Science.gov

Sample records for actual measured values

  1. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration using measured and calculated values of bulk surface resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently the United Nations-Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommends using the Penman-Monteith method for estimating ET over all other meteorological methods. The principal limitation of using the generalized form of the Penman-Monteith equation is in obtaining accurate values for the bu...

  2. Comparison of actual evaporation from water surface measured by GGI-3000 evaporimeter with values calculated by the Penman equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohu, Mojmír; Rožnovský, Jaroslav; Knozová, Grazyna

    2014-09-01

    Information about water evaporation is essential for the calculation of water balance. Evaporation, however, is a very complex physical process and it is therefore difficult to quantify. Evaporation measurements from the weather station network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute between 1968 and 2011 were performed using the evaporimeter GGI-3000. Evaporation was calculated using modified standard method based on FAO. The aim of the article was to compare the measured values and calculations. It has been found that the evaporation values from water surface calculated using the empirical equation are usually higher than the measured values by on average 0.8 mm, in extreme cases even 6.9 mm. The measured data shows higher variability than the calculated values, which means that correlations between series are not strong, the correlation coefficient being 0.7. Nevertheless the findings can be used for homogenization of series measured by the GGI-3000 evaporimeter.

  3. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  4. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  5. Do Concept Inventories Actually Measure Anything?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Colin S.; Bailey, Janelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Although concept inventories are among the most frequently used tools in the physics and astronomy education communities, they are rarely evaluated using item response theory (IRT). When IRT models fit the data, they offer sample-independent estimates of item and person parameters. IRT may also provide a way to measure students' learning gains…

  6. Time experiences, self-actualizing values, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Yonge, G D

    1975-12-01

    The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Inventory of Temporal Experiences (ITE), and the Adjective Check List (ACL) were administered to 80 subjects. Sixteen scores were derived from the POI, 4 from the ITE and a Creativity score for the ACL. The resulting intercorrelations were interpreted in the light of the theories of Maslow and Hugenholtz which postulate a convergence of self-actualization, creativity, and certain experiences of time. The present study presents some evidence for the expected convergence and contributes to the construct validity of several of the variables studied. PMID:1202191

  7. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed. PMID:27055306

  8. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  9. Interpersonal Communication Behaviors and Self-Actualizing Values: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Thomas

    This report addresses the relationship between self-actualizing values and interpersonal communication behaviors. After a discussion of behavioristic and humanistic frameworks for social science research, the paper explains Abraham Maslow's and Carl Roger's concepts of self-actualization as the tendency toward completing and perfecting one's…

  10. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  11. The hotelling principle and in-ground values of oil reserves: Why the principle over-predicts actual values

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    Two articles previously published in this Journal reported that the valuation version of the Hotelling Principle over-predicts in-ground values of oil and gas reserves by a factor of approximately two. This paper shows these results are to be expected once it is understood that: (1) the Principle assumes individual operators have the effective freedom to schedule extraction rates so as to make net prices rise at the rate of discount, regardless of the course of gross (wellhead) prices; and (2) the long-prevailing system of regulating oil well spacing and extraction rates in the United States and Canada, designed to deal with the common pool problem, effectively denies operators that freedom. The discrepancy between actual in-ground values and those predicted by the Hotelling Principle suggests the benefits to be had by substituting compulsory reservoir unitization cum manager freedom for the current system of regulation.10 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Performance Measurement to Demonstrate Value.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Joseph A; Hebl, James R

    2015-12-01

    Anesthesiologists are obligated to demonstrate the value of the care they provide. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has multiple performance-based payment programs to drive high-value care and motivate integrated care for surgical patients and hospitalized patients. These programs rely on diverse arrays of performance measures and complex reporting rules. Among all specialties, anesthesiology has tremendous potential to effect wide-ranging change on diverse measures. Performance measures deserve scrutiny by anesthesiologists as tools to improve care, the means by which payment is determined, and as a means to demonstrate the value of care to surgeons, hospitals, and patients. PMID:26610623

  13. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  14. Actual Minds of Two Halves: Measurement, Metaphor and the Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    This article takes "measurement" as a will to determine or fix space and time, which allows for a comparison of ontological models of space and time from Western and Maori traditions. The spirit of "measurement" is concomitantly one of fixing meaning, which is suggested as the essence of the growth of the scientific genre of…

  15. Meteorological field measurements at potential and actual wind turbine sites

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of experiences gained in a meteorological measurement program conducted at a number of locations around the United States for the purpose of site evaluation for wind energy utilization is provided. The evolution of the measurement program from its inception in 1976 to the present day is discussed. Some of the major accomplishments and areas for improvement are outlined. Some conclusions on research using data from this program are presented.

  16. Positioning the actual interference fringe pattern on the tooth flank in measuring gear tooth flanks by laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Suping; Wang, Leijie; Liu, Shiqiao; Komori, Masaharu; Kubo, Aizoh

    2011-05-01

    In measuring form deviation of gear tooth flanks by laser interferometry, the collected interference fringe pattern (IFP) is badly distorted, in the case of shape, relative to the actual tooth flank. Meanwhile, a clear and definite mapping relationship between the collected IFP and the actual tooth flank is indispensable for both transforming phase differences into deviation values and positioning the measurement result on the actual tooth flank. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a method using the simulation tooth image as a bridge connecting the actual tooth flank and the collected IFP. The mapping relationship between the simulation tooth image and the actual tooth flank has been obtained by ray tracing methods [Fang et al., Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6409-6415 (2010)]. This paper mainly discusses how to build the relationship between the simulation tooth image and the collected IFP by using a matching algorithm of two characteristic point sets. With the combination of the two above-mentioned assistant mapping relationships, the mapping relationship between the collected IFP and the actual tooth flank can be built; the collected IFP can be positioned on the actual tooth flank. Finally, the proposed method is employed in a measurement of the form deviation of a gear tooth flank and the result proves the feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. Actual and future trends of extreme values of temperature for the NW Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, J.; Brands, S.; Lorenzo, N.

    2009-09-01

    It is now very well established that yearly averaged temperatures are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. The main objective of this work is to assess actual and future trends of different extreme indices of temperature, which are of curcial importance for many impact studies. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). As direct GCM-output significantly underestimates the variance of daily surface temperature variables in NW Spain, these variables are obtained by applying a statistical downscaling technique (analog method), using 850hPa temperature and mean sea level pressure as combined predictors. The predictor fields have been extracted from three GCMs participating in the IPCC AR4 under A1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The definitions of the extreme indices have been taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard extreme values to simplify intercomparisons of data from different regions of the world. For the temperatures in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum temperatures above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum temperatures below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum temperatures are reverse: less nights with minimum temperatures below 10th percentile, and more with minimum temperatures above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned extreme values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic

  18. Added value products for imaging remote sensing by processing actual GNSS reflectometry delay doppler maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavulli, Domenico; Frappart, Frédéric; Ramilien, Guillaume; Darrozes, José; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    including areas with different wind speed, oil spill, non-homogeneous area and cyclone. In this work a deconvolution technique based on the 2-D Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) approach is used to process, for the first time, a real DDM measured by the TDS-1 mission to generate a radar image of the observed scene. The considered DDMs are related to marine scenario including non-homogenous area, i.e. sea/land and sea/ice transition. These non-homogeneous area provide a strong scattering contribution in the DD domain but it is not possible to extract any other information by analyzing the DDM. In the other hand, after the 2-D TSVD technique application a radar image of the observed scenario is provided where the transition between sea and non-homogeneous elements is reconstructed and well located in the spatial domain. Finally, in this work we demonstrate the soundness of the proposed approach able to provide an added value product for imaging remote sensing to improve/complement dedicated sensors.

  19. Assessment of actual transpiration rate in olive tree field combining sap-flow, leaf area index and scintillometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, C.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Models to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) in sparse vegetation area can be fundamental for agricultural water managements, especially when water availability is a limiting factor. Models validation must be carried out by considering in situ measurements referred to the field scale, which is the relevant scale of the modelled variables. Moreover, a particular relevance assumes to consider separately the components of plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), because only the first is actually related to the crop stress conditions. Objective of the paper was to assess a procedure aimed to estimate olive trees actual transpiration by combining sap flow measurements with the scintillometer technique at field scale. The study area, located in Western Sicily (Italy), is mainly cultivated with olive crop and is characterized by typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Measurements of sap flow and crop actual evapotranspiration rate were carried out during 2008 irrigation season. Crop transpiration fluxes, measured on some plants by means of sap flow sensors, were upscaled considering the leaf area index (LAI). The comparison between evapotranspiration values, derived by displaced-beam small-aperture scintillometer (DBSAS-SLS20, Scintec AG), with the transpiration fluxes obtained by the sap flow sensors, also allowed to evaluate the contribute of soil evaporation in an area characterized by low vegetation coverage.

  20. Valuing Learning: The Measurement Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the money wasted on ineffective training programs and the resulting surge in interest among training professionals in conducting learning evaluation and return on investment (ROI) measurement. Describes Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation concept; questions regarding measurement validity and reliability; and new developments in learning…

  1. Performance Measures, Benchmarking and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Felicity

    This paper discusses performance measurement in university libraries, based on examples from the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia. The introduction highlights the integration of information literacy into the curriculum and the outcomes of a 1998 UoW student satisfaction survey. The first section considers performance indicators in…

  2. What do we actually mean by 'sociotechnical'? On values, boundaries and the problems of language.

    PubMed

    Klein, Lisl

    2014-03-01

    The term 'sociotechnical' was first coined in the context of industrial democracy. In comparing two projects on shipping in Esso to help define the concept, the essential categories were found to be where systems boundaries were set, and what factors were considered to be relevant 'human' characteristics. This is often discussed in terms of values. During the nineteen-sixties and seventies sociotechnical theory related to the shop-floor work system, and contingency theory to the organisation as a whole, the two levels being distinct. With the coming of information technology, this distinction became blurred; the term 'socio-structural' is proposed to describe the whole system. IT sometimes is the operating technology, it sometimes supports the operating technology, or it may sometimes be mistaken for the operating technology. This is discussed with reference to recent air accidents. PMID:23786808

  3. Measuring the Disparities between Biology Undergraduates' Perceptions and Their Actual Knowledge of Scientific Literature with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates an innovative method used to determine the need for information literacy among science undergraduate students at Adelphi University. Using clickers technology, this study measured the disconnect between biology undergraduates' perceived and actual knowledge of scientific literature. The quantitative data collected in the…

  4. Relative Proximity Theory: Measuring the Gap between Actual and Ideal Online Course Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, William; MacLeod, Kenneth; Paul, Ravi; Zhang, Aixiu; Gagulic, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Transactional Distance and Needs Assessment, this article reports a procedure for quantitatively measuring how close the actual delivery of a course was to ideal, as perceived by students. It extends Zhang's instrument and prescribes the computational steps to calculate relative proximity at the element and construct…

  5. Comparison of IEUBK model predictions and actual blood lead values at a former battery recycling site.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, T A; Forslund, B L

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of US EPA's integrated exposureuptake biokinetic model for lead (IEUBK model) using data obtained during emergency removal operations at a former lead-acid battery recycling plant and the surrounding community. Data employed in the study include soil lead and interior dust lead, air lead levels collected at the site perimeter, drinking water lead levels at the community water main and blood lead data collected from an annual blood lead monitoring programme conducted over a four year period during the remediation activities.Geometric mean soil and dust concentrations were found to be a better predictor of blood lead than arithmetic mean data. However, weight based dust lead data were believed to be an inappropriate measure of dust lead levels. Estimates of household dust lead concentrations based upon surface loading data (μg m(-2)) yielded blood lead predictions which were more consistent with data collected in the blood lead monitoring programme. PMID:24197215

  6. MEASURING LOW-VALUE CARE IN MEDICARE

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Aaron L.; Landon, Bruce E.; Elshaug, Adam G.; Chernew, Michael E.; McWilliams, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Importance Despite the importance of identifying and reducing wasteful health care utilization, few direct measures of overuse have been developed. Direct measures are appealing because they identify specific services to limit and can characterize low-value care even among the most efficient providers. Objective To develop claims-based measures of low-value services, examine service use (and associated spending) detected by these measures in Medicare, and determine if patterns of use are related across different types of low-value services. Design, Setting and Participants Drawing from evidence-based lists of services that provide minimal clinical benefit, we developed and trialed 26 claims-based measures of low-value services. Using 2009 claims for 1,360,908 Medicare beneficiaries, we assessed the proportion of beneficiaries receiving these services, mean per-beneficiary service use, and the proportion of total spending devoted to these services. We compared the amount of use and spending detected by versions of these measures with different sensitivity and specificity. We also estimated correlations between use of different services within geographic areas, adjusting for beneficiaries’ sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Use and spending detected by 26 measures of low-value services in 6 categories: low-value cancer screening; low-value diagnostic and preventive testing; low-value preoperative testing; low-value imaging; low-value cardiovascular testing and procedures; and other low-value surgical procedures. Results Services detected by more sensitive versions of measures affected 41% of beneficiaries and constituted 2.7% of overall annual spending. Services detected by more specific versions of measures affected 24% of beneficiaries and constituted 0.6% of overall spending. In adjusted analyses, low-value spending detected in geographic regions at the 5th percentile of the regional distribution of low-value spending ($221

  7. Validation of Computed Tomography-based Attenuation Correction of Deviation between Theoretical and Actual Values in Four Computed Tomography Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Yada, Nobuhiro; Onishi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, we aimed to validate the accuracy of computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CTAC), using the bilinear scaling method. Methods: The measured attenuation coefficient (μm) was compared to the theoretical attenuation coefficient (μt), using four different CT scanners and an RMI 467 phantom. The effective energy of CT beam X-rays was calculated, using the aluminum half-value layer method and was used in conjunction with an attenuation coefficient map to convert the CT numbers to μm values for the photon energy of 140 keV. We measured the CT number of RMI 467 phantom for each of the four scanners and compared the μm and μt values for the effective energies of CT beam X-rays, effective atomic numbers, and physical densities. Results: The μm values for CT beam X-rays with low effective energies decreased in high construction elements, compared with CT beam X-rays of high effective energies. As the physical density increased, the μm values elevated linearly. Compared with other scanners, the μm values obtained from the scanner with CT beam X-rays of maximal effective energy increased once the effective atomic number exceeded 10.00. The μm value of soft tissue was equivalent to the μt value. However, the ratios of maximal difference between μm and μt values were 25.4% (lung tissue) and 21.5% (bone tissue), respectively. Additionally, the maximal difference in μm values was 6.0% in the bone tissue for each scanner. Conclusion: The bilinear scaling method could accurately convert CT numbers to μ values in soft tissues. PMID:27408896

  8. Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

    2006-06-01

    During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

  9. Direct and Indirect Measures of Learning Outcomes in an MSW Program: What Do We Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Orly

    2013-01-01

    This study offers a unique perspective on assessment of learning by comparing results from direct and indirect measures in a social work graduate program across two campuses of a single university. The findings suggest that students' perceptions of learning are not necessarily reflective of content and applied skills mastery. Perception of…

  10. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456

  11. Comparison between predicted and actual accuracies for an Ultra-Precision CNC measuring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.C.; Fix, B.L.

    1995-05-30

    At the 1989 CIRP annual meeting, we reported on the design of a specialized, ultra-precision CNC measuring machine, and on the error budget that was developed to guide the design process. In our paper we proposed a combinatorial rule for merging estimated and/or calculated values for all known sources of error, to yield a single overall predicted accuracy for the machine. In this paper we compare our original predictions with measured performance of the completed instrument.

  12. One Moon, many measurements 1: Radiance values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Ohtake, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Haruyama, J.; Green, R. O.; Mall, U.; Staid, M. I.; Isaacson, P. J.; Yokota, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Besse, S.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Several modern optical instruments orbited the Moon during 2008 and 2009 onboard the SELENE and Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and provided a welcomed feast of spectroscopic data to be used for scientific analyses. The different spatial and spectral resolutions of these sensors along with diverse illumination geometry during data acquisition make each set of data unique, and each instrument contributes special value to integrated science analyses. In order to provide the maximum science benefit, we have undertaken a careful cross-validation of radiance data among these orbital instruments and also a set of systematic data acquired using Earth-based telescopes. Most radiance values at 750 nm fall between 0 and 100 W/(m2 μm sr), but a small important fraction can be up to ×2 to ×3 that value, with the largest values occurring at the highest spatial resolution. All instruments are in agreement about overall spectral properties of lunar materials, but small systematic differences are documented between instruments. Lunar radiance values measured with remote sensors for landing sites are all not as high as that estimated from laboratory measurements of returned soil. This is largely because laboratory measurements of lunar soils cannot retain or duplicate the fine structure of lunar regolith found in the natural space environment.

  13. CAN CONTINGENT VALUATION MEASURE PASSIVE USE VALUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contingent valuation (CV) is the only method currently available for practically measuring passive-use values. Because proposed laws may require that environmental regulations pass a benefit-cost test, CV has become central to the policy debate on environmental protection. Crit...

  14. Measuring radiology's value in time saved.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christoph I; Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-10-01

    Because radiology has historically not measured its added value to patient care and thus not communicated it in easily understood terms to all stakeholders, the specialty must correct this to prepare for the eventual transition from the current fee-for-service payment schedule to new value-based reimbursement systems. Given the increasing risk for marginalization, radiologists need to engage clinicians and managers to map the processes and associated costs of episodes of patient care to identify areas for providing and improving integrated diagnostic information and to measure the value thereof. In such time-driven, activity-based costing practices, radiologists should highlight how proper investments in the information generated by imaging and how radiologists' associated consultative and coordination of services can save greater resources downstream, especially in the nonrenewable resource of physician time, an increasingly scarce health care resource. Using physician time in the most efficient way will be a key element for decreasing health care costs at the aggregate level. Therefore, expressing radiology's contribution in terms of downstream physician time saved is a metric that can be easily understood by all stakeholders. In a conceptual framework centered on value, the specialty of radiology must focus more on its most important product, actionable information, rather than on imaging technologies themselves. Information, unlike imaging technologies, does not depreciate with time but rather increases in value the more it is used. PMID:23025865

  15. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-01

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing. PMID:25045822

  16. Surface energy balance and actual evapotranspiration of the transboundary Indus Basin estimated from satellite measurements and the ETLook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Cheema, M. J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Miltenburg, I. J.; Pelgrum, H.

    2012-11-01

    The surface energy fluxes and related evapotranspiration processes across the Indus Basin were estimated for the hydrological year 2007 using satellite measurements. The new ETLook remote sensing model (version 1) infers information on actual Evaporation (E) and actual Transpiration (T) from combined optical and passive microwave sensors, which can observe the land-surface even under persistent overcast conditions. A two-layer Penman-Monteith equation was applied for quantifying soil and canopy evaporation. The novelty of the paper is the computation of E and T across a vast area (116.2 million ha) by using public domain microwave data that can be applied under all weather conditions, and for which no advanced input data are required. The average net radiation for the basin was estimated as being 112 Wm-2. The basin average sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes were estimated to be 80, 32, and 0 Wm-2, respectively. The average evapotranspiration (ET) and evaporative fraction were 1.2 mm d-1 and 0.28, respectively. The basin wide ET was 496 ± 16.8 km3 yr-1. Monte Carlo analysis have indicated 3.4% error at 95% confidence interval for a dominant land use class. Results compared well with previously conducted soil moisture, lysimeter and Bowen ratio measurements at field scale (R2 = 0.70; RMSE = 0.45 mm d-1; RE = -11.5% for annual ET). ET results were also compared against earlier remote sensing and modeling studies for various regions and provinces in Pakistan (R2 = 0.76; RMSE = 0.29 mmd-1; RE = 6.5% for annual ET). The water balance for all irrigated areas together as one total system in Pakistan and India (26.02 million ha) show a total ET value that is congruent with the ET value from the ETLook surface energy balance computations. An unpublished validation of the same ETLook model for 23 jurisdictional areas covering the entire Australian continent showed satisfactory results given the quality of the watershed data and the diverging physiographic and climatic

  17. Testing data evaluation strategies for estimating precipitation and actual evaporation from precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Fank, Johann; Pütz, Thomas; Wollschläger, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Weighing lysimeters have long been recognized as valuable tools not only for monitoring of groundwater recharge and solute transport, but also for the determination of the soil water balance and quantification of water exchange processes at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. If well embedded into an equally-vegetated environment, they reach a hitherto unprecedented accuracy in estimating precipitation (P) by rain, dew, fog, rime and snow, as well as actual evapotranspiration (ET). At the same time, they largely avoid errors made by traditional micrometeorological instruments, such as the wind error of Hellman rain samplers or the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on readings from in situ instrumentation of soil water state variables. Beginning in 2008, the Helmholtz Association established a network of terrestrial environmental observatories (TERENO) that aim at long-term monitoring of climate and land-use change consequences. A total of 126 identically designed large weighing lysimeters, operating at a sampling frequency of 1 min-1, were installed for this purpose, which raises the demand for standardized data processing methods. In theory, estimating P and ET from these measurements is straightforward: An increase in the combined mass of the soil monolith and the collected seepage water indicates P, while a decrease indicates ET. However, in practice, lysimeter data are prone to numerous sources of error, including, but not limited to, outliers, systematic errors due to plant growth and removal, data gaps, and stochastic fluctuations. The latter pose a particularly challenging problem - if we would directly calculate P and ET from a time-series that is affected by random noise, every positive fluctuation would be interpreted as P and every negative one as ET. Consequently, we would overestimate both quantities by far. The aim of this study was to evaluate algorithms that focus on eliminating the effect of these fluctuations and to estimate actual fluxes

  18. Indicated and actual mass inventory measurements for an inverted U-tube steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Plessinger, M.P.; Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of actual versus indicated secondary liquid level in a steam generator at steaming conditions are presented. The experimental investigation was performed in two different small scale U-tube-in-shell steam generators at typical pressurized water reactor operating conditions (5-7 MPa; saturated) in the Semiscale facility. During steaming conditions, the indicated secondary liquid level was found to vary considerably from the actual ''bottled-up'' liquid level. These difference between indicated and actual liquid level are related to the frictional pressure drop associated with the two-phase steaming condition in the riser. Data from a series of bottle-up experiments (Simultaneously, the primary heat source and secondary feed and steam are terminated) are tabulated and the actual liquid level is correlated to the indicated liquid level.

  19. Actual evapotranspiration and precipitation measured by lysimeters: a comparison with eddy covariance and tipping bucket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Pütz, T.; Post, H.; Schmidt, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-05-01

    This study compares actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measurements by a set of six weighable lysimeters, ETa estimates obtained with the eddy covariance (EC) method, and evapotranspiration calculated with the full-form Penman-Monteith equation (ETPM) for the Rollesbroich site in the Eifel (western Germany). The comparison of ETa measured by EC (including correction of the energy balance deficit) and by lysimeters is rarely reported in the literature and allows more insight into the performance of both methods. An evaluation of ETa for the two methods for the year 2012 shows a good agreement with a total difference of 3.8% (19 mm) between the ETa estimates. The highest agreement and smallest relative differences (< 8%) on a monthly basis between both methods are found in summer. ETa was close to ETPM, indicating that ET was energy limited and not limited by water availability. ETa differences between lysimeter and EC were mainly related to differences in grass height caused by harvest and the EC footprint. The lysimeter data were also used to estimate precipitation amounts in combination with a filter algorithm for the high-precision lysimeters recently introduced by Peters et al. (2014). The estimated precipitation amounts from the lysimeter data differ significantly from precipitation amounts recorded with a standard rain gauge at the Rollesbroich test site. For the complete year 2012 the lysimeter records show a 16 % higher precipitation amount than the tipping bucket. After a correction of the tipping bucket measurements by the method of Richter (1995) this amount was reduced to 3%. With the help of an on-site camera the precipitation measurements of the lysimeters were analyzed in more detail. It was found that the lysimeters record more precipitation than the tipping bucket, in part related to the detection of rime and dew, which contribute 17% to the yearly difference between both methods. In addition, fog and drizzle explain an additional 5.5% of the total

  20. Environmental audits -- Defining measurable value and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.

    1998-07-01

    It is well accepted that historically traditional find and fix environmental audits are at best, short-term solutions. Such reactive thinking does not effectively identify the cause(s), are often short-lived and when facilities are re-evaluated, tend to frustrate any serious environmental stewardship program. More proactive thinking embraces the identifying and aggressive follow-up toward closure of causes. In any organization where audits are a part of proactive environmental company policies, even the latter progressive approach may not be a high enough plateau. Progressive audit programs include also, the essential ingredient to evaluate program strengths, avoiding the disastrous perceptions that audit is an evaluation of job performances. Establishment of baseline trust emphasizing the positive as well as deficiencies reinforces cooperation and builds winning relationships. Assurances of the sustainability of compliance through employee efforts though, cannot be guaranteed no matter what the regulation or how strong the company policy. Guarantees are few, but a more assured reinforcement of sustained buy-in can be through the identification and communication of audit value and benefits. Value and benefits are often thought of in terms of helping facilities achieve and maintain compliance while avoiding notices of violation and fines. While these among other objectives are the foundation reasons for assessing, a deeper, big picture analysis of employee effort and measurable value is required. Skillful audit teams use their perspective to identify opportunities and take on non-traditional roles to assist facilities transcend corrective action toward and maintenance of compliance. A measurable value and benefits driven approach in association with compliance objectives, enhanced by strong communication, reinforces the very foundation of trust and stewardship within the organization.

  1. Actual evapotranspiration and precipitation measured by lysimeters: a comparison with eddy covariance and tipping bucket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Pütz, T.; Post, H.; Schmidt, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study compares actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measurements by a set of six weighable lysimeters, ETa estimates obtained with the eddy covariance (EC) method, and potential crop evapotranspiration according to FAO (ETc-FAO) for the Rollesbroich site in the Eifel (Western Germany). The comparison of ETa measured by EC (including correction of the energy balance deficit) and by lysimeters is rarely reported in literature and allows more insight into the performance of both methods. An evaluation of ETa for the two methods for the year 2012 shows a good agreement with a total difference of 3.8% (19 mm) between the ETa estimates. The highest agreement and smallest relative differences (<8%) on monthly basis between both methods are found in summer. ETa was close to ETc-FAO, indicating that ET was energy limited and not limited by water availability. ETa differences between lysimeter, ETc-FAO, and EC were mainly related to differences in grass height caused by harvesting management and the EC footprint. The lysimeter data were also used to estimate precipitation amounts in combination with a filter algorithm for high precision lysimeters recently introduced by Peters et al. (2014). The estimated precipitation amounts from the lysimeter data show significant differences compared to the precipitation amounts recorded with a standard rain gauge at the Rollesbroich test site. For the complete year 2012 the lysimeter records show a 16% higher precipitation amount than the tipping bucket. With the help of an on-site camera the precipitation measurements of the lysimeters were analyzed in more detail. It was found that the lysimeters record more precipitation than the tipping bucket in part related to the detection of rime and dew, which contributes 17% to the yearly difference between both methods. In addition, fog and drizzle explain an additional 5.5% of the total difference. Larger differences are also recorded for snow and sleet situations. During snowfall, the

  2. Actual evapotranspiration for a reference crop within measured and future changing climate periods in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katerji, Nader; Rana, Gianfranco; Ferrara, Rossana Monica

    2016-05-01

    The study compares two formulas for calculating the daily evapotranspiration ET0 for a reference crop. The first formula was proposed by Allen et al. (AL), while the second one was proposed by Katerji and Perrier with the addition of the carbon dioxide (CO2) effect on evapotranspiration (KP). The study analyses the impact of the calculation by the two formulas on the irrigation requirement (IR). Both formulas are based on the Penman-Monteith equation but adopt different approaches for parameterising the canopy resistance r c . In the AL formula, r c is assumed constant and not sensitive to climate change, whereas in the KP formula, r c is first parameterised as a function of climatic variables, then ET0 is corrected for the air CO2 concentration. The two formulas were compared in two periods. The first period involves data from two sites in the Mediterranean region within a measured climate change period (1981-2006) when all the input climatic variables were measured. The second period (2070-2100) involves data from a future climate change period at one site when the input climatic variables were forecasted for two future climate scenarios (A2 and B2). The annual cumulated values of ET0 calculated by the AL formula are systematically lower than those determined by the KP formula. The differences between the ET0 estimation with the AL and KP formulas have a strong impact on the determination of the IR for the reference crop. In fact, for the two periods, the annual values of IR when ET0 is calculated by the AL formula are systematically lower than those calculated by the KP formula. For the actual measured climate change period, this reduction varied from 26 to 28 %, while for the future climate change period, it varied based on the scenario from 16 % (A2) to 20 % (B2).

  3. Development and Validation of Short Forms of Some Instruments Measuring Student Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development/validation of short forms of Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ), My Class Inventory (MCI), and Classroom Environment Scale (CES). In addition to these forms measuring perceptions of actual classroom environment, ICEQ and CES short forms measuring preferred classroom environment were also developed.…

  4. Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Jensen, Paul A; Campbell, Donald L; Lawrence, Robert B; Myers, Warren R

    2003-01-01

    Past studies have found little or no correlation between workplace protection factors (WPFs) and quantitative fit factors (FFs). This study investigated the effect of good- and poor-fitting half-facepiece, air-purifying respirators on protection in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry and the correlation between WPFs and FFs. Fifteen burners and welders, who wore respirators voluntarily, and chippers participated in this study. Each subject was fit-tested with two respirator models each with three sizes, for a total of six fit-tests. Models and sizes were assigned this way to provide a wide range of FFs among study participants. Each worker donned the respirator twice per day (at the beginning of the shift and following the lunch break) for 2 days. Quantitative FFs were first obtained for each donning using the PortaCount Plus trade mark in a separate room. Without redonning the respirators, workers performed normal work for 1 to 2 hours, and WPFs were measured by collecting ambient and in-facepiece samples simultaneously. A second fit-test was conducted without disturbing the respirator. FFs were obtained by averaging the results from the first and second fit-tests. The resulting FFs had a geometric mean (GM) of 400 (range=10-6010) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 6.1. Of the 55 valid donnings, 43 were good fitting (FFs> or =100) and 12 were poor fitting (FFs<100). The WPFs had a GM of 920 (range=13-230,000) and a GSD of 17.8. The WPFs were found to be significantly correlated with the FFs (R(2)=.55 and p-value=.0001). Therefore, FF was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments. PMID:14674806

  5. The Association between Valuing Popularity and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Effects of Actual Popularity and Physiological Reactivity to Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulberg, Erin K.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age=12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated…

  6. Mabolizable energy differences between values calculated using energy conversion factors and actual values determined by metabolic study of Korean starch foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Jinho; Kim, Hyejin

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to compare the metabolizable energies of Korean starch foods by an animal metabolic study with those calculated using well-known energy conversion factors. There were 12 experimental diets (that is, 7 Korean foods, 3 Western foods, and 2 control foods): barley, brown rice, laver-rolled rice, rice mixed with vegetables and meat, seafood noodle soup, rice cake soup, rice cake in hot pepper paste, pizza, hamburger, spaghetti, basal diet, and glucose. Each diet comprised 70% basal diet and 30% experimental food. After 3 d of adaptation, a metabolic trial was performed for 4 d. The apparent metabolizable energy of pizza, hamburger, spaghetti, and rice cake soup were significantly higher than that of the basal diet group (P < 0.05). For barley, brown rice, laver-rolled rice, rice mixed with vegetables and meat, and seafood noodle soup, the differences between the actual and calculated energies were 8.7%, 13.3%, 4.5%, 17.2%, and 4.1%, respectively, and the actual energy contents were lower than those calculated using the Atwater conversion factor. The results of this study show that the energy contents of Korean foods are significantly different from those calculated using the conversion factors based on the food composition. Therefore, because Korean starch foods are considered to be calorie-rich based on calculations, their energy contents can be accurately determined only by animal experiments. PMID:24621178

  7. Measuring Moral Values in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald K.

    A study was conducted to examine the ethical and moral values of public relations personnel. Subjects were 105 American public relations practitioners, 104 Canadian practitioners, and 215 public relations students. Subjects completed an instrument based on P. Crissman's scale of moral value judgments, which contained 50 items scored on a…

  8. Values and Public Dissent: I - Preliminary Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrien, F.K.; Turner, Floyd D.

    Founded on a systems model of political processes and a review of studies relating values to political controls, 90 value items were administered to "mainstream" and "eddy" (dissenting) groups, including moderate and radical students, Rotarians, member of the New Democratic Coalition, Navy enlisted men, and Navy brig prisoners for the purpose of…

  9. Role of Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Self-Paced Exercise: What are We Actually Measuring?

    PubMed

    Abbiss, Chris R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Meeusen, Romain; Skorski, Sabrina

    2015-09-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and effort are considered extremely important in the regulation of intensity during self-paced physical activity. While effort and exertion are slightly different constructs, these terms are often used interchangeably within the literature. The development of perceptions of both effort and exertion is a complicated process involving numerous neural processes occurring in various regions within the brain. It is widely accepted that perceptions of effort are highly dependent on efferent copies of central drive which are sent from motor to sensory regions of the brain. Additionally, it has been suggested that perceptions of effort and exertion are integrated based on the balance between corollary discharge and actual afferent feedback; however, the involvement of peripheral afferent sensory feedback in the development of such perceptions has been debated. As such, this review examines the possible difference between effort and exertion, and the implications of such differences in understanding the role of such perceptions in the regulation of pace during exercise. PMID:26054383

  10. Cultural Value, Measurement and Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dave

    2015-01-01

    No matter what the national context, the question of how to understand the impact of government programmes, particularly in terms of value for money, has emerged as a complex problem to be solved by social scientific management. This article engages with these trends in two ways. It focuses on the UK to understand how these tools and technologies…

  11. Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Kana; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image

  12. A user-study measuring the effects of lexical simplification and coherence enhancement on perceived and actual text difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Mouradi, Obay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Low patient health literacy has been associated with cost increases in medicine because it contributes to inadequate care. Providing explanatory text is a convenient approach to distribute medical information and increase health literacy. Unfortunately, writing text that is easily understood is challenging. This work tests two text features for their impact on understanding: lexical simplification and coherence enhancement. Methods A user study was conducted to test the features’ effect on perceived and actual text difficulty. Individual sentences were used to test perceived difficulty. Using a 5-point Likert scale, participants compared eight pairs of original and simplified sentences. Abstracts were used to test actual difficulty. For each abstract, four versions were created: original, lexically simplified, coherence enhanced, and lexically simplified and coherence enhanced. Using a mixed design, one group of participants worked with the original and lexically simplified documents (no coherence enhancement) while a second group worked with the coherence enhanced versions. Actual difficulty was measured using a Cloze measure and multiple-choice questions. Results Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 200 people participated of which 187 qualified based on our data qualification tests. A paired-samples t-test for the sentence ratings showed a significant reduction in difficulty after lexical simplification (p < .001). Results for actual difficulty are based on the abstracts and associated tasks. A two-way ANOVA for the Cloze test showed no effect of coherence enhancement but a main effect for lexical simplification, with the simplification leading to worse scores (p = .004). A follow-up ANOVA showed this effect exists only for function words when coherence was not enhanced (p = .008). In contrast, a two-way ANOVA for answering multiple-choice questions showed a significant beneficial effect of coherence enhancement (p = .003) but no effect of lexical

  13. Measuring the value of healthcare business assets.

    PubMed

    Evans, C J

    2000-04-01

    Healthcare organizations obtain valuations of business assets for many reasons, including to support decisions regarding potential mergers, sale of business components, or financing; for tax assessments; and for defense against law-suits. If compliance with regulations may be an issue, such as when a not-for-profit organization is involved in a transaction, healthcare organizations should seek an independent appraisal to ensure that applicable legal standards are met. Whether or not regulatory issues are involved, however, an accurate and useful valuation of business assets depends on many factors. Financial managers must understand the purpose and function of the valuation, choice of appropriate valuation techniques, proper assessment of intangible value, use of realistic growth rates, appropriate emphasis on key focus areas of the valuation (e.g., risk and future income streams), and an accounting of physician compensation. PMID:10915353

  14. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Wilopo, Wahyu; Kiyono, Junji; Setianto, Agung; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green's function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  15. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  16. Measuring the value of customer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Monts, K.; Bonevac, B.; Lauer, J.; Tessema, D.

    1997-05-01

    Competition will require changes in how market research is conducted and how customers are pursued. The question remains: How does one approach customer retention in a way that provides meaningful guidelines? The conventional wisdom is that {open_quotes}the business of business is selling.{close_quotes} There is some truth to this, but the key question today is: What bearing does this have on how to run a business in a competitive environment? A recent article in the Harvard Business Review noted that, {open_quotes}Increasingly, companies are less focused on selling products and more interested in keeping customers.{close_quotes} Indeed, some observers have posited a natural societal evolutionary trend toward a shift of emphasis toward customer retention vis-a-vis customer acquisition, as a consequence of the primary marketing communication technology shifting from {open_quotes}broadcast{close_quotes} (where messages are sent out to inchoate masses) to {open_quotes}interactive{close_quotes} (where relationships are cultivated with precisely defined market niches or individual customers). The business of growing a business, then, can be framed as a matter of getting customers and keeping them so as to grow the value of the customer base to its fullest potential. In these terms, setting a marketing budget becomes the task of balancing what is spent on customer acquisition with what is spent on retention.

  17. What Do Contrast Threshold Equivalent Noise Studies Actually Measure? Noise vs. Nonlinearity in Different Masking Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Alex S.; Baker, Daniel H.; Hess, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The internal noise present in a linear system can be quantified by the equivalent noise method. By measuring the effect that applying external noise to the system’s input has on its output one can estimate the variance of this internal noise. By applying this simple “linear amplifier” model to the human visual system, one can entirely explain an observer’s detection performance by a combination of the internal noise variance and their efficiency relative to an ideal observer. Studies using this method rely on two crucial factors: firstly that the external noise in their stimuli behaves like the visual system’s internal noise in the dimension of interest, and secondly that the assumptions underlying their model are correct (e.g. linearity). Here we explore the effects of these two factors while applying the equivalent noise method to investigate the contrast sensitivity function (CSF). We compare the results at 0.5 and 6 c/deg from the equivalent noise method against those we would expect based on pedestal masking data collected from the same observers. We find that the loss of sensitivity with increasing spatial frequency results from changes in the saturation constant of the gain control nonlinearity, and that this only masquerades as a change in internal noise under the equivalent noise method. Part of the effect we find can be attributed to the optical transfer function of the eye. The remainder can be explained by either changes in effective input gain, divisive suppression, or a combination of the two. Given these effects the efficiency of our observers approaches the ideal level. We show the importance of considering these factors in equivalent noise studies. PMID:26953796

  18. What is actually measured in process evaluations for worksite health promotion programs: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    of the process evaluations is mostly poor to average, resulting in a lack of systematically measured barriers/facilitators. The narrow focus on implementation makes it difficult to explore the relationship between effectiveness and implementation. Furthermore, the operationalisation of process components varied between studies, indicating a need for consensus about defining and operationalising process components. PMID:24341605

  19. Cultural Values Predicting Acculturation Orientations: Operationalizing a Quantitative Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes that acculturation orientations are related to two sets of cultural values: utilitarianism (Ut) and traditionalism (Tr). While utilitarian values enhance assimilation, traditional values support language and identity maintenance. It is proposed that the propensity to either end of this value opposition can be measured by an…

  20. Diversifying natural resources value measurements: The Trinity River study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, J.G.; Douglas, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team set out to establish the economic and social values of the Trinity River in northern California. This information was intended to support the Secretary of the Interior's decision on allocation of Trinity River flows. This team set out to measure the values of Trinity River flows, fishery resources, and recreation amenities in several different ways. A survey was mailed to users of the Trinity River. This single instrument included economic measures (willingness-to-pay and costs incurred in visiting) and social-psychological measures (importance, satisfaction, and water allocation preferences). A closely related survey measured several of these same values among west coast regional households. The results of these surveys were compiled, and the measured economic and social values were compared. We found that integrating economic and social value information provides a greater depth of understanding of the resource's value. In addition, this integration provides a more in-depth understanding through the quantitative and qualitative results that emerge.

  1. Axiological Measurement of Human Value Factors in Mental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard; Mattsson, Jan

    Modern behavioral research focuses on the possibility of a direct measurement of value preferences, which are conceived as important causal variables of behavior. A method and procedure for the measurement and representation of human value factors is presented. The thesis was studied that valuation results from an active inquiring agent whose…

  2. Measurement Invariance of Expectancy-Value Questionnaire in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Ennis, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-Value Questionnaire (EVQ) measures student expectancy beliefs and task values of the domain content (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995). In this study the authors examine measurement invariance of EVQ in the domain of physical education between elementary and middle-school students. Participants included 811 students (3rd-5th grades) from 13…

  3. Developing a Measure of Value in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Ken Lee, K H; Matthew Austin, J; Pronovost, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    There is broad support to pay for value, rather than volume, for health care in the United States. Despite the support, practical approaches for measuring value remain elusive. Value is commonly defined as quality divided by costs, where quality reflects patient outcomes and costs are the total costs for providing care, whether these be costs related to an episode, a diagnosis, or per capita. Academicians have proposed a conceptual approach to measure value, in which we measure outcomes important to patients and costs using time-driven activity-based costing. This approach is conceptually sound, but has significant practical challenges. In our commentary, we describe how health care can use existing quality measures and cost accounting data to measure value. Although not perfect, we believe this approach is practical, valid, and scalable and can establish the foundation for future work in this area. PMID:27325323

  4. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  5. [Measurement of terrestrial ecosystem service value in China].

    PubMed

    He, Hao; Pan, Yaozhong; Zhu, Wenquan; Liu, Xulong; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Xiufang

    2005-06-01

    With the measurement of net primary productivity and vegetation coverage fraction based on remote sensing data,the terrestrial ecosystem service value of China in 2000 was quantitatively estimated as 9.17 x 10(12) yuan (RMB). The spatial distribution of the ecological service value showed a decreasing trend from southeast China to northwest China, which was consistent with the regional distribution of vegetation types. The service value varied with different vegetations, e. g., forests had the highest service value of 18 789 yuan x hm(-2), accounting for 40.80% of the total terrestrial ecosystem service value, and bushes and farmlands had a higher service value of 13 789 yuan x hm(-2) and 13054 yuan x hm(-2), which was 10.79% and 24.23% of total value, respectively. The service value was also varied with different ecosystem functions, i.e., gas regulation contributed the highest value of 45.16% to the total service value, and the contribution of soil conservation and water conservation was 28.83% and 14.44%, respectively. The integrated approach coupling ecology and remote sensing data provided a new method to measure the ecological service value, which could estimate the value objectively and spatial-explicitly. However, some uncertainties still existed in this approach, which should be improved in the future studies. PMID:16180767

  6. The actual measurements at the tide gauges do not support strongly accelerating twentieth-century sea-level rise reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.

    2016-03-01

    Contrary to what is claimed by reconstructions of the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) indicating accelerating sea level rates of rise over the twentieth-century, the actual measurements at the tide gauges show the sea levels have not risen nor accelerated that much. The most recent estimation by Hay et al [1] of the twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is the last attempt to give exact reconstructions without having enough information of the state of the world oceans over a century where unfortunately the good measurements were not that many. The information on relative rates of rise at the tide gauges and land subsidence of global positioning system (GPS) domes suggest the relative rate of rise is about 0.25mm/year, without any detectable acceleration. [The naïve average of all the world tide gauges of sufficient quality and length of the Permanent Service to Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) data base], Both the relative rates of rise at the tide gauges and the land vertical velocity of GPS domes of the Système d'Observation du Niveau des Eaux Littorales (SONEL) data base are strongly variable in space and time to make a nonsense the GMSL estimation.

  7. The actual measurements at the tide gauges do not support strongly accelerating twentieth-century sea-level rise reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.

    2016-03-01

    Contrary to what is claimed by reconstructions of the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) indicating accelerating sea level rates of rise over the twentieth-century, the actual measurements at the tide gauges show the sea levels have not risen nor accelerated that much. The most recent estimation by Hay et al of the twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is the last attempt to give exact reconstructions without having enough information of the state of the world oceans over a century where unfortunately the good measurements were not that many. The information on relative rates of rise at the tide gauges and land subsidence of global positioning system (GPS) domes suggest the relative rate of rise is about 0.25mm/year, without any detectable acceleration. [The naïve average of all the world tide gauges of sufficient quality and length of the Permanent Service to Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) data base], Both the relative rates of rise at the tide gauges and the land vertical velocity of GPS domes of the Système d'Observation du Niveau des Eaux Littorales (SONEL) data base are strongly variable in space and time to make a nonsense the GMSL estimation.

  8. Bowen ratio measurements above various vegetation covers and its comparison with actual evapotranspiration estimated by SoilClim model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The principle of Bowen ratio is one of the available techniques for measurements of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) as one of essential water balance fractions. The main aims of submitted study were: (i) to compare the water balance of selected crops, (ii) to compare outputs of SoilClim model with observed parameters (including ETa on Bowen ratio basis). The measurements were conducted at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. Together with Bowen ratio the global solar radiation, radiation balance, soil heat flux, volumetric soil moisture and temperature within selected depths, precipitation and wind speed were measured. The measurements were conducted simultaneously above various covers within the same soil conditions: spring barley vs. winter wheat, spring barley vs. winter rape; grass vs. poplars; harvested field after tillage vs. harvested field after cereals without any tillage. The observed parameters from different covers were compared with SoilClim estimates. SoilClim model is modular software for water balance and soil temperature modelling and finally could be used for soil Hydric and Thermic regimes (according to USDA classification) identification. The core of SoilClim is based on modified FAO Penman-Monteith methodology. Submitted study proved the applicability of SoilClim model for ETa, soil moisture within two defined layers and soil temperature (in 0.5 m depth) estimates for various crops, covers, selected soil types and climatic conditions. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and the project NAZV QI91C054. The study was also supported by Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change".

  9. Two-Valued Probability Measure on the Pontryagin Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvejchuk, Marjan; Utkina, Elena

    2015-12-01

    The well known Kochen-Specker's theorem is devoted to the problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics. The Kochen-Specker theorem says: There is no two-valued probability measure on the real Hilbert space of dimension three. In the paper we present an analogy of Kochen-Specker's theorem in Pontryagin space: A Pontryagin spase H of dimension greater than or equal to three has a two-valued probability measure if and only if H has indefinite rank one: in which case, any such two-valued probability measure on H is unique.

  10. The Valued Living Questionnaire for Alcohol Use: Measuring value-behavior discrepancy in college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leavens, Eleanor L; Grant, DeMond M; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-09-01

    Developing discrepancy between one's values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with important values. In Study 1, the initial factor structure and test-retest reliability of the VLQ for Alcohol Use (VLQ-A) was tested in a sample of college students who regularly drink alcohol (N = 150). Results guided modifications to the measure. In Study 2, the revised measure's factor structure and predictive validity were tested with a second sample of college students who drink alcohol (N = 222). In both studies, exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor structure. Perceived discrepancy between alcohol use and important values predicted greater readiness to change, while perceived consistency between alcohol use and important values predicted more frequent heavy episodic drinking. Certain values were more useful in predicting outcomes than others. Alcohol use (heavy vs. moderate drinking) did not moderate outcomes. The VLQ-A is a brief and reliable self-report measure of perceived discrepancy between drinking behaviors and important values that may increase readiness to change. Future research examining the generalizability of findings to various samples and the efficacy of the VLQ-A as a supplement to brief interventions is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537000

  11. Colloid osmotic pressure: its measurement and clinical value.

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, M. P.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is an important determinant in the appearance of edema. The development of a simple technique for COP measurement, based on an electronic pressure transducer and a semipermeable membrane system, has led to an appreciation of the value of COP determinations in clinical practice. In a steady state the measured COP replicates the value computed from serum proteins. In pathologic sera a derived value is unreliable. The normal human plasma COP averages 25.4 mm Hg. This value tends to decrease with age, is lower in females and is also lower in subjects at bed rest. As a clinical tool COP measurement represents an unduplicated contribution to the differential diagnosis of pulmonary edema. In critically ill patients COP measurement represents a reliable predictor of survival. PMID:851930

  12. Measuring Social Studies Achievement: A Matter of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Richard J.

    Questions as to whether measurement can provide a universally applicable set of criteria for making value judgments in the social sciences are raised. Four assumptions about education, experience, reality, and value formation were identified to provide a fuller reference point for social science educators when they are viewing current standardized…

  13. Sample taking problems in measuring actual histamine levels of human gastroduodenal mucosa: specific and general relevance in clinical trials on peptic ulcer pathogenesis and selective proximal vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Thon, K P; Lorenz, W; Ohmann, C; Weber, D; Rohde, H; Röher, H D

    1985-01-01

    Changes in histamine storage in the oxyntic mucosa of duodenal ulcer patients and their reversal by vagotomy and the histamine H2-antagonist cimetidine supported the hypothesis that histamine could be a causal factor in peptic ulcer pathogenesis. The specificity of these findings was impaired by problems in biopsy taking, however, and in the preparative steps before measuring the actual histamine contents in all parts of the gastric mucosa and in the duodenum. A prospective trial was carried out in 190 patients to identify these sources of bias and to overcome them by appropriate study designs. Usually a direct correlation was found between weight of biopsy and mucosal histamine content. This problem was solved by selecting a biopsy forceps producing smaller variations in sample size, by limiting the time of cold ischaemia to four to five minutes only and by taking three biopsy specimens for each single histamine value. The actual histamine content of mucosal biopsies remained constant for about four to five minutes only. The 'disappearance' rate was faster in control subjects than in duodenal ulcer patients. Hence by variation of the cold ischaemia time any artefacts of differences between mucosal histamine levels in controls and duodenal ulcer patients could be produced. Using the optimised sample taking procedure mucosal histamine contents of several gastric regions and the duodenal bulb were measured in 24 patients with duodenal ulcer, after selective proximal vagotomy without drainage and in control subjects without any stomach disease (randomised controlled trial). The histamine content was lower in all parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract in duodenal ulcer patients than in controls and was raised again in all regions after selective proximal vagotomy. As the most likely hypothesis it is suggested that vagal reflexes with afferent fibres coming from the oxyntic mucosa stimulate histamine release in duodenal ulcer patients by efferent peptidergic neurones

  14. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  15. Redox potential - field measurements - meassured vs. expected values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavělová, Monika; Kovář, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Oxidation and reduction (redox) potential is an important and theoretically very well defined parameter and can be calculated accurately. Its value is determinative for management of many electrochemical processes, chemical redox technologies as well as biotechnologies. To measure the redox value that would correspond with the accuracy level of theoretical calculations in field or operational conditions is however nearly impossible. Redox is in practice measured using combined argentochloride electrode with subsequent value conversion to standard hydrogen electrode (EH). Argentochloride electrode does not allow for precise calibration. Prior to the measurement the accuracy of measurement of particular electrode can only be verified in comparative/control solution with value corresponding with oxic conditions (25°C: +220 mV argentochloride electrode, i.e.. +427 mV after conversion to EH). A commercial product of stabile comparative solution for anoxic conditions is not available and therefore not used in every day practice - accuracy of negative redox is not verified. In this presentation results of two tests will be presented: a) monitoring during dynamic groundwater sampling from eight monitoring wells at a site contaminated by chlorinated ethenes (i.e. post-oxic to anoxic conditions) and b) laboratory test of groundwater contaminated by arsenic from two sites during reaction with highly oxidized compounds of iron (ferrates) - i.e. strongly oxic conditions. In both tests a simultaneous measurement by four argentochloride electrodes was implemented - all four electrodes were prior to the test maintained expertly. The redox values of testing electrodes in a comparative solution varied by max. 6 mV. The redox values measured by four electrodes in both anoxic and oxic variant varied by tens to a hundred mV, while with growing time of test the variance of measured redox values increased in both oxic and anoxic variant. Therefore the interpretation of measured redox

  16. Weak-value Metrology and Shot-Noise Limited Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viza, Gerardo Ivan

    This thesis contains a subset of the research in which I have participated in during my studies at the University of Rochester. It contains three projects and one overarching theme of weak-value metrology. We start with chapter 1 where we cover the historical background leading up to quantum optics, which we use for precision metrology. We also introduce the weak-value formulation and give examples of metrological implementations for parameter estimation. Chapter 2 introduces two experiments to measure a longitudinal velocity and a transverse momentum kick. We show that weak-value based techniques are shot-noise limited because we saturate the Cramer-Rao bound for the estimator used, and efficient because we experimentally demonstrate there is virtually no loss of Fisher information of the parameter of interest from the discarded events. In Chapter 3 we present a comparison of two experiments that measure a beam deflection. One experiment is a weak-value based technique, while the other is the standard focusing technique. We set up the two experiments in the presence of simulated technical noise sources and show how the weak-value based technique out performs the standard technique in both visibility and in deviation of the transverse momentum kick. Chapter 4 contains work of the exploration of concatenated postselection for weak-value amplification. We demonstrate an optimization and conditions where postselecting on two degrees of freedom can be beneficial to enhance the weak-value amplification.

  17. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle for simultaneous measurement of positive-operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2008-11-01

    A limitation on simultaneous measurement of two arbitrary positive-operator-valued measures is discussed. In general, simultaneous measurement of two noncommutative observables is only approximately possible. Following Werner’s formulation, we introduce a distance between observables to quantify an accuracy of measurement. We derive an inequality that relates the achievable accuracy with noncommutativity between two observables. As a byproduct a necessary condition for two positive-operator-valued measures to be simultaneously measurable is obtained.

  18. Using Value-Added Measures of Teacher Quality. Brief 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive education research on the contribution of teachers to student achievement produces two generally accepted results. First, teacher quality varies substantially as measured by the value added to student achievement or future academic attainment or earnings. Second, variables often used to determine entry into the profession and…

  19. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, K.W.

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper.

  20. Measuring and Communicating the Value Created by an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, W. Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a different perspective in measuring the value created by an organization. It does so in the context of an undergraduate course in managerial accounting. In order to break down the functional silo approach to problem solving that has become the model of traditional business education, applications of shadow accounting, the…

  1. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  2. Social Capital, Value, and Measure: Antonio Negri's Challenge to Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers one concept in knowledge management, that of social capital, focusing on the problem of measure and value in capitalism, specifically within the period and conditions of post-Fordist production. Discusses the work of Antonio Negri and suggests the importance of knowledge management as a symptom of a turn in political economy. (Author/LRW)

  3. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  4. Agentic and communal values: their scope and measurement.

    PubMed

    Trapnell, Paul D; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2012-01-01

    Agency is the meta-concept associated with self-advancement in social hierarchies; communion is the partner concept associated with maintenance of positive relationships. Despite the wealth of data documenting the conceptual utility of agency and communion (A & C) as superordinate metaconcepts, no direct measures of global A & C value dimensions are currently available. The first part of this article presents structural analyses of data from 4 diverse data sets (3 archival and 1 new): Each included a broad inventory of values or life goals. All 4 data sets revealed higher order A & C dimensions that were either apparent or implicit. The second part details the development of the ACV, a 24-item questionnaire measuring global A and C values, and documents its psychometric properties. Four studies support their joint construct validity by positioning the value measures within a nomological network of interpersonal traits, self-favorability biases, ideology dimensions, gender, socio-sexuality, and religious attitudes. Potential applications of the new instrument are discussed. PMID:22176265

  5. Ultrasensitive Beam Deflection Measurement via Interferometric Weak Value Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Starling, David J.; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the use of an interferometric weak value technique to amplify very small transverse deflections of an optical beam. By entangling the beam's transverse degrees of freedom with the which-path states of a Sagnac interferometer, it is possible to realize an optical amplifier for polarization independent deflections. The theory for the interferometric weak value amplification method is presented along with the experimental results, which are in good agreement. Of particular interest, we measured the angular deflection of a mirror down to 400{+-}200 frad and the linear travel of a piezo actuator down to 14{+-}7 fm.

  6. Notes on the Measurement of pH Values

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Rebak, R B

    2005-05-05

    The original definition of pH is: pH = -log a{sub H}. Where a{sub H} is the (relative) hydrogen ion activity. However, a single ion activity cannot be measured. Activities of individual ionic species are necessarily conventional. The pH number, of course, has in itself little absolute significance. As the negative of the logarithm of a product of a concentration (c or m) and an activity coefficient (y or {gamma}), it acquires its magnitude from the numerical scale adopted for the latter. Experimental pH measurements are nonetheless widely applied to the determination of thermodynamic equilibrium data such as pK values, on the assumption that they represent -log a{sub H} (or paH). The single ion activity coefficient approaches unity as the ionic strength goes to zero, so that activity becomes m or c and paH becomes pmH or pcH. pH is therefore defined operationally in terms of the operation or method used to measure it, that is, by means of a cell called an operational cell. The cell is standardized by solutions of assigned pH value (Reference Value pH Standard, Primary pH Standards and Operational Standards). Such standard reference solutions are buffer solutions whose pH values are assigned from measurements on cells with or without liquid junction. It must be emphasized that the definition of pH scale is quite different from the measurement of pH with glass-reference electrode-pH meter assemblies, where several standards are used in order to take into account possible deficiencies in the electrode and meter performance.

  7. Development and validation of a measure of food choice values.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Jordan E; Reeve, Charlie L

    2015-06-01

    Food choice values (FCVs) are factors that individuals consider when deciding which foods to purchase and/or consume. Given the potentially important implications for health, it is critical for researchers to have access to a validated measure of FCV. Though there is an existing measure of FCV, this measure was developed 20 years ago and recent research suggests additional FCVs exist that are not included in this measure. A series of four studies was conducted to develop a new expanded measure of FCV. An eight-factor model of FCV was supported and confirmed. In aggregate, results from the four studies indicate that the measure is content valid, and has internally consistent scales that also demonstrated acceptable temporal stability and convergent validity. In addition, the eight scales of the measures were independent of social desirability, met criteria for measurement invariance across income groups, and predicted dietary intake. The development of this new measure of FCV may be useful for researchers examining FCVs (FCVs) in the future, as well as for use in intervention and prevention efforts targeting dietary choices. PMID:25637871

  8. On the Singular Value Decomposition of Measured Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a well-known mathematical tool that can be used to decompose an ensemble of velocity field data into spatiotemporal modes that may reveal coherent flow structures. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is a special case of the SVD, used when the data are uncorrelated in time (as in a turbulent flow). Although the SVD and POD have been widely used in fluid mechanics, Epps and Techet (2010, ExpFluids 48:355-367) were among the first to consider how experimental error affects the results of the SVD. This talk revisits that paper and provides mathematically-rigorous bounds on the errors in the computed singular values and spatio-temporal mode shapes. Given experimental data with unknown error, a procedure is presented to (i) determine the root mean square measurement error and (ii) determine ``error bars'' for the singular values and vectors.

  9. Characterization of tableting properties measured with a multi-functional compaction instrument for several pharmaceutical excipients and actual tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Osamura, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yoshiko; Onodera, Risako; Kitamura, Masahiro; Takahashi, Yoshiteru; Tahara, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2016-08-20

    Before designing tablet formulations, it is important to understand the "Tableting Properties" of excipients and API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) powders. Those properties refer to "Compressibility", "Compactability" and "Manufacturability", which are difficult to evaluate quantitatively. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the "Tableting Properties" by using a benchtop single-punch tablet press, developed recently to measure these parameters using a single device. In order to facilitate understanding of the results visually, we proposed a new plot, where the X-axis showed the tensile fracture stress and the Y-axis showed the ejection stress. This plot, which is composed of four regions, shows the combination of "Compactability" and "Manufacturability". We confirmed the ability of this device to evaluate the characteristics of typical pharmaceutical additives as a value of "Tableting Properties". Losartan potassium was used as an API, and Dilactose R and MCC as an excipient with good "Tableting Properties". The ejection stresses of losartan potassium and Dilactose R were very high. An increase in magnesium stearate shifted the point along the Y-axis in this plot, and it meant an improvement in "Manufacturability". It was confirmed that the device and plot are useful in designing formulations efficiently using a small amount of sample powders. PMID:27184101

  10. Uncertainty relations for positive-operator-valued measures

    SciTech Connect

    Massar, Serge

    2007-10-15

    How much unavoidable randomness is generated by a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM)? We address this question using two complementary approaches. First, we study the variance of a real variable associated with the POVM outcomes. In this context we introduce an uncertainty operator which measures how much additional noise is introduced by carrying out a POVM rather than a von Neumann measurement. We illustrate this first approach by studying the variances of joint estimates of {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub z} for spin-1/2 particles. We show that for unbiased measurements the sum of these variances is lower bounded by 1. In our second approach we study the entropy of the POVM outcomes. In particular, we try to establish lower bounds on the entropy of the POVM outcomes. We illustrate this second approach by examples.

  11. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  12. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  13. Measuring the total value of a river cleanup.

    PubMed

    Alam, M K; Marinova, D

    2003-01-01

    The paper estimates the total value for the community of the cleanup of the Buriganga River. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, was developed on the bank of the Buriganga River in the early 1600s. The river is now near dead mainly due to human interventions. The paper develops a hypothetical cleanup programme to improve the water quality, which will help the overall environment in and around the river. The value of this programme is estimated within the framework of total economic value; non-marketed benefits are measured through a contingent valuation survey and marketed benefits are estimated using market and shadow prices. The findings of the survey suggest that not only are a significant proportion of the residents willing to pay for the cleanup programme, but many are also willing to contribute in non-monetary ways (mainly their time). When the latter contribution is monetised, it represents 60% of the total value for the non-marketed benefits. The marketed benefits are estimated to represent 58% of the overall value of the cleanup programme (18.6 million US dollars/year). A failure to account for all benefits could lead to a gross underestimation of the desirability of providing public funding for the cleanup of dying rivers. PMID:14653645

  14. Measuring Nursing Value from the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    We report the findings of a big data nursing value expert group made up of 14 members of the nursing informatics, leadership, academic and research communities within the United States tasked with 1. Defining nursing value, 2. Developing a common data model and metrics for nursing care value, and 3. Developing nursing business intelligence tools using the nursing value data set. This work is a component of the Big Data and Nursing Knowledge Development conference series sponsored by the University Of Minnesota School Of Nursing. The panel met by conference calls for fourteen 1.5 hour sessions for a total of 21 total hours of interaction from August 2014 through May 2015. Primary deliverables from the bit data expert group were: development and publication of definitions and metrics for nursing value; construction of a common data model to extract key data from electronic health records; and measures of nursing costs and finance to provide a basis for developing nursing business intelligence and analysis systems. PMID:27332163

  15. Preprocessing and parameterizing bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements by singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Nejadgholi, Isar; Caytak, Herschel; Bolic, Miodrag; Batkin, Izmail; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2015-05-01

    In several applications of bioimpedance spectroscopy, the measured spectrum is parameterized by being fitted into the Cole equation. However, the extracted Cole parameters seem to be inconsistent from one measurement session to another, which leads to a high standard deviation of extracted parameters. This inconsistency is modeled with a source of random variations added to the voltage measurement carried out in the time domain. These random variations may originate from biological variations that are irrelevant to the evidence that we are investigating. Yet, they affect the voltage measured by using a bioimpedance device based on which magnitude and phase of impedance are calculated.By means of simulated data, we showed that Cole parameters are highly affected by this type of variation. We further showed that singular value decomposition (SVD) is an effective tool for parameterizing bioimpedance measurements, which results in more consistent parameters than Cole parameters. We propose to apply SVD as a preprocessing method to reconstruct denoised bioimpedance measurements. In order to evaluate the method, we calculated the relative difference between parameters extracted from noisy and clean simulated bioimpedance spectra. Both mean and standard deviation of this relative difference are shown to effectively decrease when Cole parameters are extracted from preprocessed data in comparison to being extracted from raw measurements.We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in distinguishing three arm positions, for a set of experiments including eight subjects. It is shown that Cole parameters of different positions are not distinguishable when extracted from raw measurements. However, one arm position can be distinguished based on SVD scores. Moreover, all three positions are shown to be distinguished by two parameters, R0/R∞ and Fc, when Cole parameters are extracted from preprocessed measurements. These results suggest that SVD could be considered as an

  16. Ultra-low Q values for neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Merle, Alexander; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

    2009-11-01

    We investigate weak nuclear decays with extremely small kinetic energy release (Q value) and thus extremely good sensitivity to the absolute neutrino mass scale. In particular, we consider decays into excited daughter states, and we show that partial ionization of the parent atom can help to tune Q values to << 1 keV. We discuss several candidate isotopes undergoing {beta}{sup {+-}}, bound state {beta}, or electron capture decay, and come to the conclusion that a neutrino mass measurement using low-Q decays might only be feasible if no ionization is required, and if future improvements in isotope production technology, nuclear mass spectroscopy, and atomic structure calculations are possible. Experiments using ions, however, are extremely challenging due to the large number of ions that must be stored. New precision data on nuclear excitation levels could help to identify further isotopes with low-Q decay modes and possibly less challenging requirements.

  17. Evaluating the performance of reference evapotranspiration equations with scintillometer measurements under Mediterranean climate and effects on olive grove actual evapotranspiration estimated with FAO-56 water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minacapilli, Mario; Cammalleri, Carmelo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The concept of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is widely used to support water resource management in agriculture and for irrigation scheduling, especially under arid and semi-arid conditions. The Penman-Monteith standardized formulations, as suggested by ASCE and FAO-56 papers, are generally applied for accurate estimations of ETo, at hourly and daily scale. When detailed meteorological information are not available, several alternative and simplified equations, using a limited number of variables, have been proposed (Blaney-Criddle, Hargreaves-Samani, Turc, Makkinen and Pristley-Taylor). In this paper, scintillometer measurements collected for six month in 2005, on an experimental plot under "reference" conditions, were used to validate different ETo equations at hourly and daily scale. Experimental plot is located in a typical agricultural Mediterranean environment (Sicily, Italy), where olive groves is the dominant crop. As proved by other researches, the comparison confirmed the best agreement between estimated and measured fluxes corresponds to FAO-56 Penman-Monteith standardized equation, that was characterized by both the lowest average error and the minimum bias. However, the analysis also evidenced a quite good performance of Pristley-Taylor equation, that can be considered as a valid alternative to the more sophisticated Penman-Monteith method. The different ETo series, obtained by the considered simplified equations, were then used as input in the FAO-56 water balance model, in order to evaluate, for olive groves, the errors on estimated actual evapotranspiration ET. To this aim soil and crop model input parameters were settled by considering previous experimental researches already used to calibrate and validate the FAO-56 water balance model on olive groves, for the same study area. Also in this case, assuming as the true values of ET those obtained using the water balance coupled with Penman-Monteith ETo input values, the Priestley-Taylor equation

  18. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  19. Transcutaneous oximetry measurement: normal values for the upper limb.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Consistent with the Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines, we the above authors are initiating the retraction of our paper: Young DA, Blake DF, Brown LH: Transcutaneous oximetry measurement: normal values for the upper limb. Diving Hyperb Med. 2012;42(4):208-213. We wish to make the following statement: "The authors voluntarily retract this article after discovering a critical error associated with the instrumentation used in the study, namely the fitting of incorrect sensor membranes on the electrodes of the transcutaneous oximetry device used in the study. This resulted in transcutaneous oxygen tension (PtcO₂) measurements that were consistently lower than those that would have been recorded with the correct electrode membranes in place. We recently confirmed this by comparing the two membrane types once we discovered the error. We are in the process of replicating our work using the correct PtcO₂ specific membranes." PMID:27044465

  20. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  1. Spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures and its application to stationary dilation for Banach space valued processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    Let B be a Banach space and H and K two Hilbert spaces. The spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures is studied and it is shown that the recent results of Makagon and Salehi (1986) and Rosenberg (1982) on the dilation of L(K,H)-valued measures can be extended to hold for the general Banach space setting of L(B,H)-valued measures. These L(B,H)-valued measures are closely connected to the Banach space valued processes. This connection is recalled and as application of spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures the well known stationary dilation results for scalar valued processes is extended to the case of Banach space valued processes.

  2. Spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures and its application to stationary dilation for Banach space valued processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    Let B be a Banach space and H and K to Hilbert spaces. The spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures is studied and it is shown that the recent results of Makagon and Salehi (1986) and Rosenberg (1982) on the dilation of L(K,H)-valued measures can be extended to hold for the general Banach space setting of L(B,H)-valued measures. These L(B,H)-valued measures are closely connected to the Banach space valued processes. This connection is recalled and as application of spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures the well known stationary dilation results for scalar valued processes is extended to the case of Banach space valued processes.

  3. Strength Measurements in Acute Hamstring Injuries: Intertester Reliability and Prognostic Value of Handheld Dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Verhaar, Jan A N; Weir, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a commonly used method of measuring muscle strength. The reliability of HHD has not been determined in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. Objectives To determine the intertester reliability and the prognostic value of hamstring HHD strength measurement in acute hamstring injuries. Methods We measured knee flexion strength with HHD in 75 athletes at 2 visits, at baseline (within 5 days of hamstring injury) and follow-up (5 to 7 days after the baseline measurement). We assessed isometric hamstring strength in 15° and 90° of knee flexion. Reliability analysis testing was performed by 2 testers independently at the follow-up visit. We recorded the time needed to return to play (RTP) up to 6 months following baseline. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients of the strength measurements in injured hamstrings were between 0.75 and 0.83. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between the time to RTP and the strength deficit at 15° of knee flexion measured at baseline (Spearman r = 0.25, P = .045) and at the follow-up visit (Spearman r = 0.26, P = .034). Up to 7% of the variance in time to RTP is explained by this strength deficit. None of the other strength variables were significantly correlated with time to RTP. Conclusion Hamstring strength can be reliably measured with HHD in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. The prognostic value of strength measurements is limited, as there is only a weak association between the time to RTP and hamstring strength deficit after acute injury. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):689-696. Epub 12 May 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6363. PMID:27170527

  4. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  5. [Dose loads on and radiation risk values for cosmonauts on a mission to Mars estimated from actual Martian vehicle engineering development].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Mitrikas, V G; Petrov, V M

    2010-01-01

    The current design philosophy of a Mars orbiting vehicle, takeoff and landing systems and the transport return vehicle was taken into consideration for calculating the equivalent doses imparted to cosmonaut's organs and tissues by galactic cosmic rays, solar rays and the Earth's radiation belts, values of the total radiation risk over the lifespan following the mission and over the whole career period, and possible shortening of life expectancy. There are a number of uncertainties that should be evaluated, and radiation limits specified before setting off to Mars. PMID:20803991

  6. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  7. Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary formations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Rumiko; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of on-road and in-vehicle NO and NO2 levels, particle number concentrations (PNCs), and particles size distributions were performed while driving using a test vehicle equipped with real-time sensors. The results obtained on regional roads showed that heavy-duty vehicles in traffic seem to have a major impact on on-road air quality. Measurements on highways that included a 10km tunnel and a 2km uphill section of road indicated that sub-50nm particles have different features from the other species because of their higher volatility. The other species showed quite high on-road concentrations in the tunnel. In-vehicle conditions were made similar to the on-road ones by setting the air conditioning (AC) mode to the fresh air mode. The in-vehicle NO2 concentration in the tunnel was over 0.50ppmV, which is almost five times higher than the 1-hour ambient air quality standard proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In sections other than the tunnel, the in-vehicle NO2 concentration was almost the same as the 1-hour WHO standard. Higher on-road NO2/NOx ratios than those of exhaust gases and different behavior of sub-50nm particles from other species suggested that NO2 and sub-50nm particles were mainly due to secondary products formed by atmospheric reactions. PMID:26806073

  8. Characterization of differences in calculated and actual measured skin doses to canine limbs during stereotactic radiosurgery using Gafchromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jerri; Ryan, Stewart; Harmon, Joseph F.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate calculation of absorbed dose to the skin, especially the superficial and radiosensitive basal cell layer, is difficult for many reasons including, but not limited to, the build-up effect of megavoltage photons, tangential beam effects, mixed energy scatter from support devices, and dose interpolation caused by a finite resolution calculation matrix. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been developed as an alternative limb salvage treatment option at Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dogs with extremity bone tumors. Optimal dose delivery to the tumor during SBRT treatment can be limited by uncertainty in skin dose calculation. The aim of this study was to characterize the difference between measured and calculated radiation dose by the Varian Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) AAA treatment planning algorithm (for 1-mm, 2-mm, and 5-mm calculation voxel dimensions) as a function of distance from the skin surface. The study used Gafchromic EBT film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ), FilmQA analysis software, a limb phantom constructed from plastic water Trade-Mark-Sign (fluke Biomedical, Everett, WA) and a canine cadaver forelimb. The limb phantom was exposed to 6-MV treatments consisting of a single-beam, a pair of parallel opposed beams, and a 7-beam coplanar treatment plan. The canine forelimb was exposed to the 7-beam coplanar plan. Radiation dose to the forelimb skin at the surface and at depths of 1.65 mm and 1.35 mm below the skin surface were also measured with the Gafchromic film. The calculation algorithm estimated the dose well at depths beyond buildup for all calculation voxel sizes. The calculation algorithm underestimated the dose in portions of the buildup region of tissue for all comparisons, with the most significant differences observed in the 5-mm calculation voxel and the least difference in the 1-mm voxel. Results indicate a significant difference between measured and calculated data

  9. A comparison of landing maneuver piloting technique based on measurements made in an airline training simulator and in actual flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Schulman, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    An emphasis is placed on developing a mathematical model in order to identify useful metrics, quantify piloting technique, and define simulator fidelity. On the basis of DC-10 flight measurements recorded for 32 pilots, 13 flight-trained and the remainder simulator trained, a revised model of the landing flare is hypothesized which accounts for reduction of sink rate and perference for touchdown point along the runway. The flare maneuver and touchdown point adjustment can be described by a pitch attitude command pilot guidance law consisting of altitude and vertical velocity feedbacks. In flight pilots exhibit a significant vertical velocity feedback which is essential for well controlled sink rate reduction at the desired level of response (bandwidth). In the simulator, however, the vertical velocity feedback appears ineffectual and leads to substantially inferior landing performance.

  10. What do stream tracers actually measure? Parameterization of stream transport models with geophysics-based transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Stream solute tracers are a popular tool to quantify exchanges of water and solutes between the advection-dominated main channel and locations of temporary (commonly "transient") storage. Commonly, in-stream tracer time-series are interpreted with numerical models using assumed residence time distributions for the subsurface because the true distribution cannot be measured. Here, we use time-series analysis of geophysical images of hyporheic solute transport to assess the hyporheic residence time distribution in-situ. This residence time distribution is used to parameterize a numerical model of solute transport and hyporheic exchange. A best-fit is determined by adjusting the maximum observed residence time to consider. In this way, we develop a threshold to differentiate locations in the subsurface that contributed to the in-stream breakthrough curve from those that were beyond the window of detection. Finally, this threshold can be mapped onto the geophysical transect to visualize the physical extent of flowpaths contributing to the in-stream solute breakthrough curve. For the first time, we show the window of detection (a temporal concept) mapped onto a spatial domain.

  11. The Measurement of Values: Behavioral Science and Philosophical Approaches. Modern Concepts of Philosophy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Rollo

    The work of behavioral scientists and philosophers on value measurement is discussed, including a review of issues, controversies, and several attempts to measure values. The author points out vast disagreement in existing literature about value measurement, definitions of measurement and values in general, and the meaning of the scientific…

  12. Measuring Strategic Value-Drivers for Managing Intellectual Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, S.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-01-01

    In an evolving business environment characterised by globalisation and a challenging competitive paradigm, it is imperative for strategic management processes to focus on the financial perspectives of value and risk in intellectual capital to create sustainability in long-term value. This paper presents the key issues pertaining to the strategic…

  13. Identifying, Measuring and Monitoring Value during Project Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliniotou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of the research done by Loughborough University in conjunction with ten construction industry collaborators in an attempt to identify what construction professionals mean by value. The aim of the research is to establish a common approach to identify value in projects and to monitor its development throughout the…

  14. Is Log Ratio a Good Value for Measuring Return in Stock Investments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    Measuring the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of investments in the stock market. A common measure for rate of return is the logarithm of the ratio of successive prices (LogRatio). In this paper it is shown that LogRatio as well as arithmetic return rate (Ratio) have several disadvantages. As an alternative relative differences (RelDiff) are proposed to measure return. The stability against numerical and rounding errors of RelDiff is much better than for LogRatios and Ratio). RelDiff values are identical to LogRatios and Return for small absolutes. The usage of RelDiff maps returns to a finite range. For most subsequent analyses this is a big advantage. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on daily return rates of a large set of actual stocks. It is shown that returns can be modeled with a very simple mixture of distributions in great precision using Relative differences.

  15. Why Add Value in Assessment? A Pilot Project in Ohio Gains Interest in Value-Added Measurements of Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, James W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests that good teachers add value in a number of measurable and immeasurable ways. While the gain of a student in mathematics can be measured, it is impossible to measure the impact of a teacher who motivated a child to want to do math. Teachers cannot control how kids enter the classroom and should not be held…

  16. Value-Added Measures of Teacher Candidates' Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, Maryellen; Carpenter, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher preparation program can positively impact professional dispositions. Pre and post essays from a sample of sixty candidates were qualitatively analyzed to determine the value-added growth of their professional dispositions.

  17. Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured Behind Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air–quartz and sample–quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40–60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Finally, empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300–2300 nm range.

  18. Intensity-value corrections for integrating sphere measurements of solid samples measured behind glass.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Bernacki, Bruce E; Redding, Rebecca L; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S; Myers, Tanya L; Stephan, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40-60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300-2300 nm range. PMID:25280186

  19. Ultrasmall polarization rotation measurements via weak value amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    We propose a framework to analyze weak measurements based on an angular version of the von Neumann measurement scheme, where the coupling between the system and the meter causes rotation of the measuring variable. We also discuss an experimental application of this theory in which measurements of weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation could be amplified in nearly two orders of magnitude. It can shed a new light on a great variety of physical chemistry, molecular biology and nanotechnology studies.

  20. On the structure of invariant measures for set-valued maps

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, Aleksei N; Stepin, Anatolii M

    2011-09-30

    Properties of measures invariant with respect to set-valued maps are studied. It is shown that an absolutely continuous invariant measure for a set-valued map need not be unique, and the set of all invariant measures need not be a Choquet simplex. The problem concerning the existence of invariant measures with respect to set-valued maps parametrized by single-valued and set-valued maps of the circle having various smoothness classes is studied. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  1. Toward a Reliable and Valid Measure of Institutional Mission and Values Perception: The DePaul Values Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Cowman, Shaun E.

    2004-01-01

    Across three studies, the development of a reliable and valid measure of perceptions by students of an urban, private, faith-based teaching university's mission and values was assessed. Study 1 presented scale construction and reliability of the DePaul Values Inventory (DeVI) with undergraduates (n = 111), yielding a final 22-item rating scale…

  2. [What is the value of measuring "singer's formant" in phoniatry?].

    PubMed

    Klingholz, F

    1992-11-01

    The singing formant is the product of an articulatory gesture. Devices for phonetogram measurement often claim the ability to determine it. However, they measure rather the overtone content or the noise of the voice than the formant. Moreover, the voice efficiency (ratio of the sound pressure in the frequency band 2-5 kHz to the total sound pressure), also measured by these devices, is not defined in a physical or physiological sense. Such measurement does not evaluate the efficiency of the vocal apparatus. PMID:1463568

  3. Can Value-Added Measures of Teacher Performance Be Trusted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether commonly used value-added estimation strategies produce accurate estimates of teacher effects under a variety of scenarios. We estimate teacher effects in simulated student achievement data sets that mimic plausible types of student grouping and teacher assignment scenarios. We find that no one method accurately captures…

  4. Reflectance Sensors: How Stable Are the Values They Measure?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reflectance sensors have been shown to be sensitive to the nitrogen status of crops. Systems using these sensors to control real-time variable-rate N fertilizer applications have been developed. For these systems to accurately diagnose the N rate needed, any shift in sensor value over short time per...

  5. Unreliability of global temperature trends: the circular logic of comparing models with models or with models inspired reconstructions to circumvent lack of validation versus actual measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.; Ollier, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    This recent paper by Marotzke and Forster [1] has received media attention because it claims to have shown that the recent pause in surface temperature rise was the result of natural variability, and that climate models are not systematically overestimating the global warming. Nicholas Lewis [2] has already commented about the serious statistical errors in the paper that make the conclusion unsustainable.We note here that their supporting evidence is actually alteration of pre-selected data to sustain the global warming narrative. The "observed trends" of Marotzke and Forster are not based on the truly measured temperatures in every world gridded cell of the land and sea since the 1860s, but only on a reconstruction based on selected, scattered data that are continuously recalculated to resemble the climate model outputs.

  6. Accounting for People: Can Business Measure Human Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Traditional business practice undervalues human capital, and most conventional accounting models reflect this inclination. The argument for more explicit measurements of human resources is simple: Improved measurement of human resources will lead to more rational and productive choices about managing human resources. The business community is…

  7. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GRUAN sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, F.; Rosoldi, M.; Güldner, J.; Haefele, A.; Kivi, R.; Cadeddu, M. P.; Sisterson, D.; Pappalardo, G.

    2014-06-01

    The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of atmospheric water vapor provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS [Global Climate Observing System] Reference Upper-Air Network) Stations in 2010-2012. Results show that the random uncertainties for radiosonde, frost-point hygrometer, Global Positioning System, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy and therefore the highest potential to reduce random uncertainty of IWV time series estimated by radiosondes. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument should be reduced of ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty resulted from conditioning of Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapor measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  8. Seeking value in Medicare: performance measurement for clinical professionals.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2013-10-30

    The Medicare program, despite its reputation of being a bill payer with little regard to the worth of the services it buys, has begun to put in place a range of programs aimed at assessing quality and value, with more to come. Attention to resource use and cost is nascent. The issues are complex, and it is no surprise that there is a level of contention between providers and regulators, even though both profess commitment to improved quality. This paper summarizes the quality and value programs that apply to physicians and other clinical professionals, as well as programs designed to encourage the adoption of technology to support quality improvement. Participation in all is voluntary. However, a decision not to participate increasingly carries a financial penalty, as Congress (and, by extension, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS) tries to encourage behavior it cannot force. PMID:24312987

  9. [Measuring the intracoronary pressure gradient--value and methodologic limitations].

    PubMed

    Sievert, H; Kaltenbach, M

    1987-06-01

    Measurements of pressure gradients were performed in a fluid-filled model. The hydrostatically regulated perfusion pressure, as well as the diameter of the tube segments and the regulation of the flow by peripheral resistance, were comparable to conditions in human coronary arteries. Pressure gradients above 20 mm Hg were only measured with a reduction in cross-sectional area of more than 90%. Even after increasing the flow four-fold, which corresponds to the human coronary flow reserve, as well as after probing the stenosis with different catheters (2F-5F), gradients greater than 20 mm Hg were only recorded with high-grade stenoses (more than 80% reduction in cross-sectional area). The findings in this model demonstrate that measurement of pressure gradients allows only a quantitative differentiation between high-grade (greater than 80%) and low-grade (less than 80%) stenoses. The catheter itself can substantially contribute to the gradient by vessel obstruction, depending on the diameter of the catheter and of the coronary vessel. A quantitative assessment of the stenosis therefore requires knowledge of the pre- and post-stenotic vessel diameter as well as of the catheter diameter. However, pressure measurements during transluminal coronary angioplasty should not be abandoned. They can be useful to aid catheter positioning and to estimate dilatation efficacy. Moreover, measurement of coronary capillary wedge pressure during balloon expansion provides valuable information about the extent of collateralisation. PMID:2957862

  10. High resolution redox potential measurements: techniques, interpretation and value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorenhout, Michel; van der Geest, Harm G.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing improvement of techniques for the in situ measurement of redox potentials has led to a large number of studies on redox variability in various environments. These studies originate from a wide array of scientific disciplines, amongst which ecology (sediment biogeochemistry), environmental chemistry (degradation studies) and archaeology (in situ preservation). To gain insight in the potential applications, this paper presents three examples of studies in which a newly developed measurement technique was used in soils and where spatial and temporal variation plays an important role. The first one is a microcosm study on the effects of biota on the dynamics of redox conditions in the toplayer of aquatic sediments, showing that the presence of microbiota has a direct influence on biogeochemical parameters. The second is the study of the redox potential in the world heritage site of Bryggen (Bergen, NO) that is under threat of oxidation. The oxidation, caused by a lowered groundwater table, causes soil degradation and unstable conditions for the monumental buildings of the Medieval site. The third study shows variability in a sandy flood plain in Bangladesh, where redox processes dictate the environmental behaviour of Arsenic. This toxic metal is present in many wells used for drinking water, but shows very local variation in dissolution dynamics. In these three studies, continuous measurements of (changes in) redox conditions revealed a strong variability in these systems and consequences for the interpretation of single point measurements or low frequency sampling campaigns are discussed. In these and many other cases, the continuous measurement of the redox potential in soil media will aid in the understanding of the system under study.

  11. Value measurement in health care: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Michelman, J E; Rausch, P E; Barton, T L

    1999-08-01

    Vital to the success of any healthcare organization is the ability to obtain useful information and feedback about its performance. In particular, healthcare organizations need to begin to understand how non-value-adding work activities detract from their bottom lines. Additionally, financial managers and information systems need to provide data and reports throughout the continuum of care. Overall, healthcare organizations must align the management information and control systems with the planning and decision-making processes. The horizontal information system is a tool to manage three common problems facing today's healthcare managers: (1) the use of existing information to focus on control rather than improve business, (2) failure to focus on satisfying the customer, and (3) failure to combine their efforts with those of the employees by developing trust and a common focus. PMID:10557800

  12. Managing Complex IT Security Processes with Value Based Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Current trends indicate that IT security measures will need to greatly expand to counter the ever increasingly sophisticated, well-funded and/or economically motivated threat space. Traditional risk management approaches provide an effective method for guiding courses of action for assessment, and mitigation investments. However, such approaches no matter how popular demand very detailed knowledge about the IT security domain and the enterprise/cyber architectural context. Typically, the critical nature and/or high stakes require careful consideration and adaptation of a balanced approach that provides reliable and consistent methods for rating vulnerabilities. As reported in earlier works, the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System provides a comprehensive measure of reliability, security and safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders interests in that requirement. This paper advocates a dependability measure that acknowledges the aggregate structure of complex system specifications, and accounts for variations by stakeholder, by specification components, and by verification and validation impact.

  13. ESTIMATED NEPTUNIUM SEDIMENT SORPTION VALUES AS A FUNCTION OF PH AND MEASURED BARIUM AND RADIUM KD VALUES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    2011-01-13

    The objective of this document is to provide traceability and justification for a select few new geochemical data used in the Special Analysis entitled 'Special Analysis for the Dose Assessment of the Final Inventories in Center Slit Trenches One through Five'. Most values used in the Special Analysis came from the traditional geochemical data package, however, some recent laboratory measurements have made it possible to estimate barium K{sub d} values. Additionally, some recent calculations were made to estimate neptunium K{sub d} values as a function of pH. The assumptions, justifications, and calculations needed to generate these new values are presented in this document, and the values are summarized.

  14. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  15. Effect of soil type patterns on the variability of bare soil evaporation within a field: comparison of eddy covariance measurements with potential and actual evaporation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderborght, J.; Graf, A.; Steenpass, C.; Scharnagl, B.; Prolingheuer, N.; Herbst, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-12-01

    Bare soil evaporation was measured with the eddy-covariance method at the Selhausen field site. The site has a distinct gradient in soil texture with a considerably higher stone content at the upper part of the field. Because of this gradient, a spatial variation in evaporation fluxes in the field is expected. Because of the higher stone content at the upper part of the field, it is expected that the water that is stored in the soil surface layer and can be evaporated at a maximal evaporation rate, which is determined by the energy that is available for evaporation, is considerable smaller in the upper than in the lower part of the field. We investigated whether this hypothesis is supported by eddy covariance (EC) measurements of the evaporation fluxes at the field site. The EC measurements were combined with a footprint model that predicts the location of the soil surface that contributes to the measured evaporation flux. In this way, evaporation measurements of the two parts of the field site could be distinguished. However, since only one EC station was available, simultaneous evaporation measurements for the two field parts were not available. As a consequence, the datasets of measurements had to be interpreted and put into context of the meteorological and soil hydrological conditions. The potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the FAO method (Allen et al., 1998) to represent the meteorological conditions whereas a simple soil evaporation model (Boesten and Stroosnijder, 1986) was used to represent the influence of the precipitation and soil hydrological conditions on the actual evaporation rate. Since different soil parameters were required to describe the evaporation measurements for the upper and lower part of the plot, our starting hypothesis that more water is evaporated in the lower part of the field could be confirmed. Allen, R. G., L. S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith (1998), Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water

  16. Measuring the value of mortality risk reductions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekeşin, Cem; Ara, Shihomi

    2014-07-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident) are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL) estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD). Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction) against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30-39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD). Turkey's compliance to European Union (EU) air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality. PMID:25000150

  17. Measuring the Value of Mortality Risk Reductions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tekeşin, Cem; Ara, Shihomi

    2014-01-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident) are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL) estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD). Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction) against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30–39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD). Turkey’s compliance to European Union (EU) air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality. PMID:25000150

  18. The comparison of measured deformation indicators of mining area with theoretical values calculated using Knothe's formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orwat, Justyna; Mielimaka, Ryszard

    2016-06-01

    The article demonstrates the comparison of prognosed values of deformation indicators with their values obtained from geodetic measurements. The value of correlation coefficient R between its theoretical and practical values was calculated for each indicator. Following the measured values as basic ones, the evaluation of efficiency of prognosis via the use of Knothe`s theory (a mathematical model, in which lowering of point is calculated as a double integral from Gauss error function with adequate parameters).

  19. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements.

    PubMed

    Targetti, S; Herzog, F; Geijzendorffer, I R; Pointereau, P; Viaggi, D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agricultural management on global biodiversity highlights the need for farm-scale monitoring programmes capable of determining the performance of agriculture practices. Yet the identification of appropriate indicators is a challenging process and one that involves considering a number of different aspects and requirements. Besides the attention given to scientific effectiveness, relevant but less studied issues related to biodiversity measurements include the economic feasibility of monitoring programmes and the relevance of indicators for different end-users. In this paper, we combine an analytic assessment of costs and a stakeholder-based evaluation of the usefulness of a set of biodiversity-related parameters (habitat mapping, vegetation, bees, earthworms, spiders, and a farmer questionnaire) tested for scientific consistency in 12 European case studies and on more than 14,000 ha of farmland. The results point to the possibility of meeting the expectations of different end-users (administrators, farmers and consumers) with a common indicator set. Combining costs and usefulness also suggests the possibility of designing more efficient monitoring approaches involving private agencies and networks of volunteers and farmers for the field data collection at different stages of a monitoring programme. Although complex, such an approach would make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of available funds for farmland biodiversity monitoring. PMID:26457535

  20. Measuring Children's Environmental Attitudes and Values in Northwest Mexico: Validating a Modified Version of Measures to Test the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneller, A. J.; Johnson, B.; Bogner, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the validation process of measuring children's attitudes and values toward the environment within a Mexican sample. We applied the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV), which has been shown to be valid and reliable in 20 countries, including one Spanish speaking culture. Items were initially modified to fit the regional…

  1. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  2. Implementing Value-Added Measures of School Effectiveness: Getting the Incentives Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.; Walsh, Randall P.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates value-added approach to measuring school effectiveness in North and South Carolina. Finds that value-added approach favors high-achievement schools, with large percentage of students from high-SES backgrounds. Discusses statistical problems in measuring value added. Concludes teachers' and administrators' avoidance of low-achievement,…

  3. Fock-state view of weak-value measurements and implementation with photons and atomic ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Christoph; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2011-04-15

    Weak measurements in combination with postselection can give rise to a striking amplification effect (related to a large ''weak value''). We show that this effect can be understood by viewing the initial state of the pointer as the ground state of a fictional harmonic oscillator. This perspective clarifies the relationship between the weak-value regime and other measurement techniques and inspires a proposal to implement fully quantum weak-value measurements combining photons and atomic ensembles.

  4. Estimation of Actual Crop ET of Paddy Using the Energy Balance Model SMARET and Validation with Field Water Balance Measurements and a Crop Growth Model (ORYZA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallasamy, N. D.; Muraleedharan, B. V.; Kathirvel, K.; Narasimhan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable management of water resources requires reliable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) at fine spatial and temporal resolution. This is significant in the case of rice based irrigation systems, one of the major consumers of surface water resources and where ET forms a major component of water consumption. However huge tradeoff in the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite images coupled with lack of adequate number of cloud free images within a growing season act as major constraints in deriving ET at fine spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing based energy balance models. The scale at which ET is determined is decided by the spatial and temporal scale of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which form inputs to energy balance models. In this context, the current study employed disaggregation algorithms (NL-DisTrad and DisNDVI) to generate time series of LST and NDVI images at fine resolution. The disaggregation algorithms aimed at generating LST and NDVI at finer scale by integrating temporal information from concurrent coarse resolution data and spatial information from a single fine resolution image. The temporal frequency of the disaggregated images is further improved by employing composite images of NDVI and LST in the spatio-temporal disaggregation method. The study further employed half-hourly incoming surface insolation and outgoing long wave radiation obtained from the Indian geostationary satellite (Kalpana-1) to convert the instantaneous ET into daily ET and subsequently to the seasonal ET, thereby improving the accuracy of ET estimates. The estimates of ET were validated with field based water balance measurements carried out in Gadana, a subbasin predominated by rice paddy fields, located in Tamil Nadu, India.

  5. Measuring daily Value-at-Risk of SSEC index: A new approach based on multifractal analysis and extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu; Chen, Wang; Lin, Yu

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies in the econophysics literature reveal that price variability has fractal and multifractal characteristics not only in developed financial markets, but also in emerging markets. Taking high-frequency intraday quotes of the Shanghai Stock Exchange Component (SSEC) Index as example, this paper proposes a new method to measure daily Value-at-Risk (VaR) by combining the newly introduced multifractal volatility (MFV) model and the extreme value theory (EVT) method. Two VaR backtesting techniques are then employed to compare the performance of the model with that of a group of linear and nonlinear generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models. The empirical results show the multifractal nature of price volatility in Chinese stock market. VaR measures based on the multifractal volatility model and EVT method outperform many GARCH-type models at high-risk levels.

  6. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  7. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  8. Measuring the Variability of Data from Other Values in the Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.; Scariano, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Students have intuitive notions of the meaning of variability; some may see variability as how values in a set vary from each other. This article provides a measure of variability that is based on that conception. We introduce this new measure and a method for calculating it. Finally, we prove that this measure is equivalent to the population…

  9. Value, Impact, and the Transcendent Library: Progress and Pressures in Performance Measurement and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Town, J. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Libraries are under pressure to prove their worth and may not have achieved this fully successfully. There is a resultant growing requirement for value and impact measurement in academic and research libraries. This essay reviews the natural history of library performance measurement and suggests that proof of worth will be measured by the…

  10. Patients’ perceived value of pharmacy quality measures: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe patients’ perceived value and use of quality measures in evaluating and choosing community pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with a survey tool. During the focus groups, participants assessed the value of the Pharmacy Quality Alliance's quality measures in evaluating and choosing a pharmacy. Also, participants completed questionnaires rating their perceived value of quality measures in evaluating a pharmacy (1 being low value and 5 being high) or choosing a pharmacy (yes/no). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the focus groups and surveys, respectively. Setting Semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting space of an urban and a rural area of a Mid-western State in the USA. Participants Thirty-four adults who filled prescription medications in community pharmacies for a chronic illness were recruited in community pharmacies, senior centres and public libraries. Results While comments indicated that all measures were important, medication safety measures (eg, drug-drug interactions) were valued more highly than others. Rating of quality measure utility in evaluating a pharmacy ranged from a mean of 4.88 (‘drug-drug interactions’) to a mean of 4.0 (‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’). Patients were hesitant to use quality information in choosing a pharmacy (depending on the participant's location) but might consider if moving to a new area or having had a negative pharmacy experience. Use of select quality measures to choose a pharmacy ranged from 97.1% of participants using ‘drug-drug interactions’ (medication safety measure) to 55.9% using ‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’. Conclusions The study participants valued quality measures in evaluating and selecting a community pharmacy, with medication safety measures valued highest. The participants reported that the quality measures would not typically cause a

  11. Different Tests, Different Answers: The Stability of Teacher Value-Added Estimates across Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, educational researchers and practitioners have turned to value-added models to evaluate teacher performance. Although value-added estimates depend on the assessment used to measure student achievement, the importance of outcome selection has received scant attention in the literature. Using data from a large, urban school district, I…

  12. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    DOEpatents

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  13. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a forearm blood pressure measurement method in severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Marie-Ève; Cloutier, Lyne; Poirier, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For blood pressure assessment, it has been reported that forearm blood pressure measurement appears to be as valid as an upper-arm blood pressure measurement method in individuals with severe obesity when correlated to the intra-arterial method, considered as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the presence of systemic hypertension in 25 severely obese patients from 352 blood pressure measurements were calculated. The sensitivity (0.98) and the positive predictive value (0.93) for hypertension on forearm blood pressure measurements are excellent, indicating that the forearm approach is a promising alternative to systemic hypertension diagnosis in severe obesity. PMID:25757220

  14. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  15. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994) which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009). To compute actual evapotranspiration (AET) we have used the B-Method proposed by Jakson et al. (1977) and modified by Carlson et al. (1995) and Caselles et al. (1998), based on the energy budget, that needs as an input variables net radiation (Rn) and the difference between land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Ta). Air temperature has been modelled by means of multiple regression analysis and GIS interpolation using ground meteorological stations. Net radiation have been computed following two approaches based on the energy balance equation using albedo, land surface temperature, air temperature and solar radiation. Both air temperature and net radiation have been modelled at a regional scale. We have compared remote sensing daily actual evapotranspiration estimates with measured canopy transpiration. Sap flux density was measured by means of Heat dissipation sensors in 12 trees per stand, sampled according to diametric distribution, corrected to account for radial patter of sap flow using the Heat Field Deformation method and then scaled-up to stand level transpiration using tree sapwood areas. Sap flow measurements are comparable with AETd as in the Scots pine stand understorey evaporation is not significant. Measurements with sap flow technique show a mean, minimum and maximum values of AETd = 2.2, 0.6 and 3.6 mm day -1, respectively (Poyatos et al

  16. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  17. Consistency between Self-Reported and Recorded Values for Clinical Measures

    PubMed Central

    III, Joseph Thomas; Paulet, Mindy; Rajpura, Jigar R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated consistency between self-reported values for clinical measures and recorded clinical measures. Methods. Self-reported values were collected for the clinical measures: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose level, height, weight, and cholesterol from health risk assessments completed by enrollees in a privately insured cohort. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from reported height and weight. Practitioner recorded values for the clinical measures were obtained from health screenings. We used bivariate Pearson correlation analysis and descriptive statistics to evaluate consistency between self-reported data and recorded clinic measurements. Results. There was high correlation between self-reported clinical values and recorded clinical measures for diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.91, P = <0.0001), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.93, P = <0.0001), cholesterol (r = 0.97, P = <0.0001), body mass index (r = 0.96, P = <0.0001), glucose (r = 0.96, P = <0.0001), weight (r = 0.98, P = <0.0001), and height (r = 0.89, P = <0.0001). Conclusions. Self-reported clinical values for each of the eight clinical measures examined had good consistency with practitioner recorded data. PMID:26942034

  18. Measures and procedures utilized to determine the added value of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (MPKs) has been assessed using a variety of outcome measures in a variety of health and health-related domains. However, if the patient is to receive a prosthetic knee joint that enables him to function optimally in daily life, it is vital that the clinician has adequate information about the effects of that particular component on all aspects of persons’ functioning. Especially information concerning activities and participation is of high importance, as this component of functioning closely describes the person’s ability to function with the prosthesis in daily life. The present study aimed to review the outcome measures that have been utilized to assess the effects of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (MPK), in comparison with mechanically controlled prosthetic knee joints, and aimed to classify these measures according to the components and categories of functioning defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Subsequently, the gaps in the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of MPKs were determined. Methods A systematic literature search in 6 databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline and PsychInfo) identified scientific studies that compared the effects of using MPKs with mechanically controlled prosthetic knee joints on persons’ functioning. The outcome measures that have been utilized in those studies were extracted and categorized according to the ICF framework. Also, a descriptive analysis regarding all studies has been performed. Results A total of 37 studies and 72 outcome measures have been identified. The majority (67%) of the outcome measures that described the effects of using an MPK on persons’ actual performance with the prosthesis covered the ICF body functions component. Only 31% of the measures on persons’ actual performance investigated how an MPK may affect

  19. Value-Added Measures for Schools in England: Looking inside the "Black Box" of Complex Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony; Downey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures can be used to allocate funding to schools, to identify those institutions in need of special attention and to underpin government guidance on targets. In England, there has been a tendency to include in these measures an ever-greater number of contextualising variables and to develop ever-more complex models that encourage…

  20. Using Value-Added Models to Measure Teacher Effects on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Value-added (VA) models measure teacher contributions to student learning and are increasingly employed in educational reform efforts. Using data from 35 seventh-grade teachers and 2,026 students across seven schools, we employ VA methods to measure teacher contributions to students' motivational orientations (mastery and performance achievement…

  1. Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Winckler, Ciro; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C.; Kitamura, Katia; Veríssimo, Amaury W.; Pereira, Lucas A.; Nakamura, Fábio Y.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the magnitude of variability and progression in actual competitive and field vertical jump test performances in elite Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment in the year leading up to the 2015 Parapan American Games, and to investigate the relationships between loaded and unloaded vertical jumping test results and actual competitive sprinting performance. Fifteen Brazilian Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment attended seven official competitions (four national, two international and the Parapan American Games 2015) between April 2014 and August 2015, in the 100- and 200-m dash. In addition, they were tested in five different periods using loaded (mean propulsive power [MPP] in jump squat [JS] exercise) and unloaded (squat jump [SJ] height) vertical jumps within the 3 weeks immediately prior to the main competitions. The smallest important effect on performances was calculated as half of the within-athlete race-to-race (or test-to-test) variability and a multiple regression analysis was performed to predict the 100- and 200-m dash performances using the vertical jump test results. Competitive performance was enhanced during the Parapan American Games in comparison to the previous competition averages, overcoming the smallest worthwhile enhancement in both the 100- (0.9%) and 200-m dash (1.43%). In addition, The SJ and JS explained 66% of the performance variance in the competitive results. This study showed that vertical jump tests, in loaded and unloaded conditions, could be good predictors of the athletes' sprinting performance, and that during the Parapan American Games the Brazilian team reached its peak competitive performance. PMID:26594181

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Many of the scientific needs of the ARM Program are met through the analysis and processing of existing data products into "value-added" products or VAPs. Despite extensive instrumentation deployed at the ARM sites, there will always be quantities of interest that are either impractical or impossible to measure directly or routinely. Physical models using ARM instrument data as inputs are implemented as VAPs and can help fill some of the unmet measurement needs of the Program. Conversely, ARM produces some VAPs not in order to fill unmet measurement needs, but instead to improve the quality of existing measurements. In addition, when more than one measurement is available, ARM also produces "best estimate" VAPs. A special class of VAP called a Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) adds value to the input data streams by providing for continuous assessment of the quality of the input data. [taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/vaps_all.php] One of the ARM data centers, the External Data Center or XDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory, also adds value to ARM information by identifying sources and acquiring external data to augment the data being generated within the program. These external data sets are converted, processed, and carefully evaluated for their value to the overall ARM program. /. Data Plots are also value-added products from ARM.

  3. Delta K measurements with synthetic aperture radar data. [micirowavelength difference values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Jackson, P. L.; Klooster, A.

    1985-01-01

    Delta K measurements are obtained from the interference of two electromagnetic waves of different frequencies. Constructive interference occurs when 2pi phase differences between the two frequencies correspond to a surface wavelength. Previous Delta K measurements have used two discrete frequencies for this purpose. Range pulses and Doppler signatures of a synthetic aperture radar system were filtered to obtain a sequence of Delta K values. Those Delta K values which correspond to the wavelengths of known surfaces show maximum constructive interference. SAR data can therefore be used for Delta K measurements, indicating the possibility of selective Delta K filtering during data gathering.

  4. Value-based performance measures for Hanford Tank Waste Remedition System (TWRS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and preparation for disposal of high-level waste currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Richland. The TWRS program has adopted a logical approach to decision making that is based on systems engineering and decision analysis (Westinghouse Hanford Company, 1995). This approach involves the explicit consideration of stakeholder values and an evaluation of the TWRS alternatives in terms of these values. Such evaluations need to be consistent across decisions. Thus, an effort was undertaken to develop a consistent, quantifiable set of measures that can be used by TVVRS to assess alternatives against the stakeholder values. The measures developed also met two additional requirements: 1) the number of measure should be relatively small; and 2) performance with respect to the measures should be relatively easy to estimate.

  5. The VALS: A new tool to measure people's general valued attributes of landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Ford, Rebecca M; Anderson, Nerida M; Farrar, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Research on values for natural areas has largely focussed on theoretical concerns such as distinguishing different kinds of values held by people. However practice, policymaking, planning and management is typically focused on more tangible valued attributes of the landscape such as biodiversity and recreation infrastructure that can be manipulated by management actions. There is a need for valid psychometric measures of such values that are suited to informing land management policies. A Valued Attributes of Landscape Scale (VALS) was developed, derived from a document analysis of values expressed in public land policy documents. The validity of the VALS was tested in an online survey comparing values across one of three randomly presented landscape contexts in Victoria, Australia: all publicly managed natural land, coastal areas, and large urban parks. A purposive snowball sample was used to recruit participants with a range of views and professional experience with land management, including members of the urban public. Factor analysis of responses (n = 646) separated concepts relating to natural attributes, social functions, the experience of being in natural areas, cultural attributes and productive uses. Relative importance of valued attribute factors was similar across all landscape contexts, although there were small but significant differences in the way people valued social functions (higher in urban parks) and productive uses (lower in urban parks). We conclude that the concept of valued attributes is useful for linking theoretical understandings of people's environmental values to the way values are considered by land managers, and that these attributes can be measured using the VALS instrument to produce data that should be useful for the policy and planning of natural resources. PMID:26321532

  6. On set-valued functionals: Multivariate risk measures and Aumann integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ararat, Cagin

    In this dissertation, multivariate risk measures for random vectors and Aumann integrals of set-valued functions are studied. Both are set-valued functionals with values in a complete lattice of subsets of Rm. Multivariate risk measures are considered in a general d-asset financial market with trading opportunities in discrete time. Specifically, the following features of the market are incorporated in the evaluation of multivariate risk: convex transaction costs modeled by solvency regions, intermediate trading constraints modeled by convex random sets, and the requirement of liquidation into the first m ≤ d of the assets. It is assumed that the investor has a "pure" multivariate risk measure R on the space of m-dimensional random vectors which represents her risk attitude towards the assets but does not take into account the frictions of the market. Then, the investor with a d-dimensional position minimizes the set-valued functional R over all m-dimensional positions that she can reach by trading in the market subject to the frictions described above. The resulting functional Rmar on the space of d-dimensional random vectors is another multivariate risk measure, called the market-extension of R. A dual representation for R mar that decomposes the effects of R and the frictions of the market is proved. Next, multivariate risk measures are studied in a utility-based framework. It is assumed that the investor has a complete risk preference towards each individual asset, which can be represented by a von Neumann-Morgenstern utility function. Then, an incomplete preference is considered for multivariate positions which is represented by the vector of the individual utility functions. Under this structure, multivariate shortfall and divergence risk measures are defined as the optimal values of set minimization problems. The dual relationship between the two classes of multivariate risk measures is constructed via a recent Lagrange duality for set optimization. In

  7. Precise Penning trap measurements of double β-decay Q-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redshaw, M.; Brodeur, M.; Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S.; Eibach, M.; Gulyuz, K.; Izzo, C.; Lincoln, D. L.; Novario, S. J.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Schwarz, S.; Valverde, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The double β-decay (ββ -decay) Q-value, defined as the mass difference between parent and daughter atoms, is an important parameter for both two-neutrino ββ -decay (2 νββ) and neutrinoless ββ -decay (0 νββ) experiments. The Q-value enters into the calculation of the phase space factors, which relate the measured ββ -decay half-life to the nuclear matrix element and, in the case of 0 νββ , the effective Majorana mass of the neutrino. In addition, the Q-value defines the total kinetic energy of the two electrons emitted in 0 νββ , corresponding to the location of the single peak that is the sought after signature of 0 νββ . Hence, it is essential to have a precise and accurate Q-value determination. Over the last decade, the Penning trap mass spectrometry community has made a significant effort to provide precise ββ -decay Q-value determinations. Here we report on recent measurements with the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) of the 48Ca, 82Se, and 96Zr Q-values. These measurements complete the determination of ββ -decay Q-values for the 11 ``best'' candidates (those with Q >2 MeV). We also report on a measurement of the 78Kr double electron capture (2EC) Q-value and discuss ongoing Penning trap measurements relating to ββ -decay and 2EC. Support from NSF Contract No. PHY-1102511, and DOE Grant No. 03ER-41268.

  8. Disturbance in weak measurements and the difference between quantum and classical weak values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipsen, Asger C.

    2015-06-01

    The role of measurement-induced disturbance in weak measurements is of central importance for the interpretation of the weak value. Uncontrolled disturbance can interfere with the postselection process and make the weak value dependent on the details of the measurement process. Here we develop the concept of a generalized weak measurement for classical and quantum mechanics. The two cases appear remarkably similar, but we point out some important differences. A priori it is not clear what the correct notion of disturbance should be in the context of weak measurements. We consider three different notions and get three different results: (1) For a "strong" definition of disturbance, we find that weak measurements are disturbing. (2) For a weaker definition we find that a general class of weak measurements is nondisturbing, but that one gets weak values which depend on the measurement process. (3) Finally, with respect to an operational definition of the "degree of disturbance," we find that the AAV weak measurements are the least disturbing, but that the disturbance is always nonzero.

  9. In-Situ Measurements of U-Values and Thermal Performance of Windows.

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.; Keller, H.

    1987-04-01

    Five commercial windows were studied using the MoWiTT (Mobile Window Thermal Test) facility, an accurate new field test apparatus. Both overall diurnal performance and U-values were measured. The latter were compared to test laboratory hot box measurements for the same five windows, and to calculations made with the program WINDOW-2.0. Calculations, MoWiTT and hot box measurements agreed for three of the windows; for one of the others, the calculations agreed with the MoWiTT measurement but not with the hot box. For the fifth, a low-E window, the calculations may be made to agree with either measurement but not both, depending on assumptions about the frame. The authors suggest a possible explanation for the conflict, and advance an interpretation of the data which would allow a consistent understanding of calculated, field and laboratory U-values. In the studies of overall performance, uncertainties arising from wintertime solar gain were found to overshadow the differences in U-value for all window orientations, including north-facing. In some of the windows tested, improved U-values were offset by decreased solar gain acceptance. Further research is suggested to achieve a method of evaluating overall window energy performance which would reliably reflect U-value improvements. 5 refs., 36 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. CITY OF SANTA FE V. KOMIS REVISITED: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACTUAL IMPACTS OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE SANTA FE BYPASS ON THE VALUE OF NEARBY REAL ESTATE

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Dr. E. J., Jr.,; Bentz, C. B.; O'Hora, T. D.; Baepler, Dr. D.

    2003-02-27

    The Santa Fe Bypass for transport of transuranic waste (TRU) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico has been constructed and is operational (as of 2000). This paper presents a review of actual empirical data from the sales of real estate in the Santa Fe City/County area since the filing of the City of Santa Fe v. Komis lawsuit in 1988. The data analyzed covers the time period from 1989 through the last quarter of 2001.

  11. A summary of the measured pK values of the ionizable groups in folded proteins.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, Gerald R; Scholtz, J Martin; Pace, C Nick

    2009-01-01

    We tabulated 541 measured pK values reported in the literature for the Asp, Glu, His, Cys, Tyr, and Lys side chains, and the C and N termini of 78 folded proteins. The majority of these values are for the Asp, Glu, and His side chains. The average pK values are Asp 3.5 +/- 1.2 (139); Glu 4.2 +/- 0.9 (153); His 6.6 +/- 1.0 (131); Cys 6.8 +/- 2.7 (25); Tyr 10.3 +/- 1.2 (20); Lys 10.5 +/- 1.1 (35); C-terminus 3.3 +/- 0.8 (22) and N-terminus 7.7 +/- 0.5 (16). We compare these results with the measured pK values of these groups in alanine pentapeptides, and comment on our overall findings. PMID:19177368

  12. The role of visual perception measures used in sports vision programmes in predicting actual game performance in Division I collegiate hockey players.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Biberdorf, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the growing field of sports vision little is still known about unique attributes of visual processing in ice hockey and what role visual processing plays in the overall athlete's performance. In the present study we evaluated whether visual, perceptual and cognitive/motor variables collected using the Nike SPARQ Sensory Training Station have significant relevance to the real game statistics of 38 Division I collegiate male and female hockey players. The results demonstrated that 69% of variance in the goals made by forwards in 2011-2013 could be predicted by their faster reaction time to a visual stimulus, better visual memory, better visual discrimination and a faster ability to shift focus between near and far objects. Approximately 33% of variance in game points was significantly related to better discrimination among competing visual stimuli. In addition, reaction time to a visual stimulus as well as stereoptic quickness significantly accounted for 24% of variance in the mean duration of the player's penalty time. This is one of the first studies to show that some of the visual skills that state-of-the-art generalised sports vision programmes are purported to target may indeed be important for hockey players' actual performance on the ice. PMID:25142869

  13. Echocardiographic measurements in the Irish wolfhound: reference values for the breed.

    PubMed

    Vollmar, A C

    1999-01-01

    Out of 400 Irish wolfhounds cardiologically examined, echocardiographic measurements of 262 normal dogs were analyzed to obtain reference values for the breed. Based on regression analysis, several echocardiographic parameters showed significant linear correlation with body weight and with age, but coefficients of determination were low. Therefore, due to a high individual variability of echocardiographic measurements in adult Irish wolfhounds, the predictive value of body weight for echocardiographic measurements was clinically not relevant. Sex had no influence on echocardiographic values. For the estimation of myocardial function, end-systolic volume index (ESVI) (mean, 29.0 ml/m2 +/- standard deviation [SD], 5.9 ml/m2) was determined for the group of 262 normal dogs. PMID:10416769

  14. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  15. [Gas Concentration Measurement Based on the Integral Value of Absorptance Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Tao, Shao-hua; Yang, Bing-chu; Deng, Hong-gui

    2015-12-01

    The absorptance spectrum of a gas is the basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the gas by the law of the Lambert-Beer. The integral value of the absorptance spectrum is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of the gas absorption. Based on the measured absorptance spectrum of a gas, we collected the required data from the database of HIT-RAN, and chose one of the spectral lines and calculated the integral value of the absorptance spectrum in the frequency domain, and then substituted the integral value into Lambert-Beer's law to obtain the concentration of the detected gas. By calculating the integral value of the absorptance spectrum we can avoid the more complicated calculation of the spectral line function and a series of standard gases for calibration, so the gas concentration measurement will be simpler and faster. We studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus temperature. Since temperature variation would cause the corresponding variation in pressure, we studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus both the pressure not changed with temperature and changed with the temperature variation. Based on the two cases, we found that the integral values of the absorptance spectrums both would firstly increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with temperature increasing, but the ranges of specific changing trend were different in the two cases. In the experiments, we found that the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were much higher than 1% and still increased with temperature when we only considered the change of temperature and completely ignored the pressure affected by the temperature variation, and the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were almost constant at about only 1% when we considered that the pressure were affected by the temperature variation. As the integral value

  16. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994) which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009). To compute actual evapotranspiration (AET) we have used the B-Method proposed by Jakson et al. (1977) and modified by Carlson et al. (1995) and Caselles et al. (1998), based on the energy budget, that needs as an input variables net radiation (Rn) and the difference between land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Ta). Air temperature has been modelled by means of multiple regression analysis and GIS interpolation using ground meteorological stations. Net radiation have been computed following two approaches based on the energy balance equation using albedo, land surface temperature, air temperature and solar radiation. Both air temperature and net radiation have been modelled at a regional scale. We have compared remote sensing daily actual evapotranspiration estimates with measured canopy transpiration. Sap flux density was measured by means of Heat dissipation sensors in 12 trees per stand, sampled according to diametric distribution, corrected to account for radial patter of sap flow using the Heat Field Deformation method and then scaled-up to stand level transpiration using tree sapwood areas. Sap flow measurements are comparable with AETd as in the Scots pine stand understorey evaporation is not significant. Measurements with sap flow technique show a mean, minimum and maximum values of AETd = 2.2, 0.6 and 3.6 mm day -1, respectively (Poyatos et al

  17. How Can Value-Added Measures Be Used for Teacher Improvement? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The question for this brief is whether education leaders can use value-added measures as tools for improving schooling and, if so, how to do this. Districts, states, and schools can, at least in theory, generate gains in educational outcomes for students using value-added measures in three ways: creating information on effective programs, making…

  18. Craniofacial skeletal measurements based on computed tomography: Part II. Normal values and growth trends.

    PubMed

    Waitzman, A A; Posnick, J C; Armstrong, D C; Pron, G E

    1992-03-01

    Current diagnosis and surgical correction of craniofacial anomalies would benefit from accurate quantitative and standardized points of reference. A retrospective study was undertaken to define normal values for a series of craniofacial measurements and to evaluate the growth patterns of the craniofacial complex through axial computed tomography (CT). Fifteen measurements were taken from 542 CT scan series of skeletally normal subjects. The measurement values were then divided into 1-year age categories from 1 to 17 years, and into four age groups for those under 1 year of age. The normal range and growth pattern of measurement values for the cranial vault, orbital region, and upper midface are presented. The overall size of the cranio-orbito-zygomatic skeleton reaches more than 85 percent of adult size by age 5 years. The cranial vault grows rapidly in the first year of life but growth levels off early. The upper midface grows at a slower rate in infancy, but continues to grow later in childhood and early adolescence. Knowledge of the differential growth patterns and normal measurement values in the craniofacial region will help improve diagnostic accuracy, staging of reconstruction, precision of corrective surgery, and follow-up of patients. PMID:1571345

  19. The value of forage measurement information in rangeland management. [implementation of satellite data in range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An economic model and simulation are developed to estimate the potential social benefit arising from the use of alternative measurement systems in rangeland management. In order to estimate these benefits, it was necessary to model three separate systems: the range environment, the rangeland manager, and the information system which links the two. The rancher's decision-making behavior is modeled according to sound economic principles. Results indicate substantial potential benefits, particularly when used in assisting management of government-operated ranges; possible annual benefits in this area range from $20 to $46 million, depending upon the system capabilities assumed. Possible annual benefit in privately-managed stocker operations range from $2.8 to $49.5 million, depending upon where actual rancher capabilities lie and what system capabilities are assumed.

  20. Informational power of the Hoggar symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymusiak, Anna; Słomczyński, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    We compute the informational power for the Hoggar symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measure (SIC-POVM) in dimension eight, i.e., the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel generated by this measurement. We show that the states constituting a maximally informative ensemble form a twin Hoggar SIC-POVM being the image of the original one under a conjugation.

  1. Precision QEC-value measurement of 23Mg for testing the CKM matrix unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, Maxime; Schultz, Brad; Dilling, Jens; Titan Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We report a new direct measurement of the 23Mg β+-decay transition energy QEC using the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. This value agrees with the latest atomic mass evaluation while being four times more precise. The increase in precision changes the uncertainty contribution of the QEC-value on the statistical rate function fv from 11 % to 0.6 %, an improvement by a factor of 18. This enables a more robust determination of the corrected Ft -value of this mirror transition to the required precision, making possible further test of the CKM matrix unitarity. We report a new direct measurement of the 23Mg β+-decay transition energy QEC using the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. This value agrees with the latest atomic mass evaluation while being four times more precise. The increase in precision changes the uncertainty contribution of the QEC-value on the statistical rate function fv from 11 % to 0.6 %, an improvement by a factor of 18. This enables a more robust determination of the corrected Ft -value of this mirror transition to the required precision, making possible further test of the CKM matrix unitarity. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  2. Using neural measures of economic value to solve the public goods free-rider problem.

    PubMed

    Krajbich, Ian; Camerer, Colin; Ledyard, John; Rangel, Antonio

    2009-10-23

    Every social group needs to decide when to provide public goods and how to allocate the costs among its members. Ideally, this decision would maximize the group's net benefits while also ensuring that every individual's benefit is greater than the cost he or she has to pay. Unfortunately, the economic theory of mechanism design has shown that this ideal solution is not feasible when the group leadership does not know the values of the individual group members for the public good. We show that this impossibility result can be overcome in laboratory settings by combining technologies for obtaining neural measures of value (functional magnetic resonance imaging-based pattern classification) with carefully designed institutions that allocate costs based on both reported and neurally measured values. PMID:19745115

  3. Sentinels Guarding the Grail: Value-Added Measurement and the Quest for Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Lester, Jessica Nina

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the federal Race To The Top grant competition, Value-Added Measurement (VAM) has captured the attention of the American public through high-profile media representations of the tool and the controversy that surrounds it. In this paper, we build upon investigations of constructions of VAM in the media and present a discourse…

  4. 42 CFR 412.164 - Measure selection under the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measure selection under the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. 412.164 Section 412.164 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Adjustments to the...

  5. Value-Added Measures in Education: What Every Educator Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2011-01-01

    In "Value-Added Measures in Education", Douglas N. Harris takes on one of the most hotly debated topics in education. Drawing on his extensive work with schools and districts, he sets out to help educators and policymakers understand this innovative approach to assessment and the issues associated with its use. Written in straightforward language…

  6. Measuring Staff Perceptions of University Identity and Activities: The Mission and Values Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Velcoff, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Higher education institutions need to ascertain whether their stakeholders understand the school's mission, vision, and values. In the present study, the psychometric properties of a mission identity and activity measure were investigated with two staff samples. Using a principal component factor analysis (varimax rotation), respondents in Sample…

  7. Start a New Fire: Measuring the Value of Academic Libraries in Undergraduate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menchaca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, fundamental changes in information distribution, in the general economy, and in the behaviors of faculty, students, and library staff have problematized the question of an academic library's value and how it can be measured. This article reviews those changes and, drawing on research linked to the Collegiate Learning…

  8. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  9. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness Using Value-Added Models of High School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawade, Nandita G.; Meyer, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This article uses empirical data to consider the consequences of particular characteristics of instruction and testing in high school for the modeling and estimation of value-added measures of school or teacher effectiveness. Unlike Mathematics and Reading for most elementary and middle school grades, there is a lack of annual testing of students…

  10. Refining the Measure and Dimensions of Social Values of Older People (SVOP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunkyung; Kolomer, Stacey R.

    2007-01-01

    Older persons are living longer and healthier and, thus, are capable of being more productive and less dependent. Despite this trend, young people persistently hold the age-old negative stereotypes about older persons. The goals of this study were to develop a valid, reliable measure of social values of older people and to assess its utility as…

  11. An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organisational safety culture values and practices.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cabrera, D; Hernández-Fernaud, E; Isla-Díaz, R

    2007-11-01

    The main aim of this research is to evaluate a safety culture measuring instrument centred upon relevant organisational values and practices related to the safety management system. Seven dimensions that reflect underlying safety meanings are proposed. A second objective is to explore the four cultural orientations in the field of safety arising from the competing values framework. The study sample consisted of 299 participants from five companies in different sectors. The results show six dimensions of organisational values and practices and different company profiles in the organisations studied. The four cultural orientations proposed by the competing values framework are not confirmed. Nevertheless, a coexistence of diverse cultural orientations or paradoxes in the companies is observed. PMID:17920844

  12. Influence of extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity value of oleaster measured by ORAC method.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Gorkem; Sogut, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a widely used hydrogen atom transfer-based method which measures the antioxidant capacity of natural products. ORAC values of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), which was extracted with ethanol/acetone (7:3, v/v), ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/water (1:1, v/v) in order to evaluate the effects of solvent type on antioxidant capacity, were examined. In general, results revealed that ethanol/water extracts exhibited better antioxidant capacity values. Furthermore, results obtained by using ORAC-eosin y (ORAC-EY), one of the widely used derivative of fluorescein (FL), as a fluorescent probe were compared with those obtained by using ORAC-FL. According to the results, ORAC-EY values were found to be compatible with ORAC-FL values. PMID:24783990

  13. Two-qubit Bell inequality for which positive operator-valued measurements are relevant

    SciTech Connect

    Vertesi, T.; Bene, E.

    2010-12-15

    A bipartite Bell inequality is derived which is maximally violated on the two-qubit state space if measurements describable by positive operator valued measure (POVM) elements are allowed, rather than restricting the possible measurements to projective ones. In particular, the presented Bell inequality requires POVMs in order to be maximally violated by a maximally entangled two-qubit state. This answers a question raised by N. Gisin [in Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle: Essays in Honour of Abner Shimony, edited by W. C. Myrvold and J. Christian (Springer, The Netherlands, 2009), pp. 125-138].

  14. Behavioral Economic Measures of Alcohol Reward Value as Problem Severity Indicators in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Jessica R.; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from three distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol. The sample included 207 heavy drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises two factors: one factor that reflects participants’ levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants’ maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation towards alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PMID:24749779

  15. The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, Including Climatology Configurable Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN; Shi, Y

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the QCRad methodology, which uses climatological analyses of the surface radiation measurements to define reasonable limits for testing the data for unusual data values. The main assumption is that the majority of the climatological data are “good” data, which for field sites operated with care such as those of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a reasonable assumption. Data that fall outside the normal range of occurrences are labeled either “indeterminate” (meaning that the measurements are possible, but rarely occurring, and thus the values cannot be identified as good) or “bad” depending on how far outside the normal range the particular data reside. The methodology not only sets fairly standard maximum and minimum value limits, but also compares what we have learned about the behavior of these instruments in the field to other value-added products (VAPs), such as the Diffuse infrared (IR) Loss Correction VAP (Younkin and Long 2004) and the Best Estimate Flux VAP (Shi and Long 2002).

  16. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Abbott, Joshua K.; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M. K.; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996−2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996–2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state’s 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas’ depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  17. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  18. Weak values and weak coupling maximizing the output of weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2014-06-15

    In a weak measurement, the average output 〈o〉 of a probe that measures an observable A{sup -hat} of a quantum system undergoing both a preparation in a state ρ{sub i} and a postselection in a state E{sub f} is, to a good approximation, a function of the weak value A{sub w}=Tr[E{sub f}A{sup -hat} ρ{sub i}]/Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}], a complex number. For a fixed coupling λ, when the overlap Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}] is very small, A{sub w} diverges, but 〈o〉 stays finite, often tending to zero for symmetry reasons. This paper answers the questions: what is the weak value that maximizes the output for a fixed coupling? What is the coupling that maximizes the output for a fixed weak value? We derive equations for the optimal values of A{sub w} and λ, and provide the solutions. The results are independent of the dimensionality of the system, and they apply to a probe having a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. Using the Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that, in an important case, the amplification 〈o〉 cannot exceed the initial uncertainty σ{sub o} in the observable o{sup -hat}, we provide an upper limit for the more general case, and a strategy to obtain 〈o〉≫σ{sub o}. - Highlights: •We have provided a general framework to find the extremal values of a weak measurement. •We have derived the location of the extremal values in terms of preparation and postselection. •We have devised a maximization strategy going beyond the limit of the Schrödinger–Robertson relation.

  19. A Research on Performance Measurement Based on Economic Valued-Added Comprehensive Scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qin; Zhang, Xiaomei

    With the development of economic, the traditional performance mainly rely on financial indicators could not satisfy the need of work. In order to make the performance measurement taking the best services for business goals, this paper proposed Economic Valued-Added Comprehensive Scorecard based on research of shortages and advantages of EVA and BSC .We used Analytic Hierarchy Process to build matrix to solve the weighting of EVA Comprehensive Scorecard. At last we could find the most influence factors for enterprise value forming the weighting.

  20. The relationship between inferior vena cava diameter measured by bedside ultrasonography and central venous pressure value

    PubMed Central

    Citilcioglu, Serenat; Sebe, Ahmet; Oguzhan Ay, Mehmet; Icme, Ferhat; Avci, Akkan; Gulen, Muge; Sahan, Mustafa; Satar, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to present inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter as a guiding method for detection of relationship between IVC diameter measured noninvasively with the help of ultrasonography (USG) and central venous pressure (CVP) and evaluation of patient's intravascular volume status. Methods: Patients over the age of 18, to whom a central venous catheter was inserted to their subclavian vein or internal jugular vein were included in our study. IVC diameter measurements were recorded in millimeters following measurement by the same clinician with the help of USG both at the end-inspiratory and end-expiratory phase. CVP measurements were viewed on the monitor by means of piezoelectric transducer and recorded in mmHg. SPSS 18.0 package program was used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study. The patients had the diagnosis of malignancy (35.6%), sepsis (13.3%), pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.1%). 11 patients (24.4%) required mechanical ventilation while 34 (75.6%) patients had spontaneous respiration. In patients with spontaneous respiration, a significant relationship was found between IVC diameters measured by ultrasonography at the end of expiratory and inspiratory phases and measured CVP values at the same phases (for expiratory p = 0.002, for inspiratory p= 0.001). There was no statistically significant association between IVC diameters measured by ultrasonography at the end of expiration and inspiration and measured CVP values at the same phases in mechanically ventilated patients. Conclusions: IVC diameter measured by bedside ultrasonography can be used for determination of the intravascular volume status of the patients with spontaneous respiration. PMID:24772133

  1. Measuring Value Added in Higher Education: A Proposed Methodology for Developing a Performance Indicator Based on the Economic Value Added to Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 UK higher education White Paper suggested that the sector needed to re-examine the potential of the value added concept. This paper describes a possible methodology for developing a performance indicator based on the economic value added to graduates. The paper examines how an entry-quality-adjusted measure of a graduate's "expected"…

  2. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  3. Review and assessment of measured values of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient of fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, D.

    1998-01-01

    The literature describes more than 30 measurements, at wavelengths between 249 and 1550 nm, of the absolute value of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient of fused silica. Results of these experiments were assessed and best currently available values were selected for the wavelengths of 351, 527, and 1053 nm. The best values are (3.6{plus_minus}0.64){times}10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2}/W at 351 nm, (3.0{plus_minus}0.35){times}10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2}/W at 527 nm, and (2.74{plus_minus}0.17){times}10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2}/W at 1053 nm. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  4. Direct mass measurements of cadmium and palladium isotopes and their double-β transition Q values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.

    2012-02-01

    The Q value of the double-electron capture in 108Cd has been determined to be (272.04 ± 0.55) keV in a direct measurement with the double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. Based on this result a resonant enhancement of the decay rate of 108Cd is excluded. We have confirmed the double-β transition Q values of 106Cd and 110Pd recently measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometers SHIPTRAP and ISOLTRAP, respectively. Furthermore, the atomic masses of the involved nuclides (106,108,110Cd, 106,108,110Pd) have been directly linked to the atomic mass standard.

  5. Can the reinforcing value of food be measured in bulimia nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Schebendach, Janet; Broft, Allegra; Foltin, Richard W.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating is a core clinical feature of bulimia nervosa (BN). Enhanced reinforcing value of food may play a role in this behavioral disturbance, but a systematic behavioral assessment of objective measures of the rewarding value of binge eating is lacking. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reinforcing value of food in BN patients as compared with normal controls. A progressive ratio (PR) computerized work task was completed under binge and non-binge instruction. The task consisted of 12 trials. The first trial required 50 keyboard taps to earn one portion of yogurt shake, and subsequent trials required progressive work increments of 200 taps for each additional portion. Completion of all 12 trials required 13,800 taps to earn 2,100 ml of shake. The breakpoint, defined as the largest ratio completed before a participant stopped working, was the measure of reinforcing efficacy. Ten patients and 10 controls completed the experiment. Under binge instruction, patients completed more trials and taps, and had a higher breakpoint than controls. The non-binge instruction yielded opposite findings; compared to controls, patients completed fewer trials and taps, and had a lower breakpoint. These results support the feasibility and potential utility of a PR task to quantify the reinforcing value of food in patients with BN. PMID:23178173

  6. Measurement of wilderness benefits and option value, with an application to the Washakie Wilderness, northwest Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Barrick, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal government is currently considering up to 135 oil and gas leases in the Washakie Wilderness which provides a realistic uncertainty about the future supply of wilderness characteristics. The measurement technique is a contingent valuation questionnaire, which was mailed to 1199 individuals (581 responses). The research samples include: Washakie Wilderness visitors, Yellowstone National Park visitors, the residents of four US cities (Salt Lake City, Portland, Nashville, and Orlando) and rural residents located near the selected cities. The results indicate that the average wilderness consumer surplus is $80.13 for Washakie Wilderness visitors, $39.00 for Yellowstone visitors, $8.97 for the urban group and $7.80 for the rural group. The relative importance of four attributes of wilderness option value are measured, including value in, a personal visit to the Washakie (12-25% of value), others being able to visit (16-26%), the wilderness being available for future generations (30-40%), and the existence of wilderness regardless of anyone visiting it (25%). On- and off-site users attribute statistically different weights to the first three attributes, but not to existence value.

  7. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramochi, Yui

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  8. Accuracy, Precision, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Noninvasive ICP Absolute Value Measurements.

    PubMed

    Krakauskaite, Solventa; Petkus, Vytautas; Bartusis, Laimonas; Zakelis, Rolandas; Chomskis, Romanas; Preiksaitis, Aidanas; Ragauskas, Arminas; Matijosaitis, Vaidas; Petrikonis, Kestutis; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    An innovative absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) value measurement method has been validated by multicenter comparative clinical studies. The method is based on two-depth transcranial Doppler (TCD) technology and uses intracranial and extracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery as pressure sensors. The ophthalmic artery is used as a natural pair of "scales" that compares ICP with controlled pressure Pe, which is externally applied to the orbit. To balance the scales, ICP = Pe a special two-depth TCD device was used as a pressure balance indicator. The proposed method is the only noninvasive ICP measurement method that does not need patient-specific calibration. PMID:27165929

  9. Measurements of Sc I gf-values. [absorption spectroscopy using heat pipe oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Tomkins, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute gf-values were obtained for 98 transitions in neutral scandium by the hook method using an inductively coupled heat-pipe oven. Of the 98 lines, 51 are classified, 33 are unclassified lines that occur in pairs with the lower energy level identified, and 14 are unclassified but are believed to originate from one of the two lower levels of the ground state. The results are compared with semiempirical and other measurement results in the literature.

  10. CBF measured by Xe-CT: Approach to analysis and normal values

    SciTech Connect

    Yonas, H.; Darby, J.M.; Marks, E.C.; Durham, S.R.; Maxwell, C. )

    1991-09-01

    Normal reference values and a practical approach to CBF analysis are needed for routine clinical analysis and interpretation of xenon-enhanced computed tomography (CT) CBF studies. The authors measured CBF in 67 normal individuals with the GE 9800 CT scanner adapted for CBF imaging with stable Xe. CBF values for vascular territories were systematically analyzed using the clustering of contiguous 2-cm circular regions of interest (ROIs) placed within the cortical mantle and basal ganglia. Mixed cortical flows averaged 51 {plus minus} 10ml.100g-1.min-1. High and low flow compartments, sampled by placing 5-mm circular ROIs in regions containing the highest and lowest flow values in each hemisphere, averaged 84 {plus minus} 14 and 20 {plus minus} 5 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. Mixed cortical flow values as well as values within the high flow compartment demonstrated significant decline with age; however, there were no significant age-related changes in the low flow compartment. The clustering of systematically placed cortical and subcortical ROIs has provided a normative data base for Xe-CT CBF and a flexible and uncomplicated method for the analysis of CBF maps generated by Xe-enhanced CT.

  11. Using Effort to Measure Reward Value of Faces in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Louise; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    According to one influential account, face processing atypicalities in autism reflect reduced reward value of faces, which results in limited attention to faces during development and a consequent failure to acquire face expertise. Surprisingly, however, there is a paucity of work directly investigating the reward value of faces for individuals with autism and the evidence for diminished face rewards in this population remains equivocal. In the current study, we measured how hard children with autism would work to view faces, using an effortful key-press sequence, and whether they were sensitive to the differential reward value of attractive and unattractive faces. Contrary to expectations, cognitively able children with autism did not differ from typically developing children of similar age and ability in their willingness to work to view faces. Moreover, the effort expended was strongly positively correlated with facial attractiveness ratings in both groups of children. There was also no evidence of atypical reward values for other, less social categories (cars and inverted faces) in the children with autism. These results speak against the possibility that face recognition difficulties in autism are explained by atypical reward value of faces. PMID:24236140

  12. Using effort to measure reward value of faces in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Louise; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    According to one influential account, face processing atypicalities in autism reflect reduced reward value of faces, which results in limited attention to faces during development and a consequent failure to acquire face expertise. Surprisingly, however, there is a paucity of work directly investigating the reward value of faces for individuals with autism and the evidence for diminished face rewards in this population remains equivocal. In the current study, we measured how hard children with autism would work to view faces, using an effortful key-press sequence, and whether they were sensitive to the differential reward value of attractive and unattractive faces. Contrary to expectations, cognitively able children with autism did not differ from typically developing children of similar age and ability in their willingness to work to view faces. Moreover, the effort expended was strongly positively correlated with facial attractiveness ratings in both groups of children. There was also no evidence of atypical reward values for other, less social categories (cars and inverted faces) in the children with autism. These results speak against the possibility that face recognition difficulties in autism are explained by atypical reward value of faces. PMID:24236140

  13. What Actually Happened.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    An ethics consult was scheduled for the following day. Prior to the consult, Mr. Hope subsequently decompensated and was transferred to the local hospital. The ethics consultation service continued with the ethics consult to discuss the ethical concerns of the medical staff but in particular to create an open forum for the staff to process their moral distress over the care of this patient and to come to an agreed-on plan on how they would proceed should the resident code. The patient never returned to the long-term care setting. While in the emergency room, the patient took a turn for the worse and appeared to require intubation. The emergency room attending physician contacted the patient's family and discussed the imminent likelihood of the patient's demise and the potential harm caused to the patient by resuscitation and intubation, and the family agreed to switch to comfort measures, allowing the patient to pass peacefully. The family stated to the ER physician that they needed to feel as though they had done everything they could to keep their loved one alive and did not want any responsibility for his death. The staff at the long-term care setting still remember Mr. Hope in their daily work and talk about him often. PMID:27348844

  14. Estimation of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Maryland and verification by measured values.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Sherwell, John

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM23), but did have annual ambient data for PM smaller than 10 microm (PM10) at 24 sites. The PM10 data were analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal zip-code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas) in an effort to estimate annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the 24 PM10 monitor sites operating from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were estimated to be below the 24-hr PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) at the sites operating in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. The estimates also indicated that 12 monitor sites might exceed the 3-year annual average PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3, but Maryland's air quality shows signs that it has been improving since 1992. The estimates also were compared with actual measurements after the PM2.5 monitor network was installed. The estimates were adequate for describing the chemical composition of the PM2.5, forecasting compliance status with the 24-hr and annual standards, and determining the spatial variations in PM2.5 across central Maryland. PMID:12418728

  15. [Value of serum PSA and PAP measurement with newly developed latex turbidimetric immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Akino, H; Tsuka, H; Okada, K; Tsuchiya, Y; Matsubara, M; Arimura, K

    1995-06-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid-phosphatase (PAP) levels in normal controls, and patients with prostate cancer, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and other urological diseases were examined with a newly developed latex turbidimetric immunoassay (LPIA ACE PSA, LPIA ACE PAP, IATRON LABORATORIES, INC., Tokyo, Japan). The advantageous characteristics of this method are small amount (10 microliters) of serum required and short time (about 20 min.) for performing this assay. There was a high linear correlation between LPIA ACE PSA and MARKIT-F PA (r2 = 0.953), between LPIA ACE PSA and TANDEM-E PSA (r2 = 0.881) and between LPIA ACE PAP and ABBOTT-PAP EIA (r2 = 0.946). When the BPH patients (n = 110) were used as negative controls, the cut-off value of PSA was determined to be 4.3 ng/ml. Using this level as the cut-off value, the sensitivity was 78% (42 positive/54 untreated prostate cancer patients), specificity (negative rate in BPH patients) was 95% and efficiency was 89%. In a follow-up study of prostate cancer, the PSA value was elevated above the cut-off value in 68% at the time of clinical progression. These findings suggest that LPIA ACE PSA is a useful tool for serum PSA measurement. The cut-off value of PAP measured with LPIA ACE PAP was 9.0 ng/ml, which was determined by the same method as PSA. The sensitivity, specificity and efficiency ware 39%, 96% and 77%, respectively. These findings indicate that PAP is less useful than PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7544063

  16. The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil

    2016-05-01

    An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.

  17. Electrical injuries. Biological values measurements as a prediction factor of local evolution in electrocutions lesions

    PubMed Central

    Teodoreanu, R; Popescu, SA; Lascar, I

    2014-01-01

    associated with antisecretory drugs). By mutual agreement with ICU service, Dipyridamole was not introduced because of the “steal effect” in the viable areas to the detriment of the already ischemic areas, the drug effect being obvious in vitro, but hard to be proven in the clinical case. The relationship between the CK level and the clinical appearance of the ischemic areas is relative. We cannot conclude that an increased level of CK is equivalent to an enlarged ischemic area and even less it does not provide us direct information concerning the best time for re-excision. The presence of a viable blood supply around the necrotic tissue will lead to an important resorption of degradation products in that area, a quasinormal level of CK having no value. The sealing of the necrosis areas and the lack of immediate resorption does not have a positive prognostic value. Taking into account that the electrocutions are mostly multiple injuries, the CK level can increase even after some muscular damages, fractures, independent of the actual electrocution lesion. In one case, the patient suffered from electrocution at both thoracic limbs. With the carbonization of the hands and grifa installed up to the level of the elbow fold, he stayed for 6 hours at the accident site until he had been recovered. At the moment of presentation to the hospital, his consciousness condition was satisfactory but the CK level was of over 20000 IU, becoming rapidly non-detectable, in combination with black urine. The patient's condition deteriorated quickly, and, although the bilateral shoulder disarticulation has been carried out, he died in the next 12 hours. Discussion. As a conclusion, the CK level did not prove itself a prognostic for the surgical timing or the actual surgical attitude and could be influenced by a whole series of factors, dependent or not on the electrocution lesion. A radical attitude is to be preferred in cases with established ischemia; the prognostic being the more reserved

  18. Mild solutions to a measure-valued mass evolution problem with flux boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Joep H. M.; Hille, Sander C.; Muntean, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the well-posedness and approximation of mild solutions to a class of linear transport equations on the unit interval [ 0, 1 ] endowed with a linear discontinuous production term, formulated in the space M ([ 0, 1 ]) of finite Borel measures. Our working technique includes a detailed boundary layer analysis in terms of a semigroup representation of solutions in spaces of measures able to cope with the passage to the singular limit where thickness of the layer vanishes. We obtain not only a suitable concept of solutions to the chosen measure-valued evolution problem, but also derive convergence rates for the approximation procedure and get insight in the structure of flux boundary conditions for the limit problem.

  19. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  20. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement: values, problems and applicability in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Mietsch, M; Einspanier, A

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, C. j.) is an established primate model in biomedical research and for human-related diseases. Monitoring of cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) is important for the health surveillance of these experimental animals and the quantification of diseases or pharmaceutical substances influencing BP. Measurement guidelines for C. j. do not exist yet; therefore, the present study was carried out to establish a practicable protocol based on recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). Furthermore, BP data of 49 marmosets (13.8-202.4 months of age) were obtained via high-definition oscillometry to further knowledge of physiological parameters and gender-related differences in this primate. The thighs proved to be the most suitable measurement localization, since systolic values were less variable (left 4.03 ± 2.90%, right 5.96 ± 2.77%) compared with the tail (12.7 ± 6.96%). BP values were similar in the morning and in the afternoon (P > 0.05). Data were highly reproducible within and between several sessions on three consecutive days (P > 0.05) as well as over the course of 20 months (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the measurement time for females was significantly shorter than for males (5:14 ± 1:59 min versus 6:50 ± 1:58 min, P = 0.007). Measurement recommendations for the common marmoset were successfully established. Standardized values enabled a reliable comparison of BP parameters, e.g. for cardiovascular, toxicological or metabolic research. PMID:25552521

  1. Reconceptualizing 'effectiveness' in environmental projects: can we measure values-related achievements?

    PubMed

    Harder, Marie K; Velasco, Ismael; Burford, Gemma; Podger, Dimity; Janoušková, Svatava; Piggot, Georgia; Hoover, Elona

    2014-06-15

    There have been recent calls for a shift to an evidence-based paradigm in environmental management, grounded in systematic monitoring and evaluation, but achieving this will be complex and difficult. Evaluating the educational components of environmental initiatives presents particular challenges, because these programs often have multiple concurrent goals and may value 'human outcomes', such as value change, which are intangible and difficult to quantify. This paper describes a fresh approach based on co-creating an entirely new values-based assessment framework with expert practitioners worldwide. We first discuss the development of a generic framework of 'Proto-Indicators' (reference criteria constituting prototypes for measurable indicators), and then demonstrate its application within a reforestation project in Mexico where indicators and assessment tools were localized to enhance context-relevance. Rigorously derived using unitary validity, with an emphasis on relevance, practicability and logical consistency from user perspectives, this framework represents a step-wise advance in the evaluation of non-formal EE/ESD programs. This article also highlights three important principles with broader implications for evaluation, valuation and assessment processes within environmental management: namely peer-elicitation, localizability, and an explicit focus on ethical values. We discuss these principles in relation to the development of sustainability indicators at local and global levels, especially in relation to post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:24681651

  2. Direct measurement of large-scale quantum states via expectation values of non-Hermitian matrices

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Eliot; Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, predictions are made by way of calculating expectation values of observables, which take the form of Hermitian operators. Non-Hermitian operators, however, are not necessarily devoid of physical significance, and they can play a crucial role in the characterization of quantum states. Here we show that the expectation values of a particular set of non-Hermitian matrices, which we call column operators, directly yield the complex coefficients of a quantum state vector. We provide a definition of the state vector in terms of measurable quantities by decomposing these column operators into observables. The technique we propose renders very-large-scale quantum states significantly more accessible in the laboratory, as we demonstrate by experimentally characterizing a 100,000-dimensional entangled state. This represents an improvement of two orders of magnitude with respect to previous phase-and-amplitude characterizations of discrete entangled states. PMID:26780858

  3. Direct measurement of large-scale quantum states via expectation values of non-Hermitian matrices.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Eliot; Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, predictions are made by way of calculating expectation values of observables, which take the form of Hermitian operators. Non-Hermitian operators, however, are not necessarily devoid of physical significance, and they can play a crucial role in the characterization of quantum states. Here we show that the expectation values of a particular set of non-Hermitian matrices, which we call column operators, directly yield the complex coefficients of a quantum state vector. We provide a definition of the state vector in terms of measurable quantities by decomposing these column operators into observables. The technique we propose renders very-large-scale quantum states significantly more accessible in the laboratory, as we demonstrate by experimentally characterizing a 100,000-dimensional entangled state. This represents an improvement of two orders of magnitude with respect to previous phase-and-amplitude characterizations of discrete entangled states. PMID:26780858

  4. Direct measurement of large-scale quantum states via expectation values of non-Hermitian matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolduc, Eliot; Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, predictions are made by way of calculating expectation values of observables, which take the form of Hermitian operators. Non-Hermitian operators, however, are not necessarily devoid of physical significance, and they can play a crucial role in the characterization of quantum states. Here we show that the expectation values of a particular set of non-Hermitian matrices, which we call column operators, directly yield the complex coefficients of a quantum state vector. We provide a definition of the state vector in terms of measurable quantities by decomposing these column operators into observables. The technique we propose renders very-large-scale quantum states significantly more accessible in the laboratory, as we demonstrate by experimentally characterizing a 100,000-dimensional entangled state. This represents an improvement of two orders of magnitude with respect to previous phase-and-amplitude characterizations of discrete entangled states.

  5. Identification of Inhibitor Concentrations to Efficiently Screen and Measure Inhibition Ki Values against Solute Carrier Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Polli, James

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify inhibitor concentrations to efficiently screen and measure inhibition Ki values of solute carrier (SLC) transporters. The intestinal bile acid transporter and its native substrate taurocholate were used as a model system. Inhibition experiments were conducted using 27 compounds. For each compound, the inhibition constant Ki was obtained from the comprehensive inhibition profile, and referred as the reference Ki. Ki values were also estimated from various partial profiles and were compared to the reference Ki. A screening Ki was estimated from one data point and also compared to the reference Ki. Results indicate that Ki can be accurately measured using an inhibitor concentration range of only 0-Ki via five different inhibitor concentrations. Additionally, a screening concentration of 10-fold the substrate affinity Kt for potent inhibitors (Ki < 20Kt) and 100-fold Kt for nonpotent inhibitors (Ki > 20Kt) provided an accurate Ki estimation. Results were validated through inhibition studies of two other SLC transporters. In conclusion, experimental conditions to screen and measure accurate transporter inhibition constant Ki are suggested where a low range of inhibitor concentrations can be used. This approach is advantageous in that minimal compound is needed to perform studies and accommodates compounds with low aqueous solubility. PMID:20553862

  6. Student-Valued Measurable Teaching Behaviors of Award-Winning Pharmacy Preceptors

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Carmen; Patel, Mitul; Mac, Chi; Krueger, Janelle; Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To identify specific preceptor teaching-coaching, role modeling, and facilitating behaviors valued by pharmacy students and to develop measures of those behaviors that can be used for an experiential education quality assurance program. Methods. Using a qualitative research approach, we conducted a thematic analysis of student comments about excellent preceptors to identify behaviors exhibited by those preceptors. Identified behaviors were sorted according to the preceptor’s role as role model, teacher/coach, or learning facilitator; measurable descriptors for each behavior were then developed. Results. Data analysis resulted in identification of 15 measurable behavior themes, the most frequent being: having an interest in student learning and success, making time for students, and displaying a positive preceptor attitude. Measureable descriptors were developed for 5 role-modeling behaviors, 6 teaching-coaching behaviors, and 4 facilitating behaviors. Conclusion. Preceptors may need to be evaluated in their separate roles as teacher-coach, role model, and learning facilitator. The developed measures in this report could be used in site quality evaluation. PMID:26889063

  7. Measure-valued solutions for a hierarchically size-structured population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackleh, Azmy S.; Ito, Kazufumi

    We present a hierarchically size-structured population model with growth, mortality and reproduction rates which depend on a function of the population density ( environment). We present an example to show that if the growth rate is not always a decreasing function of the environment (e.g., a growth which exhibits the Allee effect) the emergence of a singular solution which contains a Dirac delta mass component is possible, even if the vital rates of the individual and the initial data are smooth functions. Therefore, we study the existence of measure-valued solutions. Our approach is based on the vanishing viscosity method.

  8. Analog of Formula of Total Probability for Quantum Observables Represented by Positive Operator Valued Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    We represent Born's rule as an analog of the formula of total probability (FTP): the classical formula is perturbed by an additive interference term. In this note we consider practically the most general case: generalized quantum observables given by positive operator valued measures and measurement feedback on states described by atomic instruments. This representation of Born's rule clarifies the probabilistic structure of quantum mechanics (QM). The probabilistic counterpart of QM can be treated as the probability update machinery based on the special generalization of classical FTP. This is the essence of the Växjö interpretation of QM: statistical realist contextual and local interpretation. We analyze the origin of the additional interference term in quantum FTP by considering the contextual structure of the two slit experiment which was emphasized by R. Feynman.

  9. Time-energy trade-off in unambiguous-state-discrimination positive operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdin, Raam; Gat, Omri

    2013-11-01

    Unambiguous-nonorthogonal-state discrimination has a fundamental importance in quantum information. Moreover, it can be used for entanglement distillation and secure communication. The discrimination is carried out by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM) generalized measurement, which is typically implemented by coupling the system to an ancilla. We find a trade-off between the needed energy resources and the evolution time needed to implement the POVM and express it in terms of an actionlike cost inequality. We find the realization that minimizes this actionlike cost and show that, in this case, the cost is determined by the maximal population transfer from the system to the ancilla. We demonstrate our findings in an example of a three-level system coupled to a laser.

  10. A comparison of airborne wake vortex detection measurements with values predicted from potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of flight measurements made near a wake vortex was conducted to explore the feasibility of providing a pilot with useful wake avoidance information. The measurements were made with relatively low cost flow and motion sensors on a light airplane flying near the wake vortex of a turboprop airplane weighing approximately 90000 lbs. Algorithms were developed which removed the response of the airplane to control inputs from the total airplane response and produced parameters which were due solely to the flow field of the vortex. These parameters were compared with values predicted by potential theory. The results indicated that the presence of the vortex could be detected by a combination of parameters derived from the simple sensors. However, the location and strength of the vortex cannot be determined without additional and more accurate sensors.

  11. Singular value description of a digital radiographic detector: Theory and measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Badano, Aldo; Gallas, Brandon D.; Myers, Kyle J.

    2008-01-01

    The H operator represents the deterministic performance of any imaging system. For a linear, digital imaging system, this system operator can be written in terms of a matrix, H, that describes the deterministic response of the system to a set of point objects. A singular value decomposition of this matrix results in a set of orthogonal functions (singular vectors) that form the system basis. A linear combination of these vectors completely describes the transfer of objects through the linear system, where the respective singular values associated with each singular vector describe the magnitude with which that contribution to the object is transferred through the system. This paper is focused on the measurement, analysis, and interpretation of the H matrix for digital x-ray detectors. A key ingredient in the measurement of the H matrix is the detector response to a single x ray (or infinitestimal x-ray beam). The authors have developed a method to estimate the 2D detector shift-variant, asymmetric ray response function (RRF) from multiple measured line response functions (LRFs) using a modified edge technique. The RRF measurements cover a range of x-ray incident angles from 0° (equivalent location at the detector center) to 30° (equivalent location at the detector edge) for a standard radiographic or cone-beam CT geometric setup. To demonstrate the method, three beam qualities were tested using the inherent, Lu∕Er, and Yb beam filtration. The authors show that measures using the LRF, derived from an edge measurement, underestimate the system’s performance when compared with the H matrix derived using the RRF. Furthermore, the authors show that edge measurements must be performed at multiple directions in order to capture rotational asymmetries of the RRF. The authors interpret the results of the H matrix SVD and provide correlations with the familiar MTF methodology. Discussion is made about the benefits of the H matrix technique with regards to signal

  12. Singular value description of a digital radiographic detector: Theory and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Badano, Aldo; Gallas, Brandon D.; Myers, Kyle J.

    2008-10-15

    The H operator represents the deterministic performance of any imaging system. For a linear, digital imaging system, this system operator can be written in terms of a matrix, H, that describes the deterministic response of the system to a set of point objects. A singular value decomposition of this matrix results in a set of orthogonal functions (singular vectors) that form the system basis. A linear combination of these vectors completely describes the transfer of objects through the linear system, where the respective singular values associated with each singular vector describe the magnitude with which that contribution to the object is transferred through the system. This paper is focused on the measurement, analysis, and interpretation of the H matrix for digital x-ray detectors. A key ingredient in the measurement of the H matrix is the detector response to a single x ray (or infinitestimal x-ray beam). The authors have developed a method to estimate the 2D detector shift-variant, asymmetric ray response function (RRF) from multiple measured line response functions (LRFs) using a modified edge technique. The RRF measurements cover a range of x-ray incident angles from 0 deg. (equivalent location at the detector center) to 30 deg. (equivalent location at the detector edge) for a standard radiographic or cone-beam CT geometric setup. To demonstrate the method, three beam qualities were tested using the inherent, Lu/Er, and Yb beam filtration. The authors show that measures using the LRF, derived from an edge measurement, underestimate the system's performance when compared with the H matrix derived using the RRF. Furthermore, the authors show that edge measurements must be performed at multiple directions in order to capture rotational asymmetries of the RRF. The authors interpret the results of the H matrix SVD and provide correlations with the familiar MTF methodology. Discussion is made about the benefits of the H matrix technique with regards to signal

  13. Realising the Real Benefits of Outsourcing: Measurement Excellence and Its Importance in Achieving Long Term Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    These days firms are, more than ever, pressed to demonstrate returns on their investment in outsourcing. While the initial returns can always be associated with one-off cost cutting, outsourcing arrangements are complex, often involving inter-related high-value activities, which makes the realisation of long-term benefits from outsourcing ever more challenging. Executives in client firms are no longer satisfied with the same level of service delivery through the outsourcing lifecycle. They seek to achieve business transformation and innovation in their present and future services, beyond satisfying service level agreements (SLAs). Clearly the business world is facing a new challenge: an outsourcing delivery system of high-value activities that demonstrates value over time and across business functions. However, despite such expectations, many client firms are in the dark when trying to measure and quantify the return on outsourcing investments: results of this research show that less than half of all CIOs and CFOs (43%) have attempted to calculate the financial impact of outsourcing to their bottom line, indicating that the financial benefits are difficult to quantify (51%).

  14. Measurement of the solar heat gain coefficient and U value of windows with insect screens

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, A.; Dubrous, F.M.; Harrison, S.

    1999-07-01

    Energy ratings are currently being used in a number of countries to assist in the selection of windows and doors based on energy performance. Developed for simple comparison purposes, these rating numbers do not take into account window removable attachments such as insect screens that are, nevertheless, widely used. Research was carried out to assess the effect of insect screens on the heat gains and losses of windows. The work reported in this paper deals with the effect of one screen type on the performance of a base-case, double-glazed window. Using an indoor solar simulator facility, measurements of the window solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and U value were made for different screen attachment configurations and climatic conditions. Results with the sample window tested indicate that insect screens placed on the outdoor side can reduce its SHGC by 46% with only a 7% reduction in its U value (0.19 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C), and that insect screens placed on the indoor side can reduce its SHGC by 15% while reducing its U value by 14% (0.38 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C).

  15. Singular value decomposition filtering for enhanced signal extraction from two-dimensional beam emission spectroscopy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, M. W.; McKee, G. R.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2008-10-15

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of extracted turbulence features from beam emission spectroscopy (BES) data is significantly enhanced via application of singular value decomposition (SVD) methods. BES measures two-dimensional localized density fluctuations in DIII-D. The SNR of core turbulence characteristics is typically limited by noise arising from electronic noise, photon noise, and fluctuations in the observed neutral beam. SVD filtering has led to a significant enhancement in the SNR, reducing errors in time-resolved measurements of core turbulence characteristics, including correlation lengths, decorrelation rates, and group velocities. The SVD filtration technique is applied to BES data by combining multiple physically adjacent sampling locations to extract spatially correlated signals while partially removing unwanted incoherent noise. Using approximately half of the singular value weighted modes to reconstruct turbulence signals is found to improve SNR by up to a factor of 4, while maintaining the spatial structure of the turbulence. Unique aspects of application of SVD to broadband turbulence data are discussed.

  16. Metrological traceability of the measured values of properties of engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebben, G.; Linsinger, T.; Lamberty, A.; Emons, H.

    2010-04-01

    Global comparability of the measured values of material properties is based on some fundamental metrological concepts. These concepts are either already widely implemented in current procedures for materials testing or they are being further developed and increasingly accepted and used. An important aspect of the comparability of measurement results is metrological traceability. This paper aims at illustrating with practical examples how to apply the concept of metrological traceability as defined in ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, known also as the VIM (International Vocabulary of Metrology), in the field of engineering material properties. VIM distinguishes three different types of references for traceability: either to a system of units, such as the SI, to a measurement procedure or to a physical measurement standard. For each approach, an example is given in the field of engineering material properties, including appropriate traceability statements and means to achieve the traceability. The role of certified reference materials is highlighted, as well as practical consequences of traceability requirements for the design of reference material certification projects.

  17. Optimizing the value of measuring inferior vena cava diameter in shocked patients.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-02-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound has been increasingly used in evaluating shocked patients including the measurement of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter. Operators should standardize their technique in scanning IVC. Relative changes are more important than absolute numbers. We advise using the longitudinal view (B mode) to evaluate the gross collapsibility, and the M mode to measure the IVC diameter. Combining the collapsibility and diameter size will increase the value of IVC measurement. This approach has been very useful in the resuscitation of shocked patients, monitoring their fluid demands, and predicting recurrence of shock. Pitfalls in measuring IVC diameter include increased intra-thoracic pressure by mechanical ventilation or increased right atrial pressure by pulmonary embolism or heart failure. The IVC diameter is not useful in cases of increased intra-abdominal pressure (abdominal compartment syndrome) or direct pressure on the IVC. The IVC diameter should be combined with focused echocardiography and correlated with the clinical picture as a whole to be useful. PMID:26855888

  18. Comparison Between Measured and Calculated Free Calcium Values at Different Serum Albumin Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Altaf Ahmad; Goyal, Bela; Datta, Sudip Kumar; Ikkurthi, Saidaiah; Pal, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Free ionic calcium is the metabolically active component of total calcium (TCa) in blood. However, most laboratories report TCa levels that are dependent on serum albumin concentration. Hence, several formulae have evolved to calculate free calcium levels from TCa after adjustment for albumin. However, free calcium can directly be measured using direction selective electrodes rather than spectrophotometric methods used in autoanalyzers. Objectives: This study compares the levels of free calcium obtained by measurement by direct ion selective electrode (ISE) and the one calculated as a function of TCa by formulae. Materials and Methods: A total of 254 serum samples submitted to clinical biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary care hospital were analyzed for total protein, albumin, and TCa by standard spectrophotometric methods and for free calcium by direct ISE. Three commonly used formulae viz. Orrell, Berry et al. and Payne et al. were used to calculate adjusted TCa. Calculated free calcium was obtained by taking 50% of these values. Results: A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between calculated free calcium by all the three formulae and measured free calcium estimated by direct ISE using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Conclusion: Formulae for predicting free calcium by estimating TCa and albumin lacks consistency in prediction and free calcium should be evaluated by direct measurement. PMID:27365914

  19. Construction of extremal local positive-operator-valued measures under symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Virmani, S.; Plenio, M.B.

    2003-06-01

    We study the local implementation of positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs) when we require only the faithful reproduction of the statistics of the measurement outcomes for all initial states. We first demonstrate that any POVM with separable elements can be implemented by a separable superoperator, and develop techniques for calculating the extreme points of POVMs under a certain class of constraint that includes separability and positive partial transposition. As examples we consider measurements that are invariant under various symmetry groups (Werner, isotropic, Bell diagonal, local orthogonal), and demonstrate that in these cases separability of the POVM elements is equivalent to implementability via local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We also calculate the extrema of these classes of measurement under the groups that we consider, and give explicit LOCC protocols for attaining them. These protocols are hence optimal methods for locally discriminating between states of these symmetries. One of many interesting consequences is that the best way to locally discriminate Bell-diagonal mixed states is to perform a two-outcome POVM using local von Neumann projections. This is true regardless of the cost function, the number of states being discriminated, or the prior probabilities. Our results give the first cases of local mixed-state discrimination that can be analyzed quantitatively in full, and may have application to other problems such as demonstrations of nonlocality, experimental entanglement witnesses, and perhaps even entanglement distillation.

  20. Traceable measurement and uncertainty analysis of the gross calorific value of methane determined by isoperibolic calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haloua, F.; Foulon, E.; Allard, A.; Hay, B.; Filtz, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    As methane is the major component of natural gas and non-conventional gases as biogas or mine gases, its energy content has to be measured accurately regardless of its production site for fiscal trading of transported and distributed natural gas. The determination of calorific value of fuel gases with the lowest uncertainty can only be performed by direct method with a reference gas calorimeter. To address this point, LNE developed a few years ago an isoperibolic reference gas calorimeter according to the Rossini’s principle. The energy content Hs of methane of purity 99.9995% has been measured to 55 507.996 kJ kg-1 (890.485 kJ mol-1) with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.091% (coverage factor k  =  2.101 providing a level of confidence of approximately 95%). These results are based on ten repeated measurements and on the uncertainty assessment performed in accordance with the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). The experimental setup and the results are reported here and for the first time, the fully detailed uncertainty calculation is exposed.

  1. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Mel W.; Grab, Denise A.; Livermore, Michael A.; Vossler, Christian A.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods—including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services—provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically “nonmarket” goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  2. Octanol/water partition coefficients of phthalate esters: A comparison of measured, estimated, and computed values

    SciTech Connect

    Ellington, J.; Floyd, T.

    1995-12-31

    Reliable octanol/water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}) of nine dialkyl phthalate esters are needed in an ongoing benthic organisms toxicity testing program. The equilibrium distribution of an organic chemical between water and octanol (K{sub ow}) is a physical constant that can be used to calculate both bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and equilibrium constants for sediment-organic carbon partitioning (K{sub oc}). The log K{sub ow}s reported in the literature for a single chemical often span several orders of magnitude. For example, the reported log K{sub ow}s of bis(2-ethylehxyl) phthalate range from a low of 5.11 to a high of 9.61. The log K{sub ow}s of the dialkyl phthalate esters in this study were expected to range from < 2 (dimethyl) to > 8 (didecyl). The slow-stir method as described by de Bruijn has been shown to avoid emulsion formation and allow measure of K{sub ow}s of chemicals with log K{sub ow} > 6. In addition to measurement by the slow-stir method the K{sub ow}s were also determined by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) estimation method and calculated by a computer based program that was designed to calculate physical/chemical properties (SPARC). The greatest difference between the slow-stir and SPARC K{sub ow} values was 0.19 with the other differences less than 0.1 log units. All the HPLC estimated values were at least 0.7 log units lower than the slow-stir value. For example, the log K{sub ow}s determined for dibutly phthalate by the slow-stir, SPARC, and HPLC methods were 4.50 {+-} 0.03, 4.61, and 4.00, respectively.

  3. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Mel W; Grab, Denise A; Livermore, Michael A; Vossler, Christian A; Glimcher, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods--including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services--provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically "nonmarket" goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  4. Detection of myocardial viability by dobutamine stress echocardiography: incremental value of diastolic wall thickness measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zaglavara, T; Pillay, T; Karvounis, H; Haaverstad, R; Parharidis, G; Louridas, G; Kenny, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of baseline diastolic wall thickness (DWT) alone and as an adjunct to dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) for prediction of myocardial viability in patients with ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, with the recovery of resting function after revascularisation as the yardstick. Patients: 24 patients with ischaemic LV dysfunction (ejection fraction < 40%) scheduled for surgical revascularisation. Setting: Regional cardiothoracic centre. Methods: All patients underwent DSE before and resting echocardiography six months after revascularisation. DWT was measured in each of the 16 LV segments. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and a multi-ROC curve were generated to assess the ability of DWT alone and in combination with DSE to predict myocardial viability. Results: DWT > 0.6 cm provided a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 51%, and a negative predictive value of 80% for the prediction of viability in akinetic segments. DSE had an excellent specificity (92%) but a modest sensitivity (60%) in akinetic segments. A combination of improvement at DSE or DWT > 0.8 cm improved sensitivity (90% v 60%, p < 0.001) and negative predictive value (92% v 78%, p  =  0.03) in akinetic segments compared with DSE alone. This was achieved with some loss in specificity (75% v 92%, p  =  0.01) and positive predictive value (71% v 82%, p  =  0.79). Conclusions: DWT measurement may improve the sensitivity of DSE for the detection of myocardial viability. Akinetic segments with DWT > 0.8 cm have a good chance of recovery despite the absence of contractile reserve during DSE. Further testing may be required before excluding myocardial viability in these cases. PMID:15831644

  5. Methods for evaluating the reference value in laboratory intercomparisons of dimensional measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack A.

    2005-08-01

    A number of methods have been proposed to evaluate the reference value for intercomparisons of laboratory measurements. Methods for establishing the reference value include the arithmetic mean, weighted mean (with weights proportional to the reciprocals of the squared uncertainties), median, and total median. In addition, it has been suggested that it might be possible to modify the weighted mean, using iterative approaches to automatically eliminate outliers or to modify the weights in light of the results of the intercomparison. No single one of the analysis methods is best for all circumstances, nor can the efficiency of any method be determined without making assumptions about the underlying nature of the intercomparison. (How well do the participants evaluate their uncertainties? What is the underlying distribution of errors, including outliers? Are the errors correlated between one laboratory and the next?) Although there is considerable divergence of opinion as to what constitutes realistic assumptions, completed international comparisons can begin to provide at least rough guidance for constructing models. In this paper, I will try to construct models that are consistent with what we have learned thus far from CCL (Consultative Committee for Length) key comparisons in the field of dimensional metrology. Based on such models, I have explored various methods for establishing a reference value, to determine which methods are likely to produce a reference value with a low uncertainty. As would be expected, there is no single method that is always superior; results depend on both the underlying assumptions and on the spread and distribution of claimed uncertainties of the participating laboratories.

  6. Performance-based measures of physical function as mortality predictors: Incremental value beyond self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Noreen; Glei, Dana A.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Weinstein, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although previous studies have indicated that performance assessments strongly predict future survival, few have evaluated the incremental value in the presence of controls for self-reported activity and mobility limitations. OBJECTIVE We assess and compare the added value of four tests – walking speed, chair stands, grip strength, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) – for predicting all-cause mortality. METHODS Using population-based samples of older adults in Costa Rica (n = 2290, aged 60+) and Taiwan (n = 1219, aged 53+), we estimate proportional hazards models of mortality for an approximate five-year period. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are used to assess the prognostic value of each performance assessment. RESULTS Self-reported measures of physical limitations contribute substantial gains in mortality prediction, whereas performance-based assessments yield modest incremental gains. PEF provides the greatest added value, followed by grip strength. Our results suggest that including more than two performance assessments may provide little improvement in mortality prediction. CONCLUSIONS PEF and grip strength are often simpler to administer in home interview settings, impose less of a burden on some respondents, and, in the presence of self-reported limitations, appear to be better predictors of mortality than do walking speed or chair stands. COMMENTS Being unable to perform the test is often a strong predictor of mortality, but these indicators are not well-defined. Exclusion rates vary by the specific task and are likely to depend on the underlying demographic, health, social and cultural characteristics of the sample. PMID:25866473

  7. Estimation of utility values from visual analog scale measures of health in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oddershede, Lars; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Ehlers, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In health economic evaluations, mapping can be used to estimate utility values from other health outcomes in order to calculate quality adjusted life-years. Currently, no methods exist to map visual analog scale (VAS) scores to utility values. This study aimed to develop and propose a statistical algorithm for mapping five dimensions of health, measured on VASs, to utility scores in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease. Methods Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting at Aalborg University Hospital in Denmark were asked to score their health using the five VAS items (mobility, self-care, ability to perform usual activities, pain, and presence of anxiety or depression) and the EuroQol 5 Dimensions questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to estimate four mapping models from patients’ age, sex, and the self-reported VAS scores. Prediction errors were compared between mapping models and on subsets of the observed utility scores. Agreement between predicted and observed values was assessed using Bland–Altman plots. Results Random effects generalized least squares (GLS) regression yielded the best results when quadratic terms of VAS scores were included. Mapping models fitted using the Tobit model and censored least absolute deviation regression did not appear superior to GLS regression. The mapping models were able to explain approximately 63%–65% of the variation in the observed utility scores. The mean absolute error of predictions increased as the observed utility values decreased. Conclusion We concluded that it was possible to predict utility scores from VAS scores of the five dimensions of health used in the EuroQol questionnaires. However, the use of the mapping model may be inappropriate in more severe conditions. PMID:24453497

  8. A Novel Scoring System to Measure Radiographic Abnormalities and Related Spirometric Values in Cured Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Saldaña, Renata; López-Arteaga, Yesenia; Bizarrón-Muro, Alma; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; García-García, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite chemotherapy, patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis may result in lung functional impairment. Objective To evaluate a novel scoring system based on the degree of radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods One hundred and twenty seven patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in a referral hospital specializing in respiratory diseases. Spirometry was performed and the extent of radiographic abnormalities was evaluated twice by each of two readers to generate a novel quantitative score. Scoring reproducibility was analyzed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman method. Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess the association of the extent of radiographic abnormalities with spirometric values. Results The intra-observer agreement for scoring of radiographic abnormalities (SRA) showed an ICC of 0.81 (CI:95%, 0.67–0.95) and 0.78 (CI:95%, 0.65–0.92), for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-observer reproducibility for the first measurement was 0.83 (CI:95%, 0.71–0.95), and for the second measurement was 0.74 (CI:95%, 0.58–0.90). The Bland-Altman analysis of the intra-observer agreement showed a mean bias of 0.87% and -0.55% and an inter-observer agreement of -0.35% and -1.78%, indicating a minor average systematic variability. After adjustment for age, gender, height, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and degree of dyspnea, the scoring degree of radiographic abnormalities was significantly and negatively associated with absolute and percent predicted values of FVC: -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.01 to -0.04); -2.48 (CI:95%, -3.45 to -1.50); and FEV1 -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.10 to -0.05); -2.92 (CI:95%, -3.87 to -1.97) respectively, in the patients studied. Conclusion The extent of radiographic abnormalities, as evaluated through our novel scoring system, was inversely associated with spirometric values, and

  9. Comparison between three methods to value lower tear meniscus measured by image software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Resúa, Carlos; Pena-Verdeal, Hugo; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, M. Elisabete Real; Giráldez, María. Jesús; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva

    2013-11-01

    To measure different parameters of lower tear meniscus height (TMH) by using photography with open software of measurement. TMH was addressed from lower eyelid to the top of the meniscus (absolute TMH) and to the brightest meniscus reflex (reflex TMH). 121 young healthy subjects were included in the study. The lower tear meniscus was videotaped by a digital camera attached to a slit lamp. Three videos were recorded in central meniscus portion on three different methods: slit lamp without fluorescein instillation, slit lamp with fluorescein instillation and TearscopeTM without fluorescein instillation. Then, a masked observed obtained an image from each video and measured TMH by using open source software of measurement based on Java (NIH ImageJ). Absolute central (TMH-CA), absolute with fluorescein (TMH-F) and absolute using the Tearscope (TMH-Tc) were compared each other as well as reflex central (TMH-CR) and reflex Tearscope (TMH-TcR). Mean +/- S.D. values of TMH-CA, TMH-CR, TMH-F, TMH-Tc and TMH-TcR of 0.209 +/- 0.049, 0.139 +/- 0.031, 0.222 +/- 0.058, 0.175 +/- 0.045 and 0.109 +/- 0.029 mm, respectively were found. Paired t-test was performed for the relationship between TMH-CA - TMH-CR, TMH-CA - TMH-F, TMH-CA - TMH-Tc, TMH-F - TMH-Tc, TMH-Tc - TMH-TcR and TMH-CR - TMH-TcR. In all cases, it was found a significant difference between both variables (all p < 0.008). This study showed a useful tool to objectively measure TMH by photography. Eye care professionals should maintain the same TMH parameter in the follow-up visits, due to the difference between them.

  10. How Do Value-Added Indicators Compare to Other Measures of Teacher Effectiveness? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent drive to revamp teacher evaluation and accountability, measures of a teacher's value added have played the starring role. But the star of the show is not always the best actor, nor can the star succeed without a strong supporting cast. In assessing teacher performance, observations of classroom practice, portfolios of teachers' work,…

  11. Effect of sampling location on L* values and pH measurements and their relationship in broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lightness (CIELAB L*) and pH values are the most widely measured quality indicators for broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major). Measurement of L* values with a spectrophotometer can be done through Specular Component Included (SCI) or Specular Component Excluded (SCE) modes. The intra-fillet loca...

  12. An equation to calculate the actual methylene middle parameter as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin

    2015-08-21

    Methylene middle parameter [Formula: see text] , the product of the methylene group's cross-sectional area ( [Formula: see text] ) and the root square of its dispersive free energy ( [Formula: see text] ), is the key parameter to calculate the dispersive surface components of solids (γs(d)) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at different temperatures. The only method reported to calculate [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature is the Dorris-Gray method. However, the conventional values of [Formula: see text] calculated by the Dorris-Gray method depend heavily on theoretical aspects. This paper establishes a novel equation calculating the actual [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature using the latest and most accurate surface parameters of seven successive n-alkanes. The obtained actual [Formula: see text] values are slightly higher those of the conventional [Formula: see text] . At 20°C, the actual [Formula: see text] generates γs(d) values less than those generated using the conventional [Formula: see text] by ∼3%, and this reduction in calculated γs(d) values increases linearly to become ∼5% at 100°C. Therefore, using the new actual [Formula: see text] seems to mitigate the discrepancy between the γs(d) values measured by IGC and those measured by the contact angle method. PMID:26187766

  13. Measuring and predicting Delta(vap)H298 values of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Deyko, Alexey; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Corfield, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Alasdair W; Gooden, Peter N; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Licence, Peter; Jones, Robert G; Krasovskiy, Vladimir G; Chernikova, Elena A; Kustov, Leonid M

    2009-10-14

    We report the enthalpies of vaporisation (measured using temperature programmed desorption by mass spectrometry) of twelve ionic liquids (ILs), covering four imidazolium, [C(m)C(n)Im]+, five pyrrolidinium, [C(n)C(m)Pyrr]+, two pyridinium, [C(n)Py]+, and a dication, [C3(C1Im)2]2+ based IL. These cations were paired with a range of anions: [BF4]-, [FeCl4]-, [N(CN)2]-, [PF3(C2F5)3]- ([FAP]-), [(CF3SO2)2N]- ([Tf2N]-) and [SCN]-. Using these results, plus those for a further eight imidazolium based ILs published earlier (which include the anions [CF3SO3]- ([TfO]-), [PF6]- and [EtSO4]-), we show that the enthalpies of vaporisation can be decomposed into three components. The first component is the Coulombic interaction between the ions, DeltaU(Cou,R), which is a function of the IL molar volume, V(m), and a parameter R(r) which quantifies the relative change in anion-cation distance on evaporation from the liquid phase to the ion pair in the gas phase. The second and third components are the van der Waals contributions from the anion, DeltaH(vdw,A), and the cation, DeltaH(vdw,C). We derive a universal value for R(r), and individual values of DeltaH(vdw,A) and DeltaH(vdw,C) for each of the anions and cations considered in this study. Given the molar volume, it is possible to estimate the enthalpies of vaporisation of ILs composed of any combination of the ions considered here; values for fourteen ILs which have not yet been studied experimentally are given. PMID:19774286

  14. Validation of an online questionnaire measure of the relative reinforcing value of food.

    PubMed

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory methods and questionnaires to assess the relative reinforcing value of food (RRV-F) have been developed, but this is the first study to validate an online questionnaire measure of the RRV-F. Participants (281 college students) completed an online survey assessing demographic variables, food preferences, and the RRV-F. A subsample (n=21) also completed a laboratory food choice session. The online RRV-F instrument showed strong predictive validity for laboratory food choice behavior, convergent validity with overweight status, and discriminant validity with unrelated constructs (age, gender, height). Results suggest that online methodology is appropriate for assessing the RRV-F in a manner that is cost-effective, time-efficient, affords greater anonymity, and enables recruitment from larger samples over a broader geographic region. PMID:22664412

  15. Harvestable vibrational energy from an avian source: theoretical predictions vs. measured values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; MacCurdy, Robert; Garcia, Ephrahim; Winkler, David

    2012-04-01

    For many reasons, it would be beneficial to have the capability of powering a wildlife tag over the course of multiple migratory seasons. Such an energy harvesting system would allow for more data collection and eliminate the need to replace depleted batteries. In this work, we investigate energy harvesting on birds and focus on vibrational energy harvesting. We review a method of predicting the amount of power that can be safely harvested from the birds such that the effect on their longterm survivability is not compromised. After showing that the safely harvestable power is significant in comparison to the circuits used in avian tags, we present testing results for the flight accelerations of two species of birds. Using these measured values, we then design harvesters that matched the flight acceleration frequency and are sufficiently low mass to be carried by the birds.

  16. Deterministic Positive Operator Valued Measurements Performed Onto Remote Qubits via Partially Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, LiBing; Lu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    We show how a remote positive operator valued measurement (POVM) can be implemented deterministically by using partially entangled state(s). Firstly, we present a theoretical scheme for implementing deterministically a remote and controlled POVM onto any one of N qubits via a partially entangled ( N + 1)-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, in which ( N - 1) administrators are included. Then, we design another scheme for implementing deterministically a POVM onto N remote qubits via N partially entangled qubit pairs. Our schemes have been designed for obtaining the optimal success probabilities: i.e. they are identical to those in the ordinary, local, POVMs. In these schemes, the POVM dictates the amount of entanglement needed. The fact that such overall treatment can save quantum resources is notable.

  17. A sensitive, high resolution magic angle turning experiment for measuring chemical shift tensor principal values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, D. W.

    1998-12-01

    A sensitive, high-resolution 'FIREMAT' two-dimensional (2D) magic-angle-turning experiment is described that measures chemical shift tensor principal values in powdered solids. The spectra display spinning-sideband patterns separated by their isotropic shifts. The new method's sensitivity and high resolution in the isotropic-shift dimension result from combining the 5pi magic-angle-turning pulse sequence, an extension of the pseudo-2D sideband-suppression data rearrangement, and the TIGER protocol for processing 2D data. TPPM decoupling is used to enhance resolution. The method requires precise synchronization of the pulses and sampling to the rotor position. It is shown that the technique obtains 35 natural-abundance 13C tensors from erythromycin in 19 hours, and high quality naturalabundance 15N tensors from eight sites in potassium penicillin V in three days on a 400MHz spectrometer.

  18. Quantum Tasks with Non-maximally Quantum Channels via Positive Operator-Valued Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Luo, Ming-Xing; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    By using a proper positive operator-valued measure (POVM), we present two new schemes for probabilistic transmission with non-maximally four-particle cluster states. In the first scheme, we demonstrate that two non-maximally four-particle cluster states can be used to realize probabilistically sharing an unknown three-particle GHZ-type state within either distant agent's place. In the second protocol, we demonstrate that a non-maximally four-particle cluster state can be used to teleport an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state in a probabilistic manner with appropriate unitary operations and POVM. Moreover the total success probability of these two schemes are also worked out.

  19. Prediction of breeding values for tenderness of market animals from measurements on bulls.

    PubMed

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Koohmaraie, M; Lunstra, D D; Crouse, J D

    1996-11-01

    Data were tenderness measures on steaks from 237 bulls (Group II) slaughtered after producing freezable semen and on 1,431 related steers and heifers (market animals, Group I) from Angus, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Brahman, and Sahiwal crosses from the Germ Plasm Evaluation project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Tenderness was assessed through Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (SF), taste panel tenderness (TPT), marbling score (MS), and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). For all traits, as fraction Bos indicus inheritance increased, implied tenderness decreased. Heritability estimates were generally not significantly different from zero. Genetic correlations generally indicated favorable associations among the traits. The range in predicted breeding values of bulls for market animal tenderness was small and from -.34 to .32 kg for market animal shear force. Because of low estimates of heritability for SF or TPT, results from this experiment indicate that selection based on tenderness of steaks sampled from intact or late castrate males slaughtered following collection of freezable quality semen would not be very effective in improving average tenderness of steaks from steers of heifer progeny. If a mean of heritability estimates reported in the literature of .27 for shear value was assumed for market steer and heifer progeny instead of .02 as found in the present study, then selection based on estimates of shear force in young bulls would be relatively more effective in improving shear force of market progeny. PMID:8923175

  20. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  1. The Values Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, Joan S.; And Others

    The inventory is designed to measure seven dimensions of value based on seven categories of needs: physiological; safety; love; esteem; aesthetic; self-actualization; and aggression. Each item was pretested and checked for validity and reliability. Two test formats, each containing 30 items, were prepared: a single picture format in which the…

  2. Comparing results of an exact vs. an approximate (Bayesian) measurement invariance test: a cross-country illustration with a scale to measure 19 human values

    PubMed Central

    Cieciuch, Jan; Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter; Algesheimer, René; Schwartz, Shalom H.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used procedures for measurement invariance testing is the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Muthén and Asparouhov recently proposed a new approach to test for approximate rather than exact measurement invariance using Bayesian MGCFA. Approximate measurement invariance permits small differences between parameters otherwise constrained to be equal in the classical exact approach. However, extant knowledge about how results of approximate measurement invariance tests compare to the results of the exact measurement invariance test is missing. We address this gap by comparing the results of exact and approximate cross-country measurement invariance tests of a revised scale to measure human values. Several studies that measured basic human values with the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) reported problems of measurement noninvariance (especially scalar noninvariance) across countries. Recently Schwartz et al. proposed a refined value theory and an instrument (PVQ-5X) to measure 19 more narrowly defined values. Cieciuch et al. tested its measurement invariance properties across eight countries and established exact scalar measurement invariance for 10 of the 19 values. The current study applied the approximate measurement invariance procedure on the same data and established approximate scalar measurement invariance even for all 19 values. Thus, the first conclusion is that the approximate approach provides more encouraging results for the usefulness of the scale for cross-cultural research, although this finding needs to be generalized and validated in future research using population data. The second conclusion is that the approximate measurement invariance is more likely than the exact approach to establish measurement invariance, although further simulation studies are needed to determine more precise recommendations about how large the permissible variance of the priors may be. PMID:25249996

  3. Comparing results of an exact vs. an approximate (Bayesian) measurement invariance test: a cross-country illustration with a scale to measure 19 human values.

    PubMed

    Cieciuch, Jan; Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter; Algesheimer, René; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used procedures for measurement invariance testing is the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Muthén and Asparouhov recently proposed a new approach to test for approximate rather than exact measurement invariance using Bayesian MGCFA. Approximate measurement invariance permits small differences between parameters otherwise constrained to be equal in the classical exact approach. However, extant knowledge about how results of approximate measurement invariance tests compare to the results of the exact measurement invariance test is missing. We address this gap by comparing the results of exact and approximate cross-country measurement invariance tests of a revised scale to measure human values. Several studies that measured basic human values with the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) reported problems of measurement noninvariance (especially scalar noninvariance) across countries. Recently Schwartz et al. proposed a refined value theory and an instrument (PVQ-5X) to measure 19 more narrowly defined values. Cieciuch et al. tested its measurement invariance properties across eight countries and established exact scalar measurement invariance for 10 of the 19 values. The current study applied the approximate measurement invariance procedure on the same data and established approximate scalar measurement invariance even for all 19 values. Thus, the first conclusion is that the approximate approach provides more encouraging results for the usefulness of the scale for cross-cultural research, although this finding needs to be generalized and validated in future research using population data. The second conclusion is that the approximate measurement invariance is more likely than the exact approach to establish measurement invariance, although further simulation studies are needed to determine more precise recommendations about how large the permissible variance of the priors may be. PMID:25249996

  4. 36 CFR 223.64 - Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or rate per unit of measure basis. 223.64 Section 223.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.64 Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure basis. Timber may be appraised and sold at a lump-sum value or at a rate per unit of measure which rate may...

  5. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  6. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  7. On the air-entry value of porous media: New insights from measurements, imaging and pore scale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Peter; Hoogland, Frouke; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    The air entry value is the capillary pressure associated with the formation of a continuous gas phase, hence marking the onset of unsaturated conditions in a porous medium. Near the air-entry value, transport properties change abruptly hence the importance of reliable determination of this value for modeling processes in the vadose zone. Typically, air entry value is inferred from the soil water characteristics of a porous sample subjected to step-wise increase in applied suction. This procedure is laborious and may require long equilibration times, and is difficult to apply for coarse media. We present an alternative and simpler method to deduce air entry-value from continuous evaporation from an initially saturated porous sample. As water evaporates and menisci form and penetrate the surface, the capillary pressure (measured with a tensiometer at any depth) abruptly changes and marks the macroscopic air entry value. This value remains remarkably constant during evaporation and receding drying front (after accounting for hydrostatic front position). We present experimental results from different porous media confirming that air-entry values deduced from soil water characteristics and evaporation experiments are similar. We employed pore scale imaging and network modeling to confirm that the air-entry value corresponds to the critical path that is needed to form a continuous air phase and its macroscopic value remains stable at a drying front that traverses a uniform porous medium. For layered media, corresponding adjustments in air entry values and air invasion patterns have been predicted and measured.

  8. Implementation of Positive Operator-Valued Measure in Passive Faraday Mirror Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Long; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Passive Faraday-mirror (PFM) attack is based on imperfect Faraday mirrors in practical quantum cryptography systems and a set of three-dimensional Positive Operator-Valued Measure (POVM) operators plays an important role in this attack. In this paper, we propose a simple scheme to implement the POVM in PFM attack on an Faraday-Michelson quantum cryptography system. Since the POVM can not be implemented directly with previous methods, in this scheme it needs to expand the states sent by Alice and the POVM operators in the attack into four-dimensional Hilbert space first, without changing the attacking effect by calculation. Based on the methods proposed by Ahnert and Payne, the linear-optical setup for implementing the POVM operators is derived. At last, the complete setup for realizing the PFM attack is presented with all parameters. Furthermore, our scheme can also be applied to realize PFM attack on a plug-and-play system by changing the parameters in the setup. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61472446, U1204602, and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No. 2011AA010803, and the Open Project Program of the State Key Laboratory of Mathematical Engineering and Advanced Computing under Grant No. 2013A14

  9. Judging Surgical Research: How Should We Evaluate Performance and Measure Value?

    PubMed Central

    Souba, Wiley W.; Wilmore, Douglas W.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To establish criteria to evaluate performance in surgical research, and to suggest strategies to optimize research in the future. Summary Background Data Research is an integral component of the academic mission, focusing on important clinical problems, accounting for surgical advances, and providing training and mentoring for young surgeons. With constraints on healthcare resources, there is increasing pressure to generate clinical revenues at the expense of the time and effort devoted to surgical research. An approach that would assess the value of research would allow prioritization of projects. Further, alignment of high-priority research projects with clinical goals would optimize research gains and maximize the clinical enterprise. Methods The authors reviewed performance criteria applied to industrial research and modified these criteria to apply to surgical research. They reviewed several programs that align research objectives with clinical goals. Results Performance criteria were categorized along several dimensions: internal measures (quality, productivity, innovation, learning, and development), customer satisfaction, market share, and financial indices (cost and profitability). A “report card” was proposed to allow the assessment of research in an individual department or division. Conclusions The department’s business strategy can no longer be divorced from its research strategy. Alignment between research and clinical goals will maximize the department’s objectives but will create the need to modify existing hierarchical structures and reward systems. Such alignment appears to be the best way to ensure the success of surgical research in the future. PMID:10862192

  10. Ancilla dimensions needed to carry out positive-operator-valued measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Bergou, Janos A.; Zhu Shiyao; Guo Guangcan

    2007-12-15

    To implement a positive-operator-valued measurement (POVM), which is defined on the d{sub S}-dimensional Hilbert space of a physical system, one has to extend the Hilbert space to include d{sub A} additional dimensions (called the ancilla). This is done via either the tensor product extension (TPE) or the direct sum extension (DSE). The implementation of a POVM utilizes the available resources more efficiently if it requires fewer additional dimensions. To determine how to implement a POVM with the least additional dimensions is, therefore, an important task in quantum information. We have determined the necessary and sufficient (hence minimal) number of the additional dimensions needed to implement the same POVM by the TPE and the DSE, respectively. If the POVM has n elements and r{sub i} is the rank of the ith element, then the dimension of the minimal ancilla is d{sub A}={sigma}{sub i=1}{sup n}r{sub i}-d{sub S} for the DSE implementation, and this represents a lower bound for the added dimensions in the TPE implementation. In the proof, we explicitly construct the DSE implementation of a general POVM with elements of arbitrary rank. As an example, we determine d{sub A} for the unambiguous discrimination of N linearly independent states and provide the full DSE implementation of a state-discriminating POVM for N=2.

  11. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of the Values Tracker: A Two-Item Measure of Engagement in Valued Activities in Those With Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Pielech, Melissa; Bailey, Robert W; McEntee, Mindy L; Ashworth, Julie; Levell, Jayne; Sowden, Gail; Vowles, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in valued activities is an important outcome, particularly in treatments that aim to enhance quality of life in those with chronic conditions. The present study describes the initial evaluation of the Values Tracker (VT), a two-item measure of values engagement, in 302 treatment-seeking adults with chronic pain. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the utility of the VT in the statistical prediction of pain-related functioning, after controlling for demographic variables, pain intensity, and pain-related distress. Across analyses, pain intensity accounted for significant variance (range ΔR2 = .06-.09) with pain-related distress adding additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .07-.19). The VT accounted for additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .02-.17) for all variables with the exception of physical disability. These findings provide initial support for the utility of the VT in those with chronic pain. Given the VT's brevity, it may be particularly useful for tracking changes in engagement in values across sessions. PMID:26611467

  13. Optical measurement of the pH value of intransparent samples under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, M.; Wierschem, A.; Rauh, C.; Delgado, A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a method to optically study the pH value of intransparent media under pressure. To this end, we prepare and use immobilized pH-value indicators. The indicators are brought into contact to the medium and their optical signal is read out in reflection with a spectrometer. The pH value and pressure response of the indicator were calibrated with imidazole buffers. As an example for its applicability to foodstuff, we study the pressure-induced pH-value change of fat and meat pastes.

  14. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  15. An evaluation of the seasonal added value of downscaling over the United States using new verification measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haan, Laurel L.; Kanamitsu, Masao; De Sales, Fernando; Sun, Liqiang

    2015-10-01

    Two separate dynamically downscaled ensembles are used to assess the added value of downscaling over the continental United States on a seasonal timescale. One data set is from a 55-year continuous run forced with observed sea surface temperatures. The other data set has downscaling results from seven regional models for 21 winters forced from a single coupled global model. The second data set, known as the Multi-RCM Ensemble Downscaling (MRED) project was used as a collection of individual models as well as a multi-model ensemble. The data was first tested for the potential loss of small-scale details due to averaging, and it was found that the number of small-scale details is not reduced when averaging over several models or several years. The added value of the downscaling was then calculated by standard measures, including climatology and correlation, as well as two newer measures: the added value index (AVI) and fraction skill score (FSS). The additional verification measures provided more information about the added value than was found with the standard measures. In general, more added value was found with the multi-model ensemble than with individual models. While it was clear that the added value was dependent on the forcing model, regional model, season, variable, and region, there were some areas where the downscale consistently added value, particularly near the coast and in topographically interesting areas.

  16. Measuring the Value Added by Technical Documentation: A Review of Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Reviews existing work on establishing value of technical documentation to determine its principles. States that value can be returned by reducing internal investment, increasing sales, and reducing after-sales costs. Argues that further research will improve the understanding of information as the product itself, rather than simply a supporting…

  17. The Value-Added of Primary Schools: What Is It Really Measuring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the official value-added scores in 2005 for all primary schools in three adjacent Local Educational Authorities (LEAs) in England with the raw-score Key Stage 2 (KS2) results for the same schools. The correlation coefficient for the raw- and value-added scores of these 457 schools is around +0.75. Scatterplots show that there…

  18. When it comes to measuring value, few HMOs can make the grade.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, S

    2001-01-01

    Like all organizations, managed care organizations (MCOs) must deliver value to customers, and to be sure of keeping them, ensure those customers know they have gained value. MCOs can choose any mix of insurance, protection, or experience value from particular encounters with customers, or durable value from their relationship with customers. Many have done a good job of tracking and enabling employers to appreciate the impact they have had on business performance, but few have done the same for the health and quality-of-life they deliver to consumers. MCOs already participate in the delivery of significant and enduring life value to consumers. It makes sense to track and remind consumers of the positive differences MCOs make, and thereby obtain member satisfaction, retention, and loyalty benefits, as well as image improvements for managed care as a whole. Some simple and inexpensive options for both tracking and reminding consumers are offered for consideration, including personalized annual health reports. PMID:11252390

  19. The vexing problem of defining the meaning, role and measurement of values in treatment decision-making.

    PubMed

    Charles, Cathy; Gafni, Amiram

    2014-03-01

    Two international movements, evidence-based medicine (EBM) and shared decision-making (SDM) have grappled for some time with issues related to defining the meaning, role and measurement of values/preferences in their respective models of treatment decision-making. In this article, we identify and describe unresolved problems in the way that each movement addresses these issues. The starting point for this discussion is that at least two essential ingredients are needed for treatment decision-making: research information about treatment options and their potential benefits and risks; and the values/preferences of participants in the decision-making process. Both the EBM and SDM movements have encountered difficulties in defining the meaning, role and measurement of values/preferences in treatment decision-making. In the EBM model of practice, there is no clear and consistent definition of patient values/preferences and no guidance is provided on how to integrate these into an EBM model of practice. Methods advocated to measure patient values are also problematic. Within the SDM movement, patient values/preferences tend to be defined and measured in a restrictive and reductionist way as patient preferences for treatment options or attributes of options, while broader underlying value structures are ignored. In both models of practice, the meaning and expected role of physician values in decision-making are unclear. Values clarification exercises embedded in patient decision aids are suggested by SDM advocates to identify and communicate patient values/preferences for different treatment outcomes. Such exercises have the potential to impose a particular decision-making theory and/or process onto patients, which can change the way they think about and process information, potentially impeding them from making decisions that are consistent with their true values. The tasks of clarifying the meaning, role and measurement of values/preferences in treatment decision

  20. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  1. Using value-based total cost of ownership (TCO) measures to inform subsystem trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziwill, Nicole M.; DuPlain, Ronald F.

    2010-07-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) is a metric from management accounting that helps expose both the direct and indirect costs of a business decision. However, TCO can sometimes be too simplistic for "make vs. buy" decisions (or even choosing between competing design alternatives) when value and extensibility are more critical than total cost. A three-dimensional value-based TCO, which was developed to clarify product decisions for an observatory prior to Final Design Review (FDR), will be presented in this session. This value-based approach incorporates priority of requirements, satisfiability of requirements, and cost, and can be easily applied in any environment.

  2. Estimating Time-Varying PCB Exposures Using Person-Specific Predictions to Supplement Measured Values: A Comparison of Observed and Predicted Values in Two Cohorts of Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank; Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2015-01-01

    , Rylander C, Odland JØ, Sandanger TM. 2016. Estimating time-varying PCB exposures using person-specific predictions to supplement measured values: a comparison of observed and predicted values in two cohorts of Norwegian women. Environ Health Perspect 124:299–305; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409191 PMID:26186800

  3. Development of singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) assay method. 3. Measurements of the SOAC values for phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kazuo; Ouchi, Aya; Takahashi, Shingo; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Terao, Junji; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi

    2012-08-15

    Measurements of the singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quenching rates (k(Q) (S)) and the relative singlet oxygen absortpion capacity (SOAC) values were performed for 16 phenolic antioxidants (tocopherol derivatives, ubiquinol-10, caffeic acids, and catechins) and vitamin C in ethanol/chloroform/D(2)O (50:50:1, v/v/v) solution at 35 °C. It has been clarified that the SOAC method is useful to evaluate the (1)O(2)-quenching activity of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants having 5 orders of magnitude different rate constants from 1.38 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) for lycopene to 2.71 × 10(5) for ferulic acid. The logarithms of the k(Q) (S) and the SOAC values for phenolic antioxidants were found to correlate well with their peak oxidation potentials (E(p)); the antioxidants that have smaller E(p) values show higher reactivities. In previous works, measurements of the k(Q) (S) values for many phenolic antioxidants were performed in ethanol. Consequently, measurements of the k(Q) (S) and relative SOAC values were performed for eight carotenoids in ethanol to investigate the effect of solvent on the (1)O(2)-quenching rate. The k(Q) (S) values for phenolic antioxidants and carotenoids in ethanol were found to correlate linearly with the k(Q) (S) values in ethanol/chloroform/D(2)O solution with a gradient of 1.79, except for two catechins. As the relative rate constants (k(Q)(AO) (S)/k(Q)(α-Toc) (S)) of antioxidants (AO) are equal to the relative SOAC values, the SOAC values do not depend on the kinds of solvent used, if α-tocopherol is used as a standard compound. In fact, the SOAC values obtained for carotenoids in mixed solvent agreed well with the corresponding ones in ethanol. PMID:22823146

  4. Bias and spread in extreme value theory measurements of probability of error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Extreme value theory is examined to explain the cause of the bias and spread in performance of communications systems characterized by low bit rates and high data reliability requirements, for cases in which underlying noise is Gaussian or perturbed Gaussian. Experimental verification is presented and procedures that minimize these effects are suggested. Even under these conditions, however, extreme value theory test results are not particularly more significant than bit error rate tests.

  5. [Measurement of serum PA values by a newly developed enzyme immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, M; Esaki, N; Shinoda, I; Ito, S; Yamada, S; Tokuyama, K; Deguchi, T; Takahashi, Y; Kawada, Y; Akimoto, S

    1993-02-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PA) values detected by a newly developed enzyme immunoassay (EIA, MARKIT-M PA) as a successor of MARKIT-F PA, which has been a leading kit in Japan, were evaluated for its role in the diagnosis of cancer of the prostate and follow-up of the patients afflicted with the disease. The system is one-step sandwich type EIA using horseradish peroxidase as a tracer and has 0.50-100 ng/ml of detectable range with small amount of sample volume (25 microliters) and reliable quality control data. Furthermore, serum PA values detected by the assay were almost equivocal to those detected by MARKIT-F PA. Serum PA values in prostate cancer patients (n = 122) were statistically higher than those in normal males (n = 90), urological malignancies other than prostate cancer (n = 48) or benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH, n = 73). Even in the patients with stage A and B prostate cancer, serum PA values were observed to be statistically higher than those in BPH cases. If 3.6 ng/ml was used, which is normal value in MARKIT-F PA, as a cut-off value and BPH cases as a control, the sensitivity, specificity and efficacy for diagnosis of prostate cancer were 77.9, 91.8 and 83.1%, respectively, which showed the best results during the range examined. Serially determined serum PA values in following up the patients with prostate cancer were confirmed to be highly effective to evaluate treatment responses. These results suggest that MARKIT-M PA is thought to be one of the best tool for determination of serum PA values. PMID:7681886

  6. Value-Added and Other Methods for Measuring School Performance: An Analysis of Performance Measurement Strategies in Teacher Incentive Fund Proposals. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Value-Added and Other Methods for Measuring School Performance: An Analysis of Performance Measurement Strategies in Teacher Incentive Fund Proposals"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Robert Meyer and Michael Christian examine select performance-pay plans used by…

  7. Measuring Marbles: Demonstrating the Basic Tenets of Measurement Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wininger, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on activity is described in which students attempt to measure something that they cannot see. In small groups, students estimate the number of marbles in sealed boxes. Next, students' estimates are compared with the actual numbers. Last, values from both the students' estimates and actual numbers are used to explain measurement theory and…

  8. Measuring Values-Based Environmental Concerns in Children: An Environmental Motives Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Coral M.; Chance, Randie C.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report…

  9. Prognostic value of blood flow measurements using arterial spin labeling in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Furtner, Julia; Bender, Benjamin; Braun, Christian; Schittenhelm, Jens; Skardelly, Marco; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    The period of event-free survival (EFS) within the same histopathological glioma grades may have high variability, mainly without a known cause. The purpose of this study was to reveal the prognostic value of quantified tumor blood flow (TBF) values obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL) for EFS in patients with histopathologically proven astrocytomas independent of WHO (World Health Organization) grade. Twenty-four patients with untreated gliomas underwent tumor perfusion quantification by means of pulsed ASL in 3T. The clinical history of the patients was retrospectively extracted from the local database. Six patients had to be excluded due to insufficent follow-up data for further evaluation or histopathologically verified oligodendroglioma tumor components. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to define an optimal cut-off value of maximum TBF (mTBF) values for subgrouping in low-perfused and high-perfused gliomas. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to determine the prognostic value of mTBF for EFS. An optimal mTBF cut-off value of 182 ml/100 g/min (sensitivity  = 83%, specificity  = 100%) was determined. Patients with low-perfused gliomas had significantly longer EFS compared to patients with high-perfused gliomas (p = 0.0012) independent of the WHO glioma grade. Quantified mTBF values obtained by ASL offer a new and totally non-invasive marker to prognosticate the EFS, independently on histopathological tumor grading, in patients with gliomas. PMID:24911025

  10. Prognostic Value of Blood Flow Measurements Using Arterial Spin Labeling in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Furtner, Julia; Bender, Benjamin; Braun, Christian; Schittenhelm, Jens; Skardelly, Marco; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    The period of event-free survival (EFS) within the same histopathological glioma grades may have high variability, mainly without a known cause. The purpose of this study was to reveal the prognostic value of quantified tumor blood flow (TBF) values obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL) for EFS in patients with histopathologically proven astrocytomas independent of WHO (World Health Organization) grade. Twenty-four patients with untreated gliomas underwent tumor perfusion quantification by means of pulsed ASL in 3T. The clinical history of the patients was retrospectively extracted from the local database. Six patients had to be excluded due to insufficent follow-up data for further evaluation or histopathologically verified oligodendroglioma tumor components. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to define an optimal cut-off value of maximum TBF (mTBF) values for subgrouping in low-perfused and high-perfused gliomas. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to determine the prognostic value of mTBF for EFS. An optimal mTBF cut-off value of 182 ml/100 g/min (sensitivity  = 83%, specificity  = 100%) was determined. Patients with low-perfused gliomas had significantly longer EFS compared to patients with high-perfused gliomas (p = 0.0012) independent of the WHO glioma grade. Quantified mTBF values obtained by ASL offer a new and totally non-invasive marker to prognosticate the EFS, independently on histopathological tumor grading, in patients with gliomas. PMID:24911025

  11. Incremental value of natriuretic peptide measurement in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santaguida, Pasqualina L; Don-Wauchope, Andrew C; Ali, Usman; Oremus, Mark; Brown, Judy A; Bustamam, Amy; Hill, Stephen A; Booth, Ronald A; Sohel, Nazmul; McKelvie, Robert; Balion, Cynthia; Raina, Parminder

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) independently add incremental value for predicting mortality and morbidity in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Medline(®), Embase™, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL were searched from 1989 to June 2012. We also searched reference lists of included articles, systematic reviews, and the gray literature. Studies were screened for eligibility criteria and assessed for risk of bias. Data were extracted on study design, population demographics, assay cutpoints, prognostic risk prediction model covariates, statistical methods, outcomes, and results. From 183 citations, only seven studies (5 BNP and 2 NT-proBNP) considered incremental value in ADHF subjects admitted to acute care centers. Admission assay levels and length of follow-up varied for BNP studies (31 days to 12 months) and for NT-proBNP studies (25-82 months). All studies presented at least one estimate of incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP relative to the base prognostic model. Using discrimination or likelihood statistics, these studies consistently showed that BNP or NT-proBNP increased model performance. Three studies used reclassification and model validation computations to establish incremental value; these studies showed less consistency with respect to added value. In conclusion, the literature assessing incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP in ADHF populations is limited to seven studies evaluating only mortality outcomes and at moderate risk of bias. Although there were differences in the base risk prediction models, assay cutpoints, and lengths of follow-up, there was consistency in BNP/NT-proBNP adding incremental value in prediction models in ADHF patients. PMID:25052418

  12. How weak values emerge in joint measurements on cloned quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Holger F

    2012-07-13

    A statistical analysis of optimal universal cloning shows that it is possible to identify an ideal (but nonpositive) copying process that faithfully maps all properties of the original Hilbert space onto two separate quantum systems, resulting in perfect correlations for all observables. The joint probabilities for noncommuting measurements on separate clones then correspond to the real parts of the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements on a single system, where the measurements on the two clones replace the corresponding sequence of weak measurement and postselection. The imaginary parts of weak measurement statics can be obtained by replacing the cloning process with a partial swap operation. A controlled-swap operation combines both processes, making the complete weak measurement statistics accessible as a well-defined contribution to the joint probabilities of fully resolved projective measurements on the two output systems. PMID:23030138

  13. Perceived value of stroke outcome measures across the post-acute care continuum: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Danzl, Megan M; Hunter, Elizabeth G

    2013-04-01

    Connecting the continuum of post-acute care stroke services may be important for easing patients' transition between settings and facilitating recovery and community reintegration. The use of outcome measures is suggested as one means of connecting the continuum. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to describe administrators' and physiotherapists' perceived value of an outcomes program across the post-acute care stroke continuum at a rehabilitation hospital. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups with 18 participants. Three themes emerged on the value of the outcomes program: 1) enhanced communication; 2) supports clinical decision-making; and 3) value of objective data. These findings lend support for the use of standardized outcome measures by physiotherapists in stroke rehabilitation. Findings from this study may be useful for organizations and physiotherapists who wish to integrate outcome measures into practice. PMID:23039017

  14. Precision QEC-value measurement of Mg23 for testing the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, B. E.; Brodeur, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Bader, A.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Klawitter, R.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Lennarz, A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Lassen, J.; Heggen, H.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Dilling, J.

    2014-07-01

    We report a new direct measurement of the transition energy QEC of the Mg23 β+ decay, using the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer. This value is found to agree with the latest atomic mass evaluation while being four times more precise. The increase in precision changes the uncertainty contribution of the QEC value on the statistical rate function fv from 11% to 0.6%, an improvement by a factor of 18. This enables a more robust determination of the corrected Ft value of this mirror transition to the required precision, making possible further test of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix unitarity.

  15. Impact of the point spread function on maximum standardized uptake value measurements in patients with pulmonary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gellee, S; Page, J; Sanghera, B; Payoux, P; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) from fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans is a semi quantitative measure that is increasingly used in the clinical practice for diagnostic and therapeutic response assessment purposes. Technological advances such as the implementation of the point spread function (PSF) in the reconstruction algorithm have led to higher signal to noise ratio and increased spatial resolution. The impact on SUVmax measurements has not been studied in clinical setting. We studied the impact of PSF on SUVmax in 30 consecutive lung cancer patients. SUVmax values were measured on PET-computed tomography (CT) scans reconstructed iteratively with and without PSF (respectively high-definition [HD] and non-HD). HD SUVmax values were significantly higher than non-HD SUVmax. There was excellent correlation between HD and non-HD values. Details of reconstruction and PSF implementation in particular have important consequences on SUV values. Nuclear Medicine physicians and radiologists should be aware of the reconstruction parameters of PET-CT scans when they report or rely on SUV measurements. PMID:25191128

  16. Value-Added and Observational Measures Used in the Teacher Evaluation Process: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerere, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Scores from value-added models (VAMs), as used for educational accountability, represent the educational effect teachers have on their students. The use of these scores in teacher evaluations for high-stakes decision making is new for the State of Florida. Validity evidence that supports or questions the use of these scores is critically needed.…

  17. An Evaluation of Empirical Bayes' Estimation of Value- Added Teacher Performance Measures. Working Paper #31. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Maxfield, Michelle; Reckase, Mark D.; Thompson, Paul; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical Bayes' (EB) estimation is a widely used procedure to calculate teacher value-added. It is primarily viewed as a way to make imprecise estimates more reliable. In this paper we review the theory of EB estimation and use simulated data to study its ability to properly rank teachers. We compare the performance of EB estimators with that of…

  18. Can Value-Added Measures of Teacher Performance Be Trusted? Working Paper #18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Woolridge, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether commonly used value-added estimation strategies can produce accurate estimates of teacher effects. We estimate teacher effects in simulated student achievement data sets that mimic plausible types of student grouping and teacher assignment scenarios. No one method accurately captures true teacher effects in all scenarios,…

  19. An Evaluation of Empirical Bayes's Estimation of Value-Added Teacher Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Maxfield, Michelle; Reckase, Mark D.; Thompson, Paul N.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Bayes's (EB) estimation has become a popular procedure used to calculate teacher value added, often as a way to make imprecise estimates more reliable. In this article, we review the theory of EB estimation and use simulated and real student achievement data to study the ability of EB estimators to properly rank teachers. We compare the…

  20. The Value of International Experiences for Business Students: Measuring Business Student Attitudes toward Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Sean; Maresco, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    The value of an international experience--especially for students of business--continues to be an area of focus at colleges and universities. Students across all disciplines within the business curriculum: accounting, economics, finance, management, marketing, or sport management are expected by employers to possess knowledge of, and appreciation…

  1. Discrepancy between Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy value of almonds in human diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy content of foods is primarily determined by the Atwater factors, which may not be accurate for certain food groups. Nuts are a food group for which evidence suggests that the Atwater factors may be poorly predictive. The objective of this study was to determine the energy value of almonds i...

  2. Measuring the Economic Value of the Electronic Scientific Information Services in Portuguese Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    This article has three main objectives: i) to describe the use patterns of electronic and traditional resources in Portuguese academic libraries; ii) to estimate the value of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on by using two alternative valuation methodologies; iii) to relate the use patterns with the valuation of b-on.…

  3. Measuring School and Teacher Value Added in DC, 2011-2012 School Year: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the value-added models used as part of teacher evaluation systems in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) and in eligible DC charter schools participating in "Race to the Top." The authors estimated: (1) teacher effectiveness in DCPS and eligible DC charter schools during the 2011-2012 school year; and (2)…

  4. Measuring School and Teacher Value Added in DC, 2011-2012 School Year. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the value-added models used as part of teacher evaluation systems in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) and in eligible DC charter schools participating in Race to the Top. They estimated (1) teacher effectiveness in DCPS and eligible DC charter schools during the 2011-2012 school year; and (2)…

  5. The Promise and Peril of Using Value-Added Modeling to Measure Teacher Effectiveness. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Value-added modeling offers the possibility of estimating the effects of teachers and schools on student performance, a potentially important contribution in the current environment of concern for accountability in education. These techniques, however, are susceptible to a number of sources of bias, depending on decisions about how the modeling is…

  6. Relevance of methods and standards for the assessment of measurement system performance in a High-Value Manufacturing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, Pete; Giudice, Seb

    2014-08-01

    Measurements underpin the engineering decisions that allow products to be designed, manufactured, operated, and maintained. Therefore, the quality of measured data needs to be systematically assured to allow decision makers to proceed with confidence. The use of standards is one way of achieving this. This paper explores the relevance of international documentary standards to the assessment of measurement system capability in High Value Manufacturing (HVM) Industry. An internal measurement standard is presented which supplements these standards and recommendations are made for a cohesive effort to develop the international standards to provide consistency in such industrial applications.

  7. SU-E-I-19: CTDI Values for All Protocols: Using the Ratio of the DLP Measured in CTDI Phantoms to the Measured Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Raterman, G; Gauntt, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a method other than CTDI phantom measurements for routine CT dosimetry QA. This consists of taking a series of air exposure measurements and calculating a factor for converting from this exposure measurement to the protocol's associated head or body CTDI value using DLP. The data presented are the ratios of phantom DLP to air exposure ratios for different scanners, as well as error in the displayed CTDI. Methods: For each scanner, the CTDI is measured at all available tube voltages using both the head and body phantoms. Then, the exposure is measured using a pencil chamber in air at isocenter. A ratio of phantom DLP to exposure in air for a given protocol may be calculated and used for converting a simple air dose measurement to a head or body CTDI value. For our routine QA, the exposure in air for different collimations, mAs, and kVp is measured, and displayed CTDI is recorded. Therefore, the ratio calculated may convert these exposures to CTDI values that may then be compared to the displayed CTDI for a large range of acquisition parameter combinations. Results: It was found that all scanners tend to have a ratio factor that slightly increases with kVp. Also, Philips scanners appear to have less of a dependence on kVp; whereas, GE scanners have a lower ratio at lower kVp. The use of air exposure times the DLP conversion yielded CTDI values that were less than 10% different from the displayed CTDI on several scanners. Conclusion: This method may be used as a primary method for CT dosimetry QA. As a result of the ease of measurement, a dosimetry metric specific to that scanner may be calculated for a wide variety of CT protocols, which could also be used to monitor display CTDI value accuracy.

  8. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  9. Measuring the Subjective Value of Risky and Ambiguous Options using Experimental Economics and Functional MRI Methods

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ifat; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior; Manson, Kirk; Tymula, Agnieszka; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the choices we make have uncertain consequences. In some cases the probabilities for different possible outcomes are precisely known, a condition termed "risky". In other cases when probabilities cannot be estimated, this is a condition described as "ambiguous". While most people are averse to both risk and ambiguity1,2, the degree of those aversions vary substantially across individuals, such that the subjective value of the same risky or ambiguous option can be very different for different individuals. We combine functional MRI (fMRI) with an experimental economics-based method3 to assess the neural representation of the subjective values of risky and ambiguous options4. This technique can be now used to study these neural representations in different populations, such as different age groups and different patient populations. In our experiment, subjects make consequential choices between two alternatives while their neural activation is tracked using fMRI. On each trial subjects choose between lotteries that vary in their monetary amount and in either the probability of winning that amount or the ambiguity level associated with winning. Our parametric design allows us to use each individual's choice behavior to estimate their attitudes towards risk and ambiguity, and thus to estimate the subjective values that each option held for them. Another important feature of the design is that the outcome of the chosen lottery is not revealed during the experiment, so that no learning can take place, and thus the ambiguous options remain ambiguous and risk attitudes are stable. Instead, at the end of the scanning session one or few trials are randomly selected and played for real money. Since subjects do not know beforehand which trials will be selected, they must treat each and every trial as if it and it alone was the one trial on which they will be paid. This design ensures that we can estimate the true subjective value of each option to each subject. We then

  10. Making an honest measurement scale out of the oxygen isotope delta-values.

    PubMed

    Gat, Joel R; DeBievre, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The differential measurement of the abundance of oxygen isotopes based on reference materials, such as VSMOW for the case of water, was used because the precision of the absolute mass-spectrometric determination of the abundance fell short of the differences to be measured. Since then these measurements have been much improved, so that a calibration scheme of the oxygen isotope abundance in water, carbonates, silica, phosphates, sulfates, nitrates and organic materials is suggested, based on an accredited primary standard of oxygen in air and using standard fluorination and O(2) to CO(2) conversion techniques. PMID:12442297

  11. The value of volume and growth measurements in timber sales management of the National Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed in the estimation of gross social value of timber volume and growth rate information used in making regional harvest decisions in the National Forest System. A model was developed to permit parametric analysis. The problem is formulated as one of finding optimal inventory holding patterns. Public timber management differs from other inventory holding problems in that the inventory, itself, generates value over time in providing recreational, aesthetic and environmental goods. 'Nontimber' demand estimates are inferred from past Forest Service harvest and sales levels. The solution requires a description of the harvest rates which maintain the optimum inventory level. Gross benefits of the Landsat systems are estimated by comparison with Forest Service information gathering models. Gross annual benefits are estimated to be $5.9 million for the MSS system and $7.2 million for the TM system.

  12. Measuring the value of air quality: application of the spatial hedonic model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Gyu; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Lambert, Dayton M; Roberts, Roland K

    2010-03-01

    This study applies a hedonic model to assess the economic benefits of air quality improvement following the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment at the county level in the lower 48 United States. An instrumental variable approach that combines geographically weighted regression and spatial autoregression methods (GWR-SEM) is adopted to simultaneously account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. SEM mitigates spatial dependency while GWR addresses spatial heterogeneity by allowing response coefficients to vary across observations. Positive amenity values of improved air quality are found in four major clusters: (1) in East Kentucky and most of Georgia around the Southern Appalachian area; (2) in a few counties in Illinois; (3) on the border of Oklahoma and Kansas, on the border of Kansas and Nebraska, and in east Texas; and (4) in a few counties in Montana. Clusters of significant positive amenity values may exist because of a combination of intense air pollution and consumer awareness of diminishing air quality. PMID:20376167

  13. Measuring Value Added School Effects on Ohio Six-Grade Proficiency Test Results Using Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Lei; White, Donald B.

    This study was conducted to measure value added school effects in a Northwest urban public school district using a two-level hierarchical model. The model consisted of two student-level variables (prior achievement and eligibility for federal free or reduced-price lunch) and three school variables (percentage of students eligible for free or…

  14. Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Byon, Kevin K.; Schoenstedt, Linda; Johns, Gary; Bussell, Leigh Ann; Choi, Hwansuk

    2012-01-01

    Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team merchandise.…

  15. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  16. Effectiveness Measures for Cross-Sectional Studies: A Comparison of Value-Added Models and Contextualised Attainment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkeit, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Educational effectiveness research often appeals to "value-added models (VAM)" to gauge the impact of schooling on student learning net of the effect of student background variables. A huge amount of cross-sectional studies do not, however, meet VAM's requirement for longitudinal data. "Contextualised attainment models (CAM)" measure the influence…

  17. Challenges in Measuring Cost and Value in Oncology: Making It Personal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Oncology patients often find themselves facing an incurable disease with limited treatment options and increasing patient fragility. The importance of patient preferences and values increases in shared decision making especially when the cost of cancer care is continuing its steep rise. As our understanding of cancer systems biology increases, we are justifiably optimistic about therapeutic improvements but recognize that this has complicated the traditional Food and Drug Administration approval of drug indications based on organ-specific cancer for a particular drug. Dynamic and agile clinical guidelines that reflect a rapidly changing knowledge base for decision-making support are needed. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has been working on three initiatives to tackle these complex issues. The first initiative is ASCO's collaboration with other international organizations to create a framework to assess drugs for the World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List, including nongenerics. The second initiative aims to define clinically meaningful outcomes as precision medicine expands the definition of cancers, leading to increased demand for the use of targeted drugs as single agents or in combination. The third initiative is ASCO's value framework, published in 2015, focusing on patient-physician shared decision making. The framework incorporates three parameters: 1) the meaningfulness of the clinical benefit, 2) the toxicity of the treatment, and 3) the patient's financial out-of-pocket cost. ASCO is concerned about the rising cost of cancer care when the clinical complexity and the pace of change in oncology are accelerating, and it is committed to help improve patient outcomes and value in cancer care as well as to engage the broader health care community in a process of collaborative improvement. PMID:27565267

  18. Measuring value for money: a scoping review on economic evaluation of health information systems

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Lau, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore how key components of economic evaluations have been included in evaluations of health information systems (HIS), to determine the state of knowledge on value for money for HIS, and provide guidance for future evaluations. Materials and methods We searched databases, previously collected papers, and references for relevant papers published from January 2000 to June 2012. For selection, papers had to: be a primary study; involve a computerized system for health information processing, decision support, or management reporting; and include an economic evaluation. Data on study design and economic evaluation methods were extracted and analyzed. Results Forty-two papers were selected and 33 were deemed high quality (scores ≥8/10) for further analysis. These included 12 economic analyses, five input cost analyses, and 16 cost-related outcome analyses. For HIS types, there were seven primary care electronic medical records, six computerized provider order entry systems, five medication management systems, five immunization information systems, four institutional information systems, three disease management systems, two clinical documentation systems, and one health information exchange network. In terms of value for money, 23 papers reported positive findings, eight were inconclusive, and two were negative. Conclusions We found a wide range of economic evaluation papers that were based on different assumptions, methods, and metrics. There is some evidence of value for money in selected healthcare organizations and HIS types. However, caution is needed when generalizing these findings. Better reporting of economic evaluation studies is needed to compare findings and build on the existing evidence base we identified. PMID:23416247

  19. CAP waveform estimation from the measured electrical bioimpedance values: Patient's heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Krivoshei, A; Uuetoa, H; Min, M; Annus, P; Uuetoa, T; Lamp, J

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents analysis of the generic transfer function (TF) between Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) measured non-invasively on the wrist and Central Aortic Pressure (CAP) invasively measured at the aortic root. Influence of the Heart Rate (HR) variations on the generic TF and on reconstructed CAP waveforms is investigated. The HR variation analysis is provided on a single patient data to exclude inter-patient influences at the current research stage. A new approach for the generic TF estimating from a data ensemble is presented as well. Moreover, an influence of the cardiac period beginning point selection is analyzed and empirically optimal solution for its selection is proposed. PMID:26736870

  20. [Value of prostate-specific antigen measurements with newly developed enzyme immunoassay (MARKIT-M PA)].

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Onishi, H; Oishi, K; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1992-10-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) were investigated with a newly developed enzyme immunoassay (MARKIT-M PA, Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Sensitivity of the assay system is 0.5 ng/ml and the detection range is 0.5-100 ng/ml. There was a high linear correlation (r = 0.987) between the assay and MARKIT-F PA, and values obtained with the assay were almost equal to those yielded by MARKIT-F PA assay. Using the BPH group as a negative control, the upper cut-off value in BPH patients was determined to be 3.6 ng/ml. Of the 48 patients with untreated prostate cancer, 77% was detectable by means of MARKIT-M PA assay. Using the BPH group as a negative control, specificity and efficiency were 93% and 86%, respectively. In another group of 27 BPH patients whose blood samples were taken immediately after digital prostatic examination, PSA was elevated in 15%. During follow-up of prostate cancer patients, PSA was elevated in 82% at the time of clinically detectable progression. In 15 patients whose disease was clinically well controlled, all levels of PSA were observed to be negative. These findings suggests that detection of serum PSA with this assay is of great use both in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer patients. PMID:1282772

  1. Measurement of patient-derived utility values for periodontal health using a multi-attribute scale.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, C A; Brickley, M R; McAndrew, R

    1996-09-01

    Periodontal health states are difficult to quantify and no formal scale quantifying patients' utilities for periodontal health states exits. Multi-attribute utility (MAU) techniques were used to develop such a scale. The MAU scale may be used to quantify patients' assessment of their current periodontal health and that of possible treatment outcomes. Such data, combined with probability values in formal decision analysis techniques would result in improved rationality of treatment planning for periodontal disease. 20 patients attending for routine undergraduate care were interviewed. Data from these interviews were sorted into groups of common interest (domains). Intra-domain health statements were complied from the interview content. 21 patients ranked the intra-domain statements on a scale of 0-100. This same group of patients also performed an inter-domain weighting. Mean results showed that patients were 2X as concerned with how they felt and with the prognosis of possible outcomes, than with how they looked and what facts they knew about their oral health. However, the real value of utilities research lies in application of individual results to treatment planning as there is a wide range of opinion regarding outcome health states. PMID:8891929

  2. [Differences in Measured Values among Homogenous Assay Reagents of LDL-C in LP-X Positive Serum Samples].

    PubMed

    Abe, Misako; Kurosawa, Hideo; Sato, Ryo; Ito, Kumie; Tomono, Yoshiharu; Manita, Daisuke; Hirowatari, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The LDL-C level measures with homogeneous (direct) assays in almost of clinical laboratories. Several reports however showed differences in measured values among the assay reagents. We investigated the differences in LDL-C values among direct assays and Friedewald formula (F-f) in 58 LP-X positive serum samples from jaundice patients by comparing LDL-C values measured by anion-exchange chromatography (AEX-HPLC), largely comparable to ultracentrifugation method. Changes in LDL-C values during the treatment of 8 patients were also investigated. Direct assay reagents from Sekisui Medical (S-r), Denka-Seiken (D-r), Wako Chemical (W-r), and Kyowa Medics (K-r) were used for comparison. F-f, S-r, and D-r correlated with AEX-HPLC with r values < 0.6 while W-r and K-r correlated with AEX-HPLC with r-vales > 0.6. Two samples in which F-f values provided 500 mg/dL plus bias to AEX-HPLC (LDL-C value of 220 mg/dL) demonstrated increased levels of IDL-C before treatment. LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) of the 2 samples were relatively high and near to F-f data while LDL-C values (W-r and K-r) were relatively low and close to AEX-HPLC data. The jaundice treatment decreased LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) and converged to 220 mg/dL, indicating that S-r and D-r might react markedly to IDL. These changes were consistent with decreases in serum free cholesterol and phospholipid in support of LP-X. By contrast, W-r and K-r data showed upward tendency and also converged to 220 mg/dL. These results suggest that LDL-C direct assay reagents would be classified into 2 groups with respect to the reagent reactivity to LP-X. PMID:26524853

  3. Nuclear space-valued stochastic differential equations driven by Poisson random measures

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, J.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis is devoted primarily to the study of stochastic differential equations on duals of nuclear spaces driven by Poisson random measures. The existence of a weak solution is obtained by the Galerkin method and the uniqueness is established by implementing the Yamada-Watanabe argument in the present setup. When the magnitudes of the driving terms are small enough and the Poisson streams occur frequently enough, it is proved that the stochastic differential equations mentioned above can be approximated by diffusion equations. Finally, the author considers a system of interacting stochastic differential equations driven by Poisson random measures. Let (X[sup n][sub i](t), [center dot][center dot][center dot], X[sup n][sub n](t)) be the solution of this system and consider the empirical measures [zeta]n([omega],B) [identical to] (1/n) (sum of j=1 to n) [delta]x[sup n][sub j]([center dot],[omega])(B) (n[>=]1). It is provided that [zeta][sub n] converges in distribution to a non-random measure which is the unique solution of a McKean-Vlasov equation. The above problems are motivated by applications to neurophysiology, in particular, to the fluctuation of voltage potentials of spatially distributed neurons and to the study of asymptotic behavior of large systems of interacting neurons.

  4. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  5. Predictive Values of Selected Auditory Perceptual Factors in Relation to Measured First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNinch, George

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between auditory perceptual skills and first-grade reading success when readiness and intelligence measures were used in conjunction with auditory skills assessments. Sex differences were also considered. Six boys and six girls were randomly selected from each of 10 first-grade classrooms.…

  6. Measuring Our Success: How to Gauge the "Value Added" by an Independent School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulla, John; Jorgenson, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Having addressed variations of the question--How can a school's success be "measured"?--with mixed results across a collective five decades of service to boards, John Gulla and Olaf Jorgenson endeavored to develop a more helpful answer. To this end, they queried 200-plus leaders of California Association of Independent Schools…

  7. Measuring School and Teacher Value Added for IMPACT and TEAM in DC Public Schools. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    The District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) has incorporated measures of school and teacher effectiveness, based on student test score growth, into a new teacher assessment system known as IMPACT. Implemented for the first time during the 2009-2010 school year, IMPACT is an assessment system with significant consequences. Prior to the start of…

  8. Comparison of actual and predicted energy savings in Minnesota gas-heated single-family homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1984-03-01

    Data available from a recent evaluation of a home energy audit program in Minnesota are sufficient to allow analysis of the actual energy savings achieved in audited homes and of the relationship between actual and predicted savings. The program, operated by Northern States Power in much of the southern half of the state, is part of Minnesota's version of the federal Residential Conservation Service. NSP conducted almost 12 thousand RCS audits between April 1981 (when the progam began) and the end of 1982. The data analyzed here, available for 346 homes that obtained an NSP energy audit, include monthly natural gas bills from October 1980 through April 1983; heating degree day data matched to the gas bills; energy audit reports; and information on household demographics, structure characteristics, and recent conservation actions from mail and telephone surveys. The actual reduction in weather-adjusted natural gas use between years 1 and 3 averaged 19 MBtu across these homes (11% of preprogram consumption); the median value of the saving was 16 MBtu/year. The variation in actual saving is quite large: gas consumption increased in almost 20% of the homes, while gas consumption decreased by more than 50 MBtu/year in more than 10% of the homes. These households reported an average expenditure of almost $1600 for the retrofit measures installed in their homes; the variation in retrofit cost, while large, was not as great as the variation in actual natural gas savings.

  9. [QUALITY MEASURES IN MEDICINE-- A PLEA FOR NEW, VALUE BASED THINKING].

    PubMed

    Fisher, Menachem; Wagner, Oded; Keinarl, Talia; Solt, Ido

    2015-09-01

    Quality is an important and basic conduct of complex systems in general and health systems in particular. Quality is a cornerstone of medicine, necessary in the eyes of the community of consumers, caregivers, and the systems that manage both. In Israel, the Ministry of Health has set the quality issue on the agenda of healthcare organizations in all existing frameworks. In this article we seek to offer an acceptable alternative perspective, in examining the quality of public health. We suggest highlighting the ethical aspect of medical care, while reducing the quantitative monitoring component of existing quality metrics. Relying solely on indices has negative effects that might cause damage. The proposed alternative focuses on the personal responsibility of health care providers, using. values and moral reasonin. PMID:26665750

  10. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  11. Measurement of local values of strains of the briquette by means of special resistance strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysz, Jozef

    1997-02-01

    Local measurement of the coal briquette strains during its destruction caused by sudden decrease of pressure of gas filling pores is difficult, because of high strain of coal (exceeds 16%), which results in bursting. A special type of an resistance-strain gauge, which is pressed into a defined position during briquette preparation was elaborated. This gauge is deformed just as the surrounding coal. The strain is measured as a difference in resistance of a mixture of coal grains (briquette material) and short, 8 micrometers dia. graphite fibers. A ca. 0.5 mm thick and ca. 1 mm long gauge was prepared. Its initial resistance constituted several hundreds ohms. The resistance vs. strain dependence is not linear but stable enough in time and does not depend on the type of gas filling briquette pores (e.g. CO2 and He).

  12. Assessing pain intensity following spinal cord injury: should rating scales measure 'overall' or 'maximal' values?

    PubMed

    Frank, Andrew O; Spyridonis, Fotios; Ghinea, Gheorghita

    2015-03-01

    Rating scales (RSs) are important for the assessment of pain intensity (PI) following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a Graphic Rating Scale, this pilot study measured an 'overall' level of PI repeated about every 2 h over 1 day and compared it with maximal PI scores reported previously. Patients were categorized into severity groups according to the overall Graphic Rating Scale score at initial assessment (T0). Eight men and six women (mean age 53.1; range 28-75) participated. Comparison of the overall PI scores and their changes over time with the maximal PI scores reported previously showed loss of patients in the severe group and less pronounced PI changes over time. Rating scales used in spinal cord injury services should measure maximal pain experienced 'right now' to eliminate potential averaging out of pain over time, which might allow physicians to assist patients in understanding their pain and begin their adjustment. PMID:25419691

  13. [Fiberoptic measurement of myocardial contraction--correlation of the signal with hemodynamic values].

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Kloppe, A; Mügge, A; Werner, J

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the intracardial ECG, the mechanical myocard contraction should be used as another input signal for cardiac pacemakers and implantable defibrillators. Therefore a fiberoptical measurement system was designed. A sensor-fiber was placed in the coronary venous system. An opto-electronic system converts the optical losses, caused by bending of the fiber, into a proportional voltage. This method allows measuring of the left ventricular myocard contraction strength. By theoretical calculations it was shown, that a good correlation of the sensor-signal and the left ventricular radius can be expected. Additional investigations using an isolated beating pig heart were performed. A high correlation of the sensor-signal and the left ventricular stroke volume was shown. PMID:12465226

  14. The right tool for the right job: the value of alternative patient experience measures.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lynn; Swartz, Adam; Wasson, John H

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported experience of care predicts health care outcomes. Fourteen US and Canadian practices intercalated a standard ambulatory care Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey within their usual Internet-based survey to compare results from the Internet survey, Internet CAHPS survey, and a mailed CAHPS survey. They found that practice performance rankings obtained via the multi-item CAHPS survey were equivalent to a single measure captured by the Internet survey. PMID:23748272

  15. Operational Risk Measurement of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on Extreme Value Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiashan; Li, Yong; Ji, Feng; Peng, Cheng

    The financial institutions and supervision institutions have all agreed on strengthening the measurement and management of operational risks. This paper attempts to build a model on the loss of operational risks basing on Peak Over Threshold model, emphasizing on weighted least square, which improved Hill’s estimation method, while discussing the situation of small sample, and fix the sample threshold more objectively basing on the media-published data of primary banks loss on operational risk from 1994 to 2007.

  16. Hospital value-based purchasing (VBP) program: measurement of quality and enforcement of quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Szablowski, Katarzyna M

    2014-01-01

    VBP program is a novel medicare payment estimatin tool used to encourage clinical care quality improvement as well as improvement of patient experience as a customer of a health care system. The program utilizes well established tools of measuring clinical care quality and patient satisfaction such as the hospital IQR program and HCAHPS survey to estimate Medicare payments and encourage hospitals to continuosly improve the level of care they provide. PMID:24600783

  17. Calculation of RABBIT and Simulator Worth in the HFIR Hydraulic Tube and Comparison with Measured Values

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, CO

    2005-09-08

    To aid in the determinations of reactivity worths for target materials in a proposed High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target configuration containing two additional hydraulic tubes, the worths of cadmium rabbits within the current hydraulic tube were calculated using a reference model of the HFIR and the MCNP5 computer code. The worths were compared to measured worths for both static and ejection experiments. After accounting for uncertainties in the calculations and the measurements, excellent agreement between the two was obtained. Computational and measurement limitations indicate that accurate estimation of worth is only possible when the worth exceeds 10 cents. Results indicate that MCNP5 and the reactor model can be used to predict reactivity worths of various samples when the expected perturbations are greater than 10 cents. The level of agreement between calculation and experiment indicates that the accuracy of such predictions would be dependent solely on the quality of the nuclear data for the materials to be irradiated. Transients that are approximated by ''piecewise static'' computational models should likewise have an accuracy that is dependent solely on the quality of the nuclear data.

  18. The Value of Automated Follicle Volume Measurements in IVF/ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Vandekerckhove, Frank; Bracke, Victoria; De Sutter, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: The objective of this literature study is to investigate the place of recent software technology sonography-based automated volume count (SonoAVC) for the automatic measurement of follicular volumes in IVF/ICSI. Its advantages and disadvantages and potential future developments are evaluated. Methods: A total of 74 articles were read via a PubMed literature study. The literature study included 53 articles, 32 of which for the systematic review. Results: The SonoAVC software shows excellent accuracy. Comparing the technology with the “golden standard” two-dimensional (2D) manual follicle measurements, SonoAVC leads to a significantly lower intra- and inter-observer variability. However, there is no significant difference in clinical outcome (pregnancy rate). We noted a significant advantage in the time gained, both for doctor and patient. By storing the images, the technology offers the possibility of including a quality control and continuous training and further standardization of follicular monitoring can be expected. Ovarian reserve testing by measuring the antral follicle count with SonoAVC is highly reliable. Conclusion: This overview of previously published literature shows how SonoAVC offers advantages for clinical practice, without losing any accuracy or reliability. Doctors should be motivated to the general use of follicular volumes instead of follicular diameters. PMID:25593942

  19. Diagnostic Value of Measuring Platelet Von Willebrand Factor in Von Willebrand Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casonato, Alessandra; Cattini, Maria Grazia; Daidone, Viviana; Pontara, Elena; Bertomoro, Antonella; Prandoni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) may be caused by an impaired von Willebrand factor (VWF) synthesis, its increased clearance or abnormal function, or combinations of these factors. It may be difficult to recognize the different contributions of these anomalies. Here we demonstrate that VWD diagnostics gains from measuring platelet VWF, which can reveal a defective VWF synthesis. Measuring platelet VWF revealed that: severe type 1 VWD always coincided with significantly lower platelet and plasma VWF levels, whereas mild forms revealed low plasma VWF levels associated with low or normal platelet VWF levels, and the latter were associated with a slightly shorter VWF survival; type Vicenza (the archetype VWD caused by a reduced VWF survival) featured normal platelet VWF levels despite significantly reduced plasma VWF levels; type 2B patients could have either normal platelet VWF levels associated with abnormal multimer patterns, or reduced platelet VWF levels associated with normal multimer patterns; type 2A patients could have reduced or normal platelet VWF levels, the former associated mainly with type 2A-I, the latter with type 2A-II; plasma and platelet VWF levels were normal in type 2N, except when the defect was associated with a quantitative VWF mutation. Our findings show that measuring platelet VWF helps to characterize VWD, especially the ambiguous phenotypes, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the disorder. PMID:27532107

  20. In-vivo measurement of intrauterine gases and acid-base values early in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Watson, A; Ozturk, O; Quick, D; Burton, G

    1999-11-01

    A new multiparameter sensor that combines electrochemical and fibre-optic technology was used for continuous in-vivo investigation of pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO(2)), oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)), bicarbonate concentration (HCO(3)(-)), base excess, and oxygen saturation (O(2)Sat) early in human pregnancy. The sensor was inserted into the amniotic cavity and the placental bed of 16 pregnancies at 10-15 weeks gestation, before termination under general anaesthesia. Amniotic fluid and retroplacental blood from the same site were also aspirated and analysed by means of cartridges and a portable blood gas analyser. Eleven series of measurements were obtained. The variation in measurements over the 5 min of monitoring was Measurements of PO(2) in both the amniotic cavity and the placental bed and of pH in the placental bed were higher using the cartridges than in vivo. The results indicated that in-vivo monitoring of fetoplacental gas and acid-base with a sensor is stable and accurate. Such technology will be helpful in improving our understanding of the fetoplacental metabolism in normal and complicated pregnancies. PMID:10548645

  1. Correlation between International Normalized Ratio values and sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in anticoagulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mohamed Zaghlool; Mourad, Samah I.; Salem, Ahmed S.; Abdelfadil, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The management of patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) undergoing minor oral surgeries is controversial. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and the sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in controlling postextraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty patients receiving Warfarin OAT were included in this study. Patients were selected so that 80 patients have INR values of ≤2, whereas the remaining patients have the INR values ranging from 2 to 3. Forty patients were then randomly selected from each category to form two equal groups. Forty-five patients who had never been on OAT were selected as a negative control group (group 1). Failure to achieve hemostasis using a pressure pack was managed using either tranexamic acid (group 2) or Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) (group 3). Results: The INR values of patients included in group 2 and 3 ranged from 1.5 to 3, with a mean of 2.2. No significant difference was recorded between the use of either tranexamic acid or ABS in achieving hemostasis in anticoagulated patients with INR values ranging between 2 and 3 (P = 0.93). Conclusion: Based on our findings, ABS is a hemostatic agent of good efficacy. The effect of ABS in controlling post-extraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients with INR values ≤3 is comparable to tranexamic acid with no evidence to support the superiority of tranexamic acid over ABS. PMID:25512727

  2. Preparatory studies for a high-precision Penning-trap measurement of the 163Ho electron capture Q-value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Chenmarev, S.; Dorrer, H.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Grund, J.; Köster, U.; Nagy, Sz.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Renisch, D.; Türler, A.; Wendt, K.

    2015-07-01

    The ECHo Collaboration (Electron Capture 163Ho aims to investigate the calorimetric spectrum following the electron capture decay of 163Ho to determine the mass of the electron neutrino. The size of the neutrino mass is reflected in the endpoint region of the spectrum, i.e., the last few eV below the transition energy. To check for systematic uncertainties, an independent determination of this transition energy, the Q-value, is mandatory. Using the TRIGA-TRAP setup, we demonstrate the feasibility of performing this measurement by Penning-trap mass spectrometry. With the currently available, purified 163Ho sample and an improved laser ablation mini-RFQ ion source, we were able to perform direct mass measurements of 163Ho and 163Dy with a sample size of less than 1017 atoms. The measurements were carried out by determining the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the two isotopes to those of carbon cluster ions using the time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance method. The obtained mass excess values are ME(163Ho)= -66379.3(9) keV and ME(163Dy)= -66381.7(8) keV. In addition, the Q-value was measured for the first time by Penning-trap mass spectrometry to be Q = 2.5(7) keV.

  3. Improved estimates of the range of errors on photomasks using measured values of skewness and kurtosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaker, Henry Chris

    1995-12-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) techniques often use six times the standard deviation sigma to estimate the range of errors within a process. Two assumptions are inherent in this choice of metric for the range: (1) the normal distribution adequately describes the errors, and (2) the fraction of errors falling within plus or minus 3 sigma, about 99.73%, is sufficiently large that we may consider the fraction occurring outside this range to be negligible. In state-of-the-art photomasks, however, the assumption of normality frequently breaks down, and consequently plus or minus 3 sigma is not a good estimate of the range of errors. In this study, we show that improved estimates for the effective maximum error Em, which is defined as the value for which 99.73% of all errors fall within plus or minus Em of the mean mu, may be obtained by quantifying the deviation from normality of the error distributions using the skewness and kurtosis of the error sampling. Data are presented indicating that in laser reticle- writing tools, Em less than or equal to 3 sigma. We also extend this technique for estimating the range of errors to specifications that are usually described by mu plus 3 sigma. The implications for SPC are examined.

  4. Measurement of the pH value in pork meat early postmortem by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheier, R.; Schmidt, H.

    2013-05-01

    The pH of a muscle is an accepted parameter to identify normal and deviating meat qualities. In this work, Raman spectroscopy is shown to be suitable for the non-invasive measurement of the early postmortem pH of meat. Raman spectra of ten pork semimembranosus muscles were recorded with a portable handheld device 0.5-24 h postmortem. The spectra were correlated with pH and lactate kinetics measured in parallel. Seven of the muscles were normal, two exhibited accelerated glycolysis and one showed absence of acidification. The pH decline with time could be calculated from the Raman spectra with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation using only two signals of phosphate vibrations at 980 and 1,080 cm-1 with a close correlation for each muscle, but larger variations between animals. More robust and better correlations for all muscles were obtained with a linear model based on 11 signals from lactate, lactic acid, phosphate, a carbonyl band and nucleotides resulting in R 2 = 0.78 and RMSECV = 0.2 or a partial least-square model using the complete spectrum ( R 2 = 0.94 and RMSECV = 0.2). These results show the potential of Raman spectroscopy for an online detection of the pH and thus meat qualities during meat processing.

  5. No-reference video quality measurement: added value of machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, Decebal Constantin; Pokhrel, Jeevan; Garella, Juan Pablo; Seppänen, Janne; Liotou, Eirini; Narwaria, Manish

    2015-11-01

    Video quality measurement is an important component in the end-to-end video delivery chain. Video quality is, however, subjective, and thus, there will always be interobserver differences in the subjective opinion about the visual quality of the same video. Despite this, most existing works on objective quality measurement typically focus only on predicting a single score and evaluate their prediction accuracies based on how close it is to the mean opinion scores (or similar average based ratings). Clearly, such an approach ignores the underlying diversities in the subjective scoring process and, as a result, does not allow further analysis on how reliable the objective prediction is in terms of subjective variability. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to analyze this issue and present a machine-learning based solution to address it. We demonstrate the utility of our ideas by considering the practical scenario of video broadcast transmissions with focus on digital terrestrial television (DTT) and proposing a no-reference objective video quality estimator for such application. We conducted meaningful verification studies on different video content (including video clips recorded from real DTT broadcast transmissions) in order to verify the performance of the proposed solution.

  6. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  7. The population value of quality indicator reporting: a framework for prioritizing health care performance measures.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, David O; Chung, Jeanette W

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports contain more than 250 quality indicators, such as whether a patient with a suspected heart attack received an aspirin. The Department of Health and Human Services National Quality Measures Clearinghouse identifies more than 2,100 such indicators. Because resources for making quality improvements are limited, there is a need to prioritize among these indicators. We propose an approach to assess how reporting specific quality indicators would change care to improve the length and quality of life of the US population. Using thirteen AHRQ quality indicators with readily available data on the benefits of indicator reporting, we found that seven of them account for 93 percent of total benefits, while the remaining six account for only 7 percent of total benefits. Use of a framework such as this could focus resources on indicators having the greatest expected impact on population health. PMID:24395945

  8. E/N effects on K0 values revealed by high precision measurements under low field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Brian C.; Siems, William F.; Harden, Charles S.; McHugh, Vincent M.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2016-07-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is used to detect chemical warfare agents, explosives, and narcotics. While IMS has a low rate of false positives, their occurrence causes the loss of time and money as the alarm is verified. Because numerous variables affect the reduced mobility (K0) of an ion, wide detection windows are required in order to ensure a low false negative response rate. Wide detection windows, however, reduce response selectivity, and interferents with similar K0 values may be mistaken for targeted compounds and trigger a false positive alarm. Detection windows could be narrowed if reference K0 values were accurately known for specific instrumental conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of confidence in the literature values due to discrepancies in the reported K0 values and their lack of reported error. This creates the need for the accurate control and measurement of each variable affecting ion mobility, as well as for a central accurate IMS database for reference and calibration. A new ion mobility spectrometer has been built that reduces the error of measurements affecting K0 by an order of magnitude less than ±0.2%. Precise measurements of ±0.002 cm2 V-1 s-1 or better have been produced and, as a result, an unexpected relationship between K0 and the electric field to number density ratio (E/N) has been discovered in which the K0 values of ions decreased as a function of E/N along a second degree polynomial trend line towards an apparent asymptote at approximately 4 Td.

  9. E/N effects on K0 values revealed by high precision measurements under low field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Brian C; Siems, William F; Harden, Charles S; McHugh, Vincent M; Hill, Herbert H

    2016-07-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is used to detect chemical warfare agents, explosives, and narcotics. While IMS has a low rate of false positives, their occurrence causes the loss of time and money as the alarm is verified. Because numerous variables affect the reduced mobility (K0) of an ion, wide detection windows are required in order to ensure a low false negative response rate. Wide detection windows, however, reduce response selectivity, and interferents with similar K0 values may be mistaken for targeted compounds and trigger a false positive alarm. Detection windows could be narrowed if reference K0 values were accurately known for specific instrumental conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of confidence in the literature values due to discrepancies in the reported K0 values and their lack of reported error. This creates the need for the accurate control and measurement of each variable affecting ion mobility, as well as for a central accurate IMS database for reference and calibration. A new ion mobility spectrometer has been built that reduces the error of measurements affecting K0 by an order of magnitude less than ±0.2%. Precise measurements of ±0.002 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) or better have been produced and, as a result, an unexpected relationship between K0 and the electric field to number density ratio (E/N) has been discovered in which the K0 values of ions decreased as a function of E/N along a second degree polynomial trend line towards an apparent asymptote at approximately 4 Td. PMID:27475592

  10. Measurements in Mandibular Pantomographic X-rays and Relation to Skeletal Mineral Densitometric Values.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saumyendra V; Aggarwal, Himanshi; Gupta, Vaibhav; Kumar, Pradeep; Tripathi, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    The gold standard diagnostic modality for osteoporosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). But it is expensive and often unavailable. Studies have demonstrated that decreased bone mineral density (BMD) may affect mandibular bone morphometrically on radiographs. Such studies are rare in the Indian population. This study was conducted to evaluate correlation between radiomorphometric markers on digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) and BMD measurements done by DXA in an Indian population. A total of 344 subjects aged 45 years or above, who visited a dental outpatient department over a period of 6 years were included in the study after obtaining ethical committee approval and informed consent. Digital OPG and DXA BMD measurements were obtained. Subjects' T-scores were obtained, on the basis of which they were divided into osteoporotic, osteopenic, and normal. OPGs were evaluated to obtain the mandibular cortical index (MCI) and the panoramic mandibular index (PMI). Correlations of MCI and PMI with BMD were analyzed statistically with SPSS (version 16.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL). In the osteoporotic group, there was no subject with MCI finding of C1, and 77.42% prevalence of C3 finding was found. C2 finding was in highest proportion in the osteopenic group (p<0.05). Normal BMD group was associated with the C1 finding of 76.47%. Almost 48% of the osteoporotic group had a PMI score of <0.40, whereas 50% of osteopenic subjects had a PMI score of 0.4-0.44. Normal subjects having a PMI score of >0.44 constituted 49.1% of the population. Mean BMD scores decreased significantly with increasing MCI stage and increased significantly with increasing PMI (p<0.05). Significant correlations between PMI and MCI were obtained with DXA BMD. Digital OPGs may provide an economical and reliable diagnostic tool to rule out osteoporosis or osteopenia in undiagnosed patients, where DXA screening may not be available or is financially nonviable. PMID:25934028

  11. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liu, Ransheng; Zhang, Aixu; Yuan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI) based on measurements from computed tomography (CT) for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs). Methods Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs), maximum (MAX), average (AVG), and standard deviation (STD) of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC). Results Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001), with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106). The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001). An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001), respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction has a little higher area under the curve (AUC) than the actual one both in differentiating MIAs from PIAs (AUC 0.938 vs 0.914, P=0.263) and in distinguishing IACs from MIAs (AUC 0.812 vs 0.786, P=0.718). Conclusion p53-EI prediction of nGGOs obtained from CT measurements allows accurately estimating lesions’ pathology and invasiveness preoperatively not only from radiology

  12. Fluorescent probes in biology and medicine: measurement of intracellular pH values in individual cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavik, Jan; Cimprich, Petr; Gregor, Martin; Smetana, Karel, Jr.

    1997-12-01

    The application possibilities of fluorescent probes have increased dramatically in the last few years. The main areas are as follows (Slavik, 1994, 1996, 1998). Intracellular ionic cell composition: There are selective ion-sensitive dyes for H+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+, Cl-, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Ba2+, La3+. Membrane potential: Using the so-called slow (Nernstian dyes) or electrochromic dyes one can assess the value of the transmembrane potential. Membrane fluidity: Fluorescent probes inform about the freedom of rotational and translational movement of membrane proteins and lipids. Selective labeling: Almost any object of interest inside the cell or on its surface can be selectively fluorescently labeled. There are dyes specific for DNA, RNA, oligonucleotides (FISH), Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, vacuoles, cytoskeleton, etc. Using fluorescent dyes specific receptors may be localized, their conformational changes followed and the polarity of corresponding binding sites accessed. The endocytic pathway may be followed, enzymes and their local enzymatic activity localized. For really selective labeling fluorescent labeled antibodies exist. Imaging: One of the main advantages of fluorescence imaging is its versatility. It allow choice among ratio imaging in excitation, ratio imaging in emission and lifetime imaging. These approaches can be applied to both the classical wide-field fluorescence microscopy and to the laser confocal fluorescence microscopy, one day possibly to the scanning near field optical microscopy. Simultaneous application of several fluorescent dyes: The technical progress in both excitation sources and in detectors allows to extend the excitation deeper in the blue and ultraviolet side and the detection further in the NIR and IR. Consequently, up to 6 peaks in excitation and up to 6 peaks in emission can be followed without any substantial difficulties. Application of dyes such with longer fluorescence lifetimes such as rare earth

  13. Seeking Optimal Region-Of-Interest (ROI) Single-Value Summary Measures for fMRI Studies in Imaging Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yunxia; Chen, Qiang; Nichols, Thomas E.; Rasetti, Roberta; Callicott, Joseph H.; Berman, Karen F.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Mattay, Venkata S.

    2016-01-01

    A data-driven hypothesis-free genome-wide association (GWA) approach in imaging genetics studies allows screening the entire genome to discover novel genes that modulate brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, a whole brain voxel-wise analysis approach in such genome-wide based imaging genetic studies can be computationally intense and also likely has low statistical power since a stringent multiple comparisons correction is needed for searching over the entire genome and brain. In imaging genetics with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) phenotypes, since many experimental paradigms activate focal regions that can be pre-specified based on a priori knowledge, reducing the voxel-wise search to single-value summary measures within a priori ROIs could prove efficient and promising. The goal of this investigation is to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of different single-value ROI summary measures and provide guidance in future work. Four different fMRI databases were tested and comparisons across different groups (patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, vs. normal control subjects; across genotype groups) were conducted. Our results show that four of these measures, particularly those that represent values from the top most-activated voxels within an ROI are more powerful at reliably detecting group differences and generating greater effect sizes than the others. PMID:26974435

  14. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0-12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  15. Estimation of Complex-Valued Stiffness Using Acoustic Waves Measured with Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliphant, Travis E.; Ehman, Richard L.; Greenleaf, James F.

    Tissue stiffness can be a useful indicator of diseased tissue. Noninvasive quantitation of the mechanical properties of tissue could improve early detection of such pathology. A method for detecting displacement from propagating shear waves using a phase-contrast MRI technique has been developed previously. In this chapter the principles behind the measurement technique are reviewed, and the mechanical properties that can be determined from the displacement data are investigated for isotropic materials. An algebraic inversion approach useful for piece-wise homogeneous materials is described in detail for the general isotropic case, which is then specialized to incompressible materials as a model for tissue. Results of the inversion approach are presented for an experimental phantom and in-vivo breast tumor. These results show that the technique can be used to obtain shear-wave speed and attenuation in regions where there is sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the displacement and its second spatial derivatives. The sensitivity to noise is higher in the attenuation estimates than in the shear-wave speed estimates.

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0–12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  17. Counting missing values in a metabolite-intensity data set for measuring the analytical performance of a metabolomics platform.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tao; Li, Liang

    2015-01-20

    Metabolomics requires quantitative comparison of individual metabolites present in an entire sample set. Unfortunately, missing intensity values in one or more samples are very common. Because missing values can have a profound influence on metabolomic results, the extent of missing values found in a metabolomic data set should be treated as an important parameter for measuring the analytical performance of a technique. In this work, we report a study on the scope of missing values and a robust method of filling the missing values in a chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS metabolomics platform. Unlike conventional LC-MS, CIL LC-MS quantifies the concentration differences of individual metabolites in two comparative samples based on the mass spectral peak intensity ratio of a peak pair from a mixture of differentially labeled samples. We show that this peak-pair feature can be explored as a unique means of extracting metabolite intensity information from raw mass spectra. In our approach, a peak-pair peaking algorithm, IsoMS, is initially used to process the LC-MS data set to generate a CSV file or table that contains metabolite ID and peak ratio information (i.e., metabolite-intensity table). A zero-fill program, freely available from MyCompoundID.org , is developed to automatically find a missing value in the CSV file and go back to the raw LC-MS data to find the peak pair and, then, calculate the intensity ratio and enter the ratio value into the table. Most of the missing values are found to be low abundance peak pairs. We demonstrate the performance of this method in analyzing an experimental and technical replicate data set of human urine metabolome. Furthermore, we propose a standardized approach of counting missing values in a replicate data set as a way of gauging the extent of missing values in a metabolomics platform. Finally, we illustrate that applying the zero-fill program, in conjunction with dansylation CIL LC-MS, can lead to a marked improvement in

  18. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  19. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  20. [Double measurement of the Böhler angle: prognostic value of radiological angles in posterior facet fractures of the calcaneus].

    PubMed

    Chaminade, B; Zographos, S; Uthéza, G

    2001-11-01

    In 1931, Böhler proposed that measuring the radiological angle of the tuberosity could be useful in posterior facet fractures of the calcaneus to evaluate initial damage as well as reduction quality. In opposition to the 1998 SOFCOT symposium, certain authors considered that the Böhler angle has no prognostic value. Progress in pathological anatomy has helped to better understand posterior facet fractures, justifying the use of a "double measurement". The fundamental fracture line separates the posterior facet into a lowered medial fragment and a pivoted lateral fragment. The double contour of the posterior facet visualized radiographically allows measurement of a medial Böhler angle and a lateral Böhler angle. It is demonstrated that is the smaller the medial Böhler angle, the greater the subtalar degeneration. Surgical restoration of a satisfactory Böhler angle is a necessary prerequisite for a good outcome. "Double measurement" of the Böhler angle on the lateral view contributes to the prognostic value of this historical angle. PMID:11845075

  1. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  2. Hook-method measurements of gf-values for ultraviolet Fe I and Fe II lines on a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, M. C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Transition probabilities for 14 lines of Fe II and 12 lines of Fe I in the wavelength region 2560-2737 A were measured by use of a shock tube and the hook method. Absolute oscillator strengths for resonance lines of Fe I reported by Banfield and Huber were used to determine the number density of neutral iron in the shock-heated gas. With the assumption of thermal equilibrium, the density of singly ionized iron atoms in this gas was then computed from the measured temperature and pressure with the aid of the Saha equation. Our results on the 12 strongest of the 13 lines belonging to the first ultraviolet multiplet of Fe II indicate that the multiplet f-value is larger by a factor of 2 than that derived from lifetime measurements by Assousa and Smith.

  3. FT values measured to ±0.1% for superallowed beta transitions: metrology at sub-second time scales.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J C; Iacob, V E; Park, H I; Chen, L; Nica, N; Horvat, V; Tribble, R E; Towner, I S

    2014-05-01

    Because of angular-momentum conservation, superallowed β decay between 0(+) analog states involves only the vector part of the weak interaction, so its measured ft value can be used to determine the vector coupling constant, G(V). If many such transitions are measured, then the constancy of G(V) can be established and several important tests made on fundamentals of the electroweak Standard Model. We have developed apparatus that allows us to measure half-lives to ±0.03% and branching ratios to ±0.1% or better, for cyclotron-produced activities with half-lives as short as 100 ms. We present an overview of the equipment and a summary of more than 10 years of results. PMID:24309011

  4. Value of ANCA measurements during remission to predict a relapse of ANCA-associated vasculitis—a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Mahr, Alfred D.; LaValley, Michael; Merkel, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The value of repeated ANCA measurements among patients with an established diagnosis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore whether either of the two distinct patterns of ANCA values during remission, a rise in ANCA or persistently positive ANCA, predicted future relapse. Methods. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were performed. Studies with at least 10 subjects with AAV from which both sensitivity and specificity of a rise in ANCA and/or persistent ANCA for future disease relapse could be calculated were included. Likelihood ratios were calculated for each study and pooled to arrive at summary estimates. I2-values were calculated as a measure of heterogeneity and meta-regression was used to explore sources of heterogeneity. Results. Nine articles on a rise in ANCA and nine articles on persistent ANCA were included. The summary estimates for positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of a rise in ANCA during remission on subsequent relapse of disease were 2.84 (95% CI 1.65, 4.90) and 0.49 (95% CI 0.27, 0.87), respectively. The summary estimates for LR+ and LR− of persistent ANCA during remission for subsequent disease relapse were 1.97 (95% CI 1.43, 2.70) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.50, 1.06), respectively. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity, which was partially explained by the frequency of ANCA measurements. Conclusion. Among patients with AAV, a rise in or persistence of ANCA during remission is only modestly predictive of future disease relapse. There is limited use to serial ANCA measurements during disease remission to guide treatment decisions for individual patients with AAV. PMID:22039267

  5. Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery flow reserve improves the diagnostic value of routine dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary flow reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD flow was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560

  6. Measure for Measure: The Relationship between Measures of Instructional Practice in Middle School English Language Arts and Teachers' Value-Added Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Loeb, Susanna; Cohen, Julia; Hammerness, Karen; Wyckoff, James; Boyd, Donald; Lankford, Hamilton

    2010-01-01

    Even as research has begun to document that teachers matter, there is less certainty about what attributes of teachers make the most difference in raising student achievement. Numerous studies have estimated the relationship between teachers' characteristics, such as work experience and academic performance, and their value-added to student…

  7. Measure for Measure: The Relationship between Measures of Instructional Practice in Middle School English Language Arts and Teachers' Value-Added Scores. Working Paper 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pamela L.; Loeb, Susanna; Cohen, Julia; Hammerness, Karen; Wyckoff, James H.; Boyd, Donald J.; Lankford, Hamilton

    2010-01-01

    Even as research documents that teachers matter, there is less certainty about the attributes of teachers that make the most difference in raising student achievement. Many studies have estimated the relationship between teachers' characteristics (i.e., experience and academic performance) and their value-added to student achievement. Few have…

  8. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets1234

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Janet A; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The energy content of foods is primarily determined by the Atwater factors, which may not be accurate for certain food groups. Nuts are a food group for which substantial evidence suggests that the Atwater factors may be poorly predictive. Objective: A study was conducted to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to compare the measured energy value with the value calculated from the Atwater factors. Design: Eighteen healthy adults consumed a controlled diet or an almond-containing diet for 18 d. Three treatments were administered to subjects in a crossover design, and diets contained 1 of 3 almond doses: 0, 42, or 84 g/d. During the final 9 d of the treatment period, volunteers collected all urine and feces, and samples of diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for macronutrient and energy contents. The metabolizable energy content of the almonds was determined. Results: The energy content of almonds in the human diet was found to be 4.6 ± 0.8 kcal/g, which is equivalent to 129 kcal/28-g serving. This is significantly less than the energy density of 6.0–6.1 kcal/g as determined by the Atwater factors, which is equivalent to an energy content of 168–170 kcal/serving. The Atwater factors, when applied to almonds, resulted in a 32% overestimation of their measured energy content. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the inaccuracies of the Atwater factors for certain applications and provides a rigorous method for determining empirically the energy value of individual foods within the context of a mixed diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01007188. PMID:22760558

  9. Actualities and Perspectives in Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Iencean, SM; Brehar, FM

    2008-01-01

    In the field of neurosurgery, like in other surgical specialties, the last decades have brought major achievements. The series of revolutionary discoveries has started during the last century in the fifties, with stereotactic radiosurgery, then continued with the implementation of operative microscope (during the seventies), the endovascular embolisation in the nineties and finally with the major improvement in robotic neurosurgery and molecular neurosurgery at the beginning of this century. The major innovation has been brought not only in the field of therapeutical measures but also in the field of neuro– imaging. Thus, the modern MRI with more than 3 Tesla, can reveal to the neurosurgeon the most intimate structures of the nervous system. Several important areas in neurosurgery like: vascular neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery and brain tumors pathology, benefit from the modern technology and from the latest discoveries from genetic and molecular biology. In conclusion, summarizing the discoveries of the last decade, we emphasize that the related areas like genetics, molecular biology, computer technology become more and more important in the future progress of the neurosurgery. PMID:20108475

  10. Development of a model of a multi-lymphangion lymphatic vessel incorporating realistic and measured parameter values.

    PubMed

    Bertram, C D; Macaskill, C; Davis, M J; Moore, J E

    2014-04-01

    Our published model of a lymphatic vessel consisting of multiple actively contracting segments between non-return valves has been further developed by the incorporation of properties derived from observations and measurements of rat mesenteric vessels. These included (1) a refractory period between contractions, (2) a highly nonlinear form for the passive part of the pressure-diameter relationship, (3) hysteretic and transmural-pressure-dependent valve opening and closing pressure thresholds and (4) dependence of active tension on muscle length as reflected in local diameter. Experimentally, lymphatic valves are known to be biased to stay open. In consequence, in the improved model, vessel pumping of fluid suffers losses by regurgitation, and valve closure is dependent on backflow first causing an adverse valve pressure drop sufficient to reach the closure threshold. The assumed resistance of an open valve therefore becomes a critical parameter, and experiments to measure this quantity are reported here. However, incorporating this parameter value, along with other parameter values based on existing measurements, led to ineffective pumping. It is argued that the published measurements of valve-closing pressure threshold overestimate this quantity owing to neglect of micro-pipette resistance. An estimate is made of the extent of the possible resulting error. Correcting by this amount, the pumping performance is improved, but still very inefficient unless the open-valve resistance is also increased beyond the measured level. Arguments are given as to why this is justified, and other areas where experimental data are lacking are identified. The model is capable of future adaptation as new experimental data appear. PMID:23801424

  11. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  12. Evaluating the RiskMetrics methodology in measuring volatility and Value-at-Risk in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre

    2001-10-01

    We analyze the performance of RiskMetrics, a widely used methodology for measuring market risk. Based on the assumption of normally distributed returns, the RiskMetrics model completely ignores the presence of fat tails in the distribution function, which is an important feature of financial data. Nevertheless, it was commonly found that RiskMetrics performs satisfactorily well, and therefore the technique has become widely used in the financial industry. We find, however, that the success of RiskMetrics is the artifact of the choice of the risk measure. First, the outstanding performance of volatility estimates is basically due to the choice of a very short (one-period ahead) forecasting horizon. Second, the satisfactory performance in obtaining Value-at-Risk by simply multiplying volatility with a constant factor is mainly due to the choice of the particular significance level.

  13. Modelling bulk surface resistance from MODIS time series data to estimate actual regional evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of actual evapotraspiration by means of Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation requires the knowledge of the so-called 'bulk surface resistance', rc,act, representing the vapour flow resistance through the transpiring crop and evaporating soil surface. The accurate parameterization of rc,act still represents an unexploited topic, especially in the case of heterogeneous land surface. In agro-hydrological applications, the P-M equation commonly used to evaluate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) of a well-watered 'standardized crop' (grass or alfalfa), generally assumes for the bulk surface resistance a value of 70 s m-1. Moreover, specific crop coefficients have to be used to estimate maximum and/or actual evapotranspiration based on ET0. In this paper, a simple procedure for the indirect estimation of rc,act as function of a vegetation index computed from remote acquisition of Land Surface Temperature (LST), is proposed. An application was carried out in an irrigation district located near Castelvetrano, in South-West of Sicily, mainly cultivated with olive groves, in which actual evapotranspiration fluxes were measured during two years (2010-2011) by an Eddy Covariance flux tower (EC). Evapotranspiration measurements allowed evaluating rc,actbased on the numerical inversion of the P-M equation. In the same study area, a large time series of MODIS LST data, characterized by a spatial resolution of 1x1 km and a time step of 8-days, was also acquired for the period from 2000 to 2014. A simple Vegetation Index Temperatures (VTI), with values ranging from 0 to 1, was computed using normalized LST values. Evapotranspiration fluxes measured in 2010 were used to calibrate the relationship between rc,act and VTI, whereas data from 2011 were used for its validation. The preliminary results evidenced that, for the considered crop, an almost constant value of rc,act, corresponding to about 250 s m-1, can be considered typical of periods in which the crop is well

  14. Is Prolactin Measurement of Value during Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling in Patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. T.; Nieman, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered the gold standard test to distinguish between Cushing’s disease (CD) and ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). Anomalous venous drainage, abnormal venous anatomy and lack of expertise can lead to false-negative IPSS results and thereby misclassification of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. Prolactin measurement during IPSS can improve diagnostic accuracy and decrease false negative results. A baseline prolactin inferior petrosal sinus to peripheral (IPS/P) ratio (ipsilateral to the dominant post-CRH ACTH IPS/P ratio) of 1.8 or more suggests successful catheterization during IPSS. Prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS/P ratios can then be used to differentiate between a pituitary and ectopic source of ACTH. Values ≤ 0.7 are suggestive of EAS and those ≥ 1.3 are indicative of CD but the implication of values between 0.7 and 1.3 remains unclear and needs further investigation. Larger prospective studies are also needed for further evaluation of the role of contralateral prolactin IPS/P ratios, post-CRH prolactin values and prolactin-adjusted ACTH inter-sinus ratios for tumor localization in CD. PMID:23887034

  15. Development of singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) assay method. 4. Measurements of the SOAC values for vegetable and fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuko; Takahashi, Shingo; Aizawa, Koichi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the second-order rate constants and the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) values for the reaction of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) with 23 kinds of food extracts were performed in ethanol/chloroform/D2O (50:50:1, v/v/v) solution at 35 °C. It has been clarified that the SOAC method is useful to evaluate the (1)O2-quenching activity (i.e. the SOAC value) of food extracts having two orders of magnitude different rate constants from 3.18 × 10(4) L g(-1) s(-1) for tomato to 1.55 × 10(2) for green melon. Furthermore, comparison of the observed rate constants for the above food extracts with the calculated ones based on the concentrations of seven kinds of carotenoids included in the food extracts and the rate constants reported for each carotenoids was performed, in order to ascertain the validity of the SOAC assay method developed and to clarify the ratio of the contribution of principal carotenoids to the SOAC value. PMID:25359604

  16. Development of singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) assay method. 2. Measurements of the SOAC values for carotenoids and food extracts.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Koichi; Iwasaki, Yuko; Ouchi, Aya; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Terao, Junji; Mukai, Kazuo

    2011-04-27

    Recently a new assay method that can quantify the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) of antioxidants was proposed. In the present work, kinetic study of the reaction of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) with carotenoids and vegetable extracts has been performed in ethanol/chloroform/D(2)O (50:50:1, v/v/v) solution at 35 °C. Measurements of the second-order rate constants (k(Q)(S)) and the SOAC values were performed for eight kinds of carotenoids and three kinds of vegetable extracts (red paprika, carrot, and tomato). Furthermore, measurements of the concentrations of the carotenoids included in vegetable extracts were performed, using a HPLC technique. From the results, it has been clarified that the total (1)O(2)-quenching activity (that is, the SOAC value) for vegetable extracts may be explained as the sum of the product {Σ k(Q)(Car-i)(S) [Car-i](i)} of the rate constant (k(Q)(Car-i)(S)) and the concentration ([Car (i)]) of carotenoids included in vegetable extracts. PMID:21395214

  17. Actual change and inaccurate recall contribute to posttraumatic growth following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Sean; Sheldon, Kennon M; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    People with cancer often report that they experience personal growth as a result of the disease, but such reports have unclear validity. Some suggest such growth results from Rogers's (1951) hypothesized organismic valuing process (OVP), an innate tendency for people to gravitate toward well-being; others suggest this growth may be a positive illusion resulting from temporal self-comparisons. To test these conceptualizations, the authors examined 83 individuals with Stages 0-III breast or prostate cancer. Patients completed measures of positive attributes and personal life goals before radiotherapy (Time 1) and after radiotherapy (Time 2). At Time 2, participants also attempted to recreate their Time 1 responses and completed a posttraumatic growth (PTG) measure. PTG was significantly related with actual increases (but not perceived increases) in the relative importance of intrinsic goals versus extrinsic goals and with perceived increases (but not actual increases) in positive attributes. These measures were unrelated to one another and thus explained unique variance in PTG. Data suggest that both actual change processes related to the OVP and biases in autobiographic recall may independently contribute to PTG reports. PMID:18837598

  18. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  19. [Dynamic measurement of pressure distribution with flexible measuring mats--an innovative measuring procedure in sports orthopedics and traumatology. Development--use--value].

    PubMed

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-12-01

    The results of this study provide the basis for an on-target use of measurement of pressure distribution with flexible mats in sports orthopaedics and traumatology and adjacent overlapping fields. Dynamic measurement of pressure distribution using a flexible mat as a capacitor can yield valuable additional information not available so far in this form, on the static and dynamic stress acting on the human locomotor system. In the future this method can be used to prevent injuries and to optimise performance in many disciplines of sport and will make a significant contribution to optimised treatment concepts with pressure-adjusted shoes or insoles, as well as to the control of functional surgery results in traumatology. The fundamentals are presented via a detailed description of the development, standardization and testing of this innovative measuring method. The questions of applicability, practicability and information supplied are discussed on the basis of extensive studies on reproducibility, on the amount of time and technical effort required for each measurement, and on a critical comparison with other methods. For the two fields of application presented here it was possible to standardize the working procedure enabling a largely problem-free application in practice. The first useful results were obtained in sports orthopaedics (alpine ski boots and sportshoe design). By applying the measuring of pressure distribution in alpine ski sports the influence the construction of ski boots on the stress exercised on the human leg could be objectively quantified in man for the first time. Marked differences were found between models where the heel can be turned down on entering, to conventionally fastened ski boots. This, as well as the results on the influence temperature, height of shaft and shaft stability or rigidity on the pressure distribution along the tibia, provide the basis for a new guideline for the testing of ski boots. A new method was developed for the

  20. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  1. Is Talk ‘Cheap’? An Initial Investigation of the Equivalence of Alcohol Purchase Task Performance for Hypothetical and Actual Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; Acker, John; Stojek, Monika; Murphy, James G.; MacKillop, James

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioral economic alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) are self-report measures of alcohol demand that assess estimated consumption at escalating levels of price. However, the relationship between estimated performance for hypothetical outcomes and choices for actual outcomes has not been determined. The present study examined both the correspondence between choices for hypothetical and actual outcomes, and the correspondence between estimated alcohol consumption and actual drinking behavior. A collateral goal of the study was to examine the effects of alcohol cues on APT performance. Methods Forty one heavy-drinking adults (56% male) participated in a human laboratory protocol comprising APTs for hypothetical and actual alcohol and money, an alcohol cue reactivity paradigm, an alcohol self-administration period, and a recovery period. Results Pearson correlations revealed very high correspondence between APT performance for hypothetical and actual alcohol (ps < .001). Estimated consumption on the APT was similarly strongly associated with actual consumption during the self-administration period (r = .87, p <.001). Exposure to alcohol cues significantly increased subjective craving and arousal, and had a trend-level effect on intensity of demand, in spite of notable ceiling effects. Associations among motivational indices were highly variable, suggesting multidimensionality. Conclusions These results suggest there may be close correspondence both between value preferences for hypothetical alcohol and actual alcohol, and between estimated consumption and actual consumption. Methodological considerations and priorities for future studies are discussed. PMID:22017303

  2. Dealing with non-detect values in time-series measurements of radionuclide concentration in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Fiévet, Bruno; Della Vedova, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The attention of scientists in the field of environmental radioactivity is drawn to statistical methods recommended by Dennis Helsel for dealing with datasets including measurements that fall below the detection limits, as often encountered in environmental monitoring programmes. The methods are described by Helsel in his book entitled "Nondetects and Data Analysis: Statistics for Censored Environmental Data" (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2005, 250p). These methods are applied to a data subset (using data from France) of the Radioactive Substance Committee (OSPAR commission for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic), corresponding to time-series measurements of Cs-137 concentration in seaweed in the vicinity of the Areva NC reprocessing plant at La Hague, which is used as an illustrative example. Despite the presence of 163 non-detect values out of 514 measurements, it is possible to estimate descriptive parameters and perform statistical tests to compare concentration levels between two periods of time. Finally, evidence is obtained for an overall decreasing trend with time. The benefits of these statistical methods for data analysis are discussed. PMID:19781826

  3. Valuation of green walls and green roofs as soundscape measures: including monetised amenity values together with noise-attenuation values in a cost-benefit analysis of a green wall affecting courtyards.

    PubMed

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-11-01

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall. PMID:23202816

  4. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    PubMed Central

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall. PMID:23202816

  5. Properties of sesame oil by detailed 1H and 13C NMR assignments before and after ozonation and their correlation with iodine value, peroxide value, and viscosity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sega, Alessandro; Zanardi, Iacopo; Chiasserini, Luisa; Gabbrielli, Alessandro; Bocci, Velio; Travagli, Valter

    2010-02-01

    Gaseous ozone chemically reacts with unsaturated triglyceride substrates leading to ozonated derivatives with a wide potential applications, ranging from the petrochemical to the pharmaceutical industry. To date, an ultimate understanding of the ozone reactivity during sesame oil ozonation process as well as detailed (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments are lacking. A practical advantage of NMR is that a single NMR sample measurement can explain many issues, while similar analysis by traditional methods may require several independent and time-consuming measurements. Moreover, significant relationships among NMR spectra and both conventional chemical analysis and viscosity measurements have been found. Eventually, NMR could play an important role for quality attributes of ozonated oil derivatives. PMID:19900426

  6. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  7. Uncertainty of measurement and clinical value of semen analysis: has standardisation through professional guidelines helped or hindered progress?

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, M J

    2016-09-01

    This article suggests that diagnostic semen analysis has no more clinical value today than it had 25-30 years ago, and both the confusion surrounding its evidence base (in terms of relationship with conception) and the low level of confidence in the clinical setting is attributable to an associated high level of 'uncertainty'. Consideration of the concept of measurement uncertainty is mandatory for medical laboratories applying for the ISO15189 standard. It is evident that the entire semen analysis process is prone to error every step from specimen collection to the reporting of results and serves to compound uncertainty associated with diagnosis or prognosis. Perceived adherence to published guidelines for the assessment of sperm concentration, motility and morphology does not guarantee a reliable and reproducible test result. Moreover, the high level of uncertainty associated with manual sperm motility and morphology can be attributed to subjectivity and lack a traceable standard. This article describes where and why uncertainty exists and suggests that semen analysis will continue to be of limited value until it is more adequately considered and addressed. Although professional guidelines for good practice have provided the foundations for testing procedures for many years, the risk in following rather prescriptive guidance to the letter is that unless they are based on an overwhelmingly firm evidence base, the quality of semen analysis will remain poor and the progress towards the development of more innovative methods for investigating male infertility will be slow. PMID:27529487

  8. High-resolution positron Q-value measurements and nuclear-structure studies far from the stability line. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Avignone, F.T. III.

    1981-02-28

    Extensive data analysis and theoretical analysis has been done to complete the extensive decay scheme investigation of /sup 206/ /sup 208/Fr and the level structures of /sup 206/ /sup 208/Rn. A final version of a journal article is presented in preprint form. Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been made to correct the end point energies of positron spectra taken with intrinsic Ge detectors for annihilation radiation interferences. These calculations were tested using the decay of /sup 82/Sr which has previously measured positron branches. This technique was applied to the positron spectra collected at the on-line UNISOR isotope separator. The reactions used were /sup 60/Ni(/sup 20/Ne;p2n)/sup 77/Rb and /sup 60/Ni(/sup 20/Ne;pn)/sup 78/Rb. Values for 5, ..gamma..-..beta../sup +/ coincidence positron end point energies are given for the decay of /sup 77/Rb. The implied Q-value is 5.075 +- 0.010 MeV. A complete paper on the calculated corrections is presented. A flow chart of a more complete program which accounts for positrons scattering out of the detector and for bremsstralung radiation is also presented. End-point energies of four ..beta../sup +/ branches in /sup 77/Rb are given as well as a proposed energy level scheme of /sup 75/Kr based on ..gamma..-..gamma.. coincidence data taken at UNISOR.

  9. Accuracy of cut-off value by measurement of third molar index: Study of a Colombian sample.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Aguilar, Lina; Rivera, Marcela; Palacio, Luz Andrea Velandia; Riccomi, Giulia; Bestetti, Fiorella; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the accuracy of cut-off value of 0.08 by measurement of third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in a sample of Colombian children and young adults. Digital orthopantomographs of 288 Colombian children and young adults (163 girls and 125 boys), aged between 13 and 22 years, were analysed. Concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and κ statistics (Cohen's Kappa coefficient) showed that repeatability and reproducibility are high for both intra- and inter-observer error. κ statistics for intra- and inter-observer agreement in decision on adult or minor was 0.913 and 0.877, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both girls and boys. For girls, the sensitivity test was 95.1% (95% CI 87.1%-95%) and specificity was 93.8% (95% CI 87.1%-98.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 95.1%. For boys, the sensitivity test was 91.7% (95% CI 85.1%-96.8%) and specificity was 90.6% (95% CI 82.1%-97.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 89.7%. The cut-off value of 0.08 is highly useful to determine if a subject is 18 years of age or older or not. PMID:26898677

  10. Integrating Patient-Reported Outcome Measures into Routine Cancer Care: Cancer Patients’ and Clinicians’ Perceptions of Acceptability and Value

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Angela; Irwin, Debra E.; Chen, Ronald C.; Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Muss, Hyman B.; Rosenstein, Donald L.; Shea, Thomas C.; Wood, William A.; Lyons, Jessica C.; Reeve, Bryce B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Despite growing interest in integrating patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of symptoms and functional status into routine cancer care, little attention has been paid to patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of acceptability and value. Methods: A two-phase qualitative study was conducted to develop a web-based PRO screening system with 21 items assessing symptoms (e.g., nausea) and functional status. Phase 1 involved cognitive interviews with 35 cancer outpatients (n=9 breast chemotherapy, radiation for prostate (n=8) or head and neck cancer (n=10), and n=8 bone marrow transplant [BMT]). In Phase 2, we evaluated the acceptability and perceived value of reviewing a PRO measure during real-time clinical encounters with 39 additional outpatients (n=10 breast, n=9 head and neck, n=10 prostate, n=10 BMT) and 12 clinicians (n=3 breast, n=2 head and neck, n=4 prostate, n=3 BMT). At least 20% of patients were ≥60 years, African American, or ≤ high school. Results: Patients felt that their PRO summary of symptoms and functional status was helpful in discussing health issues with clinicians (92%), wanted to review their results with clinicians during future visits (82%), and would recommend it to other patients (87%). Clinicians found the PRO summary to be easy to interpret (83%), most helpful for documenting the Review of Symptoms (92%), and would recommend it to future patients (92%). Over 90% of clinicians reported that consultation time did not increase. Conclusion: Both cancer patients and clinicians reported that discussing a PRO summary of symptoms and functional status during an outpatient visit was useful, acceptable, and feasible. PMID:26557724

  11. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  12. Value Similarities among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be explained by the use of different measurement…

  13. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  14. Control of optical spin Hall shift in phase-discontinuity metasurface by weak value measurement post-selection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y U; Wu, J W

    2015-01-01

    Spin Hall effect of light is a spin-dependent transverse shift of optical beam propagating along a curved trajectory, where the refractive index gradient plays a role of the electric field in spin Hall effect of solid-state systems. In order to observe optical spin Hall shift in a refraction taking place at air-glass interface, an amplification technique was necessary such as quantum weak measurement. In phase-discontinuity metasurface (PMS) a rapid phase-change along metasurface takes place over subwavelength distance, which leads to a large refractive index gradient for refraction beam enabling a direct detection of optical spin Hall shift without amplification. Here, we identify that the relative optical spin Hall shift depends on incidence angle at PMS, and demonstrate a control of optical spin Hall shift by constructing weak value measurement with a variable phase retardance in the post-selection. Capability of optical spin Hall shift control permits a tunable precision metrology applicable to nanoscale photonics such as angular momentum transfer and sensing. PMID:26354387

  15. Control of optical spin Hall shift in phase-discontinuity metasurface by weak value measurement post-selection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.U.; Wu, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Spin Hall effect of light is a spin-dependent transverse shift of optical beam propagating along a curved trajectory, where the refractive index gradient plays a role of the electric field in spin Hall effect of solid-state systems. In order to observe optical spin Hall shift in a refraction taking place at air-glass interface, an amplification technique was necessary such as quantum weak measurement. In phase-discontinuity metasurface (PMS) a rapid phase-change along metasurface takes place over subwavelength distance, which leads to a large refractive index gradient for refraction beam enabling a direct detection of optical spin Hall shift without amplification. Here, we identify that the relative optical spin Hall shift depends on incidence angle at PMS, and demonstrate a control of optical spin Hall shift by constructing weak value measurement with a variable phase retardance in the post-selection. Capability of optical spin Hall shift control permits a tunable precision metrology applicable to nanoscale photonics such as angular momentum transfer and sensing. PMID:26354387

  16. Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yuta; Sapkota, Achyut; Maruyama, Osamu; Kosaka, Ryo; Yamane, Takashi; Takei, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    The relative permittivity ε' and the dielectric loss ε″ for various hematocrit values H for static bovine blood condition have been measured using the dielectric relaxation method to detect thrombosis in real time. The suitable measurement frequency f m ranged within 60 kHz to 1 MHz, and the relaxation frequency of red blood cells (RBCs) f rc was observed to be 2 MHz. In the f m, the temporal change of normalized ε' exhibited a minimum (called as bottom point). The bottom point was observed to be exponentially shortened as H increased. This characteristic of the ε'* minimum is discussed from three viewpoints: during fibrin formation, direct thrombus formation, and rouleaux formation processes. ε'* during the fibrin formation process decreased over time, irrespective of f. However, ε'* in f m during the direct thrombus formation process and during the aggregation formation process increased immediately and rapidly over time. Therefore, the ε'* bottom point in f m might be the indication of micrometer-scale thrombus formation by RBC aggregation due to fibrin formation. PMID:26058831

  17. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  18. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  19. Maximum Value Measured by 2-D Shear Wave Elastography Helps in Differentiating Malignancy from Benign Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen-Shuo; Lin, Man-Xia; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Pan, Fu-Shun; Huang, Guang-Liang; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ming-De; Xie, Xiao-Yan

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the work described here was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of 2-D shear wave elastography (2-D SWE) in differentiating malignancy from benign focal liver lesions (FLLs). The maxima, minima, means and the standard deviations of 2-D SWE measurements, expressed in kilopascals (Emax, Emin, Emean, ESD), were obtained for 221 patients with 229 FLLs. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 2-D SWE. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess inter-group differences. Emax, Emin, Emean and ESD were significantly higher in the 164 malignant lesions than in the 65 benign lesions (p < 0.001). For identification of malignant FLLs, the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for Emax, Emin, Emean and ESD were 0.920, 0.710, 0.879 and 0.915, respectively. Emax was 96.21 ± 35.40 for 19 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 90.32 ± 54.71 for 35 liver metastatic lesions, which were significantly higher than 61.83 ± 28.87 for 103 hepatocellular carcinomas (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0237). Emax was 38.72 ± 18.65 for 15 focal nodular hyperplasias, which was significantly higher than 20.56 ± 10.74 for 37 hemangiomas (p = 0.0009). The Emax values for adjacent liver parenchyma of hepatocellular carcinomas and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were significantly higher than those for the other three lesion types (p < 0.005). In conclusion, Emax values of FLLs and adjacent liver parenchyma could help in differentiating malignant from benign FLLs. PMID:27283039

  20. U.S. Dental School Deans' Views on the Value of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan B; Donoff, R Bruce; Riedy, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    There has historically been limited development and utilization of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical dentistry. However, in recent years PROMs have been recognized by other health care fields as valuable in the comprehensive assessment of patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to survey deans of U.S. dental schools to better understand their vision for the role of PROMs in the field of dentistry. A 13-question online survey was emailed to the deans of the 64 accredited U.S. dental schools at the time to gather their opinions about the value of patient-reported outcomes in dentistry. The survey consisted of questions in 12 domains such as treatment planning, perceived success/complications of surgery, identification/management of dental pain, psychological and oral function, and insurance payment/reimbursement. Of the 64 deans, 33 responses were received (51.5% response rate), but three surveys were excluded due to incomplete answers, resulting in a final response rate of 46.8%. All respondents reported there was value in utilization of PROMs for understanding a patient's satisfaction of a procedure, a patient's perceived success of dental surgery, identifying dental pain, and managing dental pain. However, there was disagreement among the respondents about utilization of PROMs for the purpose of determining insurance payment and/or reimbursement. Additional steps should be taken to develop clinically appropriate PROMs for dentistry and to determine the appropriate situations in which to use dental PROMs. This study suggests that PROMs should be incorporated into dental school curricula as they will likely play a role in future comprehensive treatment assessment. PMID:27251354

  1. A DOCUMENTATION OF BIDDING GAMES USED IN MEASURING SOCIAL VALUE Excerpt from NUREG/CR-0989, PNL-2952, Vol. II Appendix C

    SciTech Connect

    J W .Currie, J. Kidd

    1980-09-01

    This paper reviews the bidding game literature describing strategies used to measure the social value of various impacts resulting from environmentaltering projects. The theoretical measures of social value are presented, followed by a discussion of their relationship to different types of bidding games. Previous bidding game studies are documented. The important elements of bidding games and their relationship to the theoretical measures of social value are discussed. Finally, elements of the bidding games designed for a Pacific Northwest Laboratory project are compared with those of the studies reviewed.

  2. [Discussion of actual legal minimum requirements for feeder space and perch length in laying hen husbandry in the light of the body widths measured in Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown laying hens].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Spindler, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Legal requirements on space and dimensions regarding furnished cages and alternative systems in laying hen husbandry are subject of constant discussion. Further knowledge about basic measures of the hens might help to come to reasonable results in the future. Digital images of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens, housed at the Lehr- und Forschungsgut Ruthe, University for Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Foundation, in Big Dutchman Eurovent laying hen cages, were made at three stages (19th, 36th and 58th week) of production. All hens had been taken out of their cages by night and set on a perch in a special cage used to photograph the hens frontally under controlled conditions. Body widths were calculated by a python application Cdisto.py0 2009 Andreas Briese) to mark and measure the body width in the digital images of a total of 156 hens. Mean body widths of 133.77 mm in Lohmann-LSL hens (SD = 9.71; N = 64; mean weight: 1.73 kg) and of 152.55 mm in Lohmann-LB hens (SD = 10.31; N = 92; mean weight: 1.93 kg) respectively were found. Even slight changes in body weights had no effect on the body width. Nonetheless the differences between both hybrids were always statistically significant (Mann-Whitney p < 0,001). Using these preliminary results on body width in a mathematical model simultanious feeding behaviour becomes only possible if the number of animals is reduced by 10.3% to 89.7% in LSL and by 21.3% to 78.7% in LB breeds in relation to a calculated maximum on base of the minimum space requirements for furnished cages in the EU-Dir 74/1999/EC. PMID:23540200

  3. Value of serial platelet indices measurements for the prediction of pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Sevuk, Utkan; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Altindag, Rojhat; Baysal, Erkan; Yaylak, Baris; Ay, Nurettin; Ayaz, Firat; Demirtas, Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, no validated biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity have been established for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There is a need to develop simple and reliable noninvasive tests that can accurately identify patients with PE, even in small hospitals or clinics. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) for predicting occurrence of PE in patients with DVT. Methods Records of acute DVT patients were reviewed retrospectively. Group 1 consisted of 50 patients with acute DVT and group 2 consisted of 50 patients with acute DVT who developed PE during follow-up. The control group consisted of patients with uncomplicated primary varicose veins of the lower limbs. Venous peripheral blood samples for measurement of MPV, PDW, and platelet count were drawn on admission, before the treatment, and at the time of PE diagnosis. Results MPV and PDW levels at the time of PE diagnosis were higher in group 2 than group 1 (P<0.001 and P=0.026, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that a 5.2% increase in admission PDW during follow-up provided 70% sensitivity and 82% specificity (area under the curve, 0.80), and a 6.6% increase in admission MPV during follow-up provided 74% sensitivity and 83% specificity (area under the curve, 0.84) for prediction of PE occurrence in patients with DVT. PDW and MPV levels at the time of PE diagnosis were found to be independent risk factors for the occurrence of PE in patients with DVT. Conclusion Serial measurements of MPV and PDW, and percent change in MPV and PDW appears to be a useful marker for predicting occurrence of acute PE in patients with a first episode of acute proximal DVT. PMID:26316769

  4. Value of commonly measured laboratory tests as biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Ytterberg, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of absolute eosinophil count, serum IgE, ESR and CRP as longitudinal biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss, EGPA). Methods. Patients were selected from an observational EGPA cohort. Absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP were measured quarterly. Disease activity was defined by validated assessment tools. The association of tests with disease activity was assessed via regression models, adjusting for repeated measures and treatment status. Survival analysis was used to determine if laboratory tests were predictive of the 3 month future flare risk. Results. Seventy-four per cent of 892 study visits in 141 patients occurred while patients were on treatment, mostly during remission or mild disease activity, defined as a BVAS for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) of 1 or 2. Correlations between absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP were mostly low or non-significant (r = −0.08 to 0.44). There were few weak associations with disease activity [absolute eosinophil count: OR) 1.01/100 U (95% CI 1.01, 1.02); ESR: OR 1.15/10 mg/l increase (95% CI 1.04, 1.27)]. When BVAS/WG ≥1 defined active disease, the absolute eosinophil count [hazard ratio (HR) 1.01/100 U (95% CI 1.01, 1.02)] was weakly predictive of flare. When BVAS/WG ≥3 defined active disease, ESR was weakly predictive of flare [HR 1.52/10 mm/h increase (95% CI 1.17, 1.67)]. Conclusion. The absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP have limitations as longitudinal biomarkers of disease activity or predictors of flare in EGPA. These findings suggest that novel biomarkers of disease activity for EGPA are needed. PMID:25406357

  5. Diagnostic Value of PET-Measured Heterogeneity in Myocardial Blood Flows during CPT for the Identification of Coronary Vasomotor Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Thomas H.; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Vincenti, Gabriella; Mhiri, Leila; Nkoulou, Rene; Just, Hanjoerg; Ratib, Osman; Mach, Francois; Dahlbom, Magnus; Schelbert, Heinrich R

    2009-01-01

    Background To evaluate the diagnostic value of a PET-measured heterogeneity in longitudinal myocardial blood flow (MBF) during cold pressor testing (CPT) and global MBF response to CPT from rest (ΔMBF) for identification of coronary vasomotor dysfunction. Methods and Results In 35 patients, CPT-induced alterations in epicardial luminal area were determined with quantitative angiography as reference. MBF was assessed over the whole left ventricle as global MBF, and regionally in the mid and mid-distal myocardium as MBF difference or MBF heterogeneity with 13N-ammonia and PET. The sensitivity and specifity of a longitudinal MBF difference in the identification of epicardial vasomotor dysfunction was significantly higher than the global ΔMBF to CPT, respectively (88% vs. 79% and 82% vs. 64%, p<0.05). Combining both parameters resulted in an optimal sensitivity of 100% at the expense of an intermediate specifity of 73%. The diagnostic accuracy was highest for the combined analysis, than those for the MBF difference or global ΔMBF alone (91 vs. 86% and 74%, respectively, p<0.05). Conclusions The combined evaluation of a CPT-induced heterogeneity in longitudinal MBF and the change in global MBF from rest may emerge as a new promising analytic approach to further optimize the identification and characterization of coronary vasomotor dysfunction. PMID:17826322

  6. Retrieved actual ET using SEBS model from Landsat-5 TM data for irrigation area of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Rabbani, Umair; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

    2012-11-01

    The idea of ground-based evapotranspiration (ET) is of the most interesting for land-atmosphere interactions, such as water-saving irrigation, the performance of irrigation systems, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent year's drought in Australia and concerns about climate change has prominent the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food security and production. This paper discusses the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model based on Landsat-5 TM data and field observations has been used and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. 16 Landsat-5 TM scenes were selected covering the time period of 2009, 2010 and 2011 for estimating the actual ET in CIA. To do the validation the used methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the Landsat-5 TM retrieved actual ET results for CIA. The derived ET value over CIA is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.74 and the mean APD is 7.5%. The derived satellite remote sensing values belong to reasonable range.

  7. A Review of the Property Value Approach to Measuring the Welfare Impact of an Externality Excerpt from NUREG/CR-0989, PNL-2952 Vol. II Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    RC. Adams

    1980-08-01

    This paper reviews 1) the quantitative measurement of the welfare impact due to an externality and 2) the empirical estimation of the welfare impact of an externality using the property value approach.

  8. Validation of the Long- and Short-Form of the Ethical Values Assessment (EVA): A Questionnaire Measuring the Three Ethics Approach to Moral Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura Maria; Jensen, Lene Arnett

    2016-01-01

    Moral psychology has been moving toward consideration of multiple kinds of moral concepts and values, such as the Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity. While these three ethics have commonly been measured qualitatively, the current study sought to validate the long and short forms of the Ethical Values Assessment (EVA), which is a…

  9. The Additive Effects of Values Clarification Training to an Online Goal-Setting Procedure on Measures of Student Retention and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Jared A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide individuals with online tutorials to help participants generate strategies to achieve their academic goals and clarify their academic values to assess the additive effects of values clarification training to an online goal-setting training procedure on (1) measures of academic performance and (2) student…

  10. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  11. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXIV - A general approach to measuring the value of aerospace information products and services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the various approaches to measuring the value of information, first defining the meanings of information, economics of information, and value. It concludes that no general model of measuring the value of information is possible and that the usual approaches, such as cost/benefit equations, have very limited applications. It also concludes that in specific contexts with given goals for newly developed products and services or newly acquired information, there is a basis for its objective valuation. The axioms and inputs for such a model are described and directions for further verification and analysis are proposed.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 24: A general approach to measuring the value of aerospace information products and services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the various approaches to measuring the value of information, first defining the meanings of information, economics of information, and value. It concludes that no general model of measuring the value of information is possible and that the usual approaches, such as cost/benefit equations, have very limited applications. It also concludes that in specific contexts with given goals for newly developed products and services or newly acquired information there is a basis for its objective valuation. The axioms and inputs for such a model are described and directions for further verification and analysis are proposed.

  14. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  15. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  16. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  17. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  18. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  19. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  20. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  1. Prognostic Value of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Measured in the First-Trimester on the Severity of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Huang, Shang-Yu; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hwa; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have suggested that preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease may share common mechanisms. The purpose of this prospective nested case-controlled study was to characterize a variety of cardiovascular disease risk factors measured during the first trimester of pregnancy in predicting subsequent outcomes and the severity of preeclampsia. We ascertained the severity of preeclampsia at the onset of the disease, and the presence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We compared first trimester maternal serum cardiovascular disease risk factors in preeclampsia subjects versus normal pregnancies, early-onset versus late-onset preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with IUGR versus without IUGR. To identify the prognostic value of independent predictors on the severity of preeclampsia, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) using logistic regression analysis. There were 134 cases of preeclampsia and 150 uncomplicated pregnancies, and preeclampsia cases were classified as early-onset (53 cases) or late-onset (81 cases), or as with IUGR (44 cases) or without IUGR (90 cases). Among the cardiovascular disease risk factors, maternal serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and homocysteine were predictors of both early-onset preeclampsia and preeclampsia with IUGR. For the detection of early onset preeclampsia or preeclampsia with IUGR, the AUC for the combination model (0.943 and 0.952, respectively) was significantly higher than with serum hsCRP or serum homocysteine only. Patients with preeclampsia can be subdivided into different severities according to time of onset and fetal weight. Cardiovascular risk factors distinguish a subgroup of these patients. PMID:26844488

  2. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  3. Time Use by Special Educators and How It Is Valued

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Dana Pomykal; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Dyer, Nicole; Davis, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent federal legislation is affecting how special educators assess students, select curricula, document growth, teach, and consult--in short, how they spend their time during a school day. This study empirically measured special educators' use of time over the course of several weeks. It compared actual time use with its perceived value by both…

  4. Exploring the Potential of Value-Added Performance Measures to Affect the Quality of the Teacher Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a tremendous amount of research on the use of value-added modeling to assess individual teachers, and a significant number of states and districts are now using, or plan to use, value added as a component of a teacher's summative performance evaluation. In this article, I explore the various mechanisms through which the…

  5. Measuring the Values and Preferences for Everyday Care of Persons with Cognitive Impairment and Their Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Feinberg, Lynn Friss; Tucke, Shandra S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and psychometric properties of a 24-item scale to be used in both research and practice settings that assesses the everyday care values and preferences of individuals with cognitive impairment and the perceptions of family caregivers about their relative's values and preferences for care. Design and…

  6. Using organizational mission, vision, and values to guide professional practice model development and measurement of nurse performance.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Gail L; Witzel, Patricia A; Smith, Toni C

    2005-02-01

    An organization's mission, vision, and values statements are the guiding forces behind the institution's administrative strategic planning and performance assessment activities. Linking nursing professional practice model components and performance evaluation criteria with each of these foundational documents assures that their values, beliefs, and intentions are evident in daily work life. PMID:15714101

  7. The Measurement and Functional Properties of Reinforcer Value in Single-Alternative Responding: A Test of Linear System Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; McDowell, J. J.; Soto, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Matching theory and linear system theory make different predictions about how the y-asymptote, k, of Herrnstein's (1970) hyperbola varies with reinforcer value. The present experiment tested both these predictions and linear system theory's account of how reinforcement rate and reinforcer value jointly govern response rate. Eight rats served as…

  8. How Teacher Evaluation Methods Matter for Accountability: A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Effectiveness Ratings by Principals and Teacher Value-Added Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Ingle, William K.; Rutledge, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers are revolutionizing teacher evaluation by attaching greater stakes to student test scores and observation-based teacher effectiveness measures, but relatively little is known about why they often differ so much. Quantitative analysis of thirty schools suggests that teacher value-added measures and informal principal evaluations are…

  9. The problem of selecting an optimum frequency for a measuring generator in determining the value of the hydrophysical parameter with a given accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyuk, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The selection of the optimum frequency for a measuring generator for determining the value of the hydrophysical parameter with a given degree of accuracy is discussed. Methods from information theory for measuring generators are described. Conversion of the frequency of generators into digital form by means of statistical averaging is also described.

  10. Thermal Performance of Cryogenic Piping Multilayer Insulation in Actual Field Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J.; Augustnynowicz, S.; Thompson, K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A standardized way of comparing the thermal performance of different pipelines in different sizes is needed. Vendor data for vacuum-insulated piping are typically given in heat leak rate per unit length (W/m) for a specific diameter pipeline. An overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is therefore proposed as a more generalized measure for thermal performance comparison and design calculation. The k(sub oafi) provides a direct correspondence to the k-values reported for insulation materials and illustrates the large difference between ideal multilayer insulation (MLI) and actual MLI performance. In this experimental research study, a section of insulated piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions, including simulated spacers and bending. Several different insulation systems were tested using a 1-meter-long cylindrical cryostat test apparatus. The simulated spacers tests showed significant degradation in the thermal performance of a given insulation system. An 18-meter-long pipeline test apparatus is now in operation at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, for conducting liquid nitrogen thermal performance tests.

  11. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  12. Functional Changes of P300 Values among Young Football Players as a Measure of a Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Andelinović, Maja; Titlić, Marina; Andelinović, Deny

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that evaluation of evoked potentials (EP) is an excellent estimation tool for a cognitive function. During daily practices footballers are exposed to headers that can leave mild head traumas. In this study, young footballers were examined, while the control group included their coevals who don't practice contact sports. Results of the study have shown that footballers have longer latency value of the P300 wave when target stimulus is presented on N1, N2 and P3, but not on P2. Also, they have longer latency values when non-target stimulus is presented. Amplitude values of target stimulus are not different, but footballers have lower amplitudes of non-target stimulus. This study suggests that EP evaluation method can be used to detect first and mild changes of the brain function. PMID:26898060

  13. A CLOSURE STUDY OF AEROSOL MASS CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS: COMPARISON OF VALUES OBTAINED WITH FILTERS AND BY DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF MASS DISTRIBUTIONS. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer–aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA–APM) technique (Aero...

  14. Correlation between the values of bone measurements using DXA, QCT and USD methods and the bone strength in calcanei in vitro.

    PubMed

    Imamoto, K; Hamanaka, Y; Yamamoto, I; Niiho, C

    1998-10-01

    In this study we used the calcanei from 32 female and 29 male cadavers, ages 58 to 100. The bone mineral density (BMD) and average bone density (ABD) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) respectively, while speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and stiffness index (SI) were measured using ultrasound densitometry (USD). Thereafter, the bone strength was measured using a compressor to cause bone fracture, and evaluated in comparison with the values of the three measurement methods. The scatter diagrams of the values of the three different methods versus age displayed a negative linear regression in both sexes. Values for BMD and ABD were generally about 20% higher in males than in females, while SOS, BUA and SI were a few percents higher in males than in females. A significantly high correlation existed between BMD and ABD (r = 0.95), and a moderate correlation between BMD and either SOS, BUA or SI (r = 0.65; r = 0.39; r = 0.57, respectively). Thus, among the values measured using USD, SOS most closely corresponded to BMD of the calcanei. The bone strength of the calcanei indicated a moderate correlation with BMD, ABD and SOS (r = 0.38, P < 0.01; r = 0.43, P < 0.001; r = 0.45, P < 0.001, respectively). However, 42 calcanei fractured under pressures of less than 40 kgf, although the other 19 calcanei endured pressure of 40 kgf or more. Two calcanei with high BMD over 0.7 g/cm2 by DXA were very fragile, whereas a few with low BMD less than 0.4 g/cm2 were not very fragile. Similarly, high SOS, BUA and SI values by USD did not always correspond to high bone strength. Thus, some discrepancies among the bone strength and measurement values remained to be solved in the future. PMID:9844342

  15. Measurements of exclusive photoproduction processes at large values of t and u from 4 to 7.5 GeV

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.L.; Gustavson, D.B.; Ritson, D.M.; Weitsch, G.A.; Halpern, H.J.; Prepost, R.; Tompkins, D.H.; Wiser, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Exclusive photoproduction cross sections have been measured for the processes p+n, p0p, p-++, p0p, pK+, and pK+0 at large t and u values at several energies for each process between 4 and 7.5 GeV. These measurements taken together with past data taken at small values of t and u provide complete angular distributions. The data show the usual small t and u peaks and a central region in which the cross section decreases approximately as s-7. The results are discussed within the context of parton or constituent models. ?? 1976 The American Physical Society.

  16. Matrix effect in quantitative Auger analysis of binary alloys: Comparison between the measured and the calculated values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Ri-Sheng; LI, Chun-Fei

    1990-05-01

    Matrix factors in quantitative AES analyses of binary alloys of AlNi, AuCu, AuNi, CuNi, CuPt and NiPt were studied. Using the in-situ scraping method, matrix factors were experimentally determined with an accuracy better than 5% or 10%. For comparison, matrix factors were calculated using the methods of: Reuter and Seah and Dench (R-SD); Reuter and Tokutaka, Nishimori and Hayashi (R-TNH); Reuter and Tanuma, Powell and Penn (R-TPP); Shimizu and Ichimura and Seah and Dench (SISD); SITNH and SITPP. By comparing the calculated values with the experimental results, we conclude that, the choice of the backscattering factor data, either after R or after SI, only marginally affects the resulting matrix effect despite the fact that their data differ considerably from each other. The most important effect stems from the choice of escape depth. When SD's data are adopted, the calculated values differ significantly from the experimental results except in the case of CuNi. By comparison, when TNH's data (in all of the studied cases) or TPP's data (except in the case of Al-Ni) are adopted, the calculated values are in good agreement with the observed values. This result also implies that the escape depth of Auger electrons depends on the materials in the manner suggested by TNH and TPP rather than the one suggested by SD.

  17. Higher Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) Values Measured in Homes of Asthmatic Children in Boston, Kansas City and San Diego

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Asthmatic children in Boston (n=76), Kansas City (n=60) and San Diego (n=93) were found to be living in homes with significantly higher Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) values than were found in homes randomly selected during the HUD 2006 American Healthy H...

  18. D-value determinations are an inappropriate measure of disinfecting activity of common contact lens disinfecting solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S V; Franco, R J; Porter, D A; Mowrey-McKee, M F; Busschaert, S C; Hamberger, J F; Proud, D W

    1991-01-01

    Determination of a D value for specific test organisms is a component of the efficacy evaluation of new contact lens disinfecting solutions. This parameter is commonly defined as the time required for the number of surviving microorganisms to decrease 1 logarithmic unit. The assumption made in establishing a D value is that the rate of kill exhibits first-order kinetics under the specified conditions. Such exponential kill rates are seen with thermal contact lens disinfection system. A comparison of the death rate kinetics for a variety of chemical contact lens disinfecting solutions was undertaken to ascertain the suitability of D-value determination for these chemical disinfectants. The active agents of these different solutions included hydrogen peroxide, thimerosal, chlorhexidine, tris(2-hydroxyethyl)tallow ammonium chloride, thimerosal, polyaminopropyl biguanide, and polyquaternium-1. The solutions were challenged with 10(6) CFU of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, or Staphylococcus hominis per ml, and survival rate was determined. This study clearly demonstrates the nonlinear nature of the inactivation curves for most contact lens chemical disinfecting solutions for the challenge organisms. D-value determination is, therefore, an inappropriate method of reporting the biocidal activity of these solutions. PMID:1892391

  19. Higher environmental relative moldiness index values measured in homes of adults with asthma, rhinitis, or both conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Higher values of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), a DNA-based method for quantifying indoor molds, have been associated with asthma in children. In this study, settled dust samples were collected from the homes of adults with asthma and rhinitis (n=202 homes) i...

  20. [Treatment of bacterial pneumonias with cefuroxime-axetil. Predictive value of measurement of the in vitro susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Cluzel, R; Portier, H; Modaï, J

    1996-03-01

    Cefuroxime axetil is an oral cephalosporin with proven efficacy in adult lower respiratory tract infections. Indeed, it has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro, covering most pathogens isolated in this setting and showing good stability in the presence of betalactamases. In vitro susceptibility data are a major element in the choice of antimicrobial agent. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the cefuroxime minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the clinical outcome of infections treated with cefuroxime axetil. One hundred-and-seventeen (117) patients with radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia of presumed bacterial origin were enrolled in a prospective multicenter trial of cefuroxime axetil therapy (500 mg twice daily). The pathogen was identified in 44 patients who were treated for a mean of 8.8 days. Most isolates were S. pneumoniae (65.9%) and H. influenzae (15.9%). The MIC was known for 35 isolates and was < or = 4 micrograms/ml in 30 cases (85.7%). The MIC value was a good predictor of clinical efficacy with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 83% and a positive predictive value of 97%; the latter value indicates that therapeutic success is virtually certain when the bacterium causing pneumonia is susceptible to cefuroxime. PMID:8761613

  1. The Medical Student Expectation Scale (MSES): a device for measuring students' expectations of each others' values and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Singleton, A F; Chen, S

    1996-05-01

    A study assessing the differences between institutional and matriculants' expectations of students' attitudes and behaviour was undertaken in 1992 at the Drew/UCLA Medical Education Program (DUMEP) in Los Angeles, California. Responding to a 33-item questionnaire utilizing 5-point Likert scales were 113/122 students in the classes of 1992 through to 1996. Factor analysis yielded two factors accounting for 61% of the total variance. Two subscales (Personal Trait Subscale and Drew Mission Subscale) containing a total of nine items comprise the Medical Student Expectation Scale (MSES). The alphas and standardized item alphas of these two subscales were 0.7531 and 0.8287 (Personal Trait Subscale) and 0.7304 and 0.7406 (Drew Mission Subscale), indicating good reliability. Correlation coefficients for continuous variables were calculated in order to determine subgroup responses to the subscales and their component items. While the students' overall responses indicated commitment to the values of the Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, subgroup responses varied. The strongest supporters of the University's values were older students, blacks, and those having better undergraduate performance in non-science areas. Least likely to agree with University values were students having better performances in the sciences (grade-point average and MCAT scores) and those of Mexican-American ethnicity. The scores of participating classes documented a secular trend away from endorsement of the values of the Drew University. Following further study, the MSES may be useful in student selection and curriculum design. PMID:8949552

  2. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  3. Optical method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength of liquid crystals using pitch values determined in imperfect samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tsung-Ta; Wu, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Chia-Jen; Pan, Ru-Pin

    2007-09-15

    An improved Grandjean-Cano wedge method for measuring the pitch of a chiral nematic liquid crystal is demonstrated. This method is easy to implement and can yield results of high accuracy when it is used for measuring the liquid crystal surface anchoring strength.

  4. A Functional Model for the Integration of Gains and Losses under Risk: Implications for the Measurement of Subjective Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viegas, Ricardo G.; Oliveira, Armando M.; Garriga-Trillo, Ana; Grieco, Alba

    2012-01-01

    In order to be treated quantitatively, subjective gains and losses (utilities/disutilities) must be psychologically measured. If legitimate comparisons are sought between them, measurement must be at least interval level, with a common unit. If comparisons of absolute magnitudes across gains and losses are further sought, as in standard…

  5. Self-Actualizations and Experience with Zen Meditation: Is a Learning Period Necessary for Meditation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, William C.; Becker, Gordon M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the practice of Zen meditation and a measure of self-actualization in experienced (N=36) and inexperienced (N=34) meditator groups. Analysis of data showed that a learning period (or selection period) exists for Zen meditation during which there is no increase in group self-actualization. (LLL)

  6. Evaluating Empathy in Interviewing: Comparing Self-Report with Actual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamburrino, Marijo B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared medical students' self-assessments of patient interview behavior with external ratings of actual interviews. Focus was on behaviors reflecting empathy. Results suggest the self-report questionnaire is not an adequate measure of actual interviewing skills. (MSE)

  7. Correlates of Counselor Self-Actualization and Client-Perceived Facilitativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfridge, Fred F.; Vander Kolk, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Client ratings of the abilities of 33 school counselors to communicate the core facilitative conditions of empathy, regard, congruence, and trust are compared to the counselors' scores on a measure of self-actualization. Results support the contention that there exists a strong relationship between self-actualization and counselor effectiveness as…

  8. The comparability of the universalism value over time and across countries in the European Social Survey: exact vs. approximate measurement invariance

    PubMed Central

    Zercher, Florian; Schmidt, Peter; Cieciuch, Jan; Davidov, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, large international datasets such as the European Social Survey (ESS), the European Value Study (EVS) and the World Value Survey (WVS) have been collected to compare value means over multiple time points and across many countries. Yet analyzing comparative survey data requires the fulfillment of specific assumptions, i.e., that these values are comparable over time and across countries. Given the large number of groups that can be compared in repeated cross-national datasets, establishing measurement invariance has been, however, considered unrealistic. Indeed, studies which did assess it often failed to establish higher levels of invariance such as scalar invariance. In this paper we first introduce the newly developed approximate approach based on Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) to assess cross-group invariance over countries and time points and contrast the findings with the results from the traditional exact measurement invariance test. BSEM examines whether measurement parameters are approximately (rather than exactly) invariant. We apply BSEM to a subset of items measuring the universalism value from the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) in the ESS. The invariance of this value is tested simultaneously across 15 ESS countries over six ESS rounds with 173,071 respondents and 90 groups in total. Whereas, the use of the traditional approach only legitimates the comparison of latent means of 37 groups, the Bayesian procedure allows the latent mean comparison of 73 groups. Thus, our empirical application demonstrates for the first time the BSEM test procedure on a particularly large set of groups. PMID:26089811

  9. Determination of Cutoff Values for DEXA-Based Body Composition Measurements for Determining Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier; Trivalle, Christophe; Vogel, Thomas; Proust, Jacques; Papazyan, Jean-Pierre; Dramé, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The two components of the body weight (i.e., fat mass and muscle mass) appeared to be of high interest to consider in predicting metabolic health related risks. We aimed to determine cutoff values for fat mass index (FMI) and muscle mass index (MMI), FM/MM, and BMI for metabolic and cardiovascular health. This study was a cross-sectional analysis study conducted in a center of preventive medicine. It included 616 consecutive outpatients: mean age was 56.0±10.0 years (74.6% aged ≥50), and 61.4% were female. Fat and muscle mass were obtained with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan analyses. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as people with biological features of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, and/or hepatitis steatosis. Documented hypertension and/or atherosclerosis of at least one major artery defined individuals with cardiovascular complications. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cutoff values for MMI, FMI, and FM/MM were respectively 18.8kg/m2 (sensitivity [Se]=58%; specificity [Sp]=59%), 5.5kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%), and 0.31 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 14.1kg/m2 (Se=52%; Sp=54%), 5.5kg/m2 (Se=65%; Sp=67%), 0.39 (Se=73%; Sp=73%) in women for predicting metabolic health. Values were 19.3kg/m2 (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 7.0kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.49 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 15.7kg/m2 (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 6.4kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.35 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in women for cardiovascular complications. Whatever the outcomes considered, the Youden indexes for BMI values were systematically below 25 kg/m2, except for cardiovascular complications in men, where the threshold for the best Se/Sp was 25.7 kg/m2. These cutoff values for FMI, MMI, and FM/MM could be of practical value for the clinical evaluation of a deficit in MM with or without excess of FM. They complement the classical concept of BMI in a more qualitative manner and extend the analysis of its impact on health outcomes to all BMI categories

  10. Measuring the inflation of the lod score due to its maximization over model parameter values in human linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D E; Lehner, T; Squires-Wheeler, E; Kaufmann, C; Ott, J

    1990-01-01

    A computer-simulation method is presented for determining and correcting for the effect of maximizing the lod score over disease definitions, penetrance values, and perhaps other model parameters. The method consists of simulating the complete analysis using marker genotypes randomly generated under the assumption of free recombination. It is applicable as a "post-treatment" to linkage analyses of any trait with an uncertain mode of inheritance and/or disease definition. When the method is applied to a linkage analysis of schizophrenia versus chromosome 5 markers, we find that, in this specific case, the P-value associated with a maximum lod score of 3 is equal to 0.0003. We also find that a lod score of 3.0 should be "deflated" by approximately 0.3 to 1 units, and, by tentative extrapolation, the observed lod score of 6.5 should be "deflated" by 0.7 to 1.5 units. PMID:2227370

  11. An Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Value-Added Product to Retrieve Optically Thin Cloud Visible Optical Depth using Micropulse Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C; Comstock, JM; Flynn, C

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the Micropulse Lidar (MPL) Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Value-Added Product (VAP) is to retrieve the visible (short-wave) cloud optical depth for optically thin clouds using MPL. The advantage of using the MPL to derive optical depth is that lidar is able to detect optically thin cloud layers that may not be detected by millimeter cloud radar or radiometric techniques. The disadvantage of using lidar to derive optical depth is that the lidar signal becomes attenuation limited when τ approaches 3 (this value can vary depending on instrument specifications). As a result, the lidar will not detect optically thin clouds if an optically thick cloud obstructs the lidar beam.

  12. High resolution positron Q-value measurements and nuclear structure studies far from the stability line. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Avignone, F.T. III

    1982-02-28

    Research progress in briefly described, and details are presented in the attached preprints and reprints: (1) precision mass differences in light rubidium and krypton isotopes utilizing beta endpoint measurements; (2) precision mass measurements utilizing beta endpoints; (3) Monte Carlo calculations predicting the response of intrinsic GE detectors to electrons and positrons; and (4) reactor antineutrino spectra and nuclear spectroscopy of isotopes far from beta stability. (WHK)

  13. Competent in Evidence-Based Practice (EBP): Validation of a Measurement Tool that Measures EBP Self-Efficacy and Task Value in Speech-Language Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide speech-language therapy (SLT) students are educated in evidence-based practice (EBP). For students to use EBP in their future day-to-day clinical practice, they must value EBP as positive and must feel confident in using it. For curricula developers it is therefore important to know the impact their teaching has on these…

  14. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  15. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  20. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    PubMed

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. PMID:26648587

  1. From the Snapshot to the Full Picture: Measuring School Performance with Value-Added. Education Outlook. No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the horse and buggy was a necessary first step toward the development of the automobile; in fact, the first cars were built by putting engines on buggies. So it is with school accountability. The failure of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to measure school performance is well known among researchers and, to some degree, among…

  2. The Value Of Different Standards And Measurement Systems To Determine The Optical Properties Of Paper And For Standardized Color Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotica, Werner

    1990-06-01

    Several terms are used to determine the optical properties of paper and board. Brightness, whiteness, diffuse reflectance factor, diffuse blue reflectance factor, specular gloss, spectral reflectivity and whiteness and yellowness are the used terms. The mainly used term is brightness of paper, an important property in many specifications, but this property has no visual perceptual foundation. Instead it is based on the filter chosen to measure the reflectance of pulp in the region most sensitive to the effects, of bleaching. Therefore an increasing demand for a specification of whiteness can be observed. Belonging to the concept of color, whiteness has to be measured and interpreted in the scope of CIE (Commission Internationale l'Eclairage) based on colorimetri tristimulus data transformed to agree with the perceptual assessment of whiteness. Human observers differentiate between the whiteness of the object being viewed and its brightness. A special index of whiteness is needed. No general agreement was so far reached regarding the best index which could and should be adopted universally among the two recommended by the CIE. Nearly every white sample is a little colored, having bluish, greenish or redish tint. In the post no numerical measure of tint was assigned to any of the whiteness indexes. Further problems arise that fluorescent whiteness agents are added to paper and board to increase their whiteness. This requires not only instrumental design and calibration but also the illuminant to be adopted for such measurements.

  3. Comparison of measured direct normal irradiance data to values calculated using the DISC model for Texas Panhandle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct normal irradiance (DNI) is required in the performance estimation of concentrating solar energy systems. The objective of this paper is to compare measured and modeled DNI data for a site in the Texas Panhandle (Bushland, Texas) to determine the accuracy of the model and where improvements mi...

  4. Direct Measurement of the Mass Difference of 163Ho and 163Dy Solves the Q -Value Puzzle for the Neutrino Mass Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Chenmarev, S.; Dorrer, H.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Enss, C.; Filianin, P. E.; Gastaldo, L.; Goncharov, M.; Köster, U.; Lautenschläger, F.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Rischka, A.; Schüssler, R. X.; Schweikhard, L.; Türler, A.

    2015-08-01

    The atomic mass difference of 163 and 163Dy has been directly measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP applying the novel phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. Our measurement has solved the long-standing problem of large discrepancies in the Q value of the electron capture in 163Ho determined by different techniques. Our measured mass difference shifts the current Q value of 2555(16) eV evaluated in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 [G. Audi et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1157 (2012)] by more than 7 σ to 2833 (30stat)(15sys) eV /c2 . With the new mass difference it will be possible, e.g., to reach in the first phase of the ECHo experiment a statistical sensitivity to the neutrino mass below 10 eV, which will reduce its present upper limit by more than an order of magnitude.

  5. Direct Measurement of the Mass Difference of (163)Ho and (163)Dy Solves the Q-Value Puzzle for the Neutrino Mass Determination.

    PubMed

    Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Block, M; Chenmarev, S; Dorrer, H; Düllmann, Ch E; Enss, C; Filianin, P E; Gastaldo, L; Goncharov, M; Köster, U; Lautenschläger, F; Novikov, Yu N; Rischka, A; Schüssler, R X; Schweikhard, L; Türler, A

    2015-08-01

    The atomic mass difference of (163)Ho and (163)Dy has been directly measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP applying the novel phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. Our measurement has solved the long-standing problem of large discrepancies in the Q value of the electron capture in (163)Ho determined by different techniques. Our measured mass difference shifts the current Q value of 2555(16) eV evaluated in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 [G. Audi et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1157 (2012)] by more than 7σ to 2833(30(stat))(15(sys)) eV/c(2). With the new mass difference it will be possible, e.g., to reach in the first phase of the ECHo experiment a statistical sensitivity to the neutrino mass below 10 eV, which will reduce its present upper limit by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:26296112

  6. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  7. Reference values for the cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy using the transvaginal ultrasound in a large Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Alberto Borges; da Cunha Caldas, Taciana Mara Rodrigues; Alamy, Ana Helena Bittencourt; Martins, Wellington P.; Bruns, Rafael Frederico

    2016-01-01

    To establish reference values for the cervical length (CL) measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large Brazilian population. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed with 996 singleton pregnancies. The CL measurement (mm) using the transvaginal ultrasound was obtained in a sagittal view and the calipers positioned to measure the linear distance between the triangular area of echodensity at the external os and the internal os. The median±standard deviation and ranges for the CL measurement (mm) was 37.0±10.7 (range, 8 to 51). CL measurement did not modify significantly with gestational age. The observed percentiles for the CL measurement (mm) considering all number case were the following: 5th, 28 mm; 50th, 37 mm; and 95th, 45 mm. Reference values for the CL measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large heterogeneous Brazilian population were established. PMID:27462597

  8. Diverse lamb genotypes 4. Predicting the yield of saleable meat and high value trimmed cuts from carcass measurements.

    PubMed

    Safari, E; Hopkins, D L; Fogarty, N M

    2001-06-01

    To determine how current predictors of carcass and cut yield perform in the Australian lamb industry a large study was undertaken using diverse genotypes. Carcass measurements and yield data were obtained for 591 lambs representing two sexes (cryptorchids, ewes). The lambs were sired by a selection of Texel (T), Poll Dorset (PD), Border Leicester (BL) and Merino (M) rams crossed with Border Leicester×Merino (BLM) and Merino (M) ewes giving six genotypes (T×BLM, PD×BLM, T×M, PD×M, BL×M, M×M). The percentage yield of saleable meat, hindquarter, loin and a range of trimmed cuts were predicted using models based on hot carcass weight, EUROP conformation score, m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum area (LL area) in combination with three different measures of carcass fatness: (1) the depth of muscle and fat tissue from the surface of the carcass to the lateral surface of 12th rib, 110 mm from the midline (GR); (2) fat depth over the LL at the deepest part of the muscle (FATC); and (3) fat depth at the 5th rib, 110 mm from the midline (FAT5). FAT5 was identified as the most accurate and robust (stable) fat measurement for the prediction of saleable meat yield in a production system based on diverse genotypes. Using GR as a fatness measurement led to overestimation of fatness level and underestimation of yield in T sired lambs. Conformation score after carcass weight and any of the fat measurements improved (P<0.01) the prediction of the yield of saleable meat, hindquarter, loin and all trimmed lamb cuts with the exception of the ribloin (rack). LL area added significantly (P<0.01) to the prediction of the yield of saleable meat, hindquarter and trimmed lamb cuts, but not for the midloin and neck fillet at a constant carcass weight and fatness. Large proportions of the variation in all yields were unaccounted for, even after the inclusion of either conformation or LL area. Predictions based on carcass weight and any of the three different fat measurements were not

  9. Evidence for bias in measured δ15N values of terrestrial and aquatic organic materials due to pre-analysis acid treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Chris R; Heaton, Tim H E; Leng, Melanie J; Kendrick, Christopher P; Casford, James S L; Lloyd, Jeremy M

    2011-04-30

    We investigate the effect of acid treatment methods on δ(15)N values from a range of environmental organic materials in the context of the increased application of 'dual-mode' isotope analysis (the simultaneous measurement of δ(13)C and δ(15)N from the same acid-treated sample). Three common methods are compared; (i) untreated samples; (ii) acidification followed by sequential water rinse (rinse method); and (iii) acidification in silver capsules (capsule method). The influence of capsule type (silver and tin) on δ(15)N is also independently assessed (as the capsule and rinse methods combust samples in different capsules; silver and tin, respectively). We find significant differences in δ(15)N values between methods and the precision of any one method varies significantly between sample materials and above the instrument precision (>0.3‰). The δ(15)N values of untreated samples did not produce the most consistent data on all sample materials. In addition, the capsule type appears to influence the measured δ(15)N value of some materials, particularly those combusted only in silver capsules. We also compare the new δ(15)N data with previously published δ(13)C data on the same materials. The response of δ(13)C and δ(15)N within and between methods and sample materials to acidification appears to be relatively disproportionate, which can influence the environmental interpretation of the measured data. In addition, statistical methods used to estimate inorganic nitrogen are shown to be seriously flawed. PMID:21452387

  10. Measuring the economic value of alternative clam fishing management practices in the Venice Lagoon: results from a conjoint valuation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Rossetto, Luca; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2004-11-01

    This article focuses on the economic valuation of alternative clam management practices in the Venice Lagoon. The proposed valuation method is characterized by the design of a survey questionnaire applied to the fishermen population. In each questionnaire, two fishing alternatives are described. The respondent is asked to choose one of them. This valuation method, referred in the article as conjoint valuation, gives sufficient flexibility to set, alter, and combine the valuation of different clam management practices. Furthermore, this approach presents an important advantage to the well-known contingent valuation method since it makes the monetary valuation of each management attribute possible. Estimation results show that all three attributes used in the questionnaire to describe and value different clam management practices—price of the annual permit and fishing technological system—are statistically robust, indicating that fishermen bear a utility change whenever these attributes change. In particular, fishermen's willingness to pay for a larger clam fishing area ranges between 568 and 811 € per year. In addition, an individual's willingness to pay for a fishing practice exclusively based on the vibrant rake system ranges between 1005 and 2456 €. Finally, the adoption of a clam fish management practice in the Venice Lagoon that is exclusively based on the use of manual rakes, which is associated with the lowest damage to the lagoon ecosystem, will represent a welfare loss of 5904 € per fisherman per year. Combining such a value estimate with the total number of fishermen currently operating in the Lagoon of Venice, the welfare loss associated with the adoption of this type of clam management policy amounts to 11.8 € million per year. This figure can be regarded as an upper bound to the cost of implementation of a clam fishing system anchored in the use of manual, ecosystem friendly rakes.

  11. Comparison of Calculated Radiation Delivery Versus Actual Radiation Delivery in Military Macaws (Ara militaris).

    PubMed

    Cutler, Daniel C; Shiomitsu, Keijiro; Liu, Chin-Chi; Nevarez, Javier G

    2016-03-01

    The skin and oral cavity are common sites of neoplasia in avian species. Radiation therapy has been described for the treatment of these tumors in birds; however, its observed effectiveness has been variable. One possible explanation for this variability when radiation is used to treat the head is the unique anatomy of the avian skull, which contains an elaborate set of sinuses not found in mammalian species. To compare a calculated dose of radiation intended to be administered and the actual amount of radiation delivered to the target area of the choana in 3 adult military macaws (Ara militaris), computed tomography scans were obtained and the monitor unit was calculated to deliver 100 cGy (1Gy) by using radiation planning software. The birds received 3-4 radiation treatments each from a megavoltage radiation therapy unit. A thermoluminescent dosimetry chip (TLD) placed in the choana of the birds was used to measure the amount of ionizing radiation delivered at each treatment. The TLDs were kept in place using Play-Doh as a tissue analog. The actual dose of radiation delivered was lower than the 100-cGy calculated dose, with the 95% confidence limits of predicted bias values between 2.35 and 5.39 (radiation dose from 94.61 to 97.65 cGy). A significant difference was identified between the actual amount of radiation delivered and the calculated radiation goal (P < .001). None of the TLDs received the intended dose of 100 cGy of radiation. The results revealed that the amount of radiation delivered did not reach intended levels. Because the combination of the significance of this discrepancy and the standard dose inhomogeneity could lead to greater than 10% dose inhomogeneity, future investigation is warranted for accurate dose calculation and efficacy of radiation therapy for neoplasia at the lumen of the choana in birds. PMID:27088738

  12. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration through model coupling and data assimilation with remotely sensed land surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

    2009-05-01

    We report on preliminary results from the coupling of two models and satellite observations to track evapotranspiration (ET) dynamics in Northern Great Plains of the USA. The approach takes advantage of high- quality microclimate and irradiance/radiance measurements in a data assimilation scheme to estimate actual ET through a stepwise simulation of foliage dynamics, corrected by remotely sensed land surface properties. We used a recently developed VegET model that uses water balance principles and phenological constraints (Senay 2008) coupled with an event driven phenology model (EDPM) to simulate canopy dynamics unfolding in response to changing environmental conditions and disturbance events. We used NDVI derived from MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR; MCD43B4V5) to amend the outputs of the EDPM using one-dimensional Kalman filtering to achieve a better representation of changing canopy conditions. The model was trained on level 1 flux tower data from cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska and refined using similar records from Bondville, Illinois. Results from the test runs demonstrated the ability of EDPM to drive the phenological constrains of VegET with reasonable accuracy (RMSE 0.03-0.10 at Nebraska sites). Filtered and unfiltered results from the coupled model were compared with actual evapotranspiration recorded on flux towers and with tower NDVI (Wittich and Kraft 2008). Depending on vegetation type and location, Pearson correlation coefficients between model estimates and observed values ranged between 0.8 and 0.9.

  13. [A Triage Scale for Mental Health, an Emerging Practice, a Value-Add for Measuring Demand for Mental Health Services].

    PubMed

    Boucher, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The article aims to present two studies supporting the development of l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, a measuring instrument used to determine - based on the level of customer demand, seriousness, and urgent need for intervention - the priority of a mental health service across all age groups.Methods Both versions have been subject to a measurement interjudge agreement that is compared against the judgment of professionals and other comparison tools.Results The results produced by the interjudge agreement reflect significant correlations with the priorities established by l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, the judgment of professional experts and the usual instruments used.Conclusion The final version of the triage scale provides an objective measure for the priority that should be given to all mental health service requests - these encompass all recognized and essential clinical information. Clinicians can rely on a reliable and proven instrument to prioritize service requests before placing them on the waiting list. The use of this instrument facilitates the development of a common procedure between professionals and ensures a fair and safe treatment of users. PMID:27570963

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy extended with indocyanine green dye dilution for cerebral blood flow measurement: Median values in healthy volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudra, R.; Muroi, C.; Niederer, P.; Keller, E.

    2008-09-01

    The cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an important vital parameter in neurointensive care. Currently, there is no non-invasive method for its measurement that can easily be applied at the bedside. A new tool to determine CBF is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) applied together with indocyanine green (ICG) dye dilution. From a bilateral measurement on selected regions on the head of infrared (IR) absorption at various wavelengths during the dilution maneuver, the vascular perfusion characteristics of the two brain hemispheres can be determined in terms of mean transit time (mtt) of ICG, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and CBF. So far, on nine healthy volunteers, NIRS ICG dye dilution bihemispheric measurements were performed, which yielded to mtt given as median (range) of 9.3 s (5.1-16.3 s), CBV of 3.5 ml/100 g (1.7-4.1 ml/100 g), and CBF of 18.2 ml/(100 g×min) [11.1-48.6 ml/(100 g×min)]. Additionally, the blood flow index (BFI) was calculated with BFI= 13.8 mg/(100 g×s) [6.6-15.2 mg/(100 g×s)]. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between CBF and BFI was RS = 0.76. However, as the Bland & Altman plot between CBFNIRS and the CBFBFI documents, the limits of agreement are rather wide (21.9±6.7). Under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers, no differences could be detected between the hemispheres.

  15. Measurements in Flight of the Pressure Distribution on the Right Wing of a Pursuit-Type Airplane at Several Values of Mach Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clousing, Lawrence A; Turner, William N; Rolls, L Stewart

    1946-01-01

    Pressure-distribution measurements were made on the right wing of a pursuit-type airplane at values of Mach number up to 0.80. The results showed that a considerable portion of the lift was carried by components of the airplane other than the wings, and that the proportion of lift carried by the wings may vary considerably with Mach number, thus changing the bending moment at the wing root whether or not there is a shift in the lateral position of the center of pressure. It was also shown that the center of pressure does not necessarily move outward at high Mach numbers, even though the wing-thickness ratio decreases toward the wing tip. The wing pitching-moment coefficient increased sharply in a negative direction at a Mach lift-curve slope increased with Mach number up to values of above the critical value. Pressures inside the wing were small and negative.

  16. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  17. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  18. Quality Control Quantification (QCQ): A Tool to Measure the Value of Quality Control Checks in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C.; Terezakis, Stephanie; Souranis, Annette; Harris, Kendra; Gay, Hiram; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To quantify the error-detection effectiveness of commonly used quality control (QC) measures. Methods: We analyzed incidents from 2007-2010 logged into a voluntary in-house, electronic incident learning systems at 2 academic radiation oncology clinics. None of the incidents resulted in patient harm. Each incident was graded for potential severity using the French Nuclear Safety Authority scoring scale; high potential severity incidents (score >3) were considered, along with a subset of 30 randomly chosen low severity incidents. Each report was evaluated to identify which of 15 common QC checks could have detected it. The effectiveness was calculated, defined as the percentage of incidents that each QC measure could detect, both for individual QC checks and for combinations of checks. Results: In total, 4407 incidents were reported, 292 of which had high-potential severity. High- and low-severity incidents were detectable by 4.0 {+-} 2.3 (mean {+-} SD) and 2.6 {+-} 1.4 QC checks, respectively (P<.001). All individual checks were less than 50% sensitive with the exception of pretreatment plan review by a physicist (63%). An effectiveness of 97% was achieved with 7 checks used in combination and was not further improved with more checks. The combination of checks with the highest effectiveness includes physics plan review, physician plan review, Electronic Portal Imaging Device-based in vivo portal dosimetry, radiation therapist timeout, weekly physics chart check, the use of checklists, port films, and source-to-skin distance checks. Some commonly used QC checks such as pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy QA do not substantially add to the ability to detect errors in these data. Conclusions: The effectiveness of QC measures in radiation oncology depends sensitively on which checks are used and in which combinations. A small percentage of errors cannot be detected by any of the standard formal QC checks currently in broad use, suggesting that

  19. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  20. N{sup ±}-integrals and boundary values of Cauchy-type integrals of finite measures

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, R. A. E-mail: alievrashid@box.az

    2014-07-31

    Let Γ be a simple closed Lyapunov contour with finite complex measure ν, and let G{sup +} be the bounded and G{sup −} the unbounded domains with boundary Γ. Using new notions (so-called N-integration and N{sup +}- and N{sup −}-integrals), we prove that the Cauchy-type integrals F{sup +}(z), z∈G{sup +}, and F{sup −}(z), z∈G{sup −}, of ν are Cauchy N{sup +}- and N{sup −}-integrals, respectively. In the proof of the corresponding results, the additivity property and the validity of the change-of-variable formula for the N{sup +}- and N{sup −}-integrals play an essential role. Bibliography: 21 titles. (paper)

  1. Incorporating longitudinal pediatric patient-centered outcome measurement into the clinical workflow using a commercial electronic health record: a step toward increasing value for the patient.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Kathleen; Landman, Zachary; Xie, Michelle; Feeley, Thomas; Henderson, John; Fraser, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Patient-centered outcomes measurement provides healthcare organizations with crucial information for increasing value for patients; however, organizations have struggled to obtain outcomes data from electronic health record (EHR) systems. This study describes how Texas Children's Hospital customized a commercial EHR system and assembled a cross-functional team to capture outcomes data using existing functionality. Prior to its installation and customization, no surgical subspecialties besides the congenital heart and transplant surgery groups conducted prospective, patient outcomes measurement, but by 2015, the outcomes of over 1300 unique patients with supracondylar fractures, cleft lip and/or palate, or voiding dysfunction had been tracked. Key factors for integrating outcomes measurement into the clinical workflow include ongoing communication between cross-functional teams composed of clinicians and technical professionals, an iterative design process, organizational commitment, and prioritizing measurement as early as possible during EHR optimization. PMID:26377989

  2. Measurement of small values of hydrostatic pressure difference / Pomiar małych wartości różnicy ciśnień hydrostatycznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broda, Krzysztof; Filipek, Wiktor

    2012-10-01

    In order to describe the fluid flow through the porous centre, made of identical spheres, it is necessary to know the pressure, but in fact - the pressure distribution. For the flows in the range that was traditionally called laminar flow (i. e. for Reynolds numbers (Bear, 1988; Duckworth, 1983; Troskolański, 1957) from the range 0,01 to 3) it is virtually impossible with the use of the tools directly available on the market. Therefore, many scientists who explore this problem have concentrated only on the research of the velocity distribution of the medium that penetrates the intended centre (Bear, 1988) or pressure distribution at high hydraulic gradients (Trzaska & Broda, 1991, 2000; Trzaska et al., 2005). It may result from the inaccessibility to the measurement methods that provide measurement of very low hydrostatic pressures, such as pressure resulting from the weight of liquid located in the gravitational field (Duckworth, 1983; Troskolański, 1957). The pressure value c. 10 Pa (Troskolański, 1957) can be generated even by 1 mm height difference between the two levels of the free water surface, which in fact constitutes the definition of gauging tools of today measuring the level of the hydrostatic pressure. Authors proposed a method of hydrostatic pressure measurement and devised a gauging tool. Then a series of tests was conducted aiming at establishing what is the influence of various factors, such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, velocity of measurement completion, etc. on the accuracy and method of measurements. A method for considerable reduction of hysteresis that occurs during measurement was also devised. The method of measurement of small hydrostatic difference measurements allows for the accuracy of measurement of up to 0.5 Pa. Measurement results can be improved successfully by one order of magnitude, which for sure would entail necessary temperature stabilization of the tool. It will be more difficult though to compensate the influence

  3. First direct double-beta decay Q-value measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay candidate selenium-82 and development of a high-precision magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, David Louis

    The results of recent neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that the mass of the neutrino is nonzero. The mass hierarchy and the absolute mass scale of the neutrino, however, are unknown. Furthermore, the nature of the neutrino is also unknown; is it a Dirac or Majorana particle, i.e. is the neutrino its own antiparticle? If experiments succeed in observing neutrinoless double-beta decay, there would be evidence that the neutrino is a Majorana particle and that conservation of total lepton number is violated - a situation forbidden by the Standard Model of particle physics. In support of understanding the nature of the neutrino, the first direct double-beta decay Q-value measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay candidate 82Se was performed [D. L. Lincoln et al., Physical Review Letters 110, 012501 (2013)]. The measurement was carried out using Penning trap mass spectrometry, which has proven to be the most precise and accurate method for determining atomic masses and therefore, Q-values. The high-precision measurement resulted in a Q-value with nearly an order of magnitude improvement in precision over the literature value. This result is important for the theoretical interpretations of the observations of current and future double-beta decay studies. It is also important for the design of future and next-generation double-beta decay experiments, such as SuperNEMO, which is planned to observe 100 - 200 kg of 82Se for five years. The high-precision measurement was performed at the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The LEBIT facility was the first Penning trap mass spectrometry facility to utilize rare isotope beams produced via fast fragmentation and has measured nearly 40 rare isotopes since its commissioning in 2005. To further improve the LEBIT facility's performance, technical improvements to the system are being implemented. As part of this work, to increase the

  4. Cosmic ray particles with different LET values under various thicknesses of shielding in low altitude orbits: Calculations and Cosmos-2044 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Marenny, A. M.; Nymmik, R. A.; Suslov, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    Fluxes of cosmic ray particles with different LET values were measured on board the COSMOS-2044 biosatellite under various thicknesses of shielding by stacks of CR-39 and nitrocellulose plastic nuclear track detectors (mounted outside the satellite). The component composition of the particles detected under shieldings of 0.1-2.5 g cm(exp -2) is verified by comparing experimental data with the results of model simulations of the fluxes of galactic cosmic ray particles and of radiation belt protons.

  5. Cosmic ray particles with different LET values under various thicknesses of shielding in low altitude orbits: calculations and Cosmos-2044 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marenny, A. M.; Nymmik, R. A.; Suslov, A. A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Fluxes of cosmic ray particles with different LET values were measured on board the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite under various thicknesses of shielding by stacks of CR-39 and nitrocellulose plastic nuclear track detectors (mounted outside the satellite). The component composition of the particles detected under shieldings of 0.1-2.5 g cm-2 is verified by comparing experimental data with the results of model simulations of the fluxes of galactic cosmic ray particles and of radiation belt protons.

  6. Plasma biomarkers of acute GVHD and nonrelapse mortality: predictive value of measurements before GVHD onset and treatment.

    PubMed

    McDonald, George B; Tabellini, Laura; Storer, Barry E; Lawler, Richard L; Martin, Paul J; Hansen, John A

    2015-07-01

    We identified plasma biomarkers that presaged outcomes in patients with gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by measuring 23 biomarkers in samples collected before initiation of treatment. Six analytes with the greatest accuracy in predicting grade 3-4 GVHD in the first cohort (74 patients) were then tested in a second cohort (76 patients). The same 6 analytes were also tested in samples collected at day 14 ± 3 from 167 patients free of GVHD at the time. Logistic regression and calculation of an area under a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for each analyte were used to determine associations with outcome. Best models in the GVHD onset and landmark analyses were determined by forward selection. In samples from the second cohort, collected a median of 4 days before start of treatment, levels of TIM3, IL6, and sTNFR1 had utility in predicting development of peak grade 3-4 GVHD (area under ROC curve, 0.88). Plasma ST2 and sTNFR1 predicted nonrelapse mortality within 1 year after transplantation (area under ROC curve, 0.90). In the landmark analysis, plasma TIM3 predicted subsequent grade 3-4 GVHD (area under ROC curve, 0.76). We conclude that plasma levels of TIM3, sTNFR1, ST2, and IL6 are informative in predicting more severe GVHD and nonrelapse mortality. PMID:25987657

  7. Value and appropriate use of rating scales and apparative measurements in quantification of disability in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Baas, H; Stecker, K; Fischer, P A

    1993-01-01

    Despite widespread use in pharmacotherapeutical trials, in the majority of rating scales used in Parkinson's disease (PD) validity, reliability and appropriate use have never been confirmed by statistical data. For this reason 350 unselected PD-pats. were investigated by an extensive standardized test-battery including registration of basis data, Columbia University Rating Scale (CURS), scale for assessment of functional disability (ADL), SCAG-scale, Hoehn & Jahr-scale (HY), mod. Webster step second-test (WSST), Purdue-pegboard, questionnaire for subjective complaints (SC), WDG, LPS1/2, 3/4, 6, 7, 10, clinical assessment of dementia, v. Zerssen-scale and orthostatic hypotension (60 degrees tilt up). For CURS, SCAG and ADL instrumental reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. For CURS, SCAG, ADL and the total data of complete test battery (CTB) principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for data reduction. CURS, SCAG and ADL showed high internal consistency (alpha approximately > or = 0.9). For CURS 5 factors accounting for 66% total variance could be extracted by PCA. They represent gait, rigidity, tremor, right/left dexterity (eigenvalues > 1). For SCAG 3 factors (61% of total variance) representing dementia, depression and change of personality were extracted. For ADL 3 factors (67% of total variance) could be extracted, representing overall functional disability, handwriting and disability by pain. PCA of the CTB identified 8 interpretable factors (66% of total variance) characterizing at least partially the clinical profile of PD: 1. motor disability (assessment by rating-scales) 2. dementia, 3. motor-disability (assessment by apparative measurements), 4. depression, 5. orthostatic hypotension, 6. WDG, 7. tremor and 8. pain. Our data confirm the suitability of the investigated scales and give a rational base for their appropriate use in a sense of data reduction and economical evaluation. PMID:8439392

  8. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  9. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  10. Evaluation of SEBS for estimation of actual evapotranspiration using ASTER satellite data for irrigation areas of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

    2013-05-01

    Spatial knowledge of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is of prime interest for environmental applications, such as optimizing irrigation water use, irrigation system performance, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies, and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent drought in Australia and concerns about climate change have highlighted the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food production. This study deals with the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) algorithm based on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area, located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. We have used 12 ASTER scenes covering the time period of 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2009 for estimating the actual ET over the study area. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the ASTER-derived actual ET values for the study area. The derived ET value over the study area is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error is 0.89 and the mean absolute percentage difference is 2.87 %, which demonstrate the reasonability of SEBS ET estimation for the study area.

  11. Two new organic reference materials for δ13C and δ15N measurements and a new value for the δ13C of NBS 22 oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Geilmann, Heike; Brand, Willi A.; Bohlke, John Karl

    2003-01-01

    Analytical grade L-glutamic acid is chemically stable and has a C/N mole ratio of 5, which is close to that of many of natural biological materials, such as blood and animal tissue. Two L-glutamic acid reference materials with substantially different 13C and 15N abundances have been prepared for use as organic reference materials for C and N isotopic measurements. USGS40 is analytical grade L-glutamic acid and has a δ13C value of −26.24‰ relative to VPDB and a δ15N value of −4.52‰ relative to N2 in air. USGS41 was prepared by dissolving analytical grade L-glutamic acid with L-glutamic acid enriched in 13C and 15N. USGS41 has a δ13C value of +37.76‰ and a δ15N value of +47.57‰. The δ13C and δ15N values of both materials were measured against the international reference materials NBS 19 calcium carbonate (δ13C = +1.95‰), L-SVEC lithium carbonate (δ13C = −46.48‰), IAEA-N-1 ammonium sulfate (δ15N = 0.43‰), and USGS32 potassium nitrate (δ15N = 180‰) by on-line combustion continuous-flow and off-line dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Both USGS40 and USGS41 are isotopically homogeneous; reproducibility of δ13C is better than 0.13‰, and that of δ15N is better than 0.13‰ in 100-μg amounts. These two isotopic reference materials can be used for (i) calibrating local laboratory reference materials, and (ii) quantifying drift with time, mass-dependent fractionations, and isotope-ratio-scale contraction in the isotopic analysis of various biological materials. Isotopic results presented in this paper yield a δ13C value for NBS 22 oil of −29.91‰, in contrast to the commonly accepted value of −29.78‰ for which off-line blank corrections probably have not been quantified satisfactorily.

  12. [Development of a Lead-covered Case for a Wireless X-ray Output Analyzer to Perform CT Half-value Layer Measurements].

    PubMed

    Akaishi, Hirokazu; Takeda, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Yoshiyuki; Yoshii, Yuji; Asanuma, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of the half-value layer (HVL) is a difficult task in computed tomography (CT) , because a nonrotating X-ray tube must be used. The purpose of this study is to develop a lead-covered case, which enables HVL measurements with a rotating CT X-ray tube. The lead-covered case was manufactured from acrylic and lead plates, which are 3 mm thick and have a slit. The slit-detector distance can be selected between 14 mm and 122 mm. HVL measurements were performed using a wireless X-ray output analyzer "Piranha." We used the following exposure conditions: tube voltages of 80, 100, and 120 kV; a tube current of 550 mA; and an exposure time of 1.0 s. The HVLs were measured by using the following two methods: (a) Nonrotating method-a conventional method that uses the nonrotating exposure mode. (b) Rotating method-a new method that uses the lead-covered case and the rotating exposure mode. As a result, when the slit-detector distance was 58 mm, the HVL values obtained by the nonrotating and rotating methods were 4.38 and 4.24 mmAl at 80 kV, 5.51 and 5.37 mmAl at 100 kV, 6.61 and 6.48 mmAl at 120 kV, respectively. A lead-covered case, which enables the measurement of the HVL in a rotating X-ray tube, was developed. The case is useful in measuring the HVLs at facilities that cannot fix the X-ray tube. PMID:27000673

  13. Reference dosimetry at the Australian Synchrotron's imaging and medical beamline using free-air ionization chamber measurements and theoretical predictions of air kerma rate and half value layer

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Hall, Christopher J.; Lye, Jessica E.; Nordstroem, Terese; Midgley, Stewart M.; Lewis, Robert A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Novel, preclinical radiotherapy modalities are being developed at synchrotrons around the world, most notably stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and microbeam radiotherapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has recently become available for preclinical radiotherapy and imaging research with clinical trials, a distinct possibility in the coming years. The aim of this present study was to accurately characterize the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam for the purposes of air kerma-based absolute dosimetry. Methods: The authors used a theoretical model of the energy spectrum from the wiggler source and validated this model by comparing the transmission through copper absorbers (0.1-3.0 mm) against real measurements conducted at the beamline. The authors used a low energy free air ionization chamber (LEFAC) from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and a commercially available free air chamber (ADC-105) for the measurements. The dimensions of these two chambers are different from one another requiring careful consideration of correction factors. Results: Measured and calculated half value layer (HVL) and air kerma rates differed by less than 3% for the LEFAC when the ion chamber readings were corrected for electron energy loss and ion recombination. The agreement between measured and predicted air kerma rates was less satisfactory for the ADC-105 chamber, however. The LEFAC and ADC measurements produced a first half value layer of 0.405 {+-} 0.015 and 0.412 {+-} 0.016 mm Cu, respectively, compared to the theoretical prediction of 0.427 {+-} 0.012 mm Cu. The theoretical model based upon a spectrum calculator derived a mean beam energy of 61.4 keV with a first half value layer of approximately 30 mm in water. Conclusions: The authors showed in this study their ability to verify the predicted air kerma rate and x-ray attenuation

  14. What Does Ratemyprofessors.com Actually Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayson, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    This research looks closely at claims that ratemyprofessors.com creates a valid measure of teaching effectiveness because student responses are consistent with a learning model. While some evidence for this contention was found in three datasets taken from the site, the majority of the evidence indicates that the instrument is biassed by a halo…

  15. Resolving model parameter values from carbon and nitrogen stock measurements in a wide range of tropical mature forests using nonlinear inversion and regression trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Anderson, P.; Zhou, G.; Kauffman, B.; Hughes, F.; Schimel, D.; Watson, Vicente; Tosi, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objectively assessing the performance of a model and deriving model parameter values from observations are critical and challenging in landscape to regional modeling. In this paper, we applied a nonlinear inversion technique to calibrate the ecosystem model CENTURY against carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stock measurements collected from 39 mature tropical forest sites in seven life zones in Costa Rica. Net primary productivity from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), C and N stocks in aboveground live biomass, litter, coarse woody debris (CWD), and in soils were used to calibrate the model. To investigate the resolution of available observations on the number of adjustable parameters, inversion was performed using nine setups of adjustable parameters. Statistics including observation sensitivity, parameter correlation coefficient, parameter sensitivity, and parameter confidence limits were used to evaluate the information content of observations, resolution of model parameters, and overall model performance. Results indicated that soil organic carbon content, soil nitrogen content, and total aboveground biomass carbon had the highest information contents, while measurements of carbon in litter and nitrogen in CWD contributed little to the parameter estimation processes. The available information could resolve the values of 2-4 parameters. Adjusting just one parameter resulted in under-fitting and unacceptable model performance, while adjusting five parameters simultaneously led to over-fitting. Results further indicated that the MODIS NPP values were compressed as compared with the spatial variability of net primary production (NPP) values inferred from inverse modeling. Using inverse modeling to infer NPP and other sensitive model parameters from C and N stock observations provides an opportunity to utilize data collected by national to regional forest inventory systems to reduce the uncertainties in the carbon cycle and generate valuable

  16. Continuous measurement of reticuloruminal pH values in dairy cows during the transition period from barn to pasture feeding using an indwelling wireless data transmitting unit.

    PubMed

    Gasteiner, J; Horn, M; Steinwidder, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the transition from barn feeding to pasture on the pattern of reticuloruminal pH values in 8 multiparous dairy cows. A indwelling wireless data transmitting system for pH measurement was given to 8 multiparous cows orally. Reticuloruminal pH values were measured every 600 s over a period of 42 days. After 7 days of barn feeding (period 1), all of the animals were pastured with increasing grazing times from 2 to 7 h/day over 7 days (period 2). From day 15 to day 21 (period 3), the cows spent 7 h/day on pasture. Beginning on day 22, the animals had 20 h/day access to pasture (day and night grazing). To study reticuloruminal adaptation to pasture feeding, the phase of day and night grazing was subdivided into another 3 weekly periods (periods 4-6). Despite a mild transition period from barn feeding to pasture, significant effects on reticuloruminal pH values were observed. During barn feeding, the mean reticuloruminal pH value for all of the cows was 6.44 ± 0.14, and the pH values decreased significantly (p < 0.001) during period 2 and 3 to 6.24 ± 0.17 and 6.21 ± 0.19 respectively. During periods 4, 5 and 6, the reticuloruminal pH values increased again (pH 6.25 ± 0.22; pH 6.31 ± 0.17; pH 6.37 ± 0.16). Our results showed that the animals had significantly lowered reticuloruminal pH during the periods of feed transition from barn to pasture feeding. Despite these significant changes, the decrease was not harmful, as indicated by data of feed intake and milk production. PMID:25266568

  17. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  18. Measurements of the Continuum Ruds and R Values in e+e- Annihilation in the Energy Region between 3.650 and 3.872GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Bian, J. G.; Cai, X.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y. B.; Chi, S. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cui, X. Z.; Dai, Y. S.; Deng, Z. Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, Q. F.; Du, S. X.; Du, Z. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, C. S.; Gao, Y. N.; Gu, S. D.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, Y. N.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, K. L.; He, M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Huang, X. P.; Huang, X. T.; Ji, X. B.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Yi; Lai, Y. F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. H.; Li, J.; Li, R. Y.; Li, S. M.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. L.; Liang, Y. F.; Liao, H. B.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F.; Liu, Fang; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, R. G.; Liu, Z. A.; Lu, F.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Luo, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. B.; Mao, Z. P.; Mo, X. H.; Nie, J.; Peng, H. P.; Qi, N. D.; Qin, H.; Qiu, J. F.; Ren, Z. Y.; Rong, G.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, L.; Shen, D. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, F.; Shi, X.; Sun, H. S.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Tan, Z. Q.; Tang, X.; Tian, Y. R.; Tong, G. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. F.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wei, C. L.; Wei, D. H.; Wu, N.; Xia, X. M.; Xie, X. X.; Xin, B.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, Y.; Yan, M. L.; Yang, F.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, J.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M. H.; Ye, Y. X.; Yi, Z. Y.; Yu, G. W.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, J. M.; Yuan, Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Yu; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, Q. J.; Zhang, X. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Yiyun; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhao, D. X.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, P. P.; Zhao, W. R.; Zheng, H. Q.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N. F.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, Q. M.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, B. A.; Zhuang, X. A.; Zou, B. S.

    2006-12-01

    We report measurements of the continuum Ruds near the center-of-mass energy of 3.70 GeV, the Ruds(c)+ψ(3770)(s) and the Rhad(s) values in e+e- annihilation at 68 energy points in the energy region between 3.650 and 3.872 GeV with the BES-II detector at the BEPC Collider. We obtain the Ruds for the continuum light hadron (containing u, d, and s quarks) production near the DD¯ threshold to be Ruds=2.141±0.025±0.085.

  19. Establishing a chromium-reactor design for measuring delta2H values of solid polyhalogenated compounds using direct elemental analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Wolfgang; Lehnert, Katja; Vetter, Walter

    2006-01-01

    2H/1H isotope ratios of polyhalogenated compounds were determined by elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). Initial measurements with standard EA-IRMS equipment, which used high-temperature pyrolysis to convert the organic compounds into hydrogen, did not achieve significant signals for polychlorinated pesticides and related compounds, presumably due to the formation of HCl instead of hydrogen. To reverse this problematic reaction, a chromium reactor was incorporated into the element analyzer system, which scavenged Cl, forming chromium chloride and releasing hydrogen again in the form of H2. The optimized system therefore allowed the delta2H values of polyhalogenated compounds to be determined. A quality assurance program was developed based on several parameters. (i) Each compound was analyzed using a sequence of five injections, where the first measurement was discarded. (ii) Recovery of H (when calculated relative to acetanilide) had to be >90% for all replicates in a sequence. (iii) All delta-values within a sequence had to vary by less than 10/1000. (iv) Results had to be reproducible on another day with a different sample scheme. Once this reproducibility had been established, variabilities in the delta2H values of organohalogen standards were investigated using the technique. The highest delta2H value of +75/1000 was found for o,p'-DDD, whereas the strongest depletion in deuterium was found for Melipax (-181/1000). The most important results for comparable compounds were as follows. DDT-related compounds gave delta2H values of between +59 and +75/1000 (technical DDT, o,p'- and p,p'-DDD) or in the range of approximately -1/1000, indicative of the different sources/methods of producing this compound. Four HCH isomers from the same supplier showed relatively similar hydrogen isotope distributions, whereas two lindane (gamma-HCH) standards from other sources had 39/1000 less deuterium. This difference is likely due to different

  20. Perspectives from health, social care and policy stakeholders on the value of a single self-report outcome measure across long-term conditions: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Cheryl; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin; Darlington, Anne-Sophie Emma; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien E; Peters, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views of a range of stakeholders regarding whether patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can be developed to measure key attributes of long-term conditions (LTCs) care in England, and the potential value of a single generic measure. Design Qualitative semistructured interview study, analysed using a framework approach. Participants and setting Interviews with 31 stakeholders from primary care, secondary care, social care, policy and patient-focused voluntary organisations in England. Results There was broad support for a single PROM that could be used to measure outcomes for patients with any LTCs in any health or social care setting. Interviewees identified three desired uses for a PROM: to improve the quality of individual care; to increase people's engagement in their own care; and to monitor the performance of services. Interviewees felt that a PROM for LTCs should incorporate a mixture of traditional and non-traditional domains, such as functioning, empowerment and social participation, and be codesigned with patients and professional end-users. Stakeholders emphasised the need for a PROM to be feasible for practical implementation at the individual clinical level as a first priority. A number of concerns and potential problems were identified in relation to the application and interpretation of an LTC PROM. Conclusions This study has demonstrated support for a single self-report outcome measure that reflects the priorities of people with LTCs, if such a measure can be shown to be meaningful and useful at the individual level. People with LTCs and professional end-users in health and social care should be involved in the development and evaluation of such a measure. PMID:25991448