as the opposite of the derivative of Mean 'Moment map' by geometric temperature, equivalent to a Geometric Capacity or Specific Heat. These elements has been developed by author in [10][11].

  3. Finite-Dimensional Lie Algebras for Fast Diffeomorphic Image Registration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Fletcher, P Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fast geodesic shooting algorithm for diffeomorphic image registration. We first introduce a novel finite-dimensional Lie algebra structure on the space of bandlimited velocity fields. We then show that this space can effectively represent initial velocities for diffeomorphic image registration at much lower dimensions than typically used, with little to no loss in registration accuracy. We then leverage the fact that the geodesic evolution equations, as well as the adjoint Jacobi field equations needed for gradient descent methods, can be computed entirely in this finite-dimensional Lie algebra. The result is a geodesic shooting method for large deformation metric mapping (LDDMM) that is dramatically faster and less memory intensive than state-of-the-art methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model to register 3D brain images and compare its registration accuracy, run-time, and memory consumption with leading LDDMM methods. We also show how our algorithm breaks through the prohibitive time and memory requirements of diffeomorphic atlas building.

  4. Integrable systems and lie symmetries in classical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, T.

    1986-01-01

    The interrelationship between integrability and symmetries in classical mechanics is studied. Two-dimensional time- and velocity-independent potentials form the domain of the study. It is shown that, contrary to folklore, existence of a single finite symmetry does not ensure integrability. A method due to Darboux is used to construct potentials that admit a time-independent invariant. All potentials admitting invariants linear or quadratic in the momentum coordinates are constructed. These are the only integrable potentials which can be expressed as arbitrary functions of certain arguments. A complete construction of potentials admitting higher-order invariants does not seem possible. However, the necessary general forms for potentials that admit a particular invariant of arbitrary order are found. These invariants must be spherically symmetric in the leading terms. Two kinds of symmetries are studied: point Lie symmetries of the Newtonian equations of motion for conservative potentials, and point Noether symmetries of the action functionals obtained from the standard Lagrangians associated with these potentials. All conservative potentials which admit these symmetries are constructed. The class of potentials admitting Noether symmetries is shown to be a subclass of those admitting Lie symmetries.

  5. Hybrid Topological Lie-Hamiltonian Learning in Evolving Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, a novel bidirectional algorithm for hybrid (discrete + continuous-time) Lie-Hamiltonian evolution in adaptive energy landscape-manifold is designed and its topological representation is proposed. The algorithm is developed within a geometrically and topologically extended framework of Hopfield's neural nets and Haken's synergetics (it is currently designed in Mathematica, although with small changes it could be implemented in Symbolic C++ or any other computer algebra system). The adaptive energy manifold is determined by the Hamiltonian multivariate cost function H, based on the user-defined vehicle-fleet configuration matrix W, which represents the pseudo-Riemannian metric tensor of the energy manifold. Search for the global minimum of H is performed using random signal differential Hebbian adaptation. This stochastic gradient evolution is driven (or, pulled-down) by `gravitational forces' defined by the 2nd Lie derivatives of H. Topological changes of the fleet matrix W are observed during the evolution and its topological invariant is established. The evolution stops when the W-topology breaks down into several connectivity-components, followed by topology-breaking instability sequence (i.e., a series of phase transitions).

  6. Koszul information geometry and Souriau Lie group thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaresco, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The François Massieu 1869 idea to derive some mechanical and thermal properties of physical systems from "Characteristic Functions", was developed by Gibbs and Duhem in thermodynamics with the concept of potentials, and introduced by Poincaré in probability. This paper deals with generalization of this Characteristic Function concept by Jean-Louis Koszul in Mathematics and by Jean-Marie Souriau in Statistical Physics. The Koszul-Vinberg Characteristic Function (KVCF) on convex cones will be presented as cornerstone of "Information Geometry" theory, defining Koszul Entropy as Legendre transform of minus the logarithm of KVCF, and Fisher Information Metrics as hessian of these dual functions, invariant by their automorphisms. In parallel, Souriau has extended the Characteristic Function in Statistical Physics looking for other kinds of invariances through co-adjoint action of a group on its momentum space, defining physical observables like energy, heat and momentum as pure geometrical objects. In covariant Souriau model, Gibbs equilibriums states are indexed by a geometric parameter, the Geometric (Planck) Temperature, with values in the Lie algebra of the dynamical Galileo/Poincaré groups, interpreted as a space-time vector, giving to the metric tensor a null Lie derivative. Fisher Information metric appears as the opposite of the derivative of Mean "Moment map" by geometric temperature, equivalent to a Geometric Capacity or Specific Heat. These elements has been developed by author in [10][11].

  7. How the Eyes Tell Lies: Social Gaze During a Preference Task.

    PubMed

    Foulsham, Tom; Lock, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Social attention is thought to require detecting the eyes of others and following their gaze. To be effective, observers must also be able to infer the person's thoughts and feelings about what he or she is looking at, but this has only rarely been investigated in laboratory studies. In this study, participants' eye movements were recorded while they chose which of four patterns they preferred. New observers were subsequently able to reliably guess the preference response by watching a replay of the fixations. Moreover, when asked to mislead the person guessing, participants changed their looking behavior and guessing success was reduced. In a second experiment, naïve participants could also guess the preference of the original observers but were unable to identify trials which were lies. These results confirm that people can spontaneously use the gaze of others to infer their judgments, but also that these inferences are open to deception. PMID:25530500

  8. Pressure load on specific body areas of gestating sows lying on rubber mats with different softness.

    PubMed

    Schubbert, A; Hartung, E; Schrader, L

    2014-08-01

    Rubber mats offer a possibility to increase lying comfort for sows with positive effects on sow lying behavior and health. However, until now, no information has been reported about the relationship between the softness of rubber mats and the pressure load on certain body areas of sows. We used a total of 68 (40 multiparous, 28 primiparous) German Landrace × German Landrace sows with a BW within the range of 90 to 330 kg (divided in 3 weight classes) to measure peak force and distribution of pressure during lying in the sternal and half recumbent position. Measures were done in an experimental pen that was equipped with a pressure sensor map system (5400 NTL; Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). Three rubber mats differing in softness (penetration depth: hard mat, 4.0 mm [HM]; soft mat, 14.6 mm [SM]; very soft mat, 43.0 mm [VSM]) were tested and compared to concrete floor (CF) as a reference. Pressure load was analyzed in the sternal position for the sternum, belly, and ham body regions and also in the half recumbent position for the shoulder. For each lying position we determined the body region with the highest pressure load and analyzed the peak force (PF) and the contact area (CA) using a mixed model ANOVA (MIXED procedure of SAS Enterprise, version 4.3., SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with floor type, weight class of sows, and their interaction as fixed factors. Overall, the highest values for PF in the sternal position were found on the sternum (median: 1.62 N/cm(2)) and in the half recumbent position on the shoulder (median: 2.72 N/cm(2)). In the sternal position PF on the sternum was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.001). In the half-recumbent position PF on the shoulder was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.013) and compared to HM (P = 0.011). The weight of the sows affected PF on the sternum in the sternal position, with lower values in weight class 1 compared to weight class 2 (P = 0.001) and weight class 3 (P = 0.002). Contact area under the sternum was larger on

  9. Assessment of children's social problem-solving skills in hypothetical and actual conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Vitaro, F; Pelletier, D

    1991-10-01

    This study compared the social problem-solving skills of 57 maladjusted and 57 well adjusted first and second graders in a series of hypothetical and actual provocations. All children were asked how they would react to four video-taped provocations involving same-age peers. They were also exposed to three provocations simulated by a peer-confederate; their verbal and nonverbal behaviors were videotaped. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that, overall, maladjusted subjects displayed less assertiveness and more verbal and nonverbal aggressive responses to the actual provocations. Conversely, hypothetical situations yielded few between-group differences with respect to verbal strategies. The validity of hypothetical situations is questioned; the importance of actual situations for assessment and intervention purposes is stressed.

  10. Can beneficial ends justify lying? Neural responses to the passive reception of lies and truth-telling with beneficial and harmful monetary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijun; Weber, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Can beneficial ends justify morally questionable means? To investigate how monetary outcomes influence the neural responses to lying, we used a modified, cheap talk sender-receiver game in which participants were the direct recipients of lies and truthful statements resulting in either beneficial or harmful monetary outcomes. Both truth-telling (vs lying) as well as beneficial (vs harmful) outcomes elicited higher activity in the nucleus accumbens. Lying (vs truth-telling) elicited higher activity in the supplementary motor area, right inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and left anterior insula. Moreover, the significant interaction effect was found in the left amygdala, which showed that the monetary outcomes modulated the neural activity in the left amygdala only when truth-telling rather than lying. Our study identified a neural network associated with the reception of lies and truth, including the regions linked to the reward process, recognition and emotional experiences of being treated (dis)honestly.

  11. Relationship between perceived and actual motor competence among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Bian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between perceived and actual motor competence was examined among college students. Participants were 114 college students (55 men, 59 women; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 3.9). All participants completed a short survey on perception of motor competence in basketball and took a Control Basketball Dribble Test to assess their actual motor skill. Perceived motor competence in basketball was significantly related to basketball dribbling performance. Given the positive relationship between actual motor competence and perceived competence, enhancing an individual's actual motor competence may contribute to their perceived competence, which may improve an individual's physical activity participation.

  12. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed. PMID:24051512

  13. Low-lying Level Structure of 150Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Yates, S. W.; Choudry, S. N.; Crider, B. P.; Kumar, A.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Orce, J. N.; Mynk, M. G.; Peters, E. E.; Garrett, P. E.; Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    To address the issue of whether the 150Nd nucleus represents an example of a phase transition in the shape degree of freedom or a complex example of shape coexistence, its level structure, up to about 2 MeV excitation and 6 ℏ, has been explored via the (n ,n' γ) reaction at the University of Kentucky accelerator facility. Level lifetimes, in the sub-picosecond regime, were extracted with a Doppler-shift attenuation analysis. A significant extension of the level scheme was possible, and the observed low-lying level structure of 150Nd indicates a close resemblance to its neighboring 152Sm isotone. Results from the ongoing analysis will be presented. This material is based on work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-0956310.

  14. Measurement of Low-Lying States in {sup 40}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    V. Y. Hansper; A. E. Champagne; C. Iliadis; S. E. Hale; D. C. Powell

    1999-12-31

    In explosive hydrogen burning nucleosynthesis material is processed via the proton capture sequence {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Ti. It has been predicted that the isotope {sup 39}Ca represents a waiting point for a continuous reaction flow. Therefore, its reaction rate is of interest. The {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc reaction rate is determined by three resonances corresponding to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited states of {sup 40}Sc. Improved nuclear structure information of the low-lying levels of {sup 40}Sc is necessary to reduce uncertainties in the reaction rate of {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc. Results from a current measurement of {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,t){sup 40}Sc at TUNL indicate that the 4th excited state is a doublet and further investigation is warranted.

  15. Measurement of Low-lying states in {sup 40}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Hansper, V. Y.; Champagne, A. E.; Iliadis, C.; Hale, S. E.; Powell, D. C.

    1999-11-16

    In explosive hydrogen burning nucleosynthesis material is processed via the proton capture sequence {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Ti. It has been predicted that the isotope {sup 39}Ca represents a waiting point for a continuous reaction flow. Therefore, its reaction rate is of interest. The {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc reaction rate is determined by three resonances corresponding to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited states of {sup 40}Sc. Improved nuclear structure information of the low-lying levels of {sup 40}Sc is necessary to reduce uncertainties in the reaction rate of {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc. Results from a current measurement of {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,t){sup 40}Sc at TUNL indicate that the 4th excited state is a doublet and further investigation is warranted.

  16. Lie algebraic similarity transformed Hamiltonians for lattice model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlen-Strothman, Jacob M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a class of Lie algebraic similarity transformations generated by exponentials of two-body on-site Hermitian operators whose Hausdorff series can be summed exactly without truncation. The correlators are defined over the entire lattice and include the Gutzwiller factor ni ↑ni ↓ , and two-site products of density (ni ↑+ni ↓) and spin (ni ↑-ni ↓) operators. The resulting non-Hermitian many-body Hamiltonian can be solved in a biorthogonal mean-field approach with polynomial computational cost. The proposed similarity transformation generates locally weighted orbital transformations of the reference determinant. Although the energy of the model is unbound, projective equations in the spirit of coupled cluster theory lead to well-defined solutions. The theory is tested on the one- and two-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model where it yields accurate results for small and medium sized interaction strengths.

  17. Dual Solutions for Nonlinear Flow Using Lie Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Saleem, Salman

    2015-01-01

    `The aim of this analysis is to investigate the existence of the dual solutions for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a porous shrinking wall. We have employed the Lie group analysis for the simplification of the nonlinear differential system and computed the absolute invariants explicitly. An efficient numerical technique namely the shooting method has been employed for the constructions of solutions. Dual solutions are computed for velocity profile of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid flow. Plots reflecting the impact of dual solutions for the variations of Deborah number, Hartman number, wall mass transfer are presented and analyzed. Streamlines are also plotted for the wall mass transfer effects when suction and blowing situations are considered. PMID:26575996

  18. The Primitive Spectrum of a Basic Classical Lie Superalgebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulembier, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    We prove Conjecture 5.7 in Coulembier and Musson (Math. J., arXiv:1409.2532, describing all inclusions between primitive ideals for the general linear superalgebra in terms of the {Ext1} -quiver of simple highest weight modules. For arbitrary basic classical Lie superalgebras, we formulate two types of Kazhdan-Lusztig quasi-orders on the dual of the Cartan subalgebra, where one corresponds to the above conjecture. Both orders can be seen as generalisations of the left Kazhdan-Lusztig order on Hecke algebras and are related to categorical braid group actions. We prove that the primitive spectrum is always described by one of the orders, obtaining for the first time a description of the inclusions. We also prove that the two orders are identical if category {{O}} admits `enough' abstract Kazhdan-Lusztig theories. In particular, they are identical for the general linear superalgebra, concluding the proof of the conjecture.

  19. Spontaneous and stable uniform lying helix liquid-crystal alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, B. I.; Elston, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    The flexoelectro-optic effect in the uniform lying helix (ULH) geometry could provide many advantages over existing liquid-crystal technologies, however reliably forming the ULH has been problematic. Here, we achieve spontaneous, stable, and repeatable ULH alignment for materials with both positive and negative dielectric anisotropy in devices ranging from 1 to 7 μm in thickness without the need for any field application or flow-induced alignment, using a combination of weak homeotropic alignment conditions and unidirectional grooved surface profiles. The technique requires slow cooling from the isotropic phase and through the blue phase. Devices made using the technique display sub-millisecond and linear electro-optical responses.

  20. Countering countermeasures: detecting identity lies by detecting conscious breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Howard; Filetti, Marco; Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Janssen, Dirk; Su, Li

    2014-01-01

    One major drawback of deception detection is its vulnerability to countermeasures, whereby participants wilfully modulate their physiological or neurophysiological response to critical guilt-determining stimuli. One reason for this vulnerability is that stimuli are usually presented slowly. This allows enough time to consciously apply countermeasures, once the role of stimuli is determined. However, by increasing presentation speed, stimuli can be placed on the fringe of awareness, rendering it hard to perceive those that have not been previously identified, hindering the possibility to employ countermeasures. We tested an identity deception detector by presenting first names in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation and instructing participants to lie about their own identity. We also instructed participants to apply a series of countermeasures. The method proved resilient, remaining effective at detecting deception under all countermeasures. PMID:24608749

  1. Lie group analysis and similarity solution for fractional Blasius flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Mingyang; Zheng, Liancun; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an investigation for boundary layer flow of viscoelastic fluids past a flat plate. Fractional-order Blasius equation with spatial fractional Riemann-Liouville derivative is derived firstly by using Lie group transformation. The solution is obtained numerically by the generalized shooting method, employing the shifted Grünwald formula and classical fourth order Runge-Kutta method as the iterative scheme. The effects of the order of fractional derivative and the generalized Reynolds number on the velocity profiles are analyzed and discussed. Numerical results show that the smaller the value of the fractional order derivative leads to the faster velocity of viscoelastic fluids near the plate but not to hold near the outer flow. As the Reynolds number increases, the fluid is moving faster in the whole boundary layer consistently.

  2. Non-integrability of measure preserving maps via Lie symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cima, Anna; Gasull, Armengol; Mañosa, Víctor

    2015-11-01

    We consider the problem of characterizing, for certain natural number m, the local Cm-non-integrability near elliptic fixed points of smooth planar measure preserving maps. Our criterion relates this non-integrability with the existence of some Lie Symmetries associated to the maps, together with the study of the finiteness of its periodic points. One of the steps in the proof uses the regularity of the period function on the whole period annulus for non-degenerate centers, question that we believe that is interesting by itself. The obtained criterion can be applied to prove the local non-integrability of the Cohen map and of several rational maps coming from second order difference equations.

  3. Dual Solutions for Nonlinear Flow Using Lie Group Analysis.

    PubMed

    Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Saleem, Salman

    2015-01-01

    `The aim of this analysis is to investigate the existence of the dual solutions for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a porous shrinking wall. We have employed the Lie group analysis for the simplification of the nonlinear differential system and computed the absolute invariants explicitly. An efficient numerical technique namely the shooting method has been employed for the constructions of solutions. Dual solutions are computed for velocity profile of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid flow. Plots reflecting the impact of dual solutions for the variations of Deborah number, Hartman number, wall mass transfer are presented and analyzed. Streamlines are also plotted for the wall mass transfer effects when suction and blowing situations are considered. PMID:26575996

  4. Superstring theory on smooth manifolds with a non-abelian lie group as covering space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fré, P.; Gliozzi, F.

    1989-11-01

    In this paper we develop superstring theory on target spaces M target = M 4 ⊗ G/B where G is a non-abelian Lie-group and B ⊂ G is a suitable discrete subgroup. These target spaces, different from orbifolds, are smooth differentiable manifolds. Nontrivial choices of B give rise to twisted Kač-Moody algebras providing the mechanism which allows the existence of massless fermions in the string spectrum notwithstanding the non-abelian character of G. Actually we show that there is a unique choice of the group G compatible with the requirement of massless fermion existence, two-dimensional conformal invariance and finally with N = 1 target supersymmetry. It is G = SU(2) 3. We discuss modular invariance and Goddard-Nahm-Olive fermionization. We show that at the quantum level we can describe the SU(2) 3 theory by means of 18 free fermions belonging to the adjoint representation of SU(2) 6. This enables us to make contact with the free fermion approach. However our group interpretation provides additional constraints on the permissible boundary conditions for free fermion theories admitting a geometrical interpretation as σ-models on a smooth manifold: the G/B space. Finally the choice of B is related to the number of space-time supersymmetries.

  5. Fractional Relativistic Yamaleev Oscillator Model and Its Dynamical Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shao-Kai; He, Jin-Man; Xu, Yan-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Tian

    2016-07-01

    In the paper we construct a new kind of fractional dynamical model, i.e. the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model, and explore its dynamical behaviors. We will find that the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model possesses Lie algebraic structure and satisfies generalized Poisson conservation law. We will also give the Poisson conserved quantities of the model. Further, the relation between conserved quantities and integral invariants of the model is studied and it is proved that, by using the Poisson conserved quantities, we can construct integral invariants of the model. Finally, the stability of the manifold of equilibrium states of the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model is studied. The paper provides a general method, i.e. fractional generalized Hamiltonian method, for constructing a family of fractional dynamical models of an actual dynamical system.

  6. Follow the Liar: The Effects of Adult Lies on Children's Honesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Chelsea; Carver, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that most adults admit they lie to children. We also know that children learn through modeling and imitation. To date there are no published studies that examine whether lying to children has an effect on children's honesty. We aimed to bridge the gap in this literature by examining the effects of adults' lies on…

  7. Are We Modular Lying Cues Detectors? The Answer Is “Yes, Sometimes”.

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Chamseddine, Amer; Kopta, Vladimir; Paunović, Aleksandar; Mohr, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We quickly form first impressions about newly encountered people guiding our subsequent behaviour (approach, avoidance). Such instant judgments might be innate and automatic, being performed unconsciously and independently to other cognitive processes. Lying detection might be subject to such a modular process. Unfortunately, numerous studies highlighted problems with lying detection paradigms such as high error rates and learning effects. Additionally, humans should be motivated doing both detecting others’ lies and disguising own lies. Disguising own lies might even be more challenging than detecting other people’s lies. Thus, when trying to disguise cheating behaviour, liars might display a mixture of disguising (fake) trust cues and uncontrolled lying cues making the interpretation of the expression difficult (perceivers are guessing). In two consecutive online studies, we tested whether seeing an increasing amount (range 0–4) of lying cues (LC) and non-lying cues (NLC) on a standard face results in enhanced guessing behaviour (studies 1 and 2) and that enhanced guessing is accompanied by slower responding (study 2). Results showed that pronounced guessing and slowest responding occurred for faces with an intermediate number and not with the highest number of LC and NLC. In particular, LC were more important than NLC to uncertain lying decisions. Thus, only a few LC may interfere with automatic processing of lying detection (irrespective of NLC), probably because too little lying cue information is yet available. PMID:26349057

  8. Continuous family of finite-dimensional representations of a solvable Lie algebra arising from singularities

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Stephen S.-T.

    1983-01-01

    A natural mapping from the set of complex analytic isolated hypersurface singularities to the set of finite dimensional Lie algebras is first defined. It is proven that the image under this natural mapping is contained in the set of solvable Lie algebras. This approach gives rise to a continuous inequivalent family of finite dimensional representations of a solvable Lie algebra. PMID:16593401

  9. Are We Modular Lying Cues Detectors? The Answer Is "Yes, Sometimes".

    PubMed

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Chamseddine, Amer; Kopta, Vladimir; Paunović, Aleksandar; Mohr, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We quickly form first impressions about newly encountered people guiding our subsequent behaviour (approach, avoidance). Such instant judgments might be innate and automatic, being performed unconsciously and independently to other cognitive processes. Lying detection might be subject to such a modular process. Unfortunately, numerous studies highlighted problems with lying detection paradigms such as high error rates and learning effects. Additionally, humans should be motivated doing both detecting others' lies and disguising own lies. Disguising own lies might even be more challenging than detecting other people's lies. Thus, when trying to disguise cheating behaviour, liars might display a mixture of disguising (fake) trust cues and uncontrolled lying cues making the interpretation of the expression difficult (perceivers are guessing). In two consecutive online studies, we tested whether seeing an increasing amount (range 0-4) of lying cues (LC) and non-lying cues (NLC) on a standard face results in enhanced guessing behaviour (studies 1 and 2) and that enhanced guessing is accompanied by slower responding (study 2). Results showed that pronounced guessing and slowest responding occurred for faces with an intermediate number and not with the highest number of LC and NLC. In particular, LC were more important than NLC to uncertain lying decisions. Thus, only a few LC may interfere with automatic processing of lying detection (irrespective of NLC), probably because too little lying cue information is yet available. PMID:26349057

  10. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  11. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  12. Depression and Self-Actualization in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, David J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between depressive affect and self-actualization in gifted adolescents (N=248). Found that gifted students who were not self-actualizing types were more depressed; and guilt, low self-esteem, learned helplessness, and cognitive difficulty were important symptoms. Gifted adolescents tended to be more socially…

  13. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  14. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  15. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  16. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  17. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  18. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  19. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  20. A Study of Self-Actualization and Facilitative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-actualization measures and ability in facilitative communication of trainees from counseling, social work, and psychology programs to determine if differences existed between the three groups. Self-actualization indexes were significantly correlated with ability in facilitative communication. (RC)

  1. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  2. Analysis of Autopilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Feay, Mike; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot's expectations for behavior of autopilot avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. These "automation surprises" have been attributed to differences between the pilot's model of the behavior of the avionics and the actual behavior encoded in the avionics software. A formal technique is described for the analysis and measurement of the behavior of the cruise pitch modes of a modern Autopilot. The analysis characterizes the behavior of the Autopilot as situation-action rules. The behavior of the cruise pitch mode logic for a contemporary modern Autopilot was found to include 177 rules, including Level Change (23), Vertical Speed (16), Altitude Capture (50), and Altitude Hold (88). These rules are determined based on the values of 62 inputs. Analysis of the rule-based model also shed light on the factors cited in the literature as contributors to "automation surprises."

  3. Does the truth come out in the writing? Scan as a lie detection tool.

    PubMed

    Nahari, Galit; Vrij, Aldert; Fisher, Ronald P

    2012-02-01

    We tested the accuracy of Scientific Content Analysis (SCAN), a verbal lie detection tool that is used world-wide by federal law enforcement and military agencies. Sixty-one participants were requested to write down the truth, an outright lie or a concealment lie about activities they had just completed. The statements were coded with SCAN and with another verbal lie detection tool, Reality Monitoring (RM). RM discriminated significantly between truth tellers and outright liars and between truth tellers and concealment liars, whereas SCAN did not discriminate between truth tellers and either kind of liar. Implications of the findings for the suitability of SCAN as a lie detection tool are discussed.

  4. On (α,β,γ)-derivations of Lie algebras and corresponding invariant functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, Petr; Hrivnák, Jiří

    2008-02-01

    We consider finite dimensional complex Lie algebras. We generalize the concept of Lie derivations via certain complex parameters and obtain various Lie and Jordan operator algebras as well as two one-parametric sets of linear operators. Using these parametric sets, we introduce complex functions with a fundamental property — invariance under Lie isomorphisms. One of these basis-independent functions represents a complete set of invariant(s) for three-dimensional Lie algebras. We present also its application to physically motivated examples in dimension 8.

  5. Sex and personality traits influence the difference between time taken to tell the truth or lie.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tom F D; Reilly, Rebecca; Rahman, Towhida A; Herford, Amy E; Woodruff, Peter W R; Spence, Sean A

    2003-10-01

    A necessary component of lying is the withholding of a truthful response. Hence, lying may be conceptualised as involving the inhibition of an initial, automatic response (the truth) while an alternative response (the lie) is generated. We investigated response times to visually and auditorially presented questions probing recent episodic memory, when subjects answered questions truthfully or with lies. We also investigated whether the absolute response times or difference between time taken to tell the truth or lie was affected by participants' sex or correlated with personality scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Short Scale. 61 subjects answered the same 36 questions five times. The first time involved answering all questions truthfully, which allowed post hoc analysis of whether subjects had been consistent in their lying and truth-telling on the following four occasions. These latter four occasions involved answering all questions (one each with 'truth' or 'lie') for both types of presentation. Regardless of type of presentation or subjects' sex, subjects took approximately 200 msec. longer to lie than to tell the truth in response to each question (p<.001). There were significant correlations between truthful response times to auditorially presented questions and Eysenck 'Neuroticism' scores. There was also a significant correlation for women between mean individual lie-minus-truth time to auditorially presented questions and Eysenck 'Lie' scores. These preliminary data suggest that response time is systematically longer when telling a lie and that personality variables may play a part in this process.

  6. Third group cohomology and gerbes over Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelsson, Jouko; Wagner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    The topological classification of gerbes, as principal bundles with the structure group the projective unitary group of a complex Hilbert space, over a topological space H is given by the third cohomology H3(H , Z) . When H is a topological group the integral cohomology is often related to a locally continuous (or in the case of a Lie group, locally smooth) third group cohomology of H. We shall study in more detail this relation in the case of a group extension 1 → N → G → H → 1 when the gerbe is defined by an abelian extension 1 → A → N ˆ → N → 1 of N. In particular, when Hs1 (N , A) vanishes we shall construct a transgression map Hs2 (N , A) → Hs3 (H ,AN) , where AN is the subgroup of N-invariants in A and the subscript s denotes the locally smooth cohomology. Examples of this relation appear in gauge theory which are discussed in the paper.

  7. Low-lying isomeric levels in 75Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Grawe, H.; Pfutzner, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Achouri, N. L.; Bentida, R.; Beraud, R.; Borcea, C.; Bingham, C. R.; Catford, W.; Emsallem, A.; De France, G.; Grzywacz, K. L.; Lemmon, R.; Lopez Jimenez, M. J.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Regan, P. H.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Sauvestre, J. E.; Sawicka, M.; Stanoiu, M.; Sieja, K.; Nowacki, F.

    2010-01-01

    Isomeric low-lying states were identified and investigated in the 75Cu nucleus. Two states at 61.8(5)- and 128.3(7)-keV excitation energies with half-lives of 370(40)- and 170(15)-ns were assigned as 75m1Cu and 75m2Cu, respectively. The measured half-lives combined with the recent spin assignment of the ground state allow one to deduce tentatively spin and parity of the two isomers and the dominant multipolarities of the isomeric transitions with respect to the systematics of the Cu isotopes. Shell-model calculations using an up-to-date effective interaction reproduce the evolution of the 1/2 , 3/2 , and 5/2 states for the neutron-rich odd-mass Cu isotopes when filling the g9/2. The results indicate a significant change in the nuclear structure in this region, where a single-particle 5/2 state coexists with more and more collective 3/2 and 1/2 levels at low excitation energies.

  8. Low-lying isomeric levels in {sup 75}Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Sauvestre, J. E.; Grawe, H.; Pfuetzner, M.; Sawicka, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; France, G. de; Lopez Jimenez, M. J.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Baiborodin, D.; Bentida, R.; Beraud, R.; Emsallem, A.; Bingham, C. R.; Grzywacz, K. L.

    2010-03-15

    Isomeric low-lying states were identified and investigated in the {sup 75}Cu nucleus. Two states at 61.8(5)- and 128.3(7)-keV excitation energies with half-lives of 370(40)- and 170(15)-ns were assigned as {sup 75m1}Cu and {sup 75m2}Cu, respectively. The measured half-lives combined with the recent spin assignment of the ground state allow one to deduce tentatively spin and parity of the two isomers and the dominant multipolarities of the isomeric transitions with respect to the systematics of the Cu isotopes. Shell-model calculations using an up-to-date effective interaction reproduce the evolution of the 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}, and 5/2{sup -} states for the neutron-rich odd-mass Cu isotopes when filling the nug{sub 9/2}. The results indicate a significant change in the nuclear structure in this region, where a single-particle 5/2{sup -} state coexists with more and more collective 3/2{sup -} and 1/2{sup -} levels at low excitation energies.

  9. Clustered Numerical Data Analysis Using Markov Lie Monoid Based Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    We have designed and build an optimal numerical standardization algorithm that links numerical values with their associated units, error level, and defining metadata thus supporting automated data exchange and new levels of artificial intelligence (AI). The software manages all dimensional and error analysis and computational tracing. Tables of entities verses properties of these generalized numbers (called ``metanumbers'') support a transformation of each table into a network among the entities and another network among their properties where the network connection matrix is based upon a proximity metric between the two items. We previously proved that every network is isomorphic to the Lie algebra that generates continuous Markov transformations. We have also shown that the eigenvectors of these Markov matrices provide an agnostic clustering of the underlying patterns. We will present this methodology and show how our new work on conversion of scientific numerical data through this process can reveal underlying information clusters ordered by the eigenvalues. We will also show how the linking of clusters from different tables can be used to form a ``supernet'' of all numerical information supporting new initiatives in AI.

  10. Low-lying excitations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Christopher; Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the low-lying excitation spectrum of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover using Bragg spectroscopy. By focussing the Bragg lasers onto the central volume of the cloud we can probe atoms at near-uniform density allowing measurement of the homogeneous density-density response function. The Bragg wavevector is set to be approximately half of the Fermi wavevector to probe the collective response. Below the superfluid transition temperature the Bragg spectra dominated by the Bogoliubov-Anderson phonon mode. Single particle excitations become visible at energies greater than twice the pairing gap. As interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regime the phonon and single particle modes separate apart and both the pairing gap and speed of sound can be directly read off in certain regions of the crossover. Single particle pair-breaking excitations become heavily suppressed as interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regimes.

  11. The parastatistics Fock space and explicit Lie superalgebra representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, N. I.

    2013-11-01

    It is known that the defining triple relations of m pairs of parafermion operators f_i^+/- and n pairs of paraboson operators b_j^+/- with relative parafermion relations can be considered as defining relations for the Lie superalgebra \\mathfrak {osp}(2m+1|2n) in terms of 2(m + n) generators. With the common hermiticity conditions, this means that the parastatistics Fock space of order p corresponds to an infinite-dimensional unitary irreducible representation V(p) of \\mathfrak {osp}(2m+1|2n), with lowest weight (-\\frac{p}{2},\\ldots ,- \\frac{p}{2}|\\frac{p}{2},\\ldots ,\\frac{p}{2}). These representations (also in the simplest case m = n = 1) had never been constructed due to computational difficulties, despite their importance. In the present paper we partially solve the problem in the general case using group theoretical techniques, in which the \\mathfrak {u}(m|n) subalgebra of \\mathfrak {osp}(2m+1|2n) plays a crucial role: a set of Gelfand-Zetlin patterns of \\mathfrak {u}(m|n) can be used to label the basis vectors of V(p). An explicit and elegant construction of these representations V(p) for m = n = 1, and the actions or matrix elements of the \\mathfrak {osp}(3|2) generators are given.

  12. Bagger-Lambert theory for general Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Milanesi, Giuseppe; Russo, Jorge G.

    2008-06-01

    We construct the totally antisymmetric structure constants fABCD of a 3-algebra with a Lorentzian bi-invariant metric starting from an arbitrary semi-simple Lie algebra. The structure constants fABCD can be used to write down a maximally superconformal 3d theory that incorporates the expected degrees of freedom of multiple M2 branes, including the ``center-of-mass" mode described by free scalar and fermion fields. The gauge field sector reduces to a three dimensional BF term, which underlies the gauge symmetry of the theory. We comment on the issue of unitarity of the quantum theory, which is problematic, despite the fact that the specific form of the interactions prevent the ghost fields from running in the internal lines of any Feynman diagram. Giving an expectation value to one of the scalar fields leads to the maximally supersymmetric 3d Yang-Mills Lagrangian with the addition of two U(1) multiplets, one of them ghost-like, which is decoupled at large gYM.

  13. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  14. Working Conditions in the Industrial Nations: What Lies Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyropoulos, Georges

    1984-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, traditional concepts of working conditions and of work have been challenged in industrialized nations. The improvement of working conditions has become a basic issue, affected by the economic situation, technological advances, social climate, labor relations, and individual behavior. (Author/SK)

  15. Lying about Facial Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, S.; Mbwana, J.; Adeyemo, A.; Sawyer, A.; Hailu, A.; VanMeter, J.

    2009-01-01

    Novel deception detection techniques have been in creation for centuries. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroscience technology that non-invasively measures brain activity associated with behavior and cognition. A number of investigators have explored the utilization and efficiency of fMRI in deception detection. In this study,…

  16. Familiarity and Lie Detection: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported two studies on the relations among observer familiarity, perceived behavioral discrepancy, and judgmental accuracy in detecting deceptions. Results indicated, among other findings, that observers having prior exposure to baseline information were significantly better at detecting deception, though repeated exposure did not significantly…

  17. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  18. Behavioral diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J S; Pyles, D A

    1989-01-01

    The contemporary behavior analyst, to operate ethically and effectively, must be aware of many more factors affecting behavior than simple consequences. Although the literature demonstrating the effectiveness of active behavior management is impressive, a compelling argument can be made that a great number of behavior problem seen in individuals with developmental disabilities may be attributable to factors other than consequences. Our experience has been more often than not that physiological, organic, medication, or situational variables are the actual culprits in maladaptive behavior. Individuals with severe or profound retardation may respond to aversive features of their environment by displaying noncompliance, tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behavior. These antecedents can affect their behavior just as powerfully as can the consequences of their behavior. Behavior analysts must become sensitive to these potential factors and be prepared to employ behavioral diagnostic strategies in the search for the causes of maladaptive behavior. Finally, they must be prepared to design rather unconventional passive behavior management treatment programs involving the manipulation of the antecedent environment. In the case of Carrie, from the example at the beginning of this paper, the analysis yielded the hypothesis that her face scratching was a reaction to sinus blockage caused by seasonal allergies. Her treatment involved daily dosages of antihistamines administered by our nurses and subsequent elimination of the scratching. Tom was found to be suffering from "wheelchair fatigue." When he was allowed to recline on other surfaces (e.g., bean bag chair, mat, bolster) on a regular basis, he did not attempt any form of self-injury. Melissa was found to have a severe case of Pre Menstrual Syndrome as well as seizure disorder, and was treated with the appropriate medications. Her headbanging was reduced to a few minor incidents per month. Walter's tantrums on closer

  19. The H2+ molecular ion: Low-lying states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pilón, Horacio; Turbiner, Alexander V.

    2016-10-01

    Matching for a wavefunction the WKB expansion at large distances and Taylor expansion at small distances leads to a compact, few-parametric uniform approximation found in Turbiner and Olivares-Pilon (2011). The ten low-lying eigenstates of H2+ of the quantum numbers (n , m , Λ , ±) with n = m = 0 at Λ = 0 , 1 , 2, with n = 1, m = 0 and n = 0, m = 1 at Λ = 0 of both parities are explored for all interproton distances R. For all these states this approximation provides the relative accuracy ≲ 10-5 (not less than 5 s.d.) locally, for any real coordinate x in eigenfunctions, when for total energy E(R) it gives 10-11 s.d. for R ∈ [ 0 , 50 ] a.u. Corrections to the approximation are evaluated in the specially-designed, convergent perturbation theory. Separation constants are found with not less than 8 s.d. The oscillator strength for the electric dipole transitions E 1 is calculated with not less than 6 s.d. A dramatic dip in the E 1 oscillator strength f 1 sσg - 3 pσu at R ∼Req is observed. The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions are calculated for the first time with not less than 6 s.d. in oscillator strength. For two lowest states (0 , 0 , 0 , ±) (or, equivalently, 1 sσg and 2 pσu states) the potential curves are checked and confirmed in the Lagrange mesh method within 12 s.d. Based on them the Energy Gap between 1 sσg and 2 pσu potential curves is approximated with modified Pade Re-R [ Pade(8 / 7) ] (R) with not less than 4-5 figures at R ∈ [ 0 , 40 ] a.u. Sum of potential curves E1sσg +E2pσu is approximated by Pade 1 / R [ Pade(5 / 8) ] (R) in R ∈ [ 0 , 40 ] a.u. with not less than 3-4 figures.

  20. Compact homogeneous spaces of reductive Lie groups and spaces close to them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    We study compact homogeneous spaces of reductive Lie groups, and also some of their analogues and generalizations (quasicompact and plesiocompact homogeneous spaces of these Lie groups). We give a description of the structure of (plesio-)uniform subgroups in reductive Lie groups. The corresponding homogeneous spaces for which the stationary subgroup has an extremal dimension (close to the minimal or maximal possible one) are described. The fundamental groups of (plesio)compact homogeneous spaces of arbitrary reductive and semisimple Lie groups are characterized. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  1. The influence of FMRI lie detection evidence on juror decision-making.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Castel, Alan D; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we report on an experiment examining whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) lie detection evidence would influence potential jurors' assessment of guilt in a criminal trial. Potential jurors (N = 330) read a vignette summarizing a trial, with some versions of the vignette including lie detection evidence indicating that the defendant was lying about having committed the crime. Lie detector evidence was based on evidence from the polygraph, fMRI (functional brain imaging), or thermal facial imaging. Results showed that fMRI lie detection evidence led to more guilty verdicts than lie detection evidence based on polygraph evidence, thermal facial imaging, or a control condition that did not include lie detection evidence. However, when the validity of the fMRI lie detection evidence was called into question on cross-examination, guilty verdicts were reduced to the level of the control condition. These results provide important information about the influence of lie detection evidence in legal settings. PMID:21751243

  2. The influence of FMRI lie detection evidence on juror decision-making.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Castel, Alan D; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we report on an experiment examining whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) lie detection evidence would influence potential jurors' assessment of guilt in a criminal trial. Potential jurors (N = 330) read a vignette summarizing a trial, with some versions of the vignette including lie detection evidence indicating that the defendant was lying about having committed the crime. Lie detector evidence was based on evidence from the polygraph, fMRI (functional brain imaging), or thermal facial imaging. Results showed that fMRI lie detection evidence led to more guilty verdicts than lie detection evidence based on polygraph evidence, thermal facial imaging, or a control condition that did not include lie detection evidence. However, when the validity of the fMRI lie detection evidence was called into question on cross-examination, guilty verdicts were reduced to the level of the control condition. These results provide important information about the influence of lie detection evidence in legal settings.

  3. On the canonical formalism of f(R)-type gravity using Lie derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkuwa, Yoshiaki; Ezawa, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    We present a canonical formalism of the f( R)-type gravity using the Lie derivatives instead of the time derivatives by refining the formalism of our group. The previous formalism is a direct generalization of the Ostrogradski's formalism. However the use of the Lie derivatives was not sufficient, in that Lie derivatives and time derivatives are used in a mixed way, so that the expressions are somewhat complicated. In this paper, we use the Lie derivatives and foliation structure of the spacetime thoroughly, which makes the procedure and the expressions far more concise.

  4. Relationship of perceived and actual motor competence in children.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Liblik, Raino

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's actual and perceived motor competence. 280 children between the ages of 10 and 13 years individually completed the Children's Physical Self-perception Profile which assesses perceptions of sport competence, physical conditioning, strength, body attractiveness, and general physical self-worth. The internal reliabilities (a) of the subscales ranged from .75 to .82. After completing the profile, the subject's actual motor competence was measured using tests of aerobic fitness and functional strength. Body fatness (sum of five skinfolds) was measured as an objective measure of perceived body attractiveness. Analysis of variance showed that boys and girls differed in perceived competence and actual motor competence. The boys showed higher perceived competence on four scores, but there was no sex difference in perception of body attractiveness. Correlations and regression analysis showed that actual and perceived motor competence were significantly but only moderately (r =.25-.56) correlated. In addition, items of perceived physical competence and age accounted for 17% (sit-ups) to 25% (endurance shuttle run) of the variance in actual motor competence of the children. These findings showed that 10- to 13-yr-old children can only moderately assess personal motor competence. PMID:12186225

  5. Functional brain imaging using near-infrared spectroscopy during actual driving on an expressway

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Kayoko; Oka, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Kouji; Takahashi, Hideki; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is considered to have a significant effect on driving behavior, but little is known about prefrontal cortex function in actual road driving. Driving simulation experiments are not the same, because the subject is in a stationary state, and the results may be different. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is advantageous in that it can measure cerebral hemodynamic responses in a person driving an actual vehicle. We mounted fNIRS equipment in a vehicle to evaluate brain functions related to various actual driving operations while the subjects drove on a section of an expressway that was not yet open to the public. Measurements were recorded while parked, and during acceleration, constant velocity driving (CVD), deceleration, and U-turns, in the daytime and at night. Changes in cerebral oxygen exchange (ΔCOE) and cerebral blood volume were calculated and imaged for each part of the task. Responses from the prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex were highly reproducible in the daytime and nighttime experiments. Significant increases in ΔCOE were observed in the frontal eye field (FEF), which has not been mentioned much in previous simulation experiments. In particular, significant activation was detected during acceleration in the right FEF, and during deceleration in the left FEF. Weaker responses during CVD suggest that FEF function was increased during changes in vehicle speed. As the FEF contributes to control of eye movement in three-dimensional space, FEF activation may be important in actual road driving. fNIRS is a powerful technique for investigating brain activation outdoors, and it proved to be sufficiently robust for use in an actual highway driving experiment in the field of intelligent transport systems (ITS). PMID:24399949

  6. When Lying Feels the Right Thing to Do

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Zee, Sophie; Anderson, Ross; Poppe, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Fraud is a pervasive and challenging problem that costs society large amounts of money. By no means all fraud is committed by ‘professional criminals’: much is done by ordinary people who indulge in small-scale opportunistic deception. In this paper, we set out to investigate when people behave dishonestly, for example by committing fraud, in an online context. We conducted three studies to investigate how the rejection of one’s efforts, operationalized in different ways, affected the amount of cheating and information falsification. Study 1 demonstrated that people behave more dishonestly when rejected. Studies 2 and 3 were conducted in order to disentangle the confounding factors of the nature of the rejection and the financial rewards that are usually associated with dishonest behavior. It was demonstrated that rejection in general, rather than the nature of a rejection, caused people to behave more dishonestly. When a rejection was based on subjective grounds, dishonest behavior increased with approximately 10%, but this difference was not statistically significant. We subsequently measured whether dishonesty was driven by the financial loss associated with rejection, or emotional factors such as a desire for revenge. We found that rejected participants were just as dishonest when their cheating did not led to financial gain. However, they felt stronger emotions when there was no money involved. This seems to suggest that upon rejection, emotional involvement, especially a reduction in happiness, drives dishonest behavior more strongly than a rational cost-benefit analysis. These results indicate that rejection causes people to behave more dishonestly, specifically in online settings. Firms wishing to deter customers and employees from committing fraud may therefore benefit from transparency and clear policy guidelines, discouraging people to submit claims that are likely to be rejected. PMID:27313549

  7. When Lying Feels the Right Thing to Do.

    PubMed

    Van Der Zee, Sophie; Anderson, Ross; Poppe, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Fraud is a pervasive and challenging problem that costs society large amounts of money. By no means all fraud is committed by 'professional criminals': much is done by ordinary people who indulge in small-scale opportunistic deception. In this paper, we set out to investigate when people behave dishonestly, for example by committing fraud, in an online context. We conducted three studies to investigate how the rejection of one's efforts, operationalized in different ways, affected the amount of cheating and information falsification. Study 1 demonstrated that people behave more dishonestly when rejected. Studies 2 and 3 were conducted in order to disentangle the confounding factors of the nature of the rejection and the financial rewards that are usually associated with dishonest behavior. It was demonstrated that rejection in general, rather than the nature of a rejection, caused people to behave more dishonestly. When a rejection was based on subjective grounds, dishonest behavior increased with approximately 10%, but this difference was not statistically significant. We subsequently measured whether dishonesty was driven by the financial loss associated with rejection, or emotional factors such as a desire for revenge. We found that rejected participants were just as dishonest when their cheating did not led to financial gain. However, they felt stronger emotions when there was no money involved. This seems to suggest that upon rejection, emotional involvement, especially a reduction in happiness, drives dishonest behavior more strongly than a rational cost-benefit analysis. These results indicate that rejection causes people to behave more dishonestly, specifically in online settings. Firms wishing to deter customers and employees from committing fraud may therefore benefit from transparency and clear policy guidelines, discouraging people to submit claims that are likely to be rejected. PMID:27313549

  8. Cellular control lies in the balance of forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicurel, M. E.; Chen, C. S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical tension generated within the cytoskeleton of living cells is emerging as a critical regulator of biological function in diverse situations ranging from the control of chromosome movement to the morphogenesis of the vertebrate brain. In this article, we review recent advances that have been made in terms of understanding how cells generate, transmit and sense mechanical tension, as well as how they use these forces to control their shape and behavior. An integrated view of cell regulation that incorporates mechanics and structure as well as chemistry is beginning to emerge.

  9. What introspection has to offer, and where its limits lie.

    PubMed

    Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-09-01

    A proper science of consciousness combines all the available evidence - either coming from introspection, behavior, neuroscience or theory - in such a way that a 'best of all worlds' perspective is attained. Introspection shows us that qualia are all about perceptual organization. Neuroscience can then tell us where and when perceptual organization occurs, and whether this is independent of attention, access or report. Access, no matter in what guise it comes, remains ill-suited to explain where, when and how qualia emerge. PMID:24168346

  10. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  11. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  12. Feedback Loop of Data Infilling Using Model Result of Actual Evapotranspiration from Satellites and Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdi Hartanto, Isnaeni; Alexandridis, Thomas K.; van Andel, Schalk Jan; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Using satellite data in a hydrological model has long been occurring in modelling of hydrological processes, as a source of low cost regular data. The methods range from using satellite products as direct input, model validation, and data assimilation. However, the satellite data frequently face the missing value problem, whether due to the cloud cover or the limited temporal coverage. The problem could seriously affect its usefulness in hydrological model, especially if the model uses it as direct input, so data infilling becomes one of the important parts in the whole modelling exercise. In this research, actual evapotranspiration product from satellite is directly used as input into a spatially distributed hydrological model, and validated by comparing the catchment's end discharge with measured data. The instantaneous actual evapotranspiration is estimated from MODIS satellite images using a variation of the energy balance model for land (SEBAL). The eight-day cumulative actual evapotranspiration is then obtained by a temporal integration that uses the reference evapotranspiration calculated from meteorological data [1]. However, the above method cannot fill in a cell if the cell is constantly having no-data value during the eight-day periods. The hydrological model requires full set of data without no-data cells, hence, the no-data cells in the satellite's evapotranspiration map need to be filled in. In order to fills the no-data cells, an output of hydrological model is used. The hydrological model is firstly run with reference evapotranspiration as input to calculate discharge and actual evapotranspiration. The no-data cells in the eight-day cumulative map from the satellite are then filled in with the output of the first run of hydrological model. The final data is then used as input in a hydrological model to calculate discharge, thus creating a loop. The method is applied in the case study of Rijnland, the Netherlands where in the winter, cloud cover is

  13. Breaking the Mold: A Fresh Look at Children's Understanding of Questions About Lies and Mistakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Michael; Peterson, Candida C.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the claim that young children (three to five years old) regard all false statements as lies. Found that most young children at all ages could distinguish between lies and mistaken statements, if care was taken to clarify the form of question. (Author/DR)

  14. Nilpotent orbits in classical Lie algebras over F2n and the Springer correspondence

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ting

    2008-01-01

    We give the number of nilpotent orbits in the Lie algebras of orthogonal groups under the adjoint action of the groups over F2n. Let G be an adjoint algebraic group of type B, C, or D defined over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 2. We construct the Springer correspondence for the nilpotent variety in the Lie algebra of G. PMID:18202179

  15. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  16. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  17. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  18. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  19. Non-commutative holomorphic functions in elements of a Lie algebra and the absolute basis problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosi, Anar A.

    2009-12-01

    We study the absolute basis problem in algebras of holomorphic functions in non-commuting variables generating a finite-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebra \\mathfrak{g}. This is motivated by J. L. Taylor's programme of non-commutative holomorphic functional calculus in the Lie algebra framework.

  20. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  1. The Pinocchio Syndrome: Lying and Its Impact on the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that surprisingly little has been written in the counseling journals on the topic of lying, that is, why some clients consciously choose to be either dishonest with their counselors or deliberately hold back important information from their counselors. Discusses dynamics of lying and offers suggestions to counselors on how to work with…

  2. Improving the LIE Method for Binding Free Energy Calculations of Protein-Ligand Complexes.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Williams E; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Valiente, Pedro A

    2015-09-28

    In this work, we introduced an improved linear interaction energy (LIE) method parameterization for computations of protein–ligand binding free energies. The protocol, coined LIE-D, builds on the linear relationship between the empirical coefficient γ in the standard LIE scheme and the D parameter, introduced in our work. The D-parameter encompasses the balance (difference) between electrostatic (polar) and van der Waals (nonpolar) energies in protein–ligand complexes. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed that LIE-D reproduced accurately the absolute binding free energies for our training set of protein–ligand complexes (<|error|> = 0.92 kcal/mol, SDerror = 0.66 kcal/mol, R(2) = 0.90, QLOO(2) = 0.89, and sPRESS(LOO) = 1.28 kcal/mol). We also demonstrated LIE-D robustness by predicting accurately the binding free energies for three different protein–ligand systems outside the training data set, where the electrostatic and van der Waals interaction energies were calculated with different force fields. PMID:26180998

  3. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  4. Two Mentalizing Capacities and the Understanding of Two Types of Lie Telling in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yik Kwan; Cheung, Him

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among second-order belief, interpretive theory of mind, inhibitory control, and the understanding of strategic versus white lies in 54 children approximately 5 years 7 months old. Results showed that second-order belief was associated with strategic-lie understanding, whereas interpretive theory of mind…

  5. Improving the LIE Method for Binding Free Energy Calculations of Protein-Ligand Complexes.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Williams E; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Valiente, Pedro A

    2015-09-28

    In this work, we introduced an improved linear interaction energy (LIE) method parameterization for computations of protein–ligand binding free energies. The protocol, coined LIE-D, builds on the linear relationship between the empirical coefficient γ in the standard LIE scheme and the D parameter, introduced in our work. The D-parameter encompasses the balance (difference) between electrostatic (polar) and van der Waals (nonpolar) energies in protein–ligand complexes. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed that LIE-D reproduced accurately the absolute binding free energies for our training set of protein–ligand complexes (<|error|> = 0.92 kcal/mol, SDerror = 0.66 kcal/mol, R(2) = 0.90, QLOO(2) = 0.89, and sPRESS(LOO) = 1.28 kcal/mol). We also demonstrated LIE-D robustness by predicting accurately the binding free energies for three different protein–ligand systems outside the training data set, where the electrostatic and van der Waals interaction energies were calculated with different force fields.

  6. Leibniz algebras associated with some finite-dimensional representation of Diamond Lie algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Luisa M.; Ladra, Manuel; Karimjanov, Iqboljon A.; Omirov, Bakhrom A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we classify Leibniz algebras whose associated Lie algebra is four-dimensional Diamond Lie algebra 𝕯 and the ideal generated by squares of elements is represented by one of the finite-dimensional indecomposable D-modules Un 1, Un 2 or Wn 1 or Wn 2.

  7. Solvability of a Lie algebra of vector fields implies their integrability by quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, J. F.; Falceto, F.; Grabowski, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present a substantial generalisation of a classical result by Lie on integrability by quadratures. Namely, we prove that all vector fields in a finite-dimensional transitive and solvable Lie algebra of vector fields on a manifold can be integrated by quadratures.

  8. Chinese Children's Evaluations of White Lies: Weighing the Consequences for Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Heyman, Gail D.; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    This research examined how Chinese children make moral judgments about lie telling and truth telling when facing a "white lie" or "politeness" dilemma in which telling a blunt truth is likely to hurt the feelings of another. We examined the possibility that the judgments of participants (7-11 years of age, N=240) would differ as a function of the…

  9. Integrable and superintegrable Hamiltonian systems with four dimensional real Lie algebras as symmetry of the systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi-Fardad, J.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.; Haghighatdoost, Gh.

    2014-05-15

    We construct integrable and superintegrable Hamiltonian systems using the realizations of four dimensional real Lie algebras as a symmetry of the system with the phase space R{sup 4} and R{sup 6}. Furthermore, we construct some integrable and superintegrable Hamiltonian systems for which the symmetry Lie group is also the phase space of the system.

  10. Generating functions and multiplicity formulas: The case of rank two simple Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Núñez, José; García Fuertes, Wifredo; Perelomov, Askold M.

    2015-09-01

    A procedure is described that makes use of the generating function of characters to obtain a new generating function H giving the multiplicities of each weight in all the representations of a simple Lie algebra. The way to extract from H explicit multiplicity formulas for particular weights is explained and the results corresponding to rank two simple Lie algebras are shown.

  11. Social and Non-Social Fear in Preschoolers and Prospective Associations with Lying about Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Székely, Eszter; Herba, Catherine M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of children's lying. The present study examined whether observed social and non-social fear in preschoolers predicts children's consistent cheating (N = 460; M = 4.3 years of age) and consistent lying about cheating. When left alone, 155 (34%) children cheated in both games conducted. Of these consistently…

  12. Suppressing the truth as a mechanism of deception: Delta plots reveal the role of response inhibition in lying.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Ridderinkhof, Richard K; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Lying takes more time than telling the truth. Because lying involves withholding the truth, this "lie effect" has been related to response inhibition. We investigated the response inhibition hypothesis of lying using the delta-plot method: A leveling-off of the standard increase of the lie effect with slower reaction times would be indicative of successful response inhibition. Participants performed a reaction-time task that required them to alternate between lying and truth telling in response to autobiographical questions. In two experiments, we found that the delta plot of the lie effect leveled off with longer response latencies, but only in a group of participants who had better inhibitory skills as indexed by relatively small lie effects. This finding supports the role of response inhibition in lying. We elaborate on repercussions for cognitive models of deception and the data analysis of reaction-time based lie tests.

  13. Suppressing the truth as a mechanism of deception: Delta plots reveal the role of response inhibition in lying.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Ridderinkhof, Richard K; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Lying takes more time than telling the truth. Because lying involves withholding the truth, this "lie effect" has been related to response inhibition. We investigated the response inhibition hypothesis of lying using the delta-plot method: A leveling-off of the standard increase of the lie effect with slower reaction times would be indicative of successful response inhibition. Participants performed a reaction-time task that required them to alternate between lying and truth telling in response to autobiographical questions. In two experiments, we found that the delta plot of the lie effect leveled off with longer response latencies, but only in a group of participants who had better inhibitory skills as indexed by relatively small lie effects. This finding supports the role of response inhibition in lying. We elaborate on repercussions for cognitive models of deception and the data analysis of reaction-time based lie tests. PMID:26397036

  14. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    PubMed

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  15. Emerging neurotechnologies for lie-detection: promises and perils.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, Paul Root; Foster, Kenneth R; Langleben, Daniel D

    2010-10-01

    Detection of deception and confirmation of truth telling with conventional polygraphy raised a host of technical and ethical issues. Recently, newer methods of recording electromagnetic signals from the brain show promise in permitting the detection of deception or truth telling. Some are even being promoted as more accurate than conventional polygraphy. While the new technologies raise issues of personal privacy, acceptable forensic application, and other social issues, the focus of this paper is the technical limitations of the developing technology. Those limitations include the measurement validity of the new technologies, which remains largely unknown. Another set of questions pertains to the psychological paradigms used to model or constrain the target behavior. Finally, there is little standardization in the field, and the vulnerability of the techniques to countermeasures is unknown. Premature application of these technologies outside of research settings should be resisted, and the social conversation about the appropriate parameters of its civil, forensic, and security use should begin.

  16. Emerging neurotechnologies for lie-detection: promises and perils.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, Paul Root; Foster, Kenneth R; Langleben, Daniel D

    2005-01-01

    Detection of deception and confirmation of truth telling with conventional polygraphy raised a host of technical and ethical issues. Recently, newer methods of recording electromagnetic signals from the brain show promise in permitting the detection of deception or truth telling. Some are even being promoted as more accurate than conventional polygraphy. While the new technologies raise issues of personal privacy, acceptable forensic application, and other social issues, the focus of this paper is the technical limitations of the developing technology. Those limitations include the measurement validity of the new technologies, which remains largely unknown. Another set of questions pertains to the psychological paradigms used to model or constrain the target behavior. Finally, there is little standardization in the field, and the vulnerability of the techniques to countermeasures is unknown. Premature application of these technologies outside of research settings should be resisted, and the social conversation about the appropriate parameters of its civil, forensic, and security use should begin.

  17. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  18. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  19. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  20. Reported vs. Actual Job Search by Unemployment Insurance Claimants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Robert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares self-reported job search contacts of unemployment insurance recipients with independently verified job-search contacts. The separate equations estimated for reported and actual job contacts suggest that systematic misreporting may distort the conclusions. Some implications of the findings for reported unemployment rates also are explored.…

  1. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  2. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (2) For a combustion source submitting annual data: ER04AP95.005 where, “quantity of fuel consumed... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2...

  3. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (2) For a combustion source submitting annual data: ER04AP95.005 where, “quantity of fuel consumed... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2...

  4. The Implications of Language for Facilitating Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charleen Katharine

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the implications of language within an educational context as a means of facilitating self-actualization. Three premises identified in a priori fashion were drawn from the literature in linguistics, psychology, and general semantics, creating a three-part language continuum--acquisition, development, and…

  5. Student Exposure to Actual Patients in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…

  6. Stability Tests with Actual Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    solutions in two laboratory experiments. The first experiment tested four waste solutions for supersaturation of aluminum by monitoring the aluminum concentration after seeding with gibbsite. The second experiment tested two waste samples for precipitation of aluminosilicates by heating the solutions to accelerate solids formation. The results of the experiments with actual waste solutions are supported in this report.

  7. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  8. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  9. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  10. Commitment to Change Statements Can Predict Actual Change in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Jacqueline; Herbert, Carol P.; Maclure, Malcolm; Dormuth, Colin; Wright, James M.; Legare, Jeanne; Brett-MacLean, Pamela; Premi, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Statements of commitment to change are advocated both to promote and to assess continuing education interventions. However, most studies of commitment to change have used self-reported outcomes, and self-reports may significantly overestimate actual performance. As part of an educational randomized controlled trial, this study…

  11. The applications of a higher-dimensional Lie algebra and its decomposed subalgebras

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhang; Zhang, Yufeng

    2009-01-01

    With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a higher-dimensional 6 × 6 matrix Lie algebra sμ(6) is constructed. It follows a type of new loop algebra is presented. By using a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy we obtain the integrable coupling of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KN integrable hierarchy, then its corresponding Hamiltonian structure is worked out by employing the quadratic-form identity. Furthermore, a higher-dimensional Lie algebra denoted by E, is given by decomposing the Lie algebra sμ(6), then a discrete lattice integrable coupling system is produced. A remarkable feature of the Lie algebras sμ(6) and E is used to directly construct integrable couplings. PMID:20084092

  12. The applications of a higher-dimensional Lie algebra and its decomposed subalgebras.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhang; Zhang, Yufeng

    2009-01-15

    With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a higher-dimensional 6 x 6 matrix Lie algebra smu(6) is constructed. It follows a type of new loop algebra is presented. By using a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy we obtain the integrable coupling of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KN integrable hierarchy, then its corresponding Hamiltonian structure is worked out by employing the quadratic-form identity. Furthermore, a higher-dimensional Lie algebra denoted by E, is given by decomposing the Lie algebra smu(6), then a discrete lattice integrable coupling system is produced. A remarkable feature of the Lie algebras smu(6) and E is used to directly construct integrable couplings.

  13. From constants of motion to superposition rules for Lie-Hamilton systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Cariñena, J. F.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2013-07-01

    A Lie system is a non-autonomous system of first-order differential equations possessing a superposition rule, i.e. a map expressing its general solution in terms of a generic finite family of particular solutions and some constants. Lie-Hamilton systems form a subclass of Lie systems whose dynamics is governed by a curve in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of functions on a Poisson manifold. It is shown that Lie-Hamilton systems are naturally endowed with a Poisson coalgebra structure. This allows us to devise methods for deriving in an algebraic way their constants of motion and superposition rules. We illustrate our methods by studying Kummer-Schwarz equations, Riccati equations, Ermakov systems and Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems with time-dependent frequency.

  14. Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

    2012-08-01

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'.

  15. Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

    2012-08-01

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'. PMID:22065242

  16. 19 CFR 162.79b - Recovery of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... case in which a monetary penalty is not assessed or a written notification of claim of monetary penalty is not issued, the port director will issue a written notice to the person of the liability for the... actual loss of revenue. Whether or not a monetary penalty is assessed under this subpart, the...

  17. Sampling cows to assess lying time for on-farm animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; Haley, D B; de Passillé, A M

    2012-09-01

    The time that dairy cows spend lying down is an important measure of their welfare, and data loggers can be used to automatically monitor lying time on commercial farms. To determine how the number of days of sampling, parity, stage of lactation, and production level affect lying time, electronic data loggers were used to record lying time for 10 d consecutively, at 3 stages of lactation [early: when cows were at 10-40 d in milk (DIM), mid: 100-140 DIM, late: 200-240 DIM] of 96 Holstein cows in tiestalls (TS) and 127 in freestalls (FS). We calculated daily duration of lying, bout frequency, and mean bout duration. We observed complex interactions between parity and stage of lactation, which differed somewhat between tiestalls and freestalls. First-parity cows had higher bout frequency and shorter lying bouts than older cows but bout frequency decreased and mean bout duration increased as DIM increased. We found that individual cows were not consistent in time spent lying between early and mid lactation (Pearson coefficient, TS: r = 0.1, FS: r = 0.2), whereas cows seemed to be more consistent in time spent lying between mid and late lactation (TS: r = 0.7, FS: r = 0.3). For both TS and FS cows, daily milk production was significantly, but slightly negatively, correlated with lying time across the lactation (range, r: -0.2 to -0.4), whereas parity was slightly to moderately positively correlated with mean bout duration across the lactation (r: +0.2 to +0.6) and negatively with bout frequency (r: -0.2 to -0.5). To estimate how the duration of the time sample affected the estimates of lying time subsets of data subsets consisting of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 d per cow were created, and the relationship between the overall mean (based on 10 d) and the mean of each subset was tested by regression. For both TS and FS, lying time based on 4 d of sampling provided good estimates of the average 10-d estimate (90% of accuracy). Automated monitoring of lying time has

  18. Is Talk ‘Cheap’? An Initial Investigation of the Equivalence of Alcohol Purchase Task Performance for Hypothetical and Actual Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; Acker, John; Stojek, Monika; Murphy, James G.; MacKillop, James

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioral economic alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) are self-report measures of alcohol demand that assess estimated consumption at escalating levels of price. However, the relationship between estimated performance for hypothetical outcomes and choices for actual outcomes has not been determined. The present study examined both the correspondence between choices for hypothetical and actual outcomes, and the correspondence between estimated alcohol consumption and actual drinking behavior. A collateral goal of the study was to examine the effects of alcohol cues on APT performance. Methods Forty one heavy-drinking adults (56% male) participated in a human laboratory protocol comprising APTs for hypothetical and actual alcohol and money, an alcohol cue reactivity paradigm, an alcohol self-administration period, and a recovery period. Results Pearson correlations revealed very high correspondence between APT performance for hypothetical and actual alcohol (ps < .001). Estimated consumption on the APT was similarly strongly associated with actual consumption during the self-administration period (r = .87, p <.001). Exposure to alcohol cues significantly increased subjective craving and arousal, and had a trend-level effect on intensity of demand, in spite of notable ceiling effects. Associations among motivational indices were highly variable, suggesting multidimensionality. Conclusions These results suggest there may be close correspondence both between value preferences for hypothetical alcohol and actual alcohol, and between estimated consumption and actual consumption. Methodological considerations and priorities for future studies are discussed. PMID:22017303

  19. Part i: Lie-Backlund Theory and Linearization of Differential Equations. Part II: Monte Carlo Simulations of 1-D Quantum Spin Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, John J.

    Part I begins with an account of groups of Lie -Back-lund (L-B) tangent transformations; it is then shown that L-B symmetry operators depending on integrals (nonlocal variables), such as discussed by Konopelchenko and Mokhnachev (1979), are related by change of variables to the L-B operators which involve no more than derivatives. A general method is set down for transforming a given L-B operator into a new one, by any invertible transformation depending on (. . ., D(,x)('-1) u, u, u(,x), . . .). It is shown that once a given differential equation admits a L-B operator, there is in general a very large number of related ("secondary") equations which admit the same operator. The L-B Theory involving nonlocal variables is used to characterize group theoretically the linearization both of the Burgers equation, u(,t) + uu(,x) - u(,xx) = 0, and of the o.d.e. u(,xx) + (omega)('2)(x)u + Ku('-3) = 0. Secondary equations are found to play an important role in understanding the group theoretical background to the linearization of differential equations. Part II deals with Monte Carlo simulations of the l-d quantum Heisenberg and XY-models, using an approach suggested by Suzuki (1976). The simulation is actually carried out on a 2-d, m x N, Isinglike system, equivalent to the original N-spin quantum system when m (--->) (INFIN). The results for m (LESSTHEQ) 10 and kT/(VBAR)J(VBAR) (GREATERTHEQ) .0125 are good enough to show that the method is generally applicable to quantum spin models; however some difficulties caused by singular bonding in the classical lattice (Wiesler 1982) and by the generation of unwanted states have to be taken into account in practice. The finite-size scaling method of Fisher and Ferdinard is adapted for use near T = 0 in the ferromagnetic Heisenberg model; applied to the simulation data it shows that the low temperature susceptibiltiy behaves at T('-(gamma)), where (gamma) = 1.32 (+OR-) 10%. Also, simple and potentially useful finite-size scaling

  20. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  1. [Behavior therapy and neurotic behavior].

    PubMed

    Ylieff, M

    1977-01-01

    The first part of the lecture presents three classical aspects of behavior therapy: therapeutic efficiency, utilisation of well defined methods, rapidity of treatment. Emphasis is brought to the importance of behavior analysis and to the dangers arisen from insufficient knowledge or ignorance of learning theories and fundamental principles of behavior analysis. One insists on experimental analysis which is the basis for methods of action having as consequence for the therapeut: controlling strategy of treatment and direct responsibility concerning success and failure. Then, actual limitations of behaviour therapy are described. The second part deals with one of the most important working hypothesis on human neurosis originating from laboratory and clinical research. Behavior therapy refuses to elaborate hypothetical deductive constructions, unless working hypotheses to be verified. Then the four essential clues to behavioural psychotherapy are formulated. The main methods of action presently utilized are presented: aversive methods, operational and systematic desensitization technics through reciprocal inhibition. Finally, some of the main criticism usually made on behaviour therapy are being discussed.

  2. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kenneth T; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; White, Jason P; Ellis, Thomas L; Phillips, Paul E M; Montague, P Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson's disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  3. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated the story characters’ truthful and untruthful statements (Experiments 3 and 4). Most children in both cultures labeled lies as lies and truths as truths. The major cultural differences lay in choices and moral evaluations. Chinese children chose lying to help a collective but harm an individual, and they rated it less negatively than lying with opposite consequences. Chinese children rated truth telling to help an individual but harm a group less positively than the alternative. Canadian children did the opposite. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in emphasis on groups versus individuals affect children’s choices and moral judgments about truth and deception. PMID:17352539

  5. Two mentalizing capacities and the understanding of two types of lie telling in children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yik Kwan; Cheung, Him

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among second-order belief, interpretive theory of mind, inhibitory control, and the understanding of strategic versus white lies in 54 children approximately 5 years 7 months old. Results showed that second-order belief was associated with strategic-lie understanding, whereas interpretive theory of mind predicted white-lie understanding. The current findings suggest that different aspects of mentalizing are involved in understanding strategic versus white lies. Strategic lies are about manipulating another mind's information content in relation to reality, and therefore to understand them, the child needs to be able to think about the mind as a representational agent holding either correct or incorrect information. This capacity is captured by traditional false-belief tasks. On the other hand, white lies are about hiding one's true feeling or opinion about reality out of a prosocial motive and are less subject to verification against external information. Hence, to understand white lies, the child needs to be able to see the mind as an interpretive agent and allow different minds to interpret even the same information differently.

  6. Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: Properties, classification and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Blasco, A.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2015-04-01

    We study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We start with the local classification of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras of vector fields on the plane obtained in González-López, Kamran, and Olver (1992) [23] and we interpret their results as a local classification of Lie systems. By determining which of these real Lie algebras consist of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure, we provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane. We present and study through our results new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations, e.g. we get explicit local diffeomorphisms between such systems. We also analyse biomathematical models, the Milne-Pinney equations, second-order Kummer-Schwarz equations, complex Riccati equations and Buchdahl equations.

  7. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  8. How Do We Know What Students Are Actually Doing? Monitoring Students' Behavior in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a survey of computer-based tracking in CALL and the uses to which the analysis of tracking data can be put to address questions in CALL in particular and second language acquisition (SLA) in general. Adopting both quantitative and qualitative methods, researchers have found that students often use software in unexpected ways,…

  9. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  10. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  11. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  12. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  13. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  14. Automorphisms and Derivations of the Insertion-Elimination Algebra and Related Graded Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrus, Matthew; Wiesner, Emilie

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses several structural aspects of the insertion-elimination algebra {mathfrak{g}}, a Lie algebra that can be realized in terms of tree-inserting and tree-eliminating operations on the set of rooted trees. In particular, we determine the finite-dimensional subalgebras of {mathfrak{g}}, the automorphism group of {mathfrak{g}}, the derivation Lie algebra of {mathfrak{g}}, and a generating set. Several results are stated in terms of Lie algebras admitting a triangular decomposition and can be used to reproduce results for the generalized Virasoro algebras.

  15. Infinite rank Schrödinger-Virasoro type Lie conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guangzhe; Su, Yucai; Xia, Chunguang

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the structure of certain modules over the loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra and the Lie structures of Schrödinger-Virasoro algebras, we construct a class of infinite rank Lie conformal algebras CSV(a, b), where a, b are complex numbers. The conformal derivations of CSV(a, b) are uniformly determined. The rank one conformal modules and ℤ-graded free intermediate series modules over CSV(a, b) are classified. Corresponding results of the conformal subalgebra CHV(a, b) of CSV(a, b) are also presented.

  16. Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimčík, Ctirad

    2016-09-01

    We prove the conjecture of Sfetsos, Siampos and Thompson that suitable analytic continuations of the Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter sigma models coincide with the recently introduced generalized λ-models. We then generalize this result by showing that the analytic continuation of a generic σ-model of "universal WZW-type" introduced by Tseytlin in 1993 is nothing but the Poisson-Lie T-dual of a generic Poisson-Lie symmetric σ-model introduced by Klimčík and Ševera in 1995.

  17. The finer points of lying online: e-mail versus pen and paper.

    PubMed

    Naquin, Charles E; Kurtzberg, Terri R; Belkin, Liuba Y

    2010-03-01

    The authors present 3 experimental studies that build on moral disengagement theory by exploring lying in online environments. Findings indicate that, when e-mail is compared with pen and paper communication media (both of which are equal in terms of media richness, as both are text only), people are more willing to lie when communicating via e-mail than via pen and paper and feel more justified in doing so. The findings were consistent whether the task assured participants that their lie either would or would not be discovered by their counterparts. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  18. Law & psychiatry: The new lie detectors: neuroscience, deception, and the courts.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2007-04-01

    This column examines the use of two technologies in lie detection. "Brain fingerprinting" is based on the finding that the brain generates a unique brain-wave pattern when a person encounters a familiar stimulus. Use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in lie detection derives from studies suggesting that persons asked to lie show different patterns of brain activity than they do when being truthful. Issues related to the use of such evidence in courts are discussed. The author concludes that neither approach is currently supported by enough data regarding its accuracy in detecting deception to warrant use in court.

  19. Severe neonatal complication of transverse lie after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Van der Kaay, D C M; Horsch, S; Duvekot, J J

    2013-07-08

    Both transverse lie and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) are associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. We present a neonate born at 29 weeks gestation with severe birth trauma after PPROM and transverse lie. The patient had extensive swelling and areas of desquamated and necrotic skin of the right lower limb. Neonatal compartment syndrome (NCS) was suspected. Perfusion of the limb improved after decompressing subcutaneous incisions. A fetus in transverse lie may be mechanically damaged in the case of PPROM, especially at an early gestational age. Early recognition is of great interest in the management and prognosis of NCS.

  20. Newton equation for canonical, Lie-algebraic, and quadratic deformation of classical space

    SciTech Connect

    Daszkiewicz, Marcin; Walczyk, Cezary J.

    2008-05-15

    The Newton equation describing particle motion in a constant external field force on canonical, Lie-algebraic, and quadratic space-time is investigated. We show that for canonical deformation of space-time the dynamical effects are absent, while in the case of Lie-algebraic noncommutativity, when spatial coordinates commute to the time variable, the additional acceleration of the particle is generated. We also indicate that in the case of spatial coordinates commuting in a Lie-algebraic way, as well as for quadratic deformation, there appear additional velocity and position-dependent forces.

  1. Decreased prolactin levels reduce parental commitment, egg temperatures, and breeding success of incubating male Adélie penguins.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Brajon, Sophie; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Chastel, Olivier; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Hormones regulate many aspects of an individual's phenotype, including various physiological and behavioral traits. Two hormones have been described as important players in the regulation of parental investment in birds: the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone and prolactin, a pituitary hormone, widely involved in mediating parental behavior. In comparison with corticosterone, the role of prolactin on parental investment remains poorly documented, and most studies so far have been correlative. In this study, the effects of an experimental decrease of prolactin levels on the incubation behavior of a long-lived seabird species were assessed. Male Adélie penguins were treated with self-degradable bromocriptine pellets, inhibiting prolactin secretion. Filming and subsequent video analysis allowed the determination of a behavioral time budget for birds and their position on the nest, while dummy eggs recorded incubation parameters. Incubation duration and breeding success at hatching were also monitored. As expected, bromocriptine-treatment significantly decreased plasma prolactin levels, but did not affect corticosterone levels. The behavioral time budget of penguins was not affected by the treatment. However, treated birds spent significantly more time in an upright position on the nest. These birds also incubated their eggs at lower temperatures and turned their eggs more frequently than controls, resulting in a lengthened incubation period. Despite this, the treatment was insufficient to trigger nest desertion and eggs of treated birds still hatched, indicating that several endocrine signals are required for the induction of nest abandonment. We suggest that the decreased prolactin levels in treated birds offset their timeline of breeding, so that birds displayed behavior typical of early incubation.

  2. Examining the relationship between cue-induced craving and actual smoking.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Cynthia A; Vella, Elizabeth J; Joyce, Christopher J; Salkeld, Ronald P; Perkins, Kenneth A; Parzynski, Craig S

    2015-04-01

    Smoking cue-reactivity studies have consistently demonstrated heightened self-report craving, as well as moderate autonomic reactivity, among smokers exposed to salient drug-related cues. However, significantly fewer studies have examined whether exposure to smoking cues affects smokers' actual smoking, or examined the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and smoking behavior. Using our well-tested pictorial cues in a cue-reactivity paradigm, we investigated the impact of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues on subjective craving and smoking behavior (assessed via CReSS; Plowshare Technologies, Baltimore, MD) measures of latency to smoke, puff volume, and number of puffs). Further, we examined the predictive value of cue-induced craving on subsequent smoking behavior. Sixty nondeprived daily smokers completed 2 experimental sessions involving exposure to either smoking-related or neutral pictorial cues. Following initial exposure to cues, smokers rated their craving and were then allowed to smoke freely if they chose to during a subsequent 6-min cue exposure period. Result showed that exposure to smoking cues relative to neutral predicted significantly greater craving and increases in smoking behavior. Likewise, the magnitude of the difference in cue-induced craving when exposed to smoking cues relative to neutral cues (i.e., the cue-reactivity effect) was highly predictive of shorter latency to smoke, as well as increased number of puffs and puff volume.

  3. Examining the relationship between cue-induced craving and actual smoking

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Cynthia A.; Vella, Elizabeth J.; Joyce, Christopher J.; Salkeld, Ronald P.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Parzynski, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Smoking cue reactivity studies have consistently demonstrated heightened self-report craving, as well as moderate autonomic reactivity, among smokers exposed to salient drug-related cues. However, significantly fewer studies have examined whether exposure to smoking cues affects smokers’ actual smoking, or examined the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and smoking behavior. Using our well-tested pictorial cues in a cue-reactivity paradigm, we investigated the impact of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues on subjective craving and smoking behavior (assessed via CReSS measures of latency to smoke, puff volume, and number of puffs). Further, we examined the predictive value of cue-induced craving on subsequent smoking behavior. Sixty non-deprived daily smokers completed two experimental sessions involving exposure to either smoking-related or neutral pictorial cues. Following initial exposure to cues, smokers rated their craving and were then allowed to smoke freely if they chose to during a subsequent 6-minute cue exposure period. Result showed that exposure to smoking cues relative to neutral predicted significantly greater craving and increases in smoking behavior. Likewise, the magnitude of the difference in cue-induced craving when exposed to smoking cues relative to neutral cues (i.e., the cue reactivity effect) was highly predictive of shorter latency to smoke, as well as increased number of puffs and puff volume. PMID:25730416

  4. On the gauge features of gravity on a Lie algebroid structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fabi, S. Harms, B. Hou, S.

    2014-03-15

    We present the geometric formulation of gravity based on the mathematical structure of a Lie Algebroid. We show that this framework provides the geometrical setting to describe the gauge propriety of gravity.

  5. Hidden symmetries and Lie algebra structures from geometric and supergravity Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açık, Özgür; Ertem, Ümit

    2016-08-01

    We consider geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing–Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six- and ten-dimensional cases. For five- and eleven-dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  6. Hidden symmetries and Lie algebra structures from geometric and supergravity Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açık, Özgür; Ertem, Ümit

    2016-08-01

    We consider geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing-Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six- and ten-dimensional cases. For five- and eleven-dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  7. Using Brain Imaging for Lie Detection: Where Science, Law and Research Policy Collide.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Moriarty, Jane Campbell

    2013-05-01

    Progress in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain to evaluate deception and differentiate lying from truth-telling has created anticipation of a breakthrough in the search for technology-based methods of lie detection. In the last few years, litigants have attempted to introduce fMRI lie detection evidence in courts. This article weighs in on the interdisciplinary debate about the admissibility of such evidence, identifying the missing pieces of the scientific puzzle that need to be completed if fMRI-based lie detection is to meet the standards of either legal reliability or general acceptance. We believe that the Daubert's "known error rate" is the key concept linking the legal and scientific standards. We posit that properly-controlled clinical trials are the most convincing means to determine the error rates of fMRI-based lie detection and confirm or disprove the relevance of the promising laboratory research on this topic. This article explains the current state of the science and provides an analysis of the case law in which litigants have sought to introduce fMRI lie detection. Analyzing the myriad issues related to fMRI lie detection, the article identifies the key limitations of the current neuroimaging of deception science as expert evidence and explores the problems that arise from using scientific evidence before it is proven scientifically valid and reliable. We suggest that courts continue excluding fMRI lie detection evidence until this potentially useful form of forensic science meets the scientific standards currently required for adoption of a medical test or device. Given a multitude of stakeholders and, the charged and controversial nature and the potential societal impact of this technology, goodwill and collaboration of several government agencies may be required to sponsor impartial and comprehensive clinical trials that will guide the development of forensic fMRI technology.

  8. Using Brain Imaging for Lie Detection: Where Science, Law and Research Policy Collide

    PubMed Central

    Langleben, Daniel D.; Moriarty, Jane Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Progress in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain to evaluate deception and differentiate lying from truth-telling has created anticipation of a breakthrough in the search for technology-based methods of lie detection. In the last few years, litigants have attempted to introduce fMRI lie detection evidence in courts. This article weighs in on the interdisciplinary debate about the admissibility of such evidence, identifying the missing pieces of the scientific puzzle that need to be completed if fMRI-based lie detection is to meet the standards of either legal reliability or general acceptance. We believe that the Daubert’s “known error rate” is the key concept linking the legal and scientific standards. We posit that properly-controlled clinical trials are the most convincing means to determine the error rates of fMRI-based lie detection and confirm or disprove the relevance of the promising laboratory research on this topic. This article explains the current state of the science and provides an analysis of the case law in which litigants have sought to introduce fMRI lie detection. Analyzing the myriad issues related to fMRI lie detection, the article identifies the key limitations of the current neuroimaging of deception science as expert evidence and explores the problems that arise from using scientific evidence before it is proven scientifically valid and reliable. We suggest that courts continue excluding fMRI lie detection evidence until this potentially useful form of forensic science meets the scientific standards currently required for adoption of a medical test or device. Given a multitude of stakeholders and, the charged and controversial nature and the potential societal impact of this technology, goodwill and collaboration of several government agencies may be required to sponsor impartial and comprehensive clinical trials that will guide the development of forensic fMRI technology. PMID:23772173

  9. Orbit structure of Hamiltonian systems arising from Lie transformation group actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper associates the Riccati group and its group action on linear-quadratic optimal control problems to the action of a Lie transformation group on a set of Hamiltonian matrices. In this Lie theoretic setting results are presented concerning the associated orbit structure and the structure of the group itself. These results are of importance in understanding the solution structure of matrix Riccati differential equations, and thus also of importance in linear-quadratic optimal control.

  10. Classification of the Five-Dimensional Lie Superalgebras Over the Real Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiadou, N. L.; Fellouris, A.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this contribution, is to initiate a classification of Lie superalgebras (LS) of dimension five, over the base field ℝ of real numbers. We use the “graded skew-symmetry” and the “graded Jacobi identity” in order to get restrictions for the commutators and anticommutators of an arbitrary five-dimensional Lie superalgebra L = L 0⊕ L 1

  11. Lie Algebraic Discussions for Time-Inhomogeneous Linear Birth-Death Processes with Immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Analytical solutions for time-inhomogeneous linear birth-death processes with immigration are derived. While time-inhomogeneous linear birth-death processes without immigration have been studied by using a generating function approach, the processes with immigration are here analyzed by Lie algebraic discussions. As a result, a restriction for time-inhomogeneity of the birth-death process is understood from the viewpoint of the finiteness of the dimensionality of the Lie algebra.

  12. Unified derivation of exact solutions to the relativistic Coulomb problem: Lie algebraic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, H.; Baradaran, M.; Savadi, A.

    2015-10-01

    Exact algebraic solutions of the D-dimensional Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for the Coulomb potential are obtained in a unified treatment. It is shown that two cases are reducible to the same basic equation, which can be solved exactly. Using the Lie algebraic approach, the general exact solutions of the problem are obtained within the framework of representation theory of the sl(2) Lie algebra.

  13. On Differential form Method to Find Lie Symmetries of two Types of Toda Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qi; Tian, Shou-Fu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate Lie symmetries of the (1 + 1)-dimensional celebrated Toda lattice and the (2 + 1)-dimensional modified semidiscrete Toda lattice by using the extended Harrison and Estabrook's geometric approach. Two closed ideals written in terms of a set of differential forms are constructed for Toda lattices. Moreover, commutation relations of a Kac-Moody-Virasoro type Lie algebra are obtained by direct computation.

  14. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent) on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms) over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms) for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47) and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception. PMID:23536874

  15. Can You Catch a Liar? How Negative Emotions Affect Brain Responses when Lying or Telling the Truth

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent) on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550–750 ms) over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300–400 ms) for the dishonest – honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47) and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception. PMID:23536874

  16. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent) on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms) over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms) for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47) and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception.

  17. Do Emotions Expressed Online Correlate with Actual Changes in Decision-Making?: The Case of Stock Day Traders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Govindan, Ramesh; Uzzi, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are increasingly inferred linguistically from online data with a goal of predicting off-line behavior. Yet, it is unknown whether emotions inferred linguistically from online communications correlate with actual changes in off-line activity. We analyzed all 886,000 trading decisions and 1,234,822 instant messages of 30 professional day traders over a continuous 2 year period. Linguistically inferring the traders’ emotional states from instant messages, we find that emotions expressed in online communications reflect the same distributions of emotions found in controlled experiments done on traders. Further, we find that expressed online emotions predict the profitability of actual trading behavior. Relative to their baselines, traders who expressed little emotion or traders that expressed high levels of emotion made relatively unprofitable trades. Conversely, traders expressing moderate levels of emotional activation made relatively profitable trades. PMID:26765539

  18. Do Emotions Expressed Online Correlate with Actual Changes in Decision-Making?: The Case of Stock Day Traders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Govindan, Ramesh; Uzzi, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are increasingly inferred linguistically from online data with a goal of predicting off-line behavior. Yet, it is unknown whether emotions inferred linguistically from online communications correlate with actual changes in off-line activity. We analyzed all 886,000 trading decisions and 1,234,822 instant messages of 30 professional day traders over a continuous 2 year period. Linguistically inferring the traders' emotional states from instant messages, we find that emotions expressed in online communications reflect the same distributions of emotions found in controlled experiments done on traders. Further, we find that expressed online emotions predict the profitability of actual trading behavior. Relative to their baselines, traders who expressed little emotion or traders that expressed high levels of emotion made relatively unprofitable trades. Conversely, traders expressing moderate levels of emotional activation made relatively profitable trades.

  19. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    -predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

  20. Stable isotopes reveal Holocene changes in the diet of Adélie penguins in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony E; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) modern and fossil eggshells and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils in Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea) were processed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios with the aim of detecting past penguin dietary changes. A detailed and greatly expanded Adélie penguin dietary record dated back to 7,200 years BP has been reconstructed for the investigated area. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7,200 to 2,000 years BP, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2,000 years BP, when the δ(13)C values reveal a change in the penguin feeding behavior. Modern eggshell and guano samples reveal a major dietary contribution of krill but not a krill-dominated diet, since δ(13)C values remain much too high if krill prevail in the diet. According to the Holocene environmental background attested for Victoria Land, Adélie penguin dietary shifts between fish and krill seem to reflect penguin paleoecological responses to different paleoenvironmental settings with different conditions of sea-ice extension and persistence. Furthermore, Adélie penguin diet appears to be particularly affected by environmental changes in a very specific period within the breeding season, namely the egg-laying period when penguin dietary and feeding habit shifts are clearly documented by the δ(13)C of eggshell carbonate.