Science.gov

Sample records for actual operating environment

  1. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  2. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  3. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  4. Using Student Perceptions to Compare Actual and Preferred Classroom Environment in Queensland Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    Students' perceptions of actual and preferred classroom environment were investigated using the "What is happening in this class? questionnaire" (WIHIC). The WIHIC assesses seven classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, task orientation, investigation, cooperation and equity. A sample of 978 secondary…

  5. Preferred-Actual Learning Environment "Spaces" and Earth Science Outcomes in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Barufaldi, James P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred-actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components:…

  6. A Comparison of Actual and Preferred Classroom Environments as Perceived by Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Wei-Lun; Miao, Nae-Fang; Wu, Yu-Ping; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern

    2015-01-01

    Background: A good classroom environment can promote students' learning motivation and affect their academic efficacy and adaptation. This study compares the perceptions of Taiwanese middle school students regarding actual and preferred classroom environments and explores the association with sex and grade level. Methods: Data were collected using…

  7. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 [degrees]F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 [degrees]F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  8. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 {degrees}F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 {degrees}F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  9. Preferred-actual learning environment spaces and earth science outcomes in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Barufaldi, James P.

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred-actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components: content, method, and assessment with both student-centered and teacher-centered scales embedded. Findings suggest that preferred-actual space (PASmatch) between posttreatment perceptions and pretreatment preferences accounted for a more substantial and statistically significant amount of learning outcomes in terms of students' attitudes toward the subject matter with greater than large effect size, concerning practical significance in the actual earth science classroom. These findings suggest that earth science instruction in the secondary schools should bridge the gap between students' preferred/perceived learning environment with the aim to enhance their learning outcomes.

  10. Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

  11. 33 CFR 142.4 - Duties of lessees, permittees, and persons responsible for actual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of lessees, permittees, and persons responsible for actual operations. 142.4 Section 142.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES...

  12. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    Where on Earth can an astronaut train in a spacelike environment? How about underwater? NEEMO is a project that sends groups of astronauts, engineers, doctors and professional divers to live in an ...

  13. Development and Validation of Short Forms of Some Instruments Measuring Student Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development/validation of short forms of Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ), My Class Inventory (MCI), and Classroom Environment Scale (CES). In addition to these forms measuring perceptions of actual classroom environment, ICEQ and CES short forms measuring preferred classroom environment were also developed.…

  14. Moving Sound Source Localization Based on Sequential Subspace Estimation in Actual Room Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Suyama, Kenji

    This paper presents a novel method for moving sound source localization and its performance evaluation in actual room environments. The method is based on the MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) which is one of the most high resolution localization methods. When using the MUSIC, a computation of eigenvectors of correlation matrix is required for the estimation. It needs often a high computational costs. Especially, in the situation of moving source, it becomes a crucial drawback because the estimation must be conducted at every the observation time. Moreover, since the correlation matrix varies its characteristics due to the spatial-temporal non-stationarity, the matrix have to be estimated using only a few observed samples. It makes the estimation accuracy degraded. In this paper, the PAST (Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking) is applied for sequentially estimating the eigenvectors spanning the subspace. In the PAST, the eigen-decomposition is not required, and therefore it is possible to reduce the computational costs. Several experimental results in the actual room environments are shown to present the superior performance of the proposed method.

  15. Operational Management of Area Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, George W.

    Three phases leading to the automation of the mechanical building systems on the Harvard campus are described. The systems allow a single operator to monitor and control all the mechanical systems, plus fire, flood, and security alarms, for all buildings in a large area of the campus. (JT)

  16. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  17. Optimization of CCGT power plant and performance analysis using MATLAB/Simulink with actual operational data.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Naimul; Rai, Jitendra Nath; Arora, Bharat Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    In the Modern scenario, the naturally available resources for power generation are being depleted at an alarming rate; firstly due to wastage of power at consumer end, secondly due to inefficiency of various power system components. A Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) integrates two cycles- Brayton cycle (Gas Turbine) and Rankine cycle (Steam Turbine) with the objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. This is accomplished by utilising the exhaust of Gas Turbine through a waste-heat recovery boiler to run a Steam Turbine. The efficiency of a gas turbine which ranges from 28% to 33% can hence be raised to about 60% by recovering some of the low grade thermal energy from the exhaust gas for steam turbine process. This paper is a study for the modelling of CCGT and comparing it with actual operational data. The performance model for CCGT plant was developed in MATLAB/Simulink. PMID:24936394

  18. STOL Traffic environment and operational procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, R. W.; Dewolf, R. W.; Ausrotas, R. A.; Curry, R. E.; Demaio, D.; Keene, D. W.; Speyer, J. L.; Weinreich, M.; Zeldin, S.

    1972-01-01

    The expected traffic environment for an intercity STOL transportation system is examined, and operational procedures are discussed in order to identify problem areas which impact STOL avionics requirements. Factors considered include: traffic densities, STOL/CTOL/VTOL traffic mix, the expect ATC environment, aircraft noise models and community noise models and community noise impact, flight paths for noise abatement, wind considerations affecting landing, approach and landing considerations, STOLport site selection, runway capacity, and STOL operations at jetports, suburban airports, and separate STOLports.

  19. College Science Students' Perception Gaps in Preferred-Actual Learning Environment in a Reformed Introductory Earth Science Course in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yeh; Chang, Yueh-Hsia

    2010-01-01

    This study used an instrument to examine undergraduate students' preferred and actual learning environment perceptions in an introductory earth science course. The results show that science students expect to learn in a learning environment combining teacher-centred and student-centred approaches. However, an expectation incongruence was found in…

  20. A Comparison of the Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment in Biology and Chemistry as Perceived by High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1986-01-01

    The actual and preferred students' perception of classroom learning environment was measured using a modified Hebrew version of the Learning Environment Inventory (LEI). This (validated and analyzed for reliability) was given to chemistry (N=1080) and biology (N=400) students. Results and implications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  1. Generating realistic environments for cyber operations development, testing, and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Murphy, John P.

    2012-06-01

    Training eective cyber operatives requires realistic network environments that incorporate the structural and social complexities representative of the real world. Network trac generators facilitate repeatable experiments for the development, training and testing of cyber operations. However, current network trac generators, ranging from simple load testers to complex frameworks, fail to capture the realism inherent in actual environments. In order to improve the realism of network trac generated by these systems, it is necessary to quantitatively measure the level of realism in generated trac with respect to the environment being mimicked. We categorize realism measures into statistical, content, and behavioral measurements, and propose various metrics that can be applied at each level to indicate how eectively the generated trac mimics the real world.

  2. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  3. A Virtual Mission Operations Center: Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system

  4. Collaborative Work Environment for Operational Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, F.; Christy, S.

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some sort of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented thought Middle Man entities. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between all members of CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver SpOD Space Operational Data. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on a laptop by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. The dedicated secure webserver is a key element to share data and information between actors. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience with regards to its collaborative work environment components: - JAC software which is not a classical Flight Dynamics software, its MMI is designed to be very quickly taken over (by teams not using it on daily basis) while also offering all the expertise levels required by the Middle Man team. JAC is used by CAESAR on-call team and all FD teams who subscribed to CAESAR. JAC is also distributed by CNES and therefore already used by some operational teams for Conjunction

  5. Air vehicle displays in the operational environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Byrd, James C.

    2007-04-01

    Displays in the operational environment can be direct-view or virtual-view, and are analyzed in terms of a broad range of performance parameters. These parameters include image area, field of view, eye-relief, weight and power, luminance and contrast ratio, night vision goggle compatibility (type and class), resolution (pixels per inch or line pairs per milliradian), image intensification, viewing angle, grayscale (shades or levels), dimming range, video capability (frame rate, refresh), operating and storage altitude, operating and storage temperature range, shock and vibration limits, mean time between failure, color vs. monochrome, and display engine technology. This study further looks at design class: custom, versus rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs and issues such as whether the design meets requirements for the operational environment and modes of use, ease of handling, failure modes and soldier recommended upgrades.

  6. A Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie

    2002-01-01

    Development of technologies that enable significant reductions in the cost of space mission operations is critical if constellations, formations, federations and sensor webs, are to be economically feasible. One approach to cost reduction is to infuse automation technologies into mission operations centers so that fewer personnel are needed for mission support. But missions are more culturally and politically adverse to the risks of automation. Reducing the mission risk associated with increased use of automation within a MOC is therefore of great importance. The belief that mission risk increases as more automation is used stems from the fact that there is inherently less direct human oversight to investigate and resolve anomalies in an unattended MOC. The Virtual Missions Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) project was launched to address this concern. The goal of the VMOC-CE project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission operations between onsite operators and on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. VMOC-CE enables missions to more readily adopt automation because off-site operators and engineers can more easily identify, investigate, and resolve anomalies without having to be present in the MOC. The VMOC-CE intent is to have a single access point for all resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment. Team members will be able to interact during spacecraft operations, specifically for resolving anomalies, utilizing a desktop computer and the Internet. Mission operations management can use the VMOC-CE as a tool to participate in and monitor status of anomaly resolution or other mission operations issues. In this paper we present the VMOC-CE project, system capabilities and technologies, operations concept, and results of its pilot in support of the Earth Science Mission Operations System (ESMOS).

  7. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations. PMID:17547320

  8. The Impact of Congruency between Preferred and Actual Learning Environments on Tenth Graders' Science Literacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chen, Chia-Li D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effects of congruency between preferred and actual learning environment (PLE & ALE) perceptions on students' science literacy in terms of science concepts, attitudes toward science, and the understanding of the nature of science in an innovative curriculum of High Scope Project, namely Sci-Tech Mind and Humane Heart…

  9. The national operational environment model (NOEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, John J.; Romano, Brian; Geiler, Warren

    2011-06-01

    The National Operational Environment Model (NOEM) is a strategic analysis/assessment tool that provides insight into the complex state space (as a system) that is today's modern operational environment. The NOEM supports baseline forecasts by generating plausible futures based on the current state. It supports what-if analysis by forecasting ramifications of potential "Blue" actions on the environment. The NOEM also supports sensitivity analysis by identifying possible pressure (leverage) points in support of the Commander that resolves forecasted instabilities, and by ranking sensitivities in a list for each leverage point and response. The NOEM can be used to assist Decision Makers, Analysts and Researchers with understanding the inter-workings of a region or nation state, the consequences of implementing specific policies, and the ability to plug in new operational environment theories/models as they mature. The NOEM is built upon an open-source, license-free set of capabilities, and aims to provide support for pluggable modules that make up a given model. The NOEM currently has an extensive number of modules (e.g. economic, security & social well-being pieces such as critical infrastructure) completed along with a number of tools to exercise them. The focus this year is on modeling the social and behavioral aspects of a populace within their environment, primarily the formation of various interest groups, their beliefs, their requirements, their grievances, their affinities, and the likelihood of a wide range of their actions, depending on their perceived level of security and happiness. As such, several research efforts are currently underway to model human behavior from a group perspective, in the pursuit of eventual integration and balance of populace needs/demands within their respective operational environment and the capacity to meet those demands. In this paper we will provide an overview of the NOEM, the need for and a description of its main components

  10. Actual evapotranspiration modeling using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Maupin, Molly A.; Kenny, Joan F.; Perry, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote-sensing technology and surface-energy-balance methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) when used in combination with local weather datasets over irrigated lands. Estimates of ETa may be used to provide a consistent, accurate, and efficient approach for estimating regional water withdrawals for irrigation and associated consumptive use (CU), especially in arid cropland areas that require supplemental water due to insufficient natural supplies from rainfall, soil moisture, or groundwater. ETa in these areas is considered equivalent to CU, and represents the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated and/or transpired, and is not available for immediate reuse. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study demonstrated the application of the remote-sensing-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to estimate 10-year average ETa at 1-kilometer resolution on national and regional scales, and compared those ETa values to the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Use Information Program’s 1995 county estimates of CU. The operational version of the operational SSEB (SSEBop) method is now used to construct monthly, county-level ETa maps of the conterminous United States for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. The performance of the SSEBop was evaluated using eddy covariance flux tower datasets compiled from 2005 datasets, and the results showed a strong linear relationship in different land cover types across diverse ecosystems in the conterminous United States (correlation coefficient [r] ranging from 0.75 to 0.95). For example, r for woody savannas (0.75), grassland (0.75), forest (0.82), cropland (0.84), shrub land (0.89), and urban (0.95). A comparison of the remote-sensing SSEBop method for estimating ETa and the Hamon temperature method for estimating potential ET (ETp) also was conducted, using regressions of all available county averages of ETa for 2005 and 2010, and yielded correlations of r = 0

  11. Operational Analysis in the Launch Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Kaouk, Mo; Cao, Tim; Fogt, Vince; Rocha, Rodney; Schultz, Ken; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Rayos, Eli; Bell,Jeff; Alldredge, David; Howsman, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The launch environment is a challenging regime to work due to changing system dynamics, changing environmental loading, joint compression loads that cannot be easily applied on the ground, and control effects. Operational testing is one of the few feasible approaches to capture system level dynamics since ground testing cannot reproduce all of these conditions easily. However, the most successful applications of Operational Modal Testing involve systems with good stationarity and long data acquisition times. This paper covers an ongoing effort to understand the launch environment and the utility of current operational modal tools. This work is expected to produce a collection of operational tools that can be applied to non-stationary launch environment, experience dealing with launch data, and an expanding database of flight parameters such as damping. This paper reports on recent efforts to build a software framework for the data processing utilizing existing and specialty tools; understand the limits of current tools; assess a wider variety of current tools; and expand the experience with additional datasets as well as to begin to address issues raised in earlier launch analysis studies.

  12. The operational recognition of supercell thunderstorm environments and storm structures

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, A.R.; Doswell, C.A. III; Foster, M.P.; Woodall, G.R. ||

    1994-09-01

    Supercell thunderstorm forecasting and detection is discussed, in light of the disastrous weather events that often accompany supercells. Operational forecasters in the National Weather Service (NWS) can employ conceptual models of the supercell, and of the meteorological environments that produce supercells, to make operational decisions scientifically. The presence of a mesocyclone is common to all supercells, but operational recognition of supercells is clouded by the various radar and visual characteristics they exhibit. The notion of a supercell spectrum is introduced in an effort to guide improved operational detection of supercells. An important part of recognition is the anticipation of what potential exists for supercells in the prestorm environment. Current scientific understanding suggests that cyclonic updraft rotation originates from streamwise vorticity (in the storm`s reference frame) within its environment. A discussion of how storm-relative helicity can be used to evaluate supercell potential is given. An actual supercell event is employed to illustrate the usefulness of conceptual model visualization when issuing statements and warnings for supercell storms. Finally, supercell detection strategies using the advanced datasets from the modernized and restructured NWS are described.

  13. Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Hanna, Robert A.; Mossey, Michael P.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.; Martin Mur, Tomas J.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2009-01-01

    MONTE (Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment) Release 7.3 is an extensible software system designed to support trajectory and navigation analysis/design for space missions. MONTE is intended to replace the current navigation and trajectory analysis software systems, which, at the time of this reporting, are used by JPL's Navigation and Mission Design section. The software provides an integrated, simplified, and flexible system that can be easily maintained to serve the needs of future missions in need of navigation services.

  14. Experimental study using infrared thermography on the convective heat transfer of a TGV brake disc in the actual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siroux, Monica; Harmand, Souad; Desmet, Bernard

    2002-07-01

    We present an experimental identification of the local and mean Nusselt number from a rotating TGV brake disk model in the actual environment and exposed to an air flow parallel to the disk surface. This method is based on the use of a heated thermally thick disk combined with the technique of temperature measurement by infrared thermography. The local and mean convective heat transfer coefficient from the disk surface is identified by solving the steady state heat equation by a finite difference method using the experimental temperature distribution as boundary conditions. The experimental setup is constituted of a model disk with all the representative parts of the actual TGV brake system. The disk and its actual environment are inside a wind tunnel test section, so that the rotational disk speed and the air flow velocity can be varied. Tests were carried out for rotational speeds w between 325 and 2000 rpm (rotational Reynolds number Re between 88,500 and 545,000), and for an air flow velocity U ranging between 0 and 12 m(DOT)s-1 (air flow Reynolds number Re0 between 0 and 153,000).

  15. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  16. Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

  17. The KAPTUR environment: An operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a high-level specification and operations concept for KAPTUR, a development environment based on knowledge acquisition for preservation of tradeoffs and underlying rationales. KAPTUR is intended to do what its name implies: to capture knowledge that is required or generated during the development process, but that is often lost because it is contextual, i.e., it does not appear directly in the end-products of development. Such knowledge includes issues that were raised during development, alternatives that were considered, and the reasons for choosing one alternative over others. Contextual information is usually only maintained as a memory in a developer's mind. As time passes, the memories become more vague and individuals become unavailable, and eventually the knowledge is lost. KAPTUR seeks to mitigate this process of attrition by recording and organizing contextual knowledge as it is generated.

  18. Selection of the most advantageous gas turbine air filtration system: Comparative study of actual operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gilani, S.I.; Mehr, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses relative merits of three types of air filtration systems used by Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Ltd. (Pakistan), on its gas turbine compressor packages. These Filtration systems are: (i) Two stage inertial plus auto oil bath type multi-duty filters by AAF used on Saturn Mark-1 packages manufactured by Solar Turbines Inc. (ii) Three stage high efficiency barrier filters by AAF used on Centaur packages by Solar. (iii) Single stage pulse-jet self-cleaning filter by Donaldson again used on a Centaur package. The selection is primarily based in package performance data collected over a 15 month period analyzing power loss due to fouling effects and related operation and maintenance costs for the three systems. The Company's operating experience indicates that on new installations the pulse clean system offers the best advantage both in terms of filtration costs as well as availability of additional horse power when operating under moderate to severe environmental conditions.

  19. Operational actual wetland evapotranspiration estimation for the Everglades using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, Assefa; Cereon, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems with varied functions and structures. Humans have drained wetlands and altered the structure and functions of wetlands for various uses. Wetland restoration efforts require assessment of the level of ecohydrological restoration for the intended functions. Among the various indicators of success in wetland restoration, achieving the desired water level (hydrology) is the most important, faster to achieve and easier to monitor than the establishment of the hydric soils and wetland vegetation. Monitoring wetland hydrology using remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) is a useful tool and approach since point measurements for understanding the temporal (before and after restoration) and spatial (impacted and restored) parts of the wetland are not effective for large areas. Evapotranspiration accounts over 80% of the water budget of the wetlands necessitating the need for spatiotemporal monitoring of ET flux. A study employing remotely sensed data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and modeling tools was conducted for a weekly spatial estimation of Everglades ET. Weekly surface temperature data were generated from the MODIS thermal band and evaporative fraction was estimated using the simplified surface energy balance (SSEB) approach. Based on the Simple Method, potential ET (PET) was estimated. Actual weekly wetland ET was computed as the (product of the PET and evaporative fraction). The ET product will be useful information for environmental restoration and wetland hydrology managers. The on-going restoration and monitoring work in the Everglades will benefit from this product and assist in evaluating progress and success in the restoration.

  20. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  1. Actual operation and regulatory activities on steam generator replacement in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the operating reactors in Japan, and the status of the steam generators in these plants. It reviews plans for replacement of existing steam generators, and then goes into more detail on the planning and regulatory steps which must be addressed in the process of accomplishing this maintenance. The paper also reviews the typical steps involved in the process of removal and replacement of steam generators.

  2. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  3. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  4. Experimental study using infrared thermography on the convective heat transfer of a TGV brake disc in the actual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siroux, Monica; Harmand, Souad; Desmet, Bernard

    2001-03-01

    Local and mean convective heat transfer from a rotating TGV brake disc model in the actual environment and submitted to an air flow parallel to the disc surface is studied experimentally in this paper. The experimental technique is based on the use of a heated thermally thick disc combined with the technique of temperature measurement by infrared thermography. The local convective heat transfer coefficient from the disc surface is identified by solving the steady state heat equation by finite difference method using the experimental temperature distribution as boundary conditions. These tests were carried out for rotational speed (omega) between 325 and 2000 rpm (rotational Reynolds number Re between 88500 and 545000) so as to obtain laminar and turbulent flow on the disc, and for air flow velocity U ranging between 0 and 12 m s-1 (air flow Reynolds number Re0 between 0 and 153000).

  5. Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Jensen, Paul A; Campbell, Donald L; Lawrence, Robert B; Myers, Warren R

    2003-01-01

    Past studies have found little or no correlation between workplace protection factors (WPFs) and quantitative fit factors (FFs). This study investigated the effect of good- and poor-fitting half-facepiece, air-purifying respirators on protection in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry and the correlation between WPFs and FFs. Fifteen burners and welders, who wore respirators voluntarily, and chippers participated in this study. Each subject was fit-tested with two respirator models each with three sizes, for a total of six fit-tests. Models and sizes were assigned this way to provide a wide range of FFs among study participants. Each worker donned the respirator twice per day (at the beginning of the shift and following the lunch break) for 2 days. Quantitative FFs were first obtained for each donning using the PortaCount Plus trade mark in a separate room. Without redonning the respirators, workers performed normal work for 1 to 2 hours, and WPFs were measured by collecting ambient and in-facepiece samples simultaneously. A second fit-test was conducted without disturbing the respirator. FFs were obtained by averaging the results from the first and second fit-tests. The resulting FFs had a geometric mean (GM) of 400 (range=10-6010) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 6.1. Of the 55 valid donnings, 43 were good fitting (FFs> or =100) and 12 were poor fitting (FFs<100). The WPFs had a GM of 920 (range=13-230,000) and a GSD of 17.8. The WPFs were found to be significantly correlated with the FFs (R(2)=.55 and p-value=.0001). Therefore, FF was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments. PMID:14674806

  6. Actual Performance Prediction of Split-type Room Air Conditioner which Considered Unsteady Operation Concerning Heat Island Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Tomohiro

    Split type air conditioners are operated actually in the situation unlike the condition that was described in a product catalog. On the other hand, exhaust heat from air conditioner is considered as one of the causes of heat island problem in urban area, and the air conditioner performance and heat load affect exhaust heat amount. In this study, air conditioner performances in both standard summer day and severe hot day were examined by dynamic simulation which considered outdoor weather changes. As a result, actual performances of the air conditioner were demonstrated as a function of outdoor temperature, heat load and indoor temperature. The higher the outdoor temperature and heat load rise, the smaller influences of indoor temperature against COP became. In standard summer day, relative performance exceeded by 15 to 45% than that of JIS operating condition. Also, COP in severe hot day decreased about 6% at the peak time than that of standard day. As a result, the air conditioner exhaust heat during one day which was predicted by the proposed simulation model became about 16% smaller than the conventional prediction model.

  7. Relativistic spin operators in various electromagnetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauke, Heiko; Ahrens, Sven; Keitel, Christoph H.; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Different operators have been suggested in the literature to describe the electron's spin degree of freedom within the relativistic Dirac theory. We compare concrete predictions of the various proposed relativistic spin operators in different physical situations. In particular, we investigate the so-called Pauli, Foldy-Wouthuysen, Czachor, Frenkel, Chakrabarti, Pryce, and Fradkin-Good spin operators. We demonstrate that when a quantum system interacts with electromagnetic potentials the various spin operators predict different expectation values. This is explicitly illustrated for the scattering dynamics at a potential step and in a standing laser field and also for energy eigenstates of hydrogenic ions. Therefore, one may distinguish between the proposed relativistic spin operators experimentally.

  8. Numerical Ergonomics Analysis in Operation Environment of CNC Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. F.; Yang, Z. X.

    2010-05-01

    The performance of operator will be affected by different operation environments [1]. Moreover, poor operation environment may cause health problems of the operator [2]. Physical and psychological considerations are two main factors that will affect the performance of operator under different conditions of operation environment. In this paper, applying scientific and systematic methods find out the pivot elements in the field of physical and psychological factors. There are five main factors including light, temperature, noise, air flow and space that are analyzed. A numerical ergonomics model has been built up regarding the analysis results which can support to advance the design of operation environment. Moreover, the output of numerical ergonomic model can provide the safe, comfortable, more productive conditions for the operator.

  9. Lessons Learned from Eight Years' Experience of Actual Operation, and Future Prospects of JMA Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Nishimae, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, experiences of actual operation of EEW have been gained by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). During this period, we have learned lessons from many M6- and M7-class earthquakes, and the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake. During the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake, JMA system functioned well: it issued a warning message more than 15 s before strong ground shaking in the Tohoku district (relatively near distance from the epicenter). However, it was not perfect: in addition to the problem of large extent of fault rupture, some false warning messages were issued due to the confusion of the system because of simultaneous multiple aftershocks which occurred at the wide rupture area. To address the problems, JMA will introduce two new methods into the operational system this year to start their tests, aiming at practical operation within a couple of years. One is Integrated Particle Filter (IPF) method, which is an integrated algorithm of multiple hypocenter determination techniques with Bayesian estimation, in which amplitude information is also used for hypocenter determination. The other is Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM) method, in which warning message is issued when strong ground shaking is detected at nearby stations around the target site (e.g., within 30 km). Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not required in PLUM. Aiming at application for several years later, we are investigating a new approach, in which current wavefield is estimated in real time, and then future wavefield is predicted time evolutionally from the current situation using physics of wave propagation. Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not necessarily required, but real-time observation of ground shaking is necessary. JMA also plans to predict long period ground motion (up to 8 s) with the EEW system for earthquake damage mitigation in high-rise buildings. Its test will start using the operational system in the near future.

  10. Visual operations control in administrative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.L.; Levine, L.O.

    1995-03-01

    When asked what comes to mind when they think of ``controlling work`` in the office, people may respond with ``overbearing boss,`` ``no autonomy,`` or ``Theory X management.`` The idea of controlling work in white collar or administrative environments can have a negative connotation. However, office life is often chaotic and miserable precisely because the work processes are out of control, and managers must spend their time looking over people`s shoulders and fighting fires. While management styles and structures vary, the need for control of work processes does not. Workers in many environments are being reorganized into self-managed work teams. These teams are expected to manage their own work through increased autonomy and empowerment. However, even empowered work teams must manage their work processes because of process variation. The amount of incoming jobs vary with both expected (seasonal) and unexpected demand. The mixture of job types vary over time, changing the need for certain skills or knowledge. And illness and turnover affect the availability of workers with needed skills and knowledge. Clearly, there is still a need to control work, whether the authority for controlling work is vested in one person or many. Visual control concepts provide simple, inexpensive, and flexible mechanisms for managing processes in work teams and continuous improvement administrative environments.

  11. Conception and Operation of Distance Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaillet, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The articles published in "D & S" concerning the creation and operation of remote training methods can be characterized according to the points of view taken by experts or researchers. The authors are interested in three particular aspects of the training process: organization, design, and impact. Different approaches in the design of these…

  12. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  13. Fiberoptic characteristics for extreme operating environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcher, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Fiberoptics could offer several major benefits for cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines, including lightning immunity, weight reduction, and the possibility of implementing a number of new measurements for engine condition monitoring. The technical feasibility of using fiberoptics in the severe environments posed by cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines was determined. The issues of importance and subsequent requirements for this use of fiberoptics were compiled. These included temperature ranges, moisture embrittlement succeptability, and the ability to withstand extreme shock and vibration levels. Different types of optical fibers were evaluated and several types of optical fibers' ability to withstand use in cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines was demonstrated through environmental testing of samples. This testing included: cold-bend testing, moisture embrittlement testing, temperature cycling, temperature extremes testing, vibration testing, and shock testing. Three of five fiber samples withstood the tests to a level proving feasibility, and two of these remained intact in all six of the tests. A fiberoptic bundle was also tested, and completed testing without breakage. Preliminary cabling and harnessing for fiber protection was also demonstrated. According to cable manufacturers, the successful -300 F cold bend, vibration, and shock tests are the first instance of any major fiberoptic cable testing below roughly -55 F. This program has demonstrated the basic technical feasibility of implementing optical fibers on cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines, and a development plan is included highlighting requirements and issues for such an implementation.

  14. A Collaborative Decision Environment for UAV Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ortenzio, Matthew V.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Johan, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for science missions employing long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's). The IMM groundbased component is the Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE), a ground system that provides the Mission/Science team with situational awareness, collaboration, and decisionmaking tools. The CDE is used for pre-flight planning, mission monitoring, and visualization of acquired data. It integrates external data products used for planning and executing a mission, such as weather, satellite data products, and topographic maps by leveraging established and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to acquire external data products via the Internet, and an industry standard geographic information system (GIs) toolkit for visualization As a Science/Mission team may be geographically dispersed, the CDE is capable of providing access to remote users across wide area networks using Web Services technology. A prototype CDE is being developed for an instrument checkout flight on a manned aircraft in the fall of 2005, in preparation for a full deployment in support of the US Forest Service and NASA Ames Western States Fire Mission in 2006.

  15. Concept for operations in a nuclear environment. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Smiley, R.H.; Theroux, G.L.

    1982-06-18

    This paper provides a concept for the conduct of military operations by US Army forces in a nuclear environment; sets forth issues impacting the implementation of the US Army's operational concept for the conduct of the Air-Land Battle. It considers warfighting at corps and below in a nuclear environment; influences and constraints external to corps, while recognized, are not explicitly addressed. The concept is equally applicable in an inactive nuclear environment wherein nuclear use has not occurred, but is possible or imminent; it can be expanded to include operations in a combined conventional-nuclear-chemical environment. There are two basic elements of a nuclear battlefield environment which must be understood and mastered by US forces: the effective employment of nuclear weapons in both offensive and defensive operations; the increased vulnerability of forces and the resultant requirement for implementation of extraordinary survivability and reconstitution measures.

  16. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  17. Immersive Environments for Mission Operations: Beyond Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J.; Hartman, F.; Cooper, B.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive environments are just beginning to be used to support mission operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This technology contributed to the Mars Pathfinder Mission in planning sorties for the Sojourner rover.

  18. Natural environment support guidelines for Space Shuttle tests and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Brown, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work outlines the general concept as to how natural environment guidelines will be developed for Space Shuttle activities. The following six categories that might need natural environment support are single out: development tests; preliminary operations and prelaunch; launch to orbit; orbital mission and operations; deorbit, entry, and landing; ferry flights. An example of detailed event requirements for decisions to launch is given. Some artist's conceptions of proposed launch complexes at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg AFB are shown.

  19. Artificial intelligence in a mission operations and satellite test environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1988-01-01

    A Generic Mission Operations System using Expert System technology to demonstrate the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) automated monitor and control functions in a Mission Operations and Satellite Test environment will be developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Expert system techniques in a real time operation environment are being studied and applied to science and engineering data processing. Advanced decommutation schemes and intelligent display technology will be examined to develop imaginative improvements in rapid interpretation and distribution of information. The Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC) will demonstrate improved data handling accuracy, flexibility, and responsiveness in a complex mission environment. The ultimate goal is to automate repetitious mission operations, instrument, and satellite test functions by the applications of expert system technology and artificial intelligence resources and to enhance the level of man-machine sophistication.

  20. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  1. Multichannel optical atomic magnetometer operating in unshielded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Biancalana, Valerio; Chessa, Piero; Dancheva, Yordanka

    2016-04-01

    A multichannel atomic magnetometer operating in an unshielded environment is described and characterised. The magnetometer is based on D_1 optical pumping and D_2 polarimetry of Cs vapour contained in gas-buffered cells. Several technical implementations are described and discussed in detail. The demonstrated sensitivity of the set-up is 100 fT/√{Hz} when operating in the difference mode.

  2. Fatigue in operational settings: Examples from the aviation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Smith, Roy M.; Weldon, Keri J.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Mcnally, Karen L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    1994-01-01

    The need for 24-h operations creates nonstandard and altered work schedules that can lead to cumulative sleep loss and circadian disruption. These factors can lead to fatigue and sleepiness and affect performance and productivity on the job. The approach, research, and results of the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program are described to illustrate one attempt to address these issues in the aviation environment. The scientific and operational relevance of these factors is discussed, and provocative issues for future research are presented.

  3. Numerical simulation for thermal shock resistance of thermal protection materials considering different operating environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguo; Li, Dingyu; Wang, Ruzhuan; Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sensitivities of material properties to temperature and the complexity of service environment of thermal protection system on the spacecraft, ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTCs), which are used as thermal protection materials, cannot simply consider thermal shock resistance (TSR) of the material its own but need to take the external constraint conditions and the thermal environment into full account. With the thermal shock numerical simulation on hafnium diboride (HfB2), a detailed study of the effects of the different external constraints and thermal environments on the TSR of UHTCs had been made. The influences of different initial temperatures, constraint strengths, and temperature change rates on the TSR of UHTCs are discussed. This study can provide a more intuitively visual understanding of the evolution of the TSR of UHTCs during actual operation conditions. PMID:23983628

  4. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  5. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  6. An automated environment for multiple spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Hioe, K.; Lai, J.; Imlay, E.; Schwuttke, U.; Hsu, E.; Mikes, S.

    1990-01-01

    Flight operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are now performed by teams of specialists, each team dedicated to a particular spacecraft. Certain members of each team are responsible for monitoring the performances of their respective spacecraft subsystems. Ground operations, which are very complex, are manual, labor-intensive, slow, and tedious, and therefore costly and inefficient. The challenge of the new decade is to operate a large number of spacecraft simultaneously while sharing limited human and computer resources, without compromising overall reliability. The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is an architecture that enables fewer controllers to monitor and control spacecraft engineering subsystems. A prototype of EASE has been installed in the JPL Space Flight Operations Facility for on-line testing. This article describes the underlying concept, development, testing, and benefits of the EASE prototype.

  7. Understanding the operational environment: implications for advanced visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleva, Denise; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth; Dixon, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    With the changing character of warfare, information superiority is a high priority. Given the complexity of current and future operating environments, analysts, strategists and planners need a multidimensional understanding of the battlespace. Asymmetric warfare necessitates that our strategists look beyond targets-based operations, where we simply identify and destroy enemy entities. Effects-based operations models the enemy as a system which reacts to our actions. This requires the capability to predict the adversary response to a selected action. Actions may be diplomatic, information, military or economic (DIME). Effects may be political, military, economic, social, information or infrastructure (PMESII). Timing must be explicitly considered and effects dynamically assessed. Visualizations of intelligence information are needed which will promote full understanding of all aspects of adversary strengths and weaknesses by providing the extensive data about adversary forces, organic essentials, infrastructure, leadership, population, and science and technology in an easily accessible and understandable format. This will enhance Effectsbased operations, and therefore, the capability to predict and counter adversary courses of action. This paper outlines a systems engineering approach to designing visualizations which convey the multidimensional information to decision makers. Visualization issues inherent in understanding the multidimensional operational environment will be discussed.

  8. Common spaceborne multicomputer operating system and development environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, L. G.; Lewis, B. F.; Hayes, P. J.; Jones, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary technical specification for a multicomputer operating system is developed. The operating system is targeted for spaceborne flight missions and provides a broad range of real-time functionality, dynamic remote code-patching capability, and system fault tolerance and long-term survivability features. Dataflow concepts are used for representing application algorithms. Functional features are included to ensure real-time predictability for a class of algorithms which require data-driven execution on an iterative steady state basis. The development environment supports the development of algorithm code, design of control parameters, performance analysis, simulation of real-time dataflow applications, and compiling and downloading of the resulting application.

  9. Actual Condition Evaluation of Cogeneration System in an Urbanized Hotel, and Study of the Optimal Operation to Minimize the CO2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Kaneko, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru

    Recently, there is an important subject to reduce of the CO2 emission discharged from a building. A cogeneration system (CGS) is one of the effective facilities to reduce of the CO2 emission, but prudent consideration is required in design and operation. Because it is necessary to be matching electric demand and heat demand in order to obtain the high efficiency. In this paper, it is evaluated the power generation efficiency and heat recovery one of CGS in the actual urbanized hotel as measurement result. In addition, the optimal operation analysis is carried out in order to minimize CO2 emission in the present facility.

  10. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  11. Coping with Irregular Operations: Implications for a Free Flight Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Rodvold, Michelle; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Irregular operations involve disruption of scheduled airline operations. They ate of concern to the carriers because they cost money, require personnel effort, and may harm customer good will. Irregular operations may result from aircraft system malfunctions that take planes out of service or result in cancellations, Might system problems or passenger medical emergencies that require diversions, local airport problems that may close down a runway, or weather systems that restrict flow into airports or regions. At the heart of responding to irregular operations is distributed decision making by members of airline operations centers, pilots, and the air traffic control system. Six U.S. carriers participated in a study in which we observed strategies used by operations center personnel to handle various classes of irregular operations. We focused on situations that are most disruptive to regular operations and are most difficult to cope with. We also sought to identify classes of events that would be most affected by changes in the air traffic management system. How a carrier deals with disruptions to its schedule reflects its philosophy and primary goals, as well as its resources. Size and type of operations (short or long-haul) determine which problems have priority. Each airline has different technological support tools to aid in flight planning and replanning, and some carriers have established contingency procedures for coping with various situations. We also examined differences in extent and type of interaction between ABC personnel and various elements of the air traffic system as they managed various problems: who interacts with AM what situations prompt interaction, how often these occur, and the outcomes and Perceived benefits. Use of the expanded NRP program was also studied, along with its advantages to the individual companies. We also examined the implications of the proposed change to a free flight environment on airline strategies for coping with

  12. Space Operations Analysis Using the Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angster, Scott; Brewer, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment has been under development at the NASA Langley Research Center to aid in the understanding of the operations of spacecraft. This is accomplished through the integration of multiple data sets, analysis tools, spacecraft geometric models, and a visualization environment to create an interactive virtual simulation of the spacecraft. Initially designed to support the needs of the International Space Station, the SEE has broadened the scope to include spacecraft ranging from low-earth orbit to deep space missions. Analysis capabilities within the SEE include rigid body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. This provides the user the ability to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses in areas including flight attitudes and maneuvers, visiting vehicle docking scenarios, robotic operations, plume impingement, field of view obscuration, and alternative assembly configurations. The SEE has been used to aid in the understanding of several operational procedures related to the International Space Station. This paper will address the capabilities of the first build of the SEE, present several use cases of the SEE, and discuss the next build of the SEE.

  13. Applied Operations Research: Augmented Reality in an Industrial Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality is the application of computer generated data or graphics onto a real world view. Its use provides the operator additional information or a heightened situational awareness. While advancements have been made in automation and diagnostics of high value critical equipment to improve readiness, reliability and maintenance, the need for assisting and support to Operations and Maintenance staff persists. AR can improve the human machine interface where computer capabilities maximize the human experience and analysis capabilities. NASA operates multiple facilities with complex ground based HVCE in support of national aerodynamics and space exploration, and the need exists to improve operational support and close a gap related to capability sustainment where key and experienced staff consistently rotate work assignments and reach their expiration of term of service. The initiation of an AR capability to augment and improve human abilities and training experience in the industrial environment requires planning and establishment of a goal and objectives for the systems and specific applications. This paper explored use of AR in support of Operation staff in real time operation of HVCE and its maintenance. The results identified include identification of specific goal and objectives, challenges related to availability and computer system infrastructure.

  14. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  15. Performance of high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed chromium carbide-nickel chromium coating in an actual boiler environment of a thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, T.S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R.D.

    2007-09-15

    The present study aims to evaluate the performance of a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr (chromium carbide-nickel chromium) coating on a nickel-based super-alloy in an actual industrial environment of a coal-fired boiler, with the objective to protect the boiler super-heater and reheater tubes from hot corrosion. The tests were performed in the platen super heater zone of a coal-fired boiler for 1,000 h at 900 degrees C under cyclic conditions. The Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating imparted the necessary protection to the nickel-based super alloy in the given environment. The dense and flat splat structure of the coating, and the formation of oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels, might have protected the substrate super alloy from the inward permeation of corrosive species.

  16. Buoyancy driven acceleration in a hospital operating room indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Zhai, John

    2011-11-01

    In hospital operating rooms, centrally located non-isothermal ceiling jets provide sterile air for protecting the surgical site from infectious particles in the room air as well as room cooling. Modern operating rooms are requiring larger temperature differences to accommodate increasing cooling loads for heat gains from medical equipment. This trend may lead to significant changes in the room air distribution patterns that may sacrifice the sterile air field across the surgical table. Quantitative flow visualization experiments using laser sheet illumination and RANS modeling of the indoor environment were conducted to demonstrate the impact of the indoor environment thermal conditions on the room air distribution. The angle of the jet shear layer was studied as function of the area of the vena contracta of the jet, which is in turn dependent upon the Archimedes number of the jet. Increases in the buoyancy forces cause greater air velocities in the vicinity of the surgical site increasing the likelihood of deposition of contaminants in the flow field. The outcome of this study shows the Archimedes number should be used as the design parameter for hospital operating room air distribution in order to maintain a proper supply air jet for covering the sterile region. This work is supported by ASHRAE.

  17. Space Weather Operational Products in the NOAA Space Environment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, W. J.; Onsager, T. G.

    2006-12-01

    The NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC) is the Nation's official source of space weather alerts and warnings, and provides real-time monitoring and forecasting of solar and geophysical events. The SEC, a 24- hour/day operations center, provides space weather products to the scientific and user communities in the United States and around the world. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SEC current suite of space weather products, with an emphasis on models and products recently introduced into the Operations Center. Customer uses of products will be discussed, which will highlight the diverse customer base for space weather services. Also, models in SEC's testbed will be introduced. SEC's testbed facility is dedicated to moving space environment models from a research-development mode to an operational mode. The status of efforts to replace NASA's aging real-time monitor (ACE) in the solar wind ahead of Earth, an "upstream data buoy", will also be described. Numerous existing and planned space weather products and models rely on near real-time solar wind data.

  18. Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.; Duncan, Courtney B.

    2013-01-01

    This software demonstrates use of the JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Operating Environment (OE), tests APIs (application programming interfaces) presented by JPL STRS OE, and allows for basic testing of the underlying hardware platform. This software uses the JPL STRS Operating Environment ["JPL Space Tele com - munications Rad io System Operating Environment,"(NPO-4776) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 2013), p. 47] to interact with the JPL-SDR Software Defined Radio developed for the CoNNeCT (COmmunications, Navigation, and Networking rEconfigurable Testbed) Project as part of the SCaN Testbed installed on the International Space Station (ISS). These are the first applications that are compliant with the new NASA STRS Architecture Standard. Several example waveform applications are provided to demonstrate use of the JPL STRS OE for the JPL-SDR platform used for the CoNNeCT Project. The waveforms provide a simple digitizer and playback capability for the SBand RF slice, and a simple digitizer for the GPS slice [CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module, (NPO-47764) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 2012), p. 36]. These waveforms may be used for hardware test, as well as for on-orbit or laboratory checkout. Additional example waveforms implement SpaceWire and timer modules, which can be used for time transfer and demonstration of communication between the two Xilinx FPGAs in the JPLSDR. The waveforms are also compatible with ground-based use of the JPL STRS OE on radio breadboards and Linux.

  19. Telescience Testbed Pilot Project - Evaluation environment for Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, Michael J.; Leiner, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Telescience Testbed Pilot Program (TTPP) are discussed. The purpose of the TTPP, which involves 15 universities in cooperation with various NASA centers, is to demonstrate the utility of a user-oriented rapid prototyping testbed approach to developing and refining science requirements and validation concepts and approaches for the information systems of the Space Station era and beyond. It is maintained that the TTPP provides an excellent environment, with low programmatic schedule and budget risk, for testing and evaluating new operations concepts and technologies.

  20. Operational computer graphics in the flight dynamics environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past five years, the Flight Dynamics Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center has incorporated computer graphics technology into its operational environment. In an attempt to increase the effectiveness and productivity of the Division, computer graphics software systems have been developed that display spacecraft tracking and telemetry data in 2-d and 3-d graphic formats that are more comprehensible than the alphanumeric tables of the past. These systems vary in functionality from real-time mission monitoring system, to mission planning utilities, to system development tools. Here, the capabilities and architecture of these systems are discussed.

  1. Electroless silver as an optical coating in an operational environment.

    PubMed

    Nahrstedt, D; Glesne, T; McNally, J; Kenemuth, J; Magrath, B

    1996-07-01

    Long-term, independent experiments show a high degradation rate and short lifetime for electroless silver as a mirror coating operating at visible wavelengths in an observatory environment. Acid formed by water vapor mixing with sulfur in volcanic dust diffuses through pinholes in the coating generated during deposition. This causes internal corrosion and delamination after only 3-4 months. In addition, a layer of silver sulfide results in tarnish, which reduces reflectance. Rates of sulfidation and internal corrosion are shown to depend on the concentration of sulfur and the exposure rate. Comparisons of performance, lifetime, and the application process are made with bare aluminum and two variations of enhanced silver. PMID:21102764

  2. A development environment for operational concepts and systems engineering analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2004-03-01

    The work reported in this document involves a development effort to provide combat commanders and systems engineers with a capability to explore and optimize system concepts that include operational concepts as part of the design effort. An infrastructure and analytic framework has been designed and partially developed that meets a gap in systems engineering design for combat related complex systems. The system consists of three major components: The first component consists of a design environment that permits the combat commander to perform 'what-if' types of analyses in which parts of a course of action (COA) can be automated by generic system constructs. The second component consists of suites of optimization tools designed to integrate into the analytical architecture to explore the massive design space of an integrated design and operational space. These optimization tools have been selected for their utility in requirements development and operational concept development. The third component involves the design of a modeling paradigm for the complex system that takes advantage of functional definitions and the coupled state space representations, generic measures of effectiveness and performance, and a number of modeling constructs to maximize the efficiency of computer simulations. The system architecture has been developed to allow for a future extension in which the operational concept development aspects can be performed in a co-evolutionary process to ensure the most robust designs may be gleaned from the design space(s).

  3. Extended Operation of Stirling Convertors in a Thermal Vacuum Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2006-01-01

    A 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) is being developed for potential use on future NASA exploration missions. The development effort is being performed by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). Infinia, Corp. supplies the free-piston Stirling power convertors, and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) provides support to the effort in a range of technologies. This generator features higher efficiency and specific power compared to alternatives. One potential application for the generator would entail significant cruise time in the vacuum of deep space. A test has been initiated at GRC to demonstrate functionality of the Stirling convertors in a thermal vacuum environment. The test article resembles the configuration of the SRG110, however the requirement for low mass was not considered. This test demonstrates the operation of the Stirling convertors in the thermal vacuum environment, simulating deep space, over an extended period of operation. The status of the test as well as the data gathered will be presented in this paper.

  4. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  5. A new logic-based alarm analyzer for on-line operational environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, H.; Liu, C.C.; Sforna, M.

    1996-08-01

    Existing fault diagnostic techniques for power systems are based on the operation of breakers using on-line alarm messages available from the Energy Management Systems (EMSs). Some utility systems also acquire, on-line, the information on relay operations in order to increase the precision of fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new on-line fault diagnosis system called Intelligent Alarm Analyzer (IAA). This paper identifies the information from sequence-of-events recorders (SERs) at the substations that can be used in the EMS environment. The breaker operations together with the selected SER information provide sufficient data to help pinpoint the fault location(s) and malfunctioning device(s) on-line. The proposed IAA is capable of handling transmission line, busbar and transformer faults as well as relay and breaker malfunctions. The other unique feature of IAA is its logic-based algorithms implemented in an object-oriented software structure. Based on the testing with the actual data from ENEL, the Italian power system, the proposed implementation is highly efficient and promising for the on-line environment.

  6. Toward humanoid robots for operations in complex urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Neuhaus, Peter; Johnson, Matthew; Carff, John; Krupp, Ben

    2010-04-01

    Many infantry operations in urban environments, such as building clearing, are extremely dangerous and difficult and often result in high casualty rates. Despite the fast pace of technological progress in many other areas, the tactics and technology deployed for many of these dangerous urban operation have not changed much in the last 50 years. While robots have been extremely useful for improvised explosive device (IED) detonation, under-vehicle inspection, surveillance, and cave exploration, there is still no fieldable robot that can operate effectively in cluttered streets and inside buildings. Developing a fieldable robot that can maneuver in complex urban environments is challenging due to narrow corridors, stairs, rubble, doors and cluttered doorways, and other obstacles. Typical wheeled and tracked robots have trouble getting through most of these obstacles. A bipedal humanoid is ideally shaped for many of these obstacles because its legs are long and skinny. Therefore it has the potential to step over large barriers, gaps, rocks, and steps, yet squeeze through narrow passageways, and through narrow doorways. By being able to walk with one foot directly in front of the other, humanoids also have the potential to walk over narrow "balance beam" style objects and can cross a narrow row of stepping stones. We describe some recent advances in humanoid robots, particularly recovery from disturbances, such as pushes and walking over rough terrain. Our disturbance recovery algorithms are based on the concept of Capture Points. An N-Step Capture Point is a point on the ground in which a legged robot can step to in order to stop in N steps. The N-Step Capture Region is the set of all N-Step Capture Points. In order to walk without falling, a legged robot must step somewhere in the intersection between an N-Step Capture Region and the available footholds on the ground. We present results of push recovery using Capture Points on our humanoid robot M2V2.

  7. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  8. Cost Analysis in a Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bornas, Nick; Botts, Dennis; Ijames, Gayleen; Montgomery, Patty; Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single mission-type support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multi-mission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and

  9. Effects of commercial aircraft operating environment on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, A. J.; Hoffman, D. J.; Hodges, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Long term effects of commercial aircraft operating environment on the properties and durability of composite materials are being systematically explored. Composite specimens configured for various mechanical property tests are exposed to environmental conditions on aircraft in scheduled airline service, on racks at major airports, and to controlled environmental conditions in the laboratory. Results of tests following these exposures will identify critical parameters affecting composite durability, and correlation of the data will aid in developing methods for predicting durability. Interim results of these studies show that mass change of composite specimens on commercial aircraft depends upon the regional climate and season, and that mass loss from composite surfaces due to ultraviolet radiation can be largely prevented by aircraft paint.

  10. Natural environment support guidelines for space shuttle tests and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Brown, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    All space shuttle events from launch through solid rocket booster recovery and orbiter landing are considered in terms of constraints placed on those operations by the natural environment. Thunderstorm activity is discussed as an example of a possible hazard. The activities most likely to require advanced detection and monitoring techniques are identified as those from deorbit decision to Orbiter landing. The inflexible flight plan will require the transmission of real time wind profile information below 24 km and warnings of thunderstorms or turbulence in the Orbiter flight path. Extensive aerial reconnaissance and communication facilities and procedures to permit immediate transmission of aircraft reports to the mission control authority and to the Orbiter will also be required.

  11. NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET): NASA's key to environmental technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beth

    1993-01-01

    NASA has stepped forward to face the environmental challenge to eliminate the use of Ozone-Layer Depleting Substances (OLDS) and to reduce our Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) by 50 percent in 1995. These requirements have been issued by the Clean Air Act, the Montreal Protocol, and various other legislative acts. A proactive group, the NASA Operational Environment Team or NOET, received its charter in April 1992 and was tasked with providing a network through which replacement activities and development experiences can be shared. This is a NASA-wide team which supports the research and development community by sharing information both in person and via a computerized network, assisting in specification and standard revisions, developing cleaner propulsion systems, and exploring environmentally-compliant alternatives to current processes.

  12. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  13. Risk analysis for autonomous underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Brito, Mario Paulo; Griffiths, Gwyn; Challenor, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the elicitation of expert judgment. We conducted a formal judgment elicitation process where eight world experts in AUV design and operation were asked to assign a probability of AUV loss given the emergence of each fault or incident from the vehicle's life history of 63 faults and incidents. After discussing methods of aggregation and analysis, we show how the aggregated risk estimates obtained from the expert judgments were used to create a risk model. To estimate AUV survival with mission distance, we adopted a statistical survival function based on the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. We present theoretical formulations for the estimator, its variance, and confidence limits. We also present a numerical example where the approach is applied to estimate the probability that the Autosub3 AUV would survive a set of missions under Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica in January-March 2009. PMID:20731790

  14. Tools for assessing situational awareness in an operational fighter environment.

    PubMed

    Waag, W L; Houck, M R

    1994-05-01

    Three Situational Awareness Rating Scales (SARS) were developed to measure pilot performance in an operational fighter environment. These instruments rated situational awareness (SA) from three perspectives: supervisors, peers, and self-report. SARS data were gathered from 205 mission-ready USAF F-15C pilots from 8 operational squadrons. Reliabilities of the SARS were quite high, as measured by their internal consistency (0.95 to 0.99) and inter-rater agreement (0.88 to 0.97). Correlations between the supervisory and peer SARS were strongly positive (0.89 to 0.92), while correlations with the self-report SARS were positive, but smaller (0.45 to 0.57). A composite SA score was developed from the supervisory and peer SARS using a principal components analysis. The resulting score was found to be highly related to previous flight experience and current flight qualification. A prediction equation derived from available background and experience factors accounted for 73% of its variance. Implications for use of the composite SA score as a criterion measure are discussed. PMID:8018073

  15. CORE (Common Operating Response Environment) Software Technology Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Gelston, Gariann; Rohlfing, Kerrie

    2015-05-26

    Agencies that oversee complex, multi-stakeholder programs need efficient, secure ways to link people and knowledge within and across organizations. The Common Operating Response Environment (CORE), a software suite developed by PNNL researchers does just that. The CORE tool—which is customizable for a multitude of uses—facilitates situational awareness by integrating diverse data streams without the need to reformat them, summarizing that information, and providing users with the information they need to rapidly understand and appropriately respond to situations. It is mobile device-ready, has a straightforward interface for ease of use across organizations and skill sets, and is incredibly configurable to the needs of each specific user, whether they require data summaries for high-level decision makers or tactical maps, operational data, or weather information for responders in the field. Information can be input into CORE and queried in a variety of ways—using customized forms, reports, visuals, or other organizational templates—according to the needs of each user’s organization, teams, and business processes. CORE data forms, for instance, could be accessed and used in real-time to capture information about vessels being inspected for nuclear material.

  16. Space Operations Training Concepts Benchmark Study (Training in a Continuous Operations Environment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/USAF Benchmark Space Operations Training Concepts Study will perform a comparative analysis of the space operations training programs utilized by the United States Air Force Space Command with those utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The concentration of the study will be focused on Ground Controller/Flight Controller Training for the International Space Station Payload Program. The duration of the study is expected to be five months with report completion by 30 June 2002. The U.S. Air Force Space Command was chosen as the most likely candidate for this benchmark study because their experience in payload operations controller training and user interfaces compares favorably with the Payload Operations Integration Center's training and user interfaces. These similarities can be seen in the dynamics of missions/payloads, controller on-console requirements, and currency/ proficiency challenges to name a few. It is expected that the report will look at the respective programs and investigate goals of each training program, unique training challenges posed by space operations ground controller environments, processes of setting up controller training programs, phases of controller training, methods of controller training, techniques to evaluate adequacy of controller knowledge and the training received, and approaches to training administration. The report will provide recommendations to the respective agencies based on the findings. Following selection of participants and an approval to proceed, initial contact will be made with U.S. Air Force Space Command Directorate of Training to discuss steps to accomplish the study.

  17. Towards molecular computers that operate in a biological environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, Maya; Gil, Binyamin; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2008-07-01

    important consequences when performed in a proper context. We envision that molecular computers that operate in a biological environment can be the basis of “smart drugs”, which are potent drugs that activate only if certain environmental conditions hold. These conditions could include abnormalities in the molecular composition of the biological environment that are indicative of a particular disease. Here we review the research direction that set this vision and attempts to realize it.

  18. Health service support in the future operating environment 2035.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The period to 2035 is likely to be characterised by instability between states and in relations between groups within states. It is predicted to include climate change, rapid population growth, resource scarcity, resurgence in ideology, and shifts in power from west to east. Many of these changes are likely to have an impact on the health of civil societies and those military personnel deployed by states to counter these challenges. This paper considers the potential impact of emerging global strategic trends on health service support (HSS) in the Future Operating Environment 2035. Global Strategic Trends-Out to 2040, The Future Character of Conflict and NATO Strategic Foresight Analysis Report 2013 provide the foundations of the paper. The study concludes that future impacts on HSS are neither completely predictable nor predetermined, and there is always a possibility of a strategic shock. Knowledge of vulnerability, however, allows an informed approach to the development and evaluation of adaptive strategies to lessen risks to health. PMID:24696135

  19. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  20. Space Operations Training Concepts Benchmark Study (Training in a Continuous Operations Environment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan E.; Gilchrist, Michael; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/USAF Benchmark Space Operations Training Concepts Study will perform a comparative analysis of the space operations training programs utilized by the United States Air Force Space Command with those utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The concentration of the study will be focused on Ground Controller/Flight Controller Training for the International Space Station Payload Program. The duration of the study is expected to be five months with report completion by 30 June 2002. The U.S. Air Force Space Command was chosen as the most likely candidate for this benchmark study because their experience in payload operations controller training and user interfaces compares favorably with the Payload Operations Integration Center's training and user interfaces. These similarities can be seen in the dynamics of missions/payloads, controller on-console requirements, and currency/proficiency challenges to name a few. It is expected that the report will look at the respective programs and investigate goals of each training program, unique training challenges posed by space operations ground controller environments, processes of setting up controller training programs, phases of controller training, methods of controller training, techniques to evaluate adequacy of controller knowledge and the training received, and approaches to training administration. The report will provide recommendations to the respective agencies based on the findings. Attached is a preliminary outline of the study. Following selection of participants and an approval to proceed, initial contact will be made with U.S. Air Force Space Command Directorate of Training to discuss steps to accomplish the study.

  1. CP-5 reactor remote dismantlement activities: Lessons learned in the integration of new technology in an operations environment

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents the developer`s perspective on lessons learned from one example of the integration of new prototype technology into a traditional operations environment. The dual arm work module was developed by the Robotics Technology Development Program as a research and development activity to examine manipulator controller modes and deployment options. It was later reconfigured for the dismantlement of the Argonne National Laboratory Chicago Pile No. 5 reactor vessel as the crane-deployed dual arm work platform. Development staff worked along side operations staff during a significant part of the deployment to provide training, maintenance, and tooling support. Operations staff completed all actual remote dismantlement tasks. At the end of available development support funding, the Dual Arm Work Platform was turned over to the operations staff, who are still using it to complete their dismantlement tasks.

  2. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  3. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  4. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will

  5. Forecasting the ocean optical environment in support of Navy mine warfare operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladner, S. D.; Arnone, R.; Jolliff, J.; Casey, B.; Matulewski, K.

    2012-06-01

    A 3D ocean optical forecast system called TODS (Tactical Ocean Data System) has been developed to determine the performance of underwater LIDAR detection/identification systems. TODS fuses optical measurements from gliders, surface satellite optical properties, and 3D ocean forecast circulation models to extend the 2-dimensional surface satellite optics into a 3-dimensional optical volume including subsurface optical layers of beam attenuation coefficient (c) and diver visibility. Optical 3D nowcast and forecasts are combined with electro-optical identification (EOID) models to determine the underwater LIDAR imaging performance field used to identify subsurface mine threats in rapidly changing coastal regions. TODS was validated during a recent mine warfare exercise with Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron (HM-14). Results include the uncertainties in the optical forecast and lidar performance and sensor tow height predictions that are based on visual detection and identification metrics using actual mine target images from the EOID system. TODS is a new capability of coupling the 3D optical environment and EOID system performance and is proving important for the MIW community as both a tactical decision aid and for use in operational planning, improving timeliness and efficiency in clearance operations.

  6. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The natural environment has a great influence on the ability of spacecraft to perform according to mission design specification. Compatibility with the natural environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the spacecraft. The spacecraft being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risk. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural environment on the spacecraft and its components; while having an in-depth knowledge of mitigation strategies. Too much protection incurs unnecessary expense, and often times excessive mass; while too little protection can easily lead to premature mission loss. This presentation will provide a brief overview of both the natural environment and its effects and provide some insight into mitigation strategies.

  7. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are growing in complexity and sensitivity to environmental effects. The spacecraft engineer must understand and take these effects into account in building reliable, survivable, and affordable spacecraft. Too much protections, however, means unnecessary expense while too little will potentially lead to early mission loss. The ability to balance cost and risk necessitates an understanding of how the environment impacts the spacecraft and is a critical factor in its design. This presentation is intended to address both the space environment and its effects with the intent of introducing the influence of the environment on spacecraft performance.

  8. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft are growing in complexity and sensitivity to environmental effects. The spacecraft engineer must understand and take these effects into account in building reliable, survivable, and affordable spacecraft. Too much protections, however, means unnecessary expense while too little will potentially lead to early mission loss. The ability to balance cost and risk necessitates an understanding of how the environment impacts the spacecraft and is a critical factor in its design. This presentation is intended to address both the space environment and its effects with the intent of introducing the influence of the environment on spacecraft performance.

  9. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  10. The Implementation of Payload Safety in an Operational Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, R. D.; Horvath, Tim J.; Watson, Kristi S.; Rogers, Mark N. (Technical Monitor); Vanhooser, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define the safety life-cycle process for a payload beginning with the output of the Payload Safety Review Panel and continuing through the life of the payload on-orbit. It focuses on the processes and products of the operations safety implementation through the increment preparations and real-time operations processes. In addition, the paper addresses the role of the Payload Operations and Integration Center and the interfaces to the International Partner Payload Control Centers.

  11. Detection of operator performance breakdown in a multitask environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyo-Sang

    The purpose of this dissertation work is: 1) to empirically demonstrate an extreme human operator's state, performance breakdown (PB), and 2) to develop an objective method for detecting such a state. PB has been anecdotally described as a state where the human operator "loses control of the context" and "cannot maintain the required task performance." Preventing such a decline in performance could be important to assure the safety and reliability of human-integrated systems, and therefore PB could be useful as a point at which automation can be applied to support human performance. However, PB has never been scientifically defined or empirically demonstrated. Moreover, there exists no method for detecting such a state or the transition to that state. Therefore, after symbolically defining PB, an objective method of potentially identifying PB is proposed. Next, three human-in-the-loop studies were conducted to empirically demonstrate PB and to evaluate the proposed PB detection method. Study 1 was conducted: 1) to demonstrate PB by increasing workload until the subject reports being in a state of PB, and 2) to identify possible parameters of the PB detection method for objectively identifying the subjectively-reported PB point, and determine if they are idiosyncratic. In the experiment, fifteen participants were asked to manage three concurrent tasks (one primary and two secondary tasks) for 18 minutes. The primary task's difficulty was manipulated over time to induce PB while the secondary tasks' difficulty remained static. Data on participants' task performance was collected. Three hypotheses were constructed: 1) increasing workload will induce subjectively-identified PB, 2) there exists criteria that identify the threshold parameters that best detect the performance characteristics that maps to the subjectively-identified PB point, and 3) the criteria for choosing the threshold parameters are consistent across individuals. The results show that increasing

  12. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational simplified surface energy balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Russell L, Scott; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. We have developed a first-ever basin-wide actual evapotranspiration (ETa) map of the CRB at the Landsat scale for water use assessment at the field level. We used the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for estimating ETa using 328 cloud-free Landsat images acquired during 2010. Our results show that cropland had the highest ETa among all land cover classes except for water. Validation using eddy covariance measured ETa showed that the SSEBop model nicely captured the variability in annual ETa with an overall R2 of 0.78 and a mean bias error of about 10%. Comparison with water balance-based ETa showed good agreement (R2 = 0.85) at the sub-basin level. Though there was good correlation (R2 = 0.79) between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based ETa (1 km spatial resolution) and Landsat-based ETa (30 m spatial resolution), the spatial distribution of MODIS-based ETa was not suitable for water use assessment at the field level. In contrast, Landsat-based ETa has good potential to be used at the field level for water management. With further validation using multiple years and sites, our methodology can be applied for regular production of ETa maps of larger areas such as the conterminous United States.

  13. CATIA V5 Virtual Environment Support for Constellation Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This summer internship primarily involved using CATIA V5 modeling software to design and model parts to support ground operations for the Constellation program. I learned several new CATIA features, including the Imagine and Shape workbench and the Tubing Design workbench, and presented brief workbench lessons to my co-workers. Most modeling tasks involved visualizing design options for Launch Pad 39B operations, including Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) access and internal access to the Ares I rocket. Other ground support equipment, including a hydrazine servicing cart, a mobile fuel vapor scrubber, a hypergolic propellant tank cart, and a SCAPE (Self Contained Atmospheric Protective Ensemble) suit, was created to aid in the visualization of pad operations.

  14. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-21T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.17Ad-21T Section 240.17Ad-21T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-21T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section...

  15. An amplifier for VUV photomultiplier operating in cryogenic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Dahal, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; d`Inzeo, M.; Franchi, G.; Pazos Clemens, L.

    2016-07-01

    We present the characterisation of an amplifier potentially interesting for noble liquid detectors. The design has been conceived considering the requirements of low power consumption (less than 30 mW), low noise, amplification factor of 10 at 100 MHz and use of commercial components. The amplifier has been integrated onto an electronic board with a voltage divider to operate an Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier tube (used in XENON1T, Aprile et al. (2014) [1] dark matter experiment).

  16. Operation of silicon microstrip detectors in a high radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kapustinsky, J.S.; Alde, D.M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Jeppesen, R.G.; Lane, D.W.; Leitch, M.J.; Lillberg, J.W.; Lopez, T.A.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Peng, J.C. ); Brooks, B.M.; Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E. ); Lederman, L.M.; Schub, M.H. ); Brown, C.N.; Cooper, W.E.; Gounder, K.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Mishra, C.S. (Fermi National

    1990-01-01

    A Silicon Microstrip Spectrometer was recently installed and operated in an 800 GeV proton beamline at Fermilab as a major new component of experiment E789. The detectors received an estimated radiation exposure of up to 7.8 {times} 10{sup 12} minimum ionizing particles per cm{sup 2} over a period of two months. We report on the changes in detector performance that we have observed following preliminary data analysis. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Altimeter Data for Operational Use in the Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan; Antczak, Thomas; Leben, Robert; Born, George; Barth, Suzanne; Cheney, Robert; Foley, David; Goni, Gustavo Jorge; Jacobs, Gregg; Shay, Nick

    1999-01-01

    TOPEX/Poseidon has been collecting altimeter data continuously since October 1992. Altimeter data have been used to produce maps of sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed. This information is of proven use to mariners as well as to the scientific community. Uses of the data include commercial and recreational vessel routing, ocean acoustics, input to geographic information systems developed for the fishing industry, identification of marine mammal habitats, fisheries management, and monitoring ocean debris. As with sea surface temperature data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the late 1980s and early 1990s, altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2 are in the process of being introduced to the marine world for operational maritime use. It is anticipated that over the next few years companies that specialize in producing custom products for shipping agencies, fisheries and yacht race competitors will be incorporating altimeter data into their products. The data are also being incorporated into weather and climate forecasts by operational agencies both in the US and Europe. This paper will discuss these products, their uses, operational demonstrations and means of accessing the data.

  18. Piezoelectric PVDF materials performance and operation limits in space environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Dargaville, Tim Richard; Assink, Roger Alan; Clough, Roger Lee; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2004-11-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest for large aperture space-based telescopes. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive polymer films are achieved via charge deposition and require a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric material responses which are expected to suffer due to strong vacuum UV, gamma, X-ray, energetic particles and atomic oxygen under low earth orbit exposure conditions. The degradation of PVDF and its copolymers under various stress environments has been investigated. Initial radiation aging studies using gamma- and e-beam irradiation have shown complex material changes with significant crosslinking, lowered melting and Curie points (where observable), effects on crystallinity, but little influence on overall piezoelectric properties. Surprisingly, complex aging processes have also been observed in elevated temperature environments with annealing phenomena and cyclic stresses resulting in thermal depoling of domains. Overall materials performance appears to be governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes. Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and AO exposure is evident as depoling and surface erosion. Major differences between individual copolymers have been observed providing feedback on material selection strategies.

  19. Design Method for a Bilateral Control System Considering Ambient Environment around Operated Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Susa, Shigeru; Hyodo, Shoyo; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In teleoperation, the operated objects are often present in an ambient environment such as water or blood. It then becomes difficult to distinguish between the reaction force from the operated objects and the reaction force from the ambient environment. This affects the safety of the operation and the operation itself. In this paper, we propose a control method for reproducing the reaction forces from an operated object, excluding the reaction forces from the ambient environment. We introduced the concept of dynamic reproducibility, which is an ideal condition considering the ambient environment. Furthermore, a bilateral control system that considers the ambient environment is designed on the basis of dynamic reproducibility. The validity of the proposed system is confirmed by the simulation results and the experimental results.

  20. Mission Analysis, Operations, and Navigation Toolkit Environment (Monte) Version 040

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Monte is a software set designed for use in mission design and spacecraft navigation operations. The system can process measurement data, design optimal trajectories and maneuvers, and do orbit determination, all in one application. For the first time, a single software set can be used for mission design and navigation operations. This eliminates problems due to different models and fidelities used in legacy mission design and navigation software. The unique features of Monte 040 include a blowdown thruster model for GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) with associated pressure models, as well as an updated, optimalsearch capability (COSMIC) that facilitated mission design for ARTEMIS. Existing legacy software lacked the capabilities necessary for these two missions. There is also a mean orbital element propagator and an osculating to mean element converter that allows long-term orbital stability analysis for the first time in compiled code. The optimized trajectory search tool COSMIC allows users to place constraints and controls on their searches without any restrictions. Constraints may be user-defined and depend on trajectory information either forward or backwards in time. In addition, a long-term orbit stability analysis tool (morbiter) existed previously as a set of scripts on top of Monte. Monte is becoming the primary tool for navigation operations, a core competency at JPL. The mission design capabilities in Monte are becoming mature enough for use in project proposals as well as post-phase A mission design. Monte has three distinct advantages over existing software. First, it is being developed in a modern paradigm: object- oriented C++ and Python. Second, the software has been developed as a toolkit, which allows users to customize their own applications and allows the development team to implement requirements quickly, efficiently, and with minimal bugs. Finally, the software is managed in accordance with the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model

  1. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements analysis: Operations scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Phillips, John

    1991-01-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the functional and data interface requirements to the link between the GSDE GS/SPF (Amdahl) and the Space Station Control Center (SSCC) and Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) Integration, Verification, and Test Environments (IVTE's). These interfaces will be involved in ground software development of both the control center and the simulation and training systems. Our understanding of the configuration management (CM) interface and the expected functional characteristics of the Amdahl-IVTE interface is described. A set of assumptions and questions that need to be considered and resolved in order to complete the interface functional and data requirements definitions are presented. A listing of information items defined to describe software configuration items in the GSDE CM system is included. It also includes listings of standard reports of CM information and of CM-related tools in the GSDE.

  2. Apparatus and method for modifying the operation of a robotic vehicle in a real environment, to emulate the operation of the robotic vehicle operating in a mixed reality environment

    SciTech Connect

    Garretson, Justin R.; Parker, Eric P.; Gladwell, T. Scott; Rigdon, J. Brian; Oppel, III, Fred J.

    2012-05-29

    Apparatus and methods for modifying the operation of a robotic vehicle in a real environment to emulate the operation of the robotic vehicle in a mixed reality environment include a vehicle sensing system having a communications module attached to the robotic vehicle for communicating operating parameters related to the robotic vehicle in a real environment to a simulation controller for simulating the operation of the robotic vehicle in a mixed (live, virtual and constructive) environment wherein the affects of virtual and constructive entities on the operation of the robotic vehicle (and vice versa) are simulated. These effects are communicated to the vehicle sensing system which generates a modified control command for the robotic vehicle including the effects of virtual and constructive entities, causing the robot in the real environment to behave as if virtual and constructive entities existed in the real environment.

  3. Demonstrating Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) for Northern California in an Operational Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, K. P.; Graham, N. E.; Georgakakos, A. P.; Yao, H.

    2007-05-01

    Considerable investments have been made toward improving the quality and applicability of climate, synoptic, and hydrologic forecast information. In addition, earlier retrospective studies have demonstrated that the management of water resource systems with large reservoirs can benefit from such information. However, prior to this project no focused program has aimed to quantify and demonstrate these benefits in an operational environment. As a result, few reservoir managers have been able or willing to dedicate the considerable effort required to utilize new approaches and realize the benefits of improved forecast information. The purpose of the Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) Project is to demonstrate increased water-use efficiency in Northern California water resources operations through the innovative application of meteorological/climate, hydrologic and decision science. In accordance with its purpose, the particular objectives of INFORM are to: (a) implement a prototype integrated forecast-management system for the primary Northern California reservoirs, both for individual reservoirs as well as system-wide; and (b) demonstrate the utility of meteorological/climate and hydrologic forecasts through near-real-time tests of the integrated system with actual data and management input, by comparing its economic and other benefits to those accruing from current management practices for the same hydrologic events. To achieve the general objectives of the INFORM project, the authors performed the following technical tasks: (a) Developed, implemented and performed validation of climate, weather, hydrology and decision INFORM components for Northern California with historical data and real-time data; (b) Integrated INFORM system climate, hydrology and decision components and performed initial operational tests producing real-time ensemble forecasts out to lead times of 16 days four times daily for the wet season 2005-2006, and out to 9 months with

  4. Use of psychological decompression in military operational environments.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jamie G H Hacker; Earnshaw, N Mark; Greenberg, Neil; Eldridge, Rod; Fear, Nicola T; French, Claire; Deahl, Martin P; Wessely, Simon

    2008-06-01

    This article reviews the use of psychological decompression as applied to troops returning from active service in operational theaters. Definitions of the term are considered and a brief history is given. Current policies and practices are described and the question of mandatory decompression is considered. Finally, the evidence base for the efficacy of decompression is examined and some conclusions are drawn. This article highlights variations in the definition and practice of decompression and its use. Although there is, as yet, no evidence that decompression works, there is also no evidence to the contrary. Given the lack of knowledge as to the balance of risks and benefits of decompression and the absence of any definitive evidence that decompression is associated with improved mental health outcomes or that lack of decompression is associated with the reverse, it is argued that the use of decompression should remain a matter for discretion. PMID:18595415

  5. Photovoltaic power system operation in the Mars environment

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, J.; Flood, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on the environmental conditions on Mars are very desirable for the design of photovoltaic systems for establishing outposts on the Martian surface. The variation of solar insolation (global, direct, and diffuse) at the Viking lander's locations is addressed. It can be used, to a first approximation, for other latitudes. The radiation data is based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The data are used to make estimates of photovoltaic system power, area and mass for a surface power system using regenerative fuel cells for storage and nighttime operation.

  6. Evaluating Trauma Sonography for Operational Use in the Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Beck, George; Nicolaou, Savvas; Campbell, Mark; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Sonography is the only medical imaging modality aboard the ISS, and is likely to remain the leading imaging modality in future human space flight programs. While trauma sonography (TS) has been well recognized for terrestrial trauma settings, the technique had to be evaluated for suitability in space flight prior to adopting it as an operational capability. The authors found the following four-phased evaluative approach applicable to this task: 1) identifying standard or novel terrestrial techniques for potential use in space medicine; 2) developing and testing these techniques with suggested modifications on the ground (1g) either in clinical settings or in animal models, as appropriate; 3) evaluating and refining the techniques in parabolic flight (0g); and 4) validating and implementing for clinical use in space. In Phase I of the TS project, expert opinion and literature review suggested TS to be a potential screening tool for trauma in space. In Phase II, animal models were developed and tested in ground studies, and clinical studies were carried out in collaborating trauma centers. In Phase III, animal models were flight-tested in the NASA KC-135 Reduced Gravity Laboratory. Preliminary results of the first three phases demonstrated potential clinical utility of TS in microgravity. Phase IV studies have begun to address crew training issues, on-board imaging protocols, and data transfer procedures necessary to offer the modified TS technique for space use.

  7. Integration of unmanned systems for tactical operations within hostile environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Bosco, Charles D.; Lawrence, James D.

    2006-05-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) is currently investigating techniques and technologies for the integration of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) with small unmanned ground vehicles (SUGV). Each vehicle has its own set of unique capabilities, but the efficient integration of the two for a specific application requires modifying and integrating both systems. UAH has been flying and testing an autonomously-controlled small helicopter, called the Flying Bassett (Base Airborne Surveillance and Sensing for Emergency Threat Tracking) for over a year. Recently, integrated operations were performed with four SUGVs, the Matilda (Mesa Robotics, Huntsville, AL), the US Navy Vanguard, the UAH Rover, and the Penetrator (Mesa Robotics). The program has progressed from 1) building an air and ground capability for video and infrared surveillance, 2) integration with ground vehicles in realistic scenarios, to 3) deployment and recovery of ground vehicles. The work was done with the cooperation of the US Army at Ft. Benning, GA and Redstone Arsenal, AL, the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Huntsville, AL, the US Naval Reserve in Knoxville, TN, and local emergency organizations. The results so far have shown that when the air and ground systems are employed together, their utility is greatly enhanced.

  8. An evaluation of grease type ball bearing lubricants operating in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    Grease type lubricants in bearings were evaluated in five different adverse environments for a one year period. Four repetitions of each test were made to provide statistical samples. These tests were then used to select four lubricants for five year tests in selected environments with five repetitions of each test for statistical samples. Three five year tests were started in (1) continuous operation; (2) start-stop operation, with both in vacuum at ambient temperatures; and (3) continuous operation at 93.3 C. To date, in the one year tests, the best results in all environments were obtained with a high viscosity index perfluoroalkylpolyether grease.

  9. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  10. Developing safer systems in a NPP environment using the operator`s comfort parameters and virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The contents of this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays from the operator`s point of view, and the utilization of virtual reality for operations, training and maintenance repairs. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its use in strengthening design choices from the user`s perspective model of the environment. The contents of this paper focuses on the results which may be implemented in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing systems which are less inherently error prone.

  11. An evaluation of grease type ball bearing lubricants operating in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Because many future spacecraft or space stations will require mechanisms to operate for long periods of time in environments which are adverse to most bearing lubricants, a series of tests has been completed to evaluate 38 grease type lubricants in R-4 size bearings in five different environments for a 1 year period. Four repetitions of each test were made to provide statistical samples. These tests were also used to select four lubricants for 5 year tests in selected environments with five repetitions of each test for statistical samples. In this completed program, 172 test sets have been completed. The three 5 year tests in: (1) continuous operation and (2) start stop operation, with both in vacuum at ambient temperatures, and (3) continuous vacuum operation at 93.3 C have been completed. In both the 1 year and 5 year tests, the best results in all environments have been obtained with a high viscosity index perfluoroalkylpolyether (PFPE) grease.

  12. An evaluation of grease type ball bearing lubricants operating in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    Because many future spacecraft or space stations will require mechanisms to operate for long periods of time in environments which are adverse to most bearing lubricants, a series of tests is continuing to evaluate 38 grease type lubricants in R-4 size bearings in five different environments for a 1 year period. Four repetitions of each test are made to provide statistical samples. These tests were used to select four lubricants for 5 year tests in selected environments with five repetitions of each test for statistical samples. At the present time, 100 test sets are completed and 22 test sets are underway. Three 5 year tests were started in (1) continuous operation and (2) start-stop operation, with both in vacuum at ambient temperatures, and (3) continuous operation at 93.3 C. In the 1 year tests the best results to date in all environments were obtained with a high viscosity index perfluoroalkylpolyether (PFPE) grease.

  13. [PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDREN, OPERATED ON FOR INBORN HEART FAILURES IN THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD CIRCULATION ENVIRONMENT].

    PubMed

    Moshkivska, L V; Nastenko, E A; Golovenko, O S; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors of pulmonary complications occurrence were analyzed in children, operated on for inborn heart failures in atrificial blood circulation environment. Pulmonary complications rate and the risk factors of their occurrence were analyzed. PMID:26939427

  14. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-21T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Year 2000 environment. 240.17Ad-21T Section 240.17Ad-21T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-21T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies... control; (ii) Have not verified your Year 2000 remediation efforts through reasonable internal testing...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-21T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Year 2000 environment. 240.17Ad-21T Section 240.17Ad-21T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-21T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies... control; (ii) Have not verified your Year 2000 remediation efforts through reasonable internal testing...

  16. CITY OF SANTA FE V. KOMIS REVISITED: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACTUAL IMPACTS OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE SANTA FE BYPASS ON THE VALUE OF NEARBY REAL ESTATE

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Dr. E. J., Jr.,; Bentz, C. B.; O'Hora, T. D.; Baepler, Dr. D.

    2003-02-27

    The Santa Fe Bypass for transport of transuranic waste (TRU) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico has been constructed and is operational (as of 2000). This paper presents a review of actual empirical data from the sales of real estate in the Santa Fe City/County area since the filing of the City of Santa Fe v. Komis lawsuit in 1988. The data analyzed covers the time period from 1989 through the last quarter of 2001.

  17. An evaluation of grease type ball bearing lubricants operating in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Because many future spacecraft or space stations will require mechanisms to operate for long periods of time in environments which are adverse to most bearing lubricants, a series of tests is continuing to evaluate 29 grease type lubricants in R-4 size bearings in five different environments for a 1 year period. Four repetitions of each test are made to provide statistical samples. These tests have also been used to select four lubricants for 5 year tests in selected environments with five repetitions of each test for statistical samples. At the present time, 65 test sets have been completed and 23 test sets are underway. Two (5 year) tests have already been started in (1) continuous operation and (2) start-stop operation, with both in vacuum at ambient temperatures. To date, in the 1 year tests, the best results in all environments have been obtained with a high viscosity index perfluoroalkylpolyether grease.

  18. Space Environments and Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Spann, James; Burns, Howard D.; Schumacher, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous offices specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline offices, a concept focusing on the development of space environment and effects application is presented. This includes space climate, space weather, and natural and induced space environments. This space environment and effects application is composed of 4 topic areas; characterization and modeling, engineering effects, prediction and operation, and mitigation and avoidance. These topic areas are briefly described below. Characterization and modeling of space environments will primarily focus on utilization during Program mission concept, planning, and design phases. Engineering effects includes materials testing and flight experiments producing data to be used in mission planning and design phases. Prediction and operation pulls data from existing sources into decision-making tools and empirical data sets to be used during the operational phase of a mission. Mitigation and avoidance will develop techniques and strategies used in the design and operations phases of the mission. The goal of this space environment and effects application is to develop decision-making tools and engineering products to support the mission phases of mission concept through operations by focusing on transitioning research to operations. Products generated by this space environments and effects application are suitable for use in anomaly investigations. This paper will outline the four topic areas, describe the need, and discuss an organizational structure for this space environments and effects

  19. [Actual problems of the impact of production and management of industrial waste on the environment and public health (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Cherniaeva, T K

    2013-01-01

    In the modern society the importance and applicability of the problem concerning the negative effect of production and consumption waste on the objects of the environment and the state sa people's health is related to their daily emergency, large tonnage, storage, and utilization. Wastes and places of their storage and waste burial constitute an toxicological and epidemiological risk. Chemical and biological contamination of solid waste is a threat to its penetration into the soil, air, groundwater and surface water bodies, vegetation, directly or indirectly, cause variations in health status of the population. PMID:24340576

  20. Operating in "Strange New Worlds" and Measuring Success - Test and Evaluation in Complex Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qualls, Garry; Cross, Charles; Mahlin, Matthew; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Rothhaar, Paul; Tran, Loc; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    Software tools are being developed by the Autonomy Incubator at NASA's Langley Research Center that will provide an integrated and scalable capability to support research and non-research flight operations across several flight domains, including urban and mixed indoor-outdoor operations. These tools incorporate a full range of data products to support mission planning, approval, flight operations, and post-flight review. The system can support a number of different operational scenarios that can incorporate live and archived data streams for UAS operators, airspace regulators, and other important stakeholders. Example use cases are described that illustrate how the tools will benefit a variety of users in nominal and off-nominal operational scenarios. An overview is presented for the current state of the toolset, including a summary of current demonstrations that have been completed. Details of the final, fully operational capability are also presented, including the interfaces that will be supported to ensure compliance with existing and future airspace operations environments.

  1. Evaluation of stereoscopic video cameras synchronized with the movement of an operator's head on the teleoperation of the actual backhoe shovel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamoto, Masahiko; Matsunaga, Katsuya

    1999-05-01

    Operator performance while using a remote controlled backhoe shovel is described for three different stereoscopic viewing conditions: direct view, fixed stereoscopic cameras connected to a helmet mounted display (HMD), and rotating stereo camera connected and slaved to the head orientation of a free moving stereo HMD. Results showed that the head- slaved system provided the best performance.

  2. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Burns, H. D.; Clinton, R. G.; Schumacher, D.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous organizations specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline organizations, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environment and spacecraft effects organization. This includes space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, and effects on spacecraft materials and systems. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization would be comprised of Technical Working Groups (TWG) focusing on, for example: a) Charged Particles (CP), b) Space Environmental Effects (SEE), and c) Interplanetary and Extraterrestrial Environments (IEE). These technical working groups will generate products and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, environment effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Environment effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather observations to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA and other federal agencies to ensure that communications are well established and the needs of the programs are being met. The programmatic

  3. Virtual and Actual: Relative Accuracy of On-Site and Web-based Instruments in Auditing the Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Joseph, Eran; Lee, Jae Seung; Cromley, Ellen K.; Laden, Francine; Troped, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relative accuracy and usefulness of web tools in evaluating and measuring street-scale built environment characteristics. Methods A well-known audit tool was used to evaluate 84 street segments at the urban edge of metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, using on-site visits and three web-based tools. The assessments were compared to evaluate their relative accuracy and usefulness. Results Web-based audits, based-on Google Maps, Google Street View, and MS Visual Oblique, tend to strongly agree with on-site audits on land-use and transportation characteristics (e.g., types of buildings, commercial destinations, and streets). However, the two approaches to conducting audits (web versus on-site) tend to agree only weakly on fine-grain, temporal, and qualitative environmental elements. Among the web tools used, auditors rated MS Visual Oblique as the most valuable. Yet Street View tends to be rated as the most useful in measuring fine-grain features, such as levelness and condition of sidewalks. Conclusion While web-based tools do not offer a perfect substitute for on-site audits, they allow for preliminary audits to be performed accurately from remote locations, potentially saving time and cost and increasing the effectiveness of subsequent on-site visits. PMID:23247423

  4. RendezVous sensor for automatic guidance of transfer vehicles to ISS concept of the operational modes depending on actual optical and geometrical-dynamical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, Bettina G.; Kolk, Karl-Hermann

    2000-10-01

    Based on an ATV RendezVous Predevelopment Program initiated by ESTEC, an automatically operating Rendez Vous Sensor has been developed. The sensor--a Scanning Tele-Goniometer--shall guide docking and retreat of the European Automatic Transfer Vehicle as well as berthing and retreat of the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle. The sensor performance will be strongly connected with the properties of cooperative targets, consisting of an arrangement of retro reflectors mounted on ISS each.

  5. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  6. Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students’ alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  7. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  8. An evaluation of grease-type ball bearing lubricants operation in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Because many future spacecraft or space stations will require mechanisms to operate for long periods of time in environments which are adverse to most bearing lubricants, a series of tests is continuing to evaluate 38 grease type lubricants in R-4 size bearings in five different environments for a 1 year period. Four repetitions of each test are made to provide statistical samples. These tests have also been used to select four lubricants for 5 year tests in selected environments with five repetitions of each test for statistical samples. At the present time, 142 test sets have been completed and 30 test sets are underway. The three 5 year tests in (1) continuous operation and (2) start stop operation, with both in vacuum at ambient temperatures, and (3) continuous vacuum operation at 93.3 C are now completed. To date, in both the 1 year and 5 year tests, the best results in all environments have been obtained with a high viscosity index perfluoroalkylpolyether (PFPE) grease.

  9. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  10. The operating room as a clinical learning environment: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rhoda; Van Schalkwyk, Susan C; Prakaschandra, Rosaley

    2016-05-01

    Students undertake their clinical placement in various clinical settings for the exposure to and acquisition of skills related to that particular context. The operating room is a context that offers the opportunity to develop critical skills related to the perioperative care of the patient. Despite numerous studies that have been undertaken in this field, few have investigated the operating room as a clinical learning environment in the South African private healthcare context. The aim of this study was to determine nursing students' perceptions of the operating room as a clinical learning environment. An exploratory, interpretive and descriptive design generating qualitative data was utilized. Eight nursing students completed an open-ended questionnaire, and twelve nursing students participated in the focus group discussion. Four themes emerged, namely, 'interpersonal factors', 'educational factors', 'private operating room context', and 'recommendations'. The opinion that the operating room offers an opportunity to gain skills unique to this context was expressed. However, despite the potential learning opportunities, the key findings of this study reveal negative perceptions of nursing students regarding learning experiences in the operating room. Exploration into the preparatory needs of students specific to learning outcomes before operating room placement should be considered. It will also be necessary to improve collaboration between lecturers, mentors and theatre managers. PMID:27235567

  11. A novel method of personnel cooling in an operating theatre environment.

    PubMed

    Casha, Aaron R; Manché, Alexander; Camilleri, Liberato; Gauci, Marilyn; Grima, Joseph N; Borg, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    An optimized theatre environment, including personal temperature regulation, can help maintain concentration, extend work times and may improve surgical outcomes. However, devices, such as cooling vests, are bulky and may impair the surgeon's mobility. We describe the use of a low-cost, low-energy 'bladeless fan' as a personal cooling device. The safety profile of this device was investigated by testing air quality using 0.5- and 5-µm particle counts as well as airborne bacterial counts on an operating table simulating a wound in a thoracic operation in a busy theatre environment. Particle and bacterial counts were obtained with both an empty and full theatre, with and without the 'bladeless fan'. The use of the 'bladeless fan' within the operating theatre during the simulated operation led to a minor, not statistically significant, lowering of both the particle and bacterial counts. In conclusion, the 'bladeless fan' is a safe, effective, low-cost and low-energy consumption solution for personnel cooling in a theatre environment that maintains the clean room conditions of the operating theatre. PMID:24994697

  12. Application of Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment: A Review of Operational Vignettes.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    Medical intelligence is an underused or sometimes misapplied tool in the protection of our Soldiers and the execution of nonkinetic operations. The somewhat improved infrastructure of the operational environment in Iraq and Afghanistan led to an inevitable sense of complacency in regard to the threat of disease nonbattle injury (DNBI). The picture changed somewhat in 2010 with the advent of the village stability program and the establishment of SOF camps in austere locations with degraded living situations rife with exposure risks. In addition, the increasing deployments to unstable locations around the globe, reminiscent of typical Special Operations Forces (SOF) missions before the Global War on Terrorism, indicate a need for better preparation for deployment from the standpoint of disease risk and force health protection. A knowledge gap has developed because we simply did not need to apply as stringent an evaluation of DNBI risk in environments where improved life support mitigated the risk for us. The tools necessary to decrease or even eliminate the impact of DNBI exist but they must be shared and implemented. This article will present four vignettes from current and former SOF Force Health Protection personnel starting with a simple method of executing Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment (MIPOE) and highlighting situations in which it either was or could have been implemented to mitigate risk and decrease the impact on mission accomplishment and individual operators. A follow-on article will present vignettes of the successful application of MIPOE to nonkinetic operations. PMID:26630107

  13. Understanding stress in the operating room: a step toward improving the work environment.

    PubMed

    Vowels, Anthony; Topp, Robert; Berger, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Job-related stress is an important factor predicting staff satisfaction and position turnover among nursing staff, particularly in the operating room. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived amount of stress elicited by events in the perioperative environment, the frequency of those events, and the impact of those events on the perceived stress of operating room nurses (ORNs) and operating room technologists (ORTs). The Survey on Stress in the OR instrument, which was used to query the subjects, exhibited high internal consistency of all items. The findings indicated that the ORNs and the ORTs exhibited remarkable similarities between stressful events perceived as high and low impact. The two groups agreed that the highest impact stressful event was "pressure to work more quickly." Using the results of this study, OR administrators may be able to redesign the OR environment to minimize the impact of stressful events and thereby improve job satisfaction and minimize nursing staff turnover. PMID:22545480

  14. Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

  15. [Concepts of development of the neurosurgical operative environment in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Apuzzo, M; Liu, C

    2002-01-01

    The operative environment has to a large extent defines the "state of the art and science" of neurosurgery, which is now undergoing rapid reinvention. In order to remain current, each neurosurgeon should periodically reconsider their personal operative environment and its functional design with reference to modernity of practice as currently defined. Historical trends and their analysis offer predictive guides for development of such settings with an eye toward the future. Examination of technical developments in decade timeframes defines the progress in capability and need. Progressive minimalism of manipulation and the presence of operative definition with increasing precision are evident, with concurrent miniaturization of attendant computerized support systems, sensors, robotic interfaces, and imaging devices. These trends and developments offer the opportunity for simplificity of setting design with higher functionality as the desired endpoint. PMID:12214501

  16. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  17. Novel graphical environment for virtual and real-world operations of tracked mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, ChuXin; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Azam, Mir; Lassiter, Nils T.

    1993-08-01

    A simulation, animation, visualization and interactive control (SAVIC) environment has been developed for the design and operation of an integrated mobile manipulator system. This unique system possesses the abilities for (1) multi-sensor simulation, (2) kinematics and locomotion animation, (3) dynamic motion and manipulation animation, (4) transformation between real and virtual modes within the same graphics system, (5) ease in exchanging software modules and hardware devices between real and virtual world operations, and (6) interfacing with a real robotic system. This paper describes a working system and illustrates the concepts by presenting the simulation, animation and control methodologies for a unique mobile robot with articulated tracks, a manipulator, and sensory modules.

  18. Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandre, Denis; Nazarov, Alexei N.; Hemment, Peter L. F.

    This book collects the papers presented during NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Science and technology of Semiconductor on Insulator (SOI) structures and devices operating in a harsh environment" held in Kiev 26-30 April 2004. The volume contains both reviews from invited speakers and selected papers presenting major innovations in SOI materials and devices. Particular attention is paid to the reliability of SOI structures operated under harsh conditions. In the first part of the book dealing with SOI material technology, the evolution of SOI materials, achievements in the main standard technologies as Smart Cut, SIMOX, porous silicon as well as methods to create more exotic structures are described.

  19. Boundary conditioning of capacitive MEMS devices through fabrication methods and operating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, Packirisamy; Stiharu, Ion G.; Bhat, Rama B.

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents and applies the concept of micro-boundary conditioning to the design synthesis of microsystems in order to quantify the influence of inherent limitations of the fabrication process and the operating conditions on both static and dynamic behavior of microsystems. The predicted results on the static and dynamic behavior of a capacitive MEMS device, fabricated through MUMPs process, under the influence of the fabrication limitation and operating environment are presented along with the test results. The comparison between the predicted and experimental results shows a good agreement.

  20. An overview of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay. [environment effects and coastal ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of the Baltimore and the Newport News/Norfolk harbors as well as of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is accomplished by different dredging operations which depend on the amount and type of material to be moved, water depth, and location of disposal sites. Methods for determining the physical or chemical-biological interactive effects of these activities on the environment and on the shellfish and finfish industries on the Bay are discussed. The types of dredges used are classed according to their mode of operation.

  1. Simulation studies of STOL airplane operations in metropolitan downtown and airport air traffic control environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. H.; Mclaughlin, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The operating problems and equipment requirements for STOL airplanes in terminal area operations in simulated air traffic control (ATC) environments were studied. These studies consisted of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) arrivals and departures in the New York area to and from a downtown STOL port, STOL runways at John F. Kennedy International Airport, or STOL runways at a hypothetical international airport. The studies were accomplished in real time by using a STOL airplane flight simulator. An experimental powered lift STOL airplane and two in-service airplanes having high aerodynamic lift (i.e., STOL) capability were used in the simulations.

  2. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, A.; Bahr, T.

    2013-05-01

    Having access to SAR data can be highly important and critical especially for disaster mapping. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. Therefore, we present in this paper the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. A series of COSMO-SkyMed acquisitions was processed in ArcGIS® using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach. The relevant processing steps were combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, which can be accessed both via a desktop and a server environment.

  3. Rugged optical mirrors for the operation of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers in rough environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Dietrich G.

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a growing number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTS) that measure the total column of several atmospheric trace gases. For these measurements, the sun is used as a light source. This is typically achieved by a solar tracker that uses a pair of optical mirrors to guide the sunlight into the instrument. There is a growing demand to operate these instruments in remote locations that fill the gaps in the global observation network. Besides the logistical challenges of running a remote site, the environment at these locations can be very harsh compared to the sheltered environment of the instruments' home institutions. While the FTS itself is usually well protected inside a building or container, the solar tracker and especially its mirrors are exposed to the environment. There they may suffer from - temperature fluctuations - high humidity - sea salt corrosion at coastal sites - dirt and dust - air pollution from anthropogenic sources - deposition from plants or animals The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) operates a TCCON station on Ascension Island, about 200 m from the sea. Under the rough conditions at this site, typical optical mirrors that are made for laboratory conditions are destroyed by sea salt spray within a few weeks. Besides, typical gold-coated mirrors cannot be cleaned as their soft surface is easily scratched or damaged. To overcome these problems, the MPI-BGC has developed optical mirrors that - offer good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared - are highly resistant to salt and chlorine - have a hard surface so that they can be cleaned often and easily - are not affected by organic solvents - last for months in very harsh environments - can be reused after polishing These mirrors could be applied to most TCCON and NDACC sites. This way, the network could be expanded to regions where operation

  4. Interaction of large, high power systems with operational orbit charged particle environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1977-01-01

    A potentially hazardous spacecraft environment interaction is discussed. The interaction of large high voltage systems with low energy (less than 50 eV) plasmas which can result in loss of power and/or arching was examined. The impact of this class of interactions where the ambient operation is most severe at low orbits where the ambient plasmas are densest. Results of experimental work and predictions of simple analytical models were presented and their implications for design of space systems were reviewed.

  5. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  6. Medium-fidelity medical simulators: use in a pre-hospital, operational, military environment.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J J; Forbes, K; Woolrich-Burt, L; Russell, R; Mahoney, P F

    2006-09-01

    On Operation Telic 6, the UK Med Group consisting of 3 Close Support Medical Regiment and 205 Field Hospital (Volunteers) deployed to provide medical support to coalition forces in Iraq. Personnel were drawn from Regular and Territorial Units, plus additional medical support from Armies of the Czech Republic and Denmark. The efficient delivery of operational emergency medical care hinged upon the successful integration of personnel from these units. We report on the use of a medium-fidelity simulator, in a pre-hospital and hospital environment over a three month period on an operational tour. In conducting 42 exercises (12 of which commenced in a pre-hospital environment), we have demonstrated the feasibility of the system in rehearsing the management of the major trauma patient. This training was used to enhance teamwork, identify system deficiencies and practise solutions in a safe environment. This paper discusses our experiences in relation to the current literature on this expanding area of trauma training. PMID:17295008

  7. Integrated Analysis of Environment-driven Operational Effects in Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Alfred J; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2007-07-01

    There is a rapidly growing need to evaluate sensor network functionality and performance in the context of the larger environment of infrastructure and applications in which the sensor network is organically embedded. This need, which is motivated by complex applications related to national security operations, leads to a paradigm fundamentally different from that of traditional data networks. In the sensor networks of interest to us, the network dynamics depend strongly on sensor activity, which in turn is triggered by events in the environment. Because the behavior of sensor networks is sensitive to these driving phenomena, the integrity of the sensed observations, measurements and resource usage by the network can widely vary. It is therefore imperative to accurately capture the environmental phenomena, and drive the simulation of the sensor network operation by accounting fully for the environment effects. In this paper, we illustrate the strong, intimate coupling between the sensor network operation and the driving phenomena in their applications with an example sensor network designed to detect and track gaseous plumes.

  8. TransFormers for Ensuring Long-Term Operations in Lunar Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Stoica, A.; Alkalai, L.; Wilcox, B.; Quadrelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    "Surviving Extreme Space Environments" (EE) is one of NASA's Space Technology Grand Challenges. Power generation and thermal control are the key survival ingredients that allow a robotic explorer to cope with the EE using resources available to it, for example, by harvesting the local solar energy or by utilizing an onboard radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). TransFormers (TFs) are a new technology concept designed to transform a localized area within a harsh extreme environment into a survivable micro-environment by projecting energy to the precise location where robots or humans operate. For example, TFs placed at a location on the rim of Shackleton Crater, which is illuminated by solar radiation for most of the year, would be able to reflect solar energy onto robots operating in the dark cold crater. TFs utilize a shape transformation mechanism to un-fold from a compact volume to a large reflective surface, and to control how much-and where-the energy is projected, and by adjusting for the changing position of the sun. TFs would enable in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) activities within locations of high interest that would normally be unreachable because of their extreme environment

  9. Some criteria for teleoperators and virtual environments from experiences with vehicle/operator simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, Henry R.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of a wide range of simulations in which operator steering control of a vehicle is involved and the dominant-clues, closed-loop bandwidth, measured operator effective time-delay, and ratio of bandwidth-to-inverse delay are summarized. A correlation of kinetosis with dynamic scene field-of-view is shown. The use of moving base simulators to improve the validity of locomotion teleoperations is discussed. some rules-of-thumb for good 'feel-system' simulation, such as for control manipulanda are given. Finally, simulation tests of teleoperators and virtual environments should include three types of measures: system performance, operator (or robot) 'behavior', and mental workload evaluations.

  10. Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) hardware principles of operation, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, Edward

    1989-10-01

    The Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) makes possible the performance assessment of the Mode Select (Mode S) sensor under its specific maximum aircraft load. To do this, ARIES operates upon disk files for traffic model and interference to generate simulated aircraft replies and fruit, feeding them to the sensor at radio frequency. Support documentation for ARIES consists of: (1) the ARIES Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/3); (2) Appendixes of the Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 2; (3) the ARIES Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/4-1); (4) Appendixes of the Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 2; (5) ARIES Software Principles of Operation (DOT/FAA/CT-TN87/16); and (6) ARIES Software User's Manual (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/15). This document, the ARIES Hardware Principles of Operation, Volume 1, explains the theory of operation of the ARIES special purpose hardware designed and fabricated at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. Each hardware device is discussed. Functional block diagrams, signal timing diagrams, and state timing diagrams are included where appropriate.

  11. Space Weather Impacts on Spacecraft Design and Operations in Auroral Charging Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun-synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth s land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems are episodically exposed to environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (approx.1 to 10 s kilovolt) electrons in regions of very low background plasma density which is similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. While it is well established that charging conditions in geostationary orbit are responsible for many anomalies and even spacecraft failures, to date there have been relatively few such reports due to charging in auroral environments. This presentation first reviews the physics of the space environment and its interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments and discuss how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  12. Near-Earth Radiation Environment: Operation Control and Forecast System at SINP MSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkova, Irina; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Vera; Dolenko, Sergey; Shiroky, Vladimir

    Operational control and forecast of the Earth’s radiation environment is very topical both for solving fundamental scientific problems of solar-terrestrial physics, and for providing safety of space missions and polar aviation. Therefore, data of experiments onboard LEO (low-altitudes polar) spacecraft are very important. Now, a lot of data of experiments are available, including measurements of LEO spacecraft like "Meteor-M No. 1" and POES NOAA series. In the nearest future, new Russian satellites RELEC and "Lomonosov" will be launched to LEO orbit. However, data transmitted from LEO spacecraft has specific character connected with the features of LEO orbit: a spacecraft consistently passes different areas of near-Earth space - polar caps, area of outer Earth’s radiations Belts (ERB), middle latitudes, inner ERB. No public systems intended for analysis of radiation conditions at low altitudes, which could allow quick comparison of data obtained in L1 point with those from LEO and GEO, were created until now. The other important problem is forecasting of the near-Earth radiation environment state which is of key importance for space weather. The described problems are solved by the operational system of monitoring and forecasting of the radiation state of near-Earth environment, created at SINP MSU. The system of short-term (one hour ahead) forecasting of solar energetic particles (SEP) and relativistic electron fluxes at GEO operates on the base of artificial neural networks. The system also predicts the extreme location of SEP penetration boundary in the Earth’s magnetosphere at low altitudes and the high latitude boundary of outer ERB. Both predicted locations depend on Dst and Kp values, which, in turn, are predicted one hour ahead by artificial neural networks. The system operates in the framework of Space monitoring data center of the Moscow State University - http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/radiastatus/currentStatus.php.

  13. Progress in Spacecraft Environment Interactions: International Space Station (ISS) Development and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve; Suggs, Robb; Schneider, Todd; Minow, Joe; Alred, John; Cooke, Bill; Mikatarian, Ron; Kramer, Leonard; Boeder, paul; Soares, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The set of spacecraft interactions with the space flight environment that have produced the largest impacts on the design, verification, and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) Program during the May 2000 to May 2007 time frame are the focus of this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are reported as are the analysis and simulation efforts that have led to new knowledge and capabilities supporting current and future space explorations programs. The specific spacecraft-environment interactions that have had the greatest impact on ISS Program activities during the first several years of flight are: 1) spacecraft charging, 2) micrometeoroids and orbital debris effects, 3) ionizing radiation (both total dose to materials and single event effects [SEE] on avionics), 4) hypergolic rocket engine plume impingement effects, 5) venting/dumping of liquids, 6) spacecraft contamination effects, 7) neutral atmosphere and atomic oxygen effects, 8) satellite drag effects, and 9) solar ultraviolet effects. Orbital inclination (51.6deg) and altitude (nominally between 350 km and 460 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the performance and reliability of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. The induced environment results from ISS interactions with the natural environment as well as environmental factors produced by ISS itself and visiting vehicles. Examples include ram-wake effects, hypergolic thruster plume impingement, materials out-gassing, venting

  14. Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) hardware principles of operation. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, Edward

    1989-10-01

    The Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) makes possible the performance assessment of the Mode Select (Mode S) sensor under its specific maximum aircraft load. To do this, ARIES operates upon disk files for traffic model and interference to generate simulated aircraft replies and fruit, feeding them to the sensor at radio frequency. Support documentation for ARIES consists of: (1) ARIES Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/3); (2) Appendixes of the Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 2; (3) ARIES Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/4); (4) Appendices of the Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 2; (5) ARIES Software Principles of Operation (DOT/FAA/CT-TN87/16); and (6) ARIES Software User's Manual (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/15). The Appendices to the Hardware Principles of Operation provide: (1) the acronyms and abbreviations used within the document; (2) detailed information covering the development and implementation of controller microcode; and (3) uplink receiver digital alignment.

  15. Moving into the Light: The AEOS Telescope in the Daytime Operating Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, J.

    Abstract for Coming into the Light: The AEOS Telescope in the Daytime Operating Environment” Interest in daylight operation for the AEOS 3.67-m Telescope first surfaced during the preparation of the AEOS specification documentation in 1991. The author and Lt Rich Elder prepared, edited and combined requirements inputs from AFRL technical staff to create the final RFP document. In this released specification, AEOS daylight performance was limited to best effort, although provisions for adding secondary mirror sky light baffling were to be provided. In 1993, during the AEOS construction phase, AFRL requested that the author prepare a report on special considerations for operating AEOS in the solar illuminated daytime environment. This report was published and briefed to AFRL and Space Command at that time. Interest in this topic at AMOS was rekindled in 2007 by Dr Joe Janni and Lt Col Scott Hunt. The author updated his 1993 report and in June 2007 presented AEOS 1993 Daylight Operation Study Revisited” at AMOS. Subsequently, Dr Stacie Williams spearheaded additional work in this critical technical area. Recent efforts at Tau Technologies LLC have focused on external AEOS telescope baffling and shielding options assessment, solar irradiation effects on optical components, especially the primary mirror, and on modeling the solar illumination on the entire telescope during daylight operation. Solid Works and Illustrator simulation models have been developed and exercised.

  16. SEE induced in SRAM operating in a superconducting electron linear accelerator environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, D.; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Grecki, M.; Simrock, Stefan

    2005-02-01

    Strong fields of bremsstrahlung photons and photoneutrons are produced during the operation of high-energy electron linacs. Therefore, a mixed gamma and neutron radiation field dominates the accelerators environment. The gamma radiation induced Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect manifests the long-term deterioration of the electronic devices operating in accelerator environment. On the other hand, the neutron radiation is responsible for Single Event Effects (SEE) and may cause a temporal loss of functionality of electronic systems. This phenomenon is known as Single Event Upset (SEU). The neutron dose (KERMA) was used to scale the neutron induced SEU in the SRAM chips. Hence, in order to estimate the neutron KERMA conversion factor for Silicon (Si), dedicated calibration experiments using an Americium-Beryllium (241Am/Be) neutron standard source was carried out. Single Event Upset (SEU) influences the short-term operation of SRAM compared to the gamma induced TID effect. We are at present investigating the feasibility of an SRAM based real-time beam-loss monitor for high-energy accelerators utilizing the SEU caused by fast neutrons. This paper highlights the effects of gamma and neutron radiations on Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), placed at selected locations near the Superconducting Linear Accelerator driving the Vacuum UV Free Electron Laser (VUVFEL) of DESY.

  17. Using Web 2.0 Techniques in NASA's Ares Engineering Operations Network (AEON) Environment - First Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for Engineering Support capability for NASA s Ares rocket development and operations. In pursuit of this, MOL is building the Ares Engineering and Operations Network (AEON), a web-based portal to support and simplify two critical activities: Access and analyze Ares manufacturing, test, and flight performance data, with access to Shuttle data for comparison Establish and maintain collaborative communities within the Ares teams/subteams and with other projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS). AEON seeks to provide a seamless interface to a) locally developed engineering applications and b) a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) collaborative environment that includes Web 2.0 capabilities, e.g., blogging, wikis, and social networking. This paper discusses how Web 2.0 might be applied to the typically conservative engineering support arena, based on feedback from Integration, Verification, and Validation (IV&V) testing and on searching for their use in similar environments.

  18. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  19. Flight investigation of cockpit-displayed traffic information utilizing coded symbology in an advanced operational environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Traffic symbology was encoded to provide additional information concerning the traffic, which was displayed on the pilot's electronic horizontal situation indicators (EHSI). A research airplane representing an advanced operational environment was used to assess the benefit of coded traffic symbology in a realistic work-load environment. Traffic scenarios, involving both conflict-free and conflict situations, were employed. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefings. These results grouped conveniently under two categories: display factors and task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few airplanes. In terms of task performance, the cockpit-displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness. Additionally, mile separation prescribed during these tests.

  20. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  1. Operational implications of qualification tests of class 1E electrical components for mild environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jabs, R.H.; Gangloff, W.

    1986-06-01

    This paper presents information regarding a program of accelerated aging and seismic testing of electrical and electronic components used in safety related equipment which is located in mild environment areas of a nuclear power plant. The test methodology is responsive to IEEE Std. 323-1974 and IEEE Std. 344-1975 for Class 1E electrical equipment. The methods used in accelerated aging and seismic testing of the elemental components (capacitors, potentiometers, integrated circuits, etc.) are described and results are presented on a mix of such components which have been tested to various equivalent lives. The operational implications of this program are also discussed.

  2. Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment

    DOEpatents

    Ostler, Farrell Lynn

    2016-07-19

    Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.

  3. Ability of floating platforms and tankers to operate in the Hibernia environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mcintyre, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of floating platforms and tankers to operate in the Hibernia environment is discussed. The basic environmental difference between the fixed and floating concept is that the floating systems are unable to withstand impact from heavy ice floes or large icebergs. Therefore, they are designed to utilize safe, reliable quick-disconnect systems, which permit them to evacuate the area when encroaching ice presents a potential hazard. Floating production systems being considered for Hibernia involve ship-type vessels, conventional semisubmersibles, and some form of floating storage and loading facility.

  4. Passive acoustic detection of closed-circuit underwater breathing apparatus in an operational port environment.

    PubMed

    Fillinger, L; Hunter, A J; Zampolli, M; Clarijs, M C

    2012-10-01

    Divers constitute a potential threat to waterside infrastructures. Active diver detection sonars are available commercially but present some shortcomings, particularly in highly reverberant environments. This has led to research on passive sonar for diver detection. Passive detection of open-circuit UBA (underwater breathing apparatus) has been demonstrated. This letter reports on the detection of a diver wearing closed-circuit UBA (rebreather) in an operational harbor. Beamforming is applied to a passive array of 10 hydrophones in a pseudo-random linear arrangement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating detection of the rebreather at ranges up to 120 m and are validated by GPS ground truth. PMID:23039570

  5. Virtual- and real-world operation of mobile robotic manipulators: integrated simulation, visualization, and control environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, ChuXin; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    1992-03-01

    This research is focused on enhancing the overall productivity of an integrated human-robot system. A simulation, animation, visualization, and interactive control (SAVIC) environment has been developed for the design and operation of an integrated robotic manipulator system. This unique system possesses the abilities for multisensor simulation, kinematics and locomotion animation, dynamic motion and manipulation animation, transformation between real and virtual modes within the same graphics system, ease in exchanging software modules and hardware devices between real and virtual world operations, and interfacing with a real robotic system. This paper describes a working system and illustrates the concepts by presenting the simulation, animation, and control methodologies for a unique mobile robot with articulated tracks, a manipulator, and sensory modules.

  6. 275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment.

    PubMed

    Saraceno, Clara J; Emaury, Florian; Heckl, Oliver H; Baer, Cyrill R E; Hoffmann, Martin; Schriber, Cinia; Golling, Matthias; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

    2012-10-01

    We present an ultrafast thin disk laser that generates an average output power of 275 W, which is higher than any other modelocked laser oscillator. It is based on the gain material Yb:YAG and operates at a pulse duration of 583 fs and a repetition rate of 16.3 MHz resulting in a pulse energy of 16.9 μJ and a peak power of 25.6 MW. A SESAM designed for high damage threshold initiated and stabilized soliton modelocking. We reduced the nonlinearity of the atmosphere inside the cavity by several orders of magnitude by operating the oscillator in a vacuum environment. Thus soliton modelocking was achieved at moderate amounts of self-phase modulation and negative group delay dispersion. Our approach opens a new avenue for power scaling femtosecond oscillators to the kW level. PMID:23188316

  7. The use of processes evaporation and condensation to provide a suitable operating environment of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolková, Zuzana; Holubčík, Michal; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    All electronic components which exhibit electrical conductor resistance, generates heat when electricity is passed (Joule - Lenz's Law). The generated heat is necessary to take into surrounding environment. To reduce the operating temperature of electronic components are used various types of cooling in electronic devices. The released heat is removed from the outside of the device in several ways, either alone or in combination. Intensification of cooling electronic components is in the use of heat transfer through phase changes. From the structural point of view it is important to create a cooling system which would be able to drain the waste heat converter for each mode of operation device. Another important criterion is the reliability of the cooling, and it is appropriate to choose cooling system, which would not contain moving elements. In this article, the issue tackled by the phase change in the heat pipe.

  8. Compensation techniques for high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device gradiometers operating in unshielded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgmann, J.; David, P.; Krause, H. J.; Otto, R.; Braginski, A. I.

    1997-08-01

    We have tested two methods of compensating environmental disturbances applicable to high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems operating in magnetically unshielded environments. For testing, we used first- and second-order axial electronic gradiometer setups with rf SQUID magnetometers operating at 77 K and base lines between 7 and 8 cm. The magnetometers were single-layer washer rf SQUIDs with bulk or thin-film magnetic flux concentrators in flip-chip geometry. The tested methods resulted in disturbance compensation levels comparable to those attained using electronically formed gradiometers. The white noise of the compensated magnetometers resulted in 13.5 fT/cm √Hz for first-order and 22 fT/cm2 √Hz for second-order compensation down to a few Hz. Common mode rejection was balanced to better than 10 000 for homogeneous fields and better than 200 for gradient fields with second-order compensation.

  9. Preserving the Near-Earth Space Environment with Green Engineering and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2009-01-01

    Green engineering and operations are essential to preserving the near-Earth space environment for future generations. The U.S. and the international aerospace community have been proactive in addressing the threat of the increasing orbital debris population and the risks to people and property from reentering debris. NASA has led this activity first by devoting resources to thoroughly understand the technical issues and then by developing effective and acceptable policies and guidelines. NASA also worked closely with the international community to ensure that the US aerospace industry was not placed at an economic disadvantage. In the long term, the removal of large orbital debris will be essential to the sustainability of space operations.

  10. Preliminary analysis of WL experiment number 701: Space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E. W.; Padden, R. J.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Chapman, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    A brief overview of the analysis performed on WL Experiment number 701 is presented, highlighting the successful operation of the first know active fiber optic links orbited in space. Four operating fiber optic links were exposed to the space environment for a period exceeding five years, situated aboard and external to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Despite the prolonged space exposure to radiation, wide temperature extremums, atomic oxygen interactions, and micrometeorite and debris impacts, the optical data links performed well within specification limits. Early Phillips Laboratory tests and analyses performed on the experiment and its recovered magnetic tape data strongly indicate that fiber optic application in space will have a high success rate.

  11. Challenges for Transitioning Science Knowledge to an Operational Environment for Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2012-01-01

    Effectively transitioning science knowledge to an operational environment relevant to space weather is critical to meet the civilian and defense needs, especially considering how technologies are advancing and present evolving susceptibilities to space weather impacts. The effort to transition scientific knowledge to a useful application is not a research task nor is an operational activity, but an effort that bridges the two. Successful transitioning must be an intentional effort that has a clear goal for all parties and measureable outcome and deliverable. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective for terrestrial weather and disaster relief efforts, and how those methodologies can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  12. Rugged optical mirrors for Fourier transform spectrometers operated in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Dietrich G.; Arnold, Sabrina G.; Hase, Frank; Ponge, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a number of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) that measure trace gases in the atmosphere by observing solar spectra. To guide the sunlight into the FTS, a solar tracker has to be placed outside. This device needs high-quality optical mirrors with good reflectance in the near and mid-infrared.More and more FTS stations are operated in remote locations with harsh environments. Optical mirrors are usually made for laboratory conditions and might not last very long there. At the TCCON site on Ascension Island which is operated by the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC), several mirrors from different optical manufacturers were destroyed within weeks.To continue operation, the MPI-BGC had to develop rugged mirrors that could sustain the harsh conditions for months or even years. While commercially available mirrors are typically made from a substrate covered with a thin reflective coating, these rugged mirrors were made from stainless steel with no additional coating. Except for their lower reflectance (which can easily be compensated for), their optical properties are comparable to existing mirrors. However, their rugged design makes them mostly immune to corrosion and scratching. Unlike most coated mirrors, they can also be cleaned easily.

  13. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community. PMID:20658388

  14. Characterization of the WISP array performance in ambient and cryogenic operating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kircher, James R.; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Flynn, David S.

    2001-08-01

    The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulator, located at Eglin AFB, has developed the capability to perform broadband 2-color testing of guided missile seekers in both ambient and cryogenic environments. The 2-color capability is provided by optically combining two 512 X 512 resistor arrays and projecting through all-reflective optical systems. This capability has raised the following questions: `How would a resistor array, designed to work at ambient conditions, perform when operated in a cryogenic environment?' and `How would a resistor array that was non- uniformity corrected (NUC) at ambient conditions perform when the NUC is applied to the array in a cryogenic environment?' The authors will attempt to address these questions by performing several measurements on a Wideband Infrared Scene Projector (WISP) Phase III resistor array in both ambient and cryogenic conditions. The WISP array performance will be defined in terms of temporal response, spatial non-uniformity, radiometric and thermal resolution, and radiometric and thermal transfer function.

  15. What factors within the peri-operative environment influence the training of scrub nurses?

    PubMed

    Pupkiewicz, Joanna; Kitson, Alison; Perry, Josephine

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to extrapolate factors within the peri-operative environment which influence the acclimatisation of novice scrub nurses by exploring the lived experience of learning from both a novice and expert perspective. Insights to the cultural perioperative environment which have not previously been explored can be identified. Comparing how novices view their environment with how expert mentors see it is useful in order to plan targeted learning goals. Two groups were considered; one group consisting of 6 novice scrub nurses and the other consisting of 7 senior scrub nurses teaching novices in a large tertiary teaching public hospital in South Australia. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were digitally recorded and field notes were taken. A Heideggerian structural approach with a vanManen immersive aspect was taken for the data collection and Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory of interpretation was utilised for data analysis. Five emergent themes were isolated from the data: Challenges to proficiency, Fear, Expectations, Support and Adaptation. The study revealed that novice scrub learning is externally modulated by their perioperative cultural surroundings and the support of the senior staff. Senior scrub staff investment in educating novices was dictated by their perception of novice attitude. PMID:25934075

  16. Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

    2007-05-01

    Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a

  17. Risk Assessment for Titanium Pressure Vessels Operating Inside the ARES I's Liquid Hydrogen Tank Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti-6-4) is currently being proposed for the manufacturing of pressure vessels (PV) for storage of compressed helium gas, which are mounted inside the ARES I's liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. At cryogenic temperature, titanium alloys usually have the highest strength-to-weight ratio property and have been considered as the metallic materials of choice for lightweight PV operating in LH2 environment. Titanium PV s are also considered as heritage hardware because they have been used by NASA for the Saturn IV-B rocket s LH2 tank in the mid 1960 s. However, hydrogen embrittlement is possible if Ti-6-4 alloy is exposed to gaseous hydrogen at certain pressure and temperature during the LH2 tank filling and draining operations on the launch pad, and during the J2X engine burn period for the ARES I s upper stage. Additionally, the fracture toughness and ductility properties of Ti-6-4 are significantly decreased at cryogenic temperature. These factors do not necessary preclude the use of titanium PV in hydrogen or at cryogenic applications; however, their synergistic effects and the material damage tolerance must be accounted for in the mission life assessment for PV s, which are considered as fracture critical hardware. In this paper, an overview of the risk assessment for Ti-6-4 alloy, strategy to control hydrogen embrittlement and brief metallic material trade study for PV operating in LH2 tank will be presented.

  18. Rugged optical mirrors for Fourier-Transform Spectrometers operated in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, D. G.; Arnold, S. G.; Hase, F.; Ponge, D.

    2015-10-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTSs) that measure trace gases in the atmosphere by observing solar spectra. To guide the sunlight into the FTS, a solar tracker has to be placed outside. This device needs high-quality optical mirrors with good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared. More and more FTS stations are operated in remote locations with harsh environments. Optical mirrors are usually made for laboratory conditions and might not last very long there. At the MPI-BGC's TCCON site on Ascension Island, several mirrors from different optical manufacturers were destroyed within weeks. To continue operation, the MPI-BGC had to develop rugged mirrors that could sustain the harsh conditions for months or even years. While commercially available mirrors are typically made from a substrate coverered with a thin reflective coating, these rugged mirrors were made from stainless steel with no additional coating. Except for their lower reflectivity (which can easily be compensated for), their optical properties are comparable to existing mirrors. However, their rugged design makes them mostly immune to corrosion and scratching. Unlike most coated mirrors, they can also be cleaned easily.

  19. Towards an integral computer environment supporting system operations analysis and conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1994-01-01

    VITROCISET has in house developed a prototype tool named System Dynamic Analysis Environment (SDAE) to support system engineering activities in the initial definition phase of a complex space system. The SDAE goal is to provide powerful means for the definition, analysis, and trade-off of operations and design concepts for the space and ground elements involved in a mission. For this purpose SDAE implements a dedicated modeling methodology based on the integration of different modern (static and dynamic) analysis and simulation techniques. The resulting 'system model' is capable of representing all the operational, functional, and behavioral aspects of the system elements which are part of a mission. The execution of customized model simulations enables: the validation of selected concepts with respect to mission requirements; the in-depth investigation of mission specific operational and/or architectural aspects; and the early assessment of performances required by the system elements to cope with mission constraints and objectives. Due to its characteristics, SDAE is particularly tailored for nonconventional or highly complex systems, which require a great analysis effort in their early definition stages. SDAE runs under PC-Windows and is currently used by VITROCISET system engineering group. This paper describes the SDAE main features, showing some tool output examples.

  20. Transfer of Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model; Research to Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. S. F.; Hwang, J.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, G. J.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M. G.; Friedel, R. H.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (rtDREAM) was developed by LANL for nowcast of energetic electrons' flux at the radiation belt to quantify potential risks from radiation damage at the satellites. Assimilated data are from multiple sources including LANL assets (GEO, GPS). For transfer from research to operation of the rtDREAM code, LANL/KSWC/NOAA makes a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) on the collaboration between three parts. By this MOU, KWSC/RRA provides all the support for transitioning the research version of DREAM to operations. KASI is primarily responsible for providing all the interfaces between the current scientific output formats of the code and useful space weather products that can be used and accessed through the web. In the second phase, KASI will be responsible in performing the work needed to transform the Van Allen Probes beacon data into "DREAM ready" inputs. KASI will also provide the "operational" code framework and additional data preparation, model output, display and web page codes back to LANL and SWPC. KASI is already a NASA partnering ground station for the Van Allen Probes' space weather beacon data and can here show use and utility of these data for comparison between rtDREAM and observations by web. NOAA has offered to take on some of the data processing tasks specific to the GOES data.

  1. Semi-Automated Landslide Mapping by Using an Expert Based Module Running on GIS Environment: Netcad Architect M-AHP Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukul, Elvan; Yilmaz, Ezgi; Nefeslioglu, Hakan A.; Sezer, Ebru A.; Toptas, Tunc E.; Celik, Deniz; Orhun, Koray; Osna, Turgay; Ak, Serdar; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2014-05-01

    In the present study semi-automated landslide mapping of an area locating between the cities Afyon and Usak (west of Turkey) was evaluated by using an expert based modelling operator developed in Netcad Architect environment. The area considerably suffers from landslides. The main public concern of this region within this respect is due to the high speed train railway route which will connect Ankara and Izmir. The study was carried out in three main stages; (i) data production, (ii) modelling for semi-automated landslide mapping, and (iii) validation of the constructed models by using the actual landslides observed in the region. The altitude, slope gradient, slope aspect and the second derivative of topography in terms of topographical wetness index parameters, geology in terms of lithology type, and normalized difference vegetation index in terms of environmental factor were evaluated to be the main conditioning factor of active and old landslides observed in the area. Two expert based models for mapping active and old landslides were constructed by using the M-AHP operator of the Netcad Architect environment. The resultant maps represent both possible active and old landslide areas which could be encountered throughout the region. According to the results of the modelling stages, almost 7 % of the area is found to be active landslide area, and almost 13 % of the area constitutes possible old failures in the region. The validations of the constructed models were performed by using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) curve operator which was also developed in Netcad Architect environment. The area under ROC curves for the models were calculated to be 0.674 and 0.728 for active and old landslides respectively. Considering expert nature of the constructed models these results are promising, and could be evaluated in route selection assessments and suitable site selection for settlement.

  2. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  3. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  4. The genesis of neurosurgery and the evolution of the neurosurgical operative environment: part I-prehistory to 2003.

    PubMed

    Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2003-01-01

    Despite its singular importance, little attention has been given to the neurosurgical operative environment in the scientific and medical literature. This article focuses attention on the development of neurosurgery and the parallel emergence of its operative setting. The operative environment has, to a large extent, defined the "state of the art and science" of neurosurgery, which is now undergoing rapid reinvention. During the course of its initial invention, major milestones in the development of neurosurgery have included the definition of anatomy, consolidation of a scientific basis, and incorporation of the practicalities of anesthesia and antisepsis and later operative technical adjuvants for further refinement of action and minimalism. The progress, previously long and laborious in emergence, is currently undergoing rapid evolution. Throughout its evolution, the discipline has assimilated the most effective tools of modernity into the operative environment, leading eventually to the entity known as the operating room. In the decades leading to the present, progressive minimalization of manipulation and the emergence of more refined operative definition with increasing precision are evident, with concurrent miniaturization of attendant computerized support systems, sensors, robotic interfaces, and imaging devices. These developments over time have led to the invention of neurosurgery and the establishment of the current state-of-the-art neurosurgical operating room as we understand it, and indeed, to a broader definition of the entity itself. To remain current, each neurosurgeon should periodically reconsider his or her personal operative environment and its functional design with reference to modernity of practice as currently defined. PMID:12493097

  5. Transition from Research to Operations: Assessing Value of Experimental Forecast Products within the NWSFO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Wohlman, Richard; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Jedlovec, Gary; Goodman, Steve; Darden, Chris; Meyer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center seeks to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. To meet long-term program expectations, it is not sufficient simply to give forecasters sophisticated workstations or new forecast products without fully assessing the ways in which they will be utilized. Close communication must be established between the research and operational communities so that developers have a complete understanding of user needs. In turn, forecasters must obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the modeling and sensing tools available to them. A major goal of the SPoRT Program is to develop metrics and conduct assessment studies with NWS forecasters to evaluate the impacts and benefits of ESE experimental products on forecast skill. At a glance the task seems relatively straightforward. However, performing assessment of experimental products in an operational environment is demanding. Given the tremendous time constraints placed on NWS forecasters, it is imperative that forecaster input be obtained in a concise unobtrusive manor. Great care must also be taken to ensure that forecasters understand their participation will eventually benefit them and WFO operations in general. Two requirements of the assessment plan developed under the SPoRT activity are that it 1) Can be implemented within the WFO environment; and 2) Provide tangible results for BOTH the research and operational communities. Supplemental numerical quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) were chosen as the first experimental SPoRT product to be evaluated during a Pilot Assessment Program conducted 1 May 2003 within the Huntsville AL National Weather Service Forecast Office. Forecast time periods were broken up into six- hour bins ranging from zero to twenty-four hours. Data were made available for display in AWIPS on an

  6. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to every... control; (ii) Have not verified your Year 2000 remediation efforts through reasonable internal testing...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to every... control; (ii) Have not verified your Year 2000 remediation efforts through reasonable internal testing...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to every... control; (ii) Have not verified your Year 2000 remediation efforts through reasonable internal testing...

  9. Atmospheric/Space Environment Support Lessons Learned Regarding Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In modern government and aerospace industry institutions the necessity of controlling current year costs often leads to high mobility in the technical workforce, "one-deep" technical capabilities, and minimal mentoring for young engineers. Thus, formal recording, use, and teaching of lessons learned are especially important in the maintenance and improvement of current knowledge and development of new technologies, regardless of the discipline area. Within the NASA Technical Standards Program Website http://standards.nasa.gov there is a menu item entitled "Lessons Learned/Best Practices". It contains links to a large number of engineering and technical disciplines related data sets that contain a wealth of lessons learned information based on past experiences. This paper has provided a small sample of lessons learned relative to the atmospheric and space environment. There are many more whose subsequent applications have improved our knowledge of the atmosphere and space environment, and the application of this knowledge to the engineering and operations for a variety of aerospace programs.

  10. Integration of the Total Lightning Jump Algorithm into Current Operational Warning Environment Conceptual Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, C. J.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, E. V.; Stano, G. T.; Blakeslee, R.; Goodman, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the total lightning jump algorithm (LJA) is to provide forecasters with an additional tool to identify potentially hazardous thunderstorms, yielding increased confidence in decisions within the operational warning environment. The LJA was first developed to objectively indentify rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") that occur prior to the observance of severe and hazardous weather (Williams et al. 1999, Schultz et al. 2009, Gatlin and Goodman 2010, Schultz et al. 2011). However, a physical and framework leading up to and through the time of a lightning jump is still lacking within the literature. Many studies infer that there is a large increase in the updraft prior to or during the jump, but are not specific on what properties of the updraft are indeed increasing (e.g., maximum updraft speed vs volume or both) likely because these properties were not specifically observed. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to physically associate lightning jump occurrence to polarimetric and multi-Doppler radar measured thunderstorm intensity metrics and severe weather occurrence, thus providing a conceptual model that can be used to adapt the LJA to current operations.

  11. Study of harsh environment operation of flexible ferroelectric memory integrated with PZT and silicon fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoneim, M. T.; Hussain, M. M.

    2015-08-03

    Flexible memory can enable industrial, automobile, space, and smart grid centered harsh/extreme environment focused electronics application(s) for enhanced operation, safety, and monitoring where bent or complex shaped infrastructures are common and state-of-the-art rigid electronics cannot be deployed. Therefore, we report on the physical-mechanical-electrical characteristics of a flexible ferroelectric memory based on lead zirconium titanate as a key memory material and flexible version of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100). The experimented devices show a bending radius down to 1.25 cm corresponding to 0.16% nominal strain (high pressure of ∼260 MPa), and full functionality up to 225 °C high temperature in ambient gas composition (21% oxygen and 55% relative humidity). The devices showed unaltered data retention and fatigue properties under harsh conditions, still the reduced memory window (20% difference between switching and non-switching currents at 225 °C) requires sensitive sense circuitry for proper functionality and is the limiting factor preventing operation at higher temperatures.

  12. Crack detection on wind turbine blades in an operating environment using vibro-acoustic modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Adams, D. E.; Sohn, H.

    2013-01-01

    As the wind power industry has grown rapidly in the recent decade, maintenance costs have become a significant concern. Due to the high repair costs for wind turbine blades, it is especially important to detect initial blade defects before they become structural failures leading to other potential failures in the tower or nacelle. This research presents a method of detecting cracks on wind turbine blades using the Vibo-Acoustic Modulation technique. Using Vibro-Acoustic Modulation, a crack detection test is conducted on a WHISPER 100 wind turbine in its operating environment. Wind turbines provide the ideal conditions in which to utilize Vibro-Acoustic Modulation because wind turbines experience large structural vibrations. The structural vibration of the wind turbine balde was used as a pumping signal and a PZT was used to generate the probing signal. Because the non-linear portion of the dynamic response is more sensitive to the presence of a crack than the environmental conditions or operating loads, the Vibro-Acoustic Modulation technique can provide a robust structural health monitoring approach for wind turbines. Structural health monitoring can significantly reduce maintenance costs when paired with predictive modeling to minimize unscheduled maintenance.

  13. Study of harsh environment operation of flexible ferroelectric memory integrated with PZT and silicon fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, M. T.; Hussain, M. M.

    2015-08-01

    Flexible memory can enable industrial, automobile, space, and smart grid centered harsh/extreme environment focused electronics application(s) for enhanced operation, safety, and monitoring where bent or complex shaped infrastructures are common and state-of-the-art rigid electronics cannot be deployed. Therefore, we report on the physical-mechanical-electrical characteristics of a flexible ferroelectric memory based on lead zirconium titanate as a key memory material and flexible version of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100). The experimented devices show a bending radius down to 1.25 cm corresponding to 0.16% nominal strain (high pressure of ˜260 MPa), and full functionality up to 225 °C high temperature in ambient gas composition (21% oxygen and 55% relative humidity). The devices showed unaltered data retention and fatigue properties under harsh conditions, still the reduced memory window (20% difference between switching and non-switching currents at 225 °C) requires sensitive sense circuitry for proper functionality and is the limiting factor preventing operation at higher temperatures.

  14. Intelligent behaviors for a convoy of indoor mobile robots operating in unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, Nathan M.; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Pezeshkian, Narek

    2004-12-01

    Intelligent behaviors allow a convoy of small indoor robots to perform high-level mission tasking. These behaviors include various implementations of map building, localization, obstacle avoidance, object recognition, and navigation. Several behaviors have been developed by SSC San Diego, with integration of other behaviors developed by open-source projects and a technology transfer effort funded by DARPA. The test system, developed by SSC San Diego, consists of ROBART III (a prototype security robot), serving as the master platform, and a convoy of four ActivMedia Pioneer 2-DX robots. Each robot, including ROBART III, is equipped with a SICK LMS 200 laser rangefinder. Using integrated wireless network repeaters, the Pioneer 2-DX robots maintain an ad hoc communication link between the operator and ROBART III. The Pioneer 2-DX robots can also act as rear guards to detect intruders in areas that ROBART III has previously explored. These intelligent behaviors allow a single operator to command the entire convoy of robots during a mission in an unknown environment.

  15. Designing an autonomous environment for mission critical operation of the EUVE satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedini, Annadiana; Malina, Roger F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the launch of NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite in 1992, there has only been a handful of occurrences that have warranted manual intervention in the EUVE Science Operations Center (ESOC). So, in an effort to reduce costs, the current environment is being redesigned to utilize a combination of off-the-shelf packages and recently developed artificial intelligence (AI) software to automate the monitoring of the science payload and ground systems. The successful implementation of systemic automation would allow the ESOC to evolve from a seven day/week, three shift operation, to a seven day/week one shift operation. First, it was necessary to identify all areas considered mission critical. These were defined as follows: (1) The telemetry stream must be monitored autonomously and anomalies identified. (2) Duty personnel must be automatically paged and informed of the occurrence of an anomaly. (3) The 'basic' state of the ground system must be assessed. (4) Monitors should check that the systems and processes needed to continue in a 'healthy' operational mode are working at all times. (5) Network loads should be monitored to ensure that they stay within established limits. (6) Connectivity to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) systems should be monitored as well, not just for connectivity of the network itself but also for the ability to transfer files. (7) All necessary peripheral devices should be monitored. This would include the disks, routers, tape drives, printers, tape carousel, and power supplies. (8) System daemons such as the archival daemon, the Sybase server, the payload monitoring software, and any other necessary processes should be monitored to ensure that they are operational. (9) The monitoring system needs to be redundant so that the failure of a single machine will not paralyze the monitors. (10) Notification should be done by means of looking though a table of the pager numbers for current 'on call' personnel. The software

  16. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  17. MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Yeaw, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated.

  18. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of SAR data has become increasingly popular in recent years and in a wide array of industries. Having access to SAR can be highly important and critical especially for public safety. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. SAR imaging offers the great advantage, over its optical counterparts, of not being affected by darkness, meteorological conditions such as clouds, fog, etc., or smoke and dust, frequently associated with disaster zones. In this paper we present the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. For this technique we integrated the SARscape modules for ENVI with ArcGIS®, eliminating the need to switch between software packages. Thereby the premier algorithms for SAR image analysis can be directly accessed from ArcGIS desktop and server environments. They allow processing and analyzing SAR data in almost real time and with minimum user interaction. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. The Bacchiglione River burst its banks on Nov. 2nd after two days of heavy rainfall throughout the northern Italian region. The community of Bovolenta, 22 km SSE of Padova, was covered by several meters of water. People were requested to stay in their homes; several roads, highways sections and railroads had to be closed. The extent of this flooding is documented by a series of Cosmo-SkyMed acquisitions with a GSD of 2.5 m (StripMap mode). Cosmo-SkyMed is a constellation of four Earth observation satellites, allowing a very frequent coverage, which enables monitoring using a very high temporal resolution. This data is processed in ArcGIS using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach consisting of 3 steps: (1) The single images are filtered with a Gamma DE-MAP filter. (2) The filtered images are geocoded using a reference

  19. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  20. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System: Capabilities for Operational Space Environment In Situ and Remote Sensing and Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, S. A.; Denig, W. F.; Hoffman, C. W.; Furlong, D.; Haas, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. NPOESS will transform today's short-term, space-based space environment research missions and the previous operational missions into a sustained, operational space environment remote sensing observation program. A major portion of NPOESS is dedicated to the space environment missions of our users. Fourteen of the fifty-five NPOESS mission environmental data record [EDR] products address various aspects of the solar-geophysical parameters needed to characterize the space environment and solar irradiance. Three factors of our users' requirements present significant challenges for properly sampling the space environment spatial-temporal-spectral characteristics: 1.) the vast volume of the space environment to be covered on both regional and global scales 2.) the large range of natural time scales for the space environment phenomenology to be covered, especially the challenging

  1. Conducting Safe and Efficient Airport Surface Operations in a NextGen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) vision proposes many revolutionary operational concepts, such as surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) and technologies, including display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability of a flight crew to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM. Position accuracy of traffic was varied, and the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability was measured. Another goal was to evaluate the crew's ability to safely conduct STBO by assessing the impact of providing traffic intent information, CD&R system capability, and the display of STBO guidance to the flight crew on both head-down and head-up displays (HUD). Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near-collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidents were averted. During the STBO testing, the flight crews met their required time-of-arrival at route end within 10 seconds on 98 percent of the trials, well within the acceptable performance bounds of 15 seconds. Traffic intent information was found to be useful in determining the intent of conflicting traffic, with graphical presentation preferred. The CD&R system was only

  2. Comparison of CFD and operational dispersion models in an urban-like environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioni, G.; Burkhart, S.; Burman, J.; Dejoan, A.; Fusco, A.; Gaasbeek, R.; Gjesdal, T.; Jäppinen, A.; Riikonen, K.; Morra, P.; Parmhed, O.; Santiago, J. L.

    2012-02-01

    Chemical plants, refineries, transportation of hazardous materials are some of the most attractive facilities for external attacks aimed at the release of toxic substances. Dispersion of these substances into the atmosphere forms a concentration distribution of airborne pollutants with severe consequences for exposed individuals. For emergency preparedness and management, the availability of assessed/validated dispersion models, which can be able to predict concentration distribution and thus dangerous zones for exposed individuals, is of primary importance. Air quality models, integral models and analytical models predict the transport and the turbulent dispersion of gases or aerosols after their release without taking into account in detail the presence of obstacles. Obstacles can modify the velocity field and in turn the concentration field. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models on the other hand are able to describe such phenomena, but they need to be correctly set up, tested and validated in order to obtain reliable results. Within the project Europa-ERG1 TA 113.034 "NBC Modelling and Simulation" several different approaches in CFD modelling of turbulent dispersion in closed, semi-confined and urban-like environment were adopted and compared with experimental data and with operational models. In this paper the results of a comparison between models describing the dispersion of a neutral gas in an idealized urban-like environment are presented and discussed. Experimental data available in the literature have been used as a benchmark for assessing statistical performance for each model. Selected experimental trials include some water channel tests, that were performed by Coanda at 1:205 scale, and one full-scale case that was tested in the fall of 2001 at the Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah, using an array of shipping containers. The paper also suggests the adoption of improved statistical parameters in order to better address differences between models

  3. Assessment of SOI AND Gate, Type CHT-7408, for Operation in Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dones, Keishla Rivera

    2009-01-01

    Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are finding widespread applications due to their ability to operate in harsh environments and the benefits they offer as compared to their silicon counterparts. Due to their construction, they are tailored for high temperature operation and show good tolerance to radiation events. In addition, their inherent design lessens the formation of parasitic junctions, thereby reducing leakage currents, decreasing power consumption, and enhancing speed. These devices are typically rated in temperature capability from -55 C to about +225 C, and their characteristics over this temperature range are documented in data sheets. Since electronics in some of NASA space exploration missions are required to operate under extreme temperature conditions, both cold and hot, their characteristic behavior within the full temperature spectrum must be determined to establish suitability for use in space applications. The effects of extreme temperature exposure on the performance of a new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) SOI AND gate device were evaluated in this work. The high temperature, quad 2-inputs AND gate device, which was recently introduced by CISSOID, is fabricated using a CMOS SOI process. Some of the specifications of the CHT-7408 chip are listed in a table. By supplying a constant DC voltage to one gate input and a 10 kHz square wave into the other associated gate input, the chip was evaluated in terms of output response, output rise (t(sub r)) and fall times (tf), and propagation delays (using a 50% level between input and output during low to high (tPLH) and high to low (tPHL) transitions). The supply current of the gate circuit was also obtained. These parameters were recorded at various test temperatures between -195 C and +250 C using a Sun Systems environmental chamber programmed at a temperature rate of change of 10 C/min. In addition, the effects of thermal cycling on this chip were determined by exposing

  4. New target acquisition task for contemporary operating environments: personnel in MWIR, LWIR, and SWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Leonard, Kevin R.; Hodgkin, Van A.; Thompson, Roger; Miller, Brian; Hixson, Jon; Johnson, Sara; Godbolt, Tehran; Acton, David D.

    2010-04-01

    Operating environments that US Soldiers and Marines are in have changed, along with the types of tasks that they are required to perform. In addition, the potential imaging sensor options available have increased. These changes make it necessary to examine how these new tasks are affected by waveband and time of day. US Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, Communications Electronics Research Development and Engineering Center, Night Vision and Electronic Sensor Directorate (NVESD), investigated one such task for several wavebands (MWIR, LWIR, Visible, and SWIR) and during both day and night. This task involved identification of nine different personnel targets: US Soldier, US Marine, Eastern-European/Asian Soldier, Urban Insurgent, Rural Insurgent, Hostile Militia, Indigenous Inhabitant, Contract Laborer, and Reporter. These nine distinct targets were made up from three tactically significant categories: Friendly Force, Combatant and Neutral/Non-Combatant. A ten second video was taken of an actor dressed as one of these targets. The actors walk a square pattern, enabling all aspects to be seen in each video clip. Target characteristics were measured and characteristic dimension, target contrast tabulated. A nine-alternative, forced-choice human perception test was performed at NVESD. This test allowed NVESD to quantify the ability of observers to discriminate between personnel targets for each waveband and time of day. The task difficulty criterion, V50, was also calculated allowing for future modeling using the NVESD sensor performance model.

  5. Digital Learning Network Education Events of NASA's Extreme Environments Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Guillory, Erika

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLN) reaches out to thousands of students each year through video conferencing and web casting. The DLN has created a series of live education videoconferences connecting NASA s Extreme Environment Missions Operations (NEEMO) team to students across the United States. The programs are also extended to students around the world live web casting. The primary focus of the events is the vision for space exploration. During the programs, NEEMO Crewmembers including NASA astronauts, engineers and scientists inform and inspire students about the importance of exploration and share the impact of the project as it correlates with plans to return to the moon and explore the planet Mars. These events highlight interactivity. Students talk live with the aquanauts in Aquarius, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s underwater laboratory. With this program, NASA continues the Agency s tradition of investing in the nation's education programs. It is directly tied to the Agency's major education goal of attracting and retaining students in science, technology, and engineering disciplines. Before connecting with the aquanauts, the students conduct experiments of their own designed to coincide with mission objectives. This paper describes the events that took place in September 2006.

  6. Preliminary analyses of WL experiment No. 701, space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the analyses performed to date on WL Experiment-701 is presented. Four active digital fiber optic links were directly exposed to the space environment for a period of 2114 days. The links were situated aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) with the cabled, single fiber windings atop an experimental tray containing instrumentation for exercising the experiment in orbit. Despite the unplanned and prolonged exposure to trapped and galactic radiation, wide temperature extremes, atomic oxygen interactions, and micro-meteorite and debris impacts, in most instances the optical data links performed well within the experimental limits. Analysis of the recorded orbital data clearly indicates that fiber optic applications in space will meet with success. Ongoing tests and analysis of the experiment at the Phillips Laboratory's Optoelectronics Laboratory will expand this premise, and establish the first known and extensive database of active fiber optic link performance during prolonged space exposure. WL Exp-701 was designed as a feasibility demonstration for fiber optic technology in space applications, and to study the performance of operating fiber systems exposed to space environmental factors such as galactic radiation, and wide temperature cycling. WL Exp-701 is widely acknowledged as a benchmark accomplishment that clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that fiber optic technology can be successfully used in a variety of space applications.

  7. Entering "A NEW REALM" of KIBO Payload Operations - Continuous efforts for microgravity experiment environment and lessons learned from real time experiment operations in KIBO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, K.; Goto, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Ohkuma, H.

    2011-12-01

    On January 22nd, 2011(JST), KOUNOTORI2 (H-II Transfer Vehicle: HTV2) was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center toward the International Space Station (ISS) and two new JAXA payload racks, Kobairo rack and MSPR (Multi-purpose Small Payload Rack) were transferred to ISS/KIBO (Japanese Experiment Module: JEM). In addition to Saibo rack and Ryutai rack which are already in operation in KIBO, in total 4 Japanese experiment payload racks start operations in KIBO. Then KIBO payload operations embark on a new realm, full utilization phase. While the number and variety of microgravity experiments become increasing, simultaneous operation constraints should be considered to achieve multitask payload operations in ISS/KIBO and ever more complicated cooperative operations between crewmember and flight control team/science team are required. Especially for g-jitter improvement in ISS/KIBO, we have greatly advanced cooperative operations with crewmember in the recent increment based on the microgravity data analysis results. In this paper, newly operating Japanese experiment payloads characteristics and some methods to improve g-jitter environment are introduced from the front line of KIBO payload operations.

  8. Operational Earthquake Forecasting and Decision-Making in a Low-Probability Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; the International Commission on Earthquake ForecastingCivil Protection

    2011-12-01

    Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about the time dependence of seismic hazards to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. Most previous work on the public utility of OEF has anticipated that forecasts would deliver high probabilities of large earthquakes; i.e., deterministic predictions with low error rates (false alarms and failures-to-predict) would be possible. This expectation has not been realized. An alternative to deterministic prediction is probabilistic forecasting based on empirical statistical models of aftershock triggering and seismic clustering. During periods of high seismic activity, short-term earthquake forecasts can attain prospective probability gains in excess of 100 relative to long-term forecasts. The utility of such information is by no means clear, however, because even with hundredfold increases, the probabilities of large earthquakes typically remain small, rarely exceeding a few percent over forecasting intervals of days or weeks. Civil protection agencies have been understandably cautious in implementing OEF in this sort of "low-probability environment." The need to move more quickly has been underscored by recent seismic crises, such as the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake sequence, in which an anxious public was confused by informal and inaccurate earthquake predictions. After the L'Aquila earthquake, the Italian Department of Civil Protection appointed an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF), which I chaired, to recommend guidelines for OEF utilization. Our report (Ann. Geophys., 54, 4, 2011; doi: 10.4401/ag-5350) concludes: (a) Public sources of information on short-term probabilities should be authoritative, scientific, open, and timely, and need to convey epistemic uncertainties. (b) Earthquake probabilities should be based on operationally qualified, regularly updated forecasting systems. (c) All operational models should be evaluated

  9. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  10. Integration of the Total Lightning Jump Algorithm into Current Operational Warning Environment Conceptual Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Stano, Geoffrey T.; Gatlin, Patrick N.

    2013-01-01

    The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. In order to become a viable option for operational forecasters to incorporate into their severe storm monitoring process, the total lightning jump must be placed into the framework of several severe storm conceptual models (e.g., radar evolution, storm morphology) which forecasters have built through training and experience. Thus, one of the goals of this study is to examine and relate the lightning jump concept to often used radar parameters (e.g., dBZ vertical structure, VIL, MESH, MESO/shear) in the warning environment. Tying lightning trends and lightning jump occurrences to these radar based parameters will provide forecasters with an additional tool that they can use to build an accurate realtime depiction as to what is going on in a given environment. Furthermore, relating the lightning jump concept to these parameters could also increase confidence in a warning decision they have already made, help tip the scales on whether or not to warn on a given storm, or to draw the forecaster s attention to a particular storm that is rapidly developing. Furthermore the lightning information will add vital storm scale information in regions that are not well covered by radar, or when radar failures occur. The physical basis for the lightning

  11. Nutritional Assessment During a 14-d Saturation Dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Fesperman, J. V.; Smith, M. D.; Rice, B. L.; Zwart, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiological and nutritional changes associated with space travel, particularly since exploration missions are anticipated, and flight research opportunities are limited. A clinical nutritional assessment of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V (NEEMO) crew (4 M, 2 F) was conducted before, during, and after the 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before (D-12 and D-1), during (MD 7 and MD 12), and after (R + 0 and R + 7) the dive. The foods were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiological changes were reported both during the dive and post dive that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Serum hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P less than 0.05) post dive. Serum ferritin and ceruloplasmin significantly increased during the dive, while transferring receptors tended to go down during the dive and were significantly decreased by the last day (R + 0). Along with significant hematological changes, there was also evidence for increased oxidative damage and stress during the dive. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was elevated (P less than 0.05) during the dive, while glutathione peroxidase and superoxide disrnutase activities were decreased (P less than 0.05) during the dive. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration also tended to increase during the dive, suggesting the presence of a stress-induced inflammatory response, Decreased leptin during the dive (P less than 0.05) may also be related to the increased stress. Similar to what is observed during spaceflight, subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to further define the physiological effects of spaceflight and investigate potential countermeasures.

  12. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  13. A Radiation Hard Multi-Channel Digitizer ASIC for Operation in the Harsh Jovian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Aslam, S.; Akturk, A.; Quilligan, G.

    2011-01-01

    ultimately impact the surface of Europa after the mission is completed. The current JEO mission concept includes a range of instruments on the payload, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiters atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. The payload includes a low mass (3.7 Kg) and low power (< 5 W) Thermal Instrument (TI) concept for measuring possible warm thermal anomalies on Europa s cold surface caused by recent (< 10,000 years) eruptive activity. Regions of anomalously high heat flow will be identified by thermal mapping using a nadir pointing, push-broom filter radiometer that provides far-IR imagery in two broad band spectral wavelength regions, 8-20 m and 20-100 m, for surface temperature measurements with better than a 2 K accuracy and a spatial resolution of 250 m/pixel obtained from a 100 Km orbit. The temperature accuracy permits a search for elevated temperatures when combined with albedo information. The spatial resolution is sufficient to resolve Europa's larger cracks and ridge axial valleys. In order to accomplish the thermal mapping, the TI uses sensitive thermopile arrays that are readout by a custom designed low-noise Multi-Channel Digitizer (MCD) ASIC that resides very close to the thermopile linear array outputs. Both the thermopile array and the MCD ASIC will need to show full functionality within the harsh Jovian radiation environment, operating at cryogenic temperatures, typically 150 K to 170 K. In the following, a radiation mitigation strategy together with a low risk Radiation-Hardened-By-Design (RHBD) methodology using commercial foundry processes is given for the design and manufacture of a MCD ASIC that will meet this challenge.

  14. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; Christiansen, Eric; Schneider, Todd; Edwards, Dave

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  15. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  16. Feasibility Study of Scheduling Work of System Operation in Deregulated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Toshio; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Sasaki, Tetsuo

    This paper presents the results of work flow analysis of generation scheduling and power system operation on the assumption that further deregulation is introduced into Japanese electric utility. California system and PJM system are tested as they are introduced into Japan. It was made clear that the time required for making the plan to operate the grid for the next day is acceptable for the Japanese system when a spot market is founded. Flow simulation of jobs of the power system operation is done based on IDEF0 method using flow charts similar to Petri net.

  17. Demonstrating the Operational Value of Thermodynamic Hyperspectral Profiles in the Pre-Convective Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, Danielle; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting partners, including a number of National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecasting Offices (WFO). As a part of the transition to operations process, SPoRT attempts to identify possible limitations in satellite observations and provide operational forecasters a product that will result in the most impact on their forecasts. One operational forecast challenge that some NWS offices face, is forecasting convection in data-void regions such as large bodies of water. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a sounding instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite that provides temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. This paper will demonstrate an approach to assimilate AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the WRF model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation component to be used as a proxy for the individual profiles.

  18. Avenger team performance during engagement operations in a chemical environment. Final report, November 1991-February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, J.D.; Lockhart, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    For this report, the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on Avenger weapon system operation were tested in an engagement simulation facility. Two experiments were conducted, each using the Avenger system in a different mode of operation. The same teams participated in each experiment, but team members switched duty positions for the second experiment. The team chief's ability to identify aircraft was significantly impaired by the MOPP gear in both modes of weapon system operation. The reduced field of view (FOV) created by the chemical protective (CP) mask is believed to have caused the MOPP4 performance decrement. The gunner, on the other hand, was not affected by the CP clothing, regardless of mode of weapon system operation. The advanced technology available to the gunner (easily seen displays and aids) seems to overcome the adverse effects of the MOPP gear. Chemical protective (CP) clothing, Avenger, Forward area air defense (FAAD), Range target system (RTS), Mission oriented protective posture (MOPP).

  19. A relative reward-strength algorithm for the hierarchical structure learning automata operating in the general nonstationary multiteacher environment.

    PubMed

    Baba, Norio; Mogami, Yoshio

    2006-08-01

    A new learning algorithm for the hierarchical structure learning automata (HSLA) operating in the nonstationary multiteacher environment (NME) is proposed. The proposed algorithm is derived by extending the original relative reward-strength algorithm to be utilized in the HSLA operating in the general NME. It is shown that the proposed algorithm ensures convergence with probability 1 to the optimal path under a certain type of the NME. Several computer-simulation results, which have been carried out in order to compare the relative performance of the proposed algorithm in some NMEs against those of the two of the fastest algorithms today, confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:16903364

  20. Field Sterilization in the Austere and Operational Environment A Literature Review of Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Will, Joshua S; Alderman, Shawn M; Sawyer, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Special Operations Forces medical providers are often deployed far beyond traditional military supply chains, forcing them to rely on alternative methods for field sterilization of medical equipment. This literature review proposes several alternative methods for both sterilization and disinfection of medical instruments after use and cleaning of skin and wounds before procedures. This article reviews recommendations from sources like the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Special Operations Forces Medical Handbook, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:27450601

  1. Platelet apheresis in a deployed maritime environment: experiences from Operation GRITROCK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M A; Bailey, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    When the Primary Casualty Receiving Facility (PCRF) on Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ARGUS deployed to Operation GRITROCK in October 2014, platelet apheresis had yet to be proven as a sustainable and usable capability for improving provision of blood products on a maritime platform. This paper explores the difficulties encountered by nurses tasked with setting up this capability once deployed and the requirements needed to ensure that this capability is maintained for future operations. PMID:26867408

  2. Safe operations of unmanned systems for reconnaissance in complex environments Army technology objective (SOURCE ATO): a year later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, N. Joseph, III; Mottern, Edward; Keys van Lierop, Tracy; Gray, Jeremy P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the testbed autonomy system, software technologies developed or enhanced, and an overview of the Enhanced Experiment during the second year of the SOURCE ATO. Over the past year, the Safe Operations of Unmanned systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) program continued to make enhancements to LADAR and image based Perception, Intelligence, Control and Tactical Behavior technologies. These are required for autonomous collaborative unmanned systems. The hardware and software technologies are installed on a TARDEC developed testbed, the Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD). Ultimately, soldiers will be utilized to conduct safe operation testing scenarios in cluttered dynamic environments using Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) perception and processing hardware as well as software. Soldier testing will take place during October 2012 at Camp Lejeune MOUT facility in North Carolina.

  3. Measurement of trace explosive residues in a surrogate operational environment: implications for tactical use of chemical sensing in C-IED operations.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Roderick R; Gregory, Kerin Clow; Hardy, Dennis; Oyler, Jonathan; Ostazeski, Stanley A; Fountain, Augustus Way

    2009-09-01

    A campaign to measure the amount of trace explosive residues in an operational military environment was conducted on May 27-31, 2007, at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, CA, USA. The objectives of this campaign were to develop the methods needed to collect and analyze samples from tactical military settings, to use the data obtained to determine what the trace explosive signatures suggest about the potential capabilities of chemical-based means to detect IEDs, and, finally, to present a framework whereby a sound understanding of the signature science can be used to guide development of new sensing technologies and sensor concepts of operation. Through our use of combined background and threat signature data, we have performed statistical analyses to estimate upper limits of notional sensor performance that is limited only by the spatial correlation of the signature chemicals to the threats of interest. PMID:19340417

  4. Learning Network Design: A Methodology for the Construction of Co-operative Distance Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dick

    Learning Network Design (LND) is a socially oriented methodology for construction of cooperative distance learning environments. The paper advances a social constructivist approach to learning in which learning and teaching are seen as a process of active communication, interpretation, and negotiation; offers a view of information technology as a…

  5. Decision support framework for evaluating the operational environment of forest bioenergy production and use: Case of four European countries.

    PubMed

    Pezdevšek Malovrh, Špela; Kurttila, Mikko; Hujala, Teppo; Kärkkäinen, Leena; Leban, Vasja; Lindstad, Berit H; Peters, Dörte Marie; Rhodius, Regina; Solberg, Birger; Wirth, Kristina; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija; Krč, Janez

    2016-09-15

    Complex policy-making situations around bioenergy production and use require examination of the operational environment of the society and a participatory approach. This paper presents and demonstrates a three-phase decision-making framework for analysing the operational environment of strategies related to increased forest bioenergy targets. The framework is based on SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis and the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). Stakeholders of four case countries (Finland, Germany, Norway and Slovenia) defined the factors that affect the operational environments, classified in four pre-set categories (Forest Characteristics and Management, Policy Framework, Technology and Science, and Consumers and Society). The stakeholders participated in weighting of SWOT items for two future scenarios with SMART technique. The first scenario reflected the current 2020 targets (the Business-as-Usual scenario), and the second scenario contained a further increase in the targets (the Increase scenario). This framework can be applied to various problems of environmental management and also to other fields where public decision-making is combined with stakeholders' engagement. The case results show that the greatest differences between the scenarios appear in Germany, indicating a notably negative outlook for the Increase scenario, while the smallest differences were found in Finland. Policy Framework was a highly rated category across the countries, mainly with respect to weaknesses and threats. Intensified forest bioenergy harvesting and utilization has potentially wide country-specific impacts which need to be anticipated and considered in national policies and public dialogue. PMID:27208996

  6. Experimental evaluation of stable long term operation of semiconductor magnetic sensors at ITER relevant environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakova, I.; Belyaev, S.; Bulavin, M.; Brudnyi, V.; Chekanov, V.; Coccorese, V.; Duran, I.; Gerasimov, S.; Holyaka, R.; Kargin, N.; Konopleva, R.; Kost, Ya.; Kuech, T.; Kulikov, S.; Makido, O.; Moreau, Ph; Murari, A.; Quercia, A.; Shurygin, F.; Strikhanov, M.; Timoshyn, S.; Vasil'evskii, I.; Vinichenko, A.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with radiation resistant sensors and their associated measuring instrumentation developed in the course of R and D activities carried out in the framework of an international collaboration. The first trial tests of three-dimensional (3D) probes with Hall sensors have been performed in European tokamaks TORE SUPRA (2004) and JET (2005). Later in 2009 six sets of 3D probes were installed in JET and now continue to operate. The statistical analysis performed in 2014 on the basis of the JET database have demonstrated stable long term operation of all 18 sensors of 3D probes. The results of measurements conducted at the neutron fluxes of nuclear reactors have demonstrated the operability of the sensors up to high neutron fluences of F  >  1018n • cm-2 that exceeds the maximum one for the locations of steady state sensors in ITER over its total lifetime.

  7. Invited article: physical and chemical analyses of impregnated cathodes operated in a plasma environment.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anita; Kulleck, James; Hill, Norm; Ohlinger, Wayne

    2008-11-01

    Destructive analyses of impregnated-cathode assemblies from an ion thruster life test were performed to characterize erosion and degradation after 30,472 h of operation. Post-test inspection of each cathode included examination of the emitter (insert), orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, anode assembly, insulator, and propellant isolator. The discharge-cathode assembly experienced significant erosion due to ion sputtering from the discharge plasma. The keeper electrode plate was removed and the heater and orifice plate were heavily eroded at the conclusion of the test. Had the test continued, these processes would likely have led to cathode failure. The discharge cathode insert experienced significant tungsten transport and temperature dependent barium oxide depletion within the matrix. Using barium depletion semiempirical relations developed by Palluel and Shroff, it is estimated that 25,000 h of operation remained in the discharge insert at the conclusion of the test. In contrast, the neutralizer insert exhibited significantly less tungsten transport and barium oxide depletion consistent with its lower current operation. The neutralizer was estimated to have 140,000 h of insert life remaining at the conclusion of the test. Neither insert had evidence of tungstate or oxide layer formation, previously known to have impeded cathode ignition and operation in similar long duration hollow-cathode tests. The neutralizer cathode was in excellent condition at the conclusion of the test with the exception of keeper tube erosion from direct plume-ion impingement, a previously underappreciated life-limiting mechanism. The most critical finding from the test was a power dependent deposition process within the neutralizer-cathode orifice. The process manifested at low-power operation and led to the production of energetic ions in the neutralizer plume, a potential life-limiting process for the neutralizer. Subsequent return of the engine and neutralizer operation to full

  8. Space Environment NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) - A New Frontier in Operational Space Environmental Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Gentile, L. C.; Bonito, N. A.; La Tour, P.; Sondecker, G.; Bishop, R. L.; Nicholas, A. C.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats built by Boeing Phantom Works. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements. Launch is scheduled for November 2013, and we will discuss the first 30 days of on-orbit operations.

  9. Invited Article: Physical and chemical analyses of impregnated cathodes operated in a plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kulleck, James; Hill, Norm; Ohlinger, Wayne

    2008-11-01

    Destructive analyses of impregnated-cathode assemblies from an ion thruster life test were performed to characterize erosion and degradation after 30 472 h of operation. Post-test inspection of each cathode included examination of the emitter (insert), orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, anode assembly, insulator, and propellant isolator. The discharge-cathode assembly experienced significant erosion due to ion sputtering from the discharge plasma. The keeper electrode plate was removed and the heater and orifice plate were heavily eroded at the conclusion of the test. Had the test continued, these processes would likely have led to cathode failure. The discharge cathode insert experienced significant tungsten transport and temperature dependent barium oxide depletion within the matrix. Using barium depletion semiempirical relations developed by Palluel and Shroff, it is estimated that 25 000 h of operation remained in the discharge insert at the conclusion of the test. In contrast, the neutralizer insert exhibited significantly less tungsten transport and barium oxide depletion consistent with its lower current operation. The neutralizer was estimated to have 140 000 h of insert life remaining at the conclusion of the test. Neither insert had evidence of tungstate or oxide layer formation, previously known to have impeded cathode ignition and operation in similar long duration hollow-cathode tests. The neutralizer cathode was in excellent condition at the conclusion of the test with the exception of keeper tube erosion from direct plume-ion impingement, a previously underappreciated life-limiting mechanism. The most critical finding from the test was a power dependent deposition process within the neutralizer-cathode orifice. The process manifested at low-power operation and led to the production of energetic ions in the neutralizer plume, a potential life-limiting process for the neutralizer. Subsequent return of the engine and neutralizer operation to full

  10. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  11. An analysis of work environments and operations in hot and humid areas.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, B

    1999-01-01

    Crews on tankers traveling and hauling cargo on the lower reaches of the Mississippi River during the hot and humid (H&H) summer season face various occupational safety and ergonomics problems. Evaluation of medical data reveals that a large number of the crewmembers experience job related injuries, diseases, disorders, and exhaustion as a result of adverse environmental conditions (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH], 1993). The accidents and injuries that occurred were characterized and then analysis was used to recommend constructive remedies and solutions. The results were also used to design and develop better work environments on the tankers and in the general industry. In H&H conditions, the body's chemical reactions constantly change in order to maintain the best possible reaction to changing environments. This chemical reaction increases blood flow to the skin through sweating. Body metabolism stabilizes body temperature through muscular work and convection, evaporation and radiation remove heat. PMID:10657930

  12. Preparing for Operations in a Resource-Depleted and/or Extended Evacuation Environment.

    PubMed

    Corey, Gabe; Lafayette, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are the only conflicts to which many medics have ever been exposed. These mature theaters have robust medical systems that ensure rapid access to full-spectrum medical care for all combat-wounded and medically injured personnel. As current conflicts draw to a close, U.S. medics may be deployed to environments that will require the ability to stabilize casualties for longer than 1 hour. Historical mission analysis reveals the need to review skills that have not been emphasized during upgrade and predeployment training. This unit?s preparation for the extended care environment can be accomplished using a 4-point approach: (1) review of specific long-term skills training, (2) an extended care lab that reviews extended care skills and then lets the medic practice in a real-time scenario, (3) introduction to the HITMAN mnemonic tool, which helps identify and address patient needs, and (4) teleconsultation. PMID:24048994

  13. Organization and operation of the Sixth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment (NRE VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1996-10-01

    An important source of human exposure to radiation is the natural world including cosmic rays, cosmogenic radionuclides, natural terrestrial radionuclides, and radon isotopes and its decay products. Considerable effort is being expended on a worldwide basis to characterize the exposure to the natural radiation environment and determine the important pathways for the exposure to result in the dose to tissue that leads to injury and disease. The problem of background exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity has been the subject of research since the initial discovery of the radioactivity of uranium and thorium. However, with the advent of artificial sources of radiation with both benefits and harm the nature and magnitude of the natural radiation environment and the effects on various populations are important in the development of overall public health strategies as ALARA principles are applied to the situation.

  14. The long-term implications of operating satellite constellations in the low earth orbit debris environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Crowther, R.; Swinerd, G. G.

    1997-05-01

    DRA's Integrated Debris Evolution Suite (IDES) model is used in this study to predict the future evolution of the orbital debris environment for two distinct scenarios. For the first case, a pre-generated background debris population for 1995 and `business as usual' future launch/explosion rates are used as input to the model. IDES then employs its collision event prediction algorithm to simulate evolution from 1996 to 2020 as a baseline. The second scenario uses the same initial conditions and future trends, but in addition, a large constellation is introduced into the simulation process from year 1998 onwards. The additional contribution of the constellation to the temporal variation of key environment/population parameters is presented; including enhancement from any long-term collision coupling effects.

  15. Simulation and Optimization Methods for Assessing the Impact of Aviation Operations on the Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil; Ng, Hok K.

    2010-01-01

    There is increased awareness of anthropogenic factors affecting climate change and urgency to slow the negative impact. Greenhouse gases, oxides of Nitrogen and contrails resulting from aviation affect the climate in different and uncertain ways. This paper develops a flexible simulation and optimization software architecture to study the trade-offs involved in reducing emissions. The software environment is used to conduct analysis of two approaches for avoiding contrails using the concepts of contrail frequency index and optimal avoidance trajectories.

  16. Demonstrating the Operational Value of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Profiles in the Pre-Convective Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, Danielle; Zavodsky, Bradley; Stano, Geoffrey; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) is a project to transition those NASA observations and research capabilities to the weather forecasting community to improve the short-term regional forecasts. This poster reviews the work to demonstrate the value to these forecasts of profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on board the Aqua satellite with particular assistance in predicting thunderstorm forecasts by the profiles of the pre-convective environment.

  17. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  18. Drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells in an H/sub 2/S environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, M.W.; Hodgson, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: facts about hydrogen sulfides; drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells; detection devices and protective equipment; hazard levels and safety procedures; first aid; and H/sub 2/S in California oil, gas, and geothermal fields. (MHR)

  19. Soft metal plating enables hard metal seal to operate successfully in low temperature, high pressure environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamvermeyer, D. J.

    1967-01-01

    Soft metal plating of hard metal lip seal enables successful operation of seal in a cryogenic fluid line under high pressure. The seal is coated with a thin film of 24 carat gold on the lip area to provide antigall and seal properties.

  20. Assessment of environments for Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and surface operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Chen, Allen; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Cantor, Bruce A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Fergason, Robini L.; Hinson, David P.; Justh, Hilary L.; Kass, David M.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Mischna, Michael A.; Murphy, James R.; Rafkin, Scot C.R.; Tyler, Daniel; Withers, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission aims to land a car-sized rover on Mars' surface and operate it for at least one Mars year in order to assess whether its field area was ever capable of supporting microbial life. Here we describe the approach used to identify, characterize, and assess environmental risks to the landing and rover surface operations. Novel entry, descent, and landing approaches will be used to accurately deliver the 900-kg rover, including the ability to sense and "fly out" deviations from a best-estimate atmospheric state. A joint engineering and science team developed methods to estimate the range of potential atmospheric states at the time of arrival and to quantitatively assess the spacecraft's performance and risk given its particular sensitivities to atmospheric conditions. Numerical models are used to calculate the atmospheric parameters, with observations used to define model cases, tune model parameters, and validate results. This joint program has resulted in a spacecraft capable of accessing, with minimal risk, the four finalist sites chosen for their scientific merit. The capability to operate the landed rover over the latitude range of candidate landing sites, and for all seasons, was verified against an analysis of surface environmental conditions described here. These results, from orbital and model data sets, also drive engineering simulations of the rover's thermal state that are used to plan surface operations.

  1. The NASA Space Environments and Effects Program (SEE): Over a Decade of Useful Products for Spacecraft Designers and Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    SEE program management originated at LaRC in the early 1990's but was transferred to MSFC in FY 1995 and has remained at Marshall since that time, SEE uses 5 technical working groups and NRA's (three since 1994) to achieve its technical objectives. The SEE vision is to develop and maintain a preeminent program in SPACE ENVIRONMENTS AND EFFECTS which provides a coordinated national focus for innovative technology development to support design, development, and operation of spacecraft systems that will accommodate or mitigate effects due to the presence of the space environment. In working toward that goal, SEE has produced, through the years, over 30 major Space Environments and Effects Models and Databases, over 75 major Space Environments and Effects Publications, a website that has had over 112,000 hits since its inception (http://see.msfc.nasa.gov/), distribution of physical products that amounts to over a total of over 260 product deliveries, sponsorship of the last four international Spacecraft Charging Technology Conferences (the major subject matter conference in the world), and sponsorship of numerous technical standards and guidelines in the Space Environments area. Among the recent popular SEE products are the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC), the NASA/Air Force Spacecraft Charging Analysis Program (NASCAP-2K), the Interactive Spacecraft Charging Handbook, the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics Code (CREME 96), the Spacecraft Contamination and Materials Outgassing Effects Knowledge base (SCMOEK), and the Lunar E-Library.

  2. Demonstration of the Whole-Building Diagnostician in a Single-Building Operator Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Bauman, Nathan N.; Pratt, Robert G.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2003-03-31

    This report on documents the results of the single-building-operator, on-line, demonstration of the Whole-Building Diagnostician, conducted at the Symphony Towers building in San Diego, California. The on-line test was designed to evaluate the Outdoor-Air Economizer (OAE) diagnostic module’s capabilities to automatically and continually diagnose operational problems with air-handling units (AHUs). As part of this demonstration, all four AHUs at Symphony Towers were monitored. The measured data that were collected on a continuous basis included: 1) outdoor-air temperature, 2) return-air temperature, 3) mixed-air temperature, 4) supply-air temperature, 5) chilled-water valve position, 6) supply-fan status, 7) outdoor-air relative humidity, and 8) return-air relative humidity.

  3. Radiation-induced response of operational amplifiers in low-level transient radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Paulos, J.J.; Bishop, R.J.; Turflinger, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    Extensive computer simulations have been performed on CMOS and bipolar operational amplifiers in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of low-level transient radiation response mechanisms. The simulation methodology has been confirmed using flash X-ray data for the amplifiers studied. Variations in circuit response to loading and feedback configuration have been explored, and several generalizations can be made which may provide a useful basis for a specification methodology.

  4. Applications for Mission Operations Using Multi-agent Model-based Instructional Systems with Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of past and possible future applications for artifical intelligence (AI) in astronaut instruction and training. AI systems have been used in training simulation for the Hubble Space Telescope repair, the International Space Station, and operations simulation for the Mars Exploration Rovers. In the future, robots such as may work as partners with astronauts on missions such as planetary exploration and extravehicular activities.

  5. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to determine if improved operations technologies are economically viable for US airlines, and to determine the level of environmental benefits available from such technologies. Though these operational changes are being implemented primarily with the reduction of delay and improvement of throughput in mind, economic factors will drive the rate of airline adoption. In addition, the increased awareness of environmental impacts makes these effects an important aspect of decision-making. Understanding this relationship may help policymakers make decisions regarding implementation of these advanced technologies at airports, and help airlines determine appropriate levels of support to provide for these new technologies. In order to do so, the author models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline in response to the introduction of advanced equipage allowing improved operations procedures. The airline response included changes in deployed fleet, assignment of aircraft to routes, and acquisition of new aircraft. From these responses, changes in total fleet-level CO2 emissions and airline profit were tallied. As awareness of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions has grown, several agencies (ICAO, NASA) have moved to place goals for emissions reduction. NASA, in particular, has set goals for emissions reduction through several areas of aircraft technology. Among these are "Operational Improvements," technologies available in the short-term through avionics and airport system upgrades. The studies in this thesis make use of the Fleet-Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a simulation tool developed by Purdue University in support of a NASA-sponsored research effort. This tool models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline through an allocation problem. The problem is contained within a systems dynamics type approach that allows feedback between passenger demand, ticket price, and the airline fleet composition

  6. Fault tolerant topologies for fiber optic networks and computer interconnects operating in the severe avionics environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glista, Andrew S., Jr.

    1991-02-01

    The history of fiber optics technology development for naval aircraft is reviewed, and the current status of network and fly-by-light flight control development is examined. Fiber-optic component selection for aircraft is addressed, covering fiber and cables, optical sources, couplers, and connectors. Novel fault-tolerant network topologies for both analog and digital fiber optic transmission, which will permit both packet- and circuit-switched operation of robust fiber optic networks are discussed. The application of smart skin technology, i.e., fibers embedded in composite materials, to optical computer backplanes is briefly considered.

  7. Airborne ladar man-in-the-loop operations in tactical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobmyer, Joseph E., Jr.; Lum, Tommy; Morris, Robert E.; Hard, Sarah J.; Pratt, H. L.; Florence, Tom; Peddycoart, Ed

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) is developing approaches and processes that will exploit the characteristics of current and future Laser Radar (LADAR) sensor systems for critical man-in-the-loop tactical processes. The importance of timely and accurate target detection, classification, identification, and engagement for future combat systems has been documented and is viewed as a critical enabling factor for FCS survivability and lethality. Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of using low cost but relatively capable personal computer class systems to exploit the information available in Ladar sensor frames to present the war fighter or analyst with compelling and usable imagery for use in the target identification and engagement processes in near real time. The advantages of LADAR imagery are significant in environments presenting cover for targets and the associated difficulty for automated target recognition (ATR) technologies.

  8. Translating cognitive neuroscience to the driver’s operational environment: a neuroergonomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Monica N.; Cosman, Joshua D.; Lee, John D.; Rizzo, Matthew; Fricke, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Neuroergonomics provides a multidisciplinary translational approach that merges elements of neuroscience, human factors, cognitive psychology, and ergonomics to study brain structure and function in everyday environments. Driving safety, particularly that of older drivers with cognitive impairments, is a fruitful application domain for neuroergonomics. Driving makes demands on multiple cognitive processes that are often studied in isolation and so presents a useful challenge in generalizing findings from controlled laboratory tasks to predict safety outcomes. Neurology and the cognitive sciences help explain the mechanisms of cognitive breakdowns that undermine driving safety. Ergonomics complements this explanation with the tools for systematically exploring the various layers of complexity that define the activity of driving. A variety of tools, such as part task simulators, driving simulators, and instrumented vehicles provide a window into cognition in the natural settings needed to assess the generalizability of laboratory findings and can provide an array of potential interventions to increase safety. PMID:21291157

  9. A statistical analysis of ARQ protocols operating in a nonindependent error environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towsley, D.

    1981-07-01

    In this paper the behavior of the Stop and Wait and Go Back-N error detection and retransmission (ARQ) protocols in an environment characterized by nonrandom errors are studied. Analytic models are developed for the case that the error process is modeled as a Markovian process. These models may be used to predict performance measures such as expected queue length and expected delay for the case of the Stop and Wait protocol and the Go-Back-N protocol when N is very large. The models can also be used to determine maximum throughputs for both protocols. The results of these models are compared with simulation results for the Selective Repeat ARQ protocol.

  10. Systems Engineering Design Via Experimental Operation Research: Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Unique and innovative graph theory, neural network, organizational modeling, and genetic algorithms are applied to the design and evolution of programmatic and organizational architectures. Graph theory representations of programs and organizations increase modeling capabilities and flexibility, while illuminating preferable programmatic/organizational design features. Treating programs and organizations as neural networks results in better system synthesis, and more robust data modeling. Organizational modeling using covariance structures enhances the determination of organizational risk factors. Genetic algorithms improve programmatic evolution characteristics, while shedding light on rulebase requirements for achieving specified technological readiness levels, given budget and schedule resources. This program of research improves the robustness and verifiability of systems synthesis tools, including the Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE).

  11. Switching the JLab Accelerator Operations Environment from an HP-UX Unix-based to a PC/Linux-based environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mcguckin, Theodore

    2008-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab Accelerator Controls Environment (ACE) was predominantly based on the HP-UX Unix platform from 1987 through the summer of 2004. During this period the Accelerator Machine Control Center (MCC) underwent a major renovation which included introducing Redhat Enterprise Linux machines, first as specialized process servers and then gradually as general login servers. As computer programs and scripts required to run the accelerator were modified, and inherent problems with the HP-UX platform compounded, more development tools became available for use with Linux and the MCC began to be converted over. In May 2008 the last HP-UX Unix login machine was removed from the MCC, leaving only a few Unix-based remote-login servers still available. This presentation will explore the process of converting an operational Control Room environment from the HP-UX to Linux platform as well as the many hurdles that had to be overcome throughout the transition period (including a discussion of

  12. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  13. A Characterization of the Terrestrial Environment of Kodiak Island, Alaska for the Design, Development and Operation of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, Michael A.; Johnson, Dale L.; Batts, Glen W.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the terrestrial environment is an important component in the success of a launch vehicle program. Environmental factors such as winds, atmospheric thermodynamics, precipitation, fog, and cloud characteristics are among many parameters that must be accurately defined for flight success. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently coordinating weather support and performing analysis for the launch of a NASA payload from a new facility located at Kodiak Island, Alaska in late 2001 (NASA, 1999). Following the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Complex, an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile on November 5, 1999, the site's developer, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation (AADC), is hoping to acquire a sizable share of the many launches that will occur over the next decade. One such customer is NASA, which is planning to launch the Vegetation Canopy Lidar satellite aboard an Athena I rocket, the first planned mission to low earth orbit from the new facility. To support this launch, a statistical model of the atmospheric and surface environment for Kodiak Island, AK has been produced from rawinsonde and surface-based meteorological observations for use as an input to future launch vehicle design and/or operations. In this study, the creation of a "reference atmosphere" from rawinsonde observations is described along with comparisons between the reference atmosphere and existing model representations for Kodiak. Meteorological conditions that might result in a delay on launch day (cloud cover, visibility, precipitation, etc.) are also explored and described through probabilities of launch by month and hour of day. This atmospheric "mission analysis" is also useful during the early stages of a vehicle program, when consideration of the climatic characteristics of a location can be factored into vehicle designs. To be most beneficial, terrestrial environment definitions should a) be available at

  14. Preparation, verification, and operational control of a large space-environment-simulation chamber for contamination sensitive tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, J. T.; Ogden, J. W.; Ritter, M. L.; Smith, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    A 2-year program to prepare chamber A at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for Apollo telescope mount thermal-vacuum tests is discussed. This program covers modification to existing chamber systems, the development of facility and chamber operating procedures, the selection of chamber cleaning and control methods, and the development and evaluation of diagnostic instrumentation. Extensive efforts to ensure a minimum contamination environment for the Apollo telescope mount test series are illustrated. Recent thermal-vacuum tests of this chamber at progressive stages of cleanliness have demonstrated the success achieved in reducing the particulate and molecular contamination levels of the basic chamber interior.

  15. Work, exercise, and space flight. 1: Operations, environment, and effects of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    The selection, training, and operations of space flight impose significant physical demands which seem to be adequately met by the existing physical training facilities and informal individual exercise programs. The professional astronaut population has, by selection, better than average health and physical capacity. The essentials of life on earth are adequately met by the spacecraft. However, as the human body adapts to weightlessness, it is compromised for the usual life on earth, but readaptation is rapid. Long term flight without countermeasures will produce major changes in the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems. There is strong theoretical and experimental evidence from 1-g studies and limited in-flight evidence to believe that exercise is a key counter-measure to many of these adaptations.

  16. Effects of Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) operational environment on soldier health and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; DeRoshia, C.; Tauso, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness incidences and effects on soldier performance and mood states within the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Specific objectives were (1) to determine if there was a significant difference between three internal configurations of the C2V and/or between seats within these vehicles; (2) to determine if there was a significant difference between the park, move, or short-halt field conditions; and (3) to validate a method of converging indicators developed by NASA to assess environmental impact of long duration spaceflight on crewmembers, using a large sample of subjects under ground-based operational conditions.

  17. An evaluation of bearings operating in a cryogenic environment with silicon nitride rolling elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, H. G.

    1991-01-01

    The bearings used in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) do not meet the expected life goals that were set for them. In an effort to improve their performance, many solutions are being studied. New bearing materials are being developed, better manufacturing techniques are being investigated, and improved cage materials for better lubrication are being tested. The focus is on the replacement of steel balls with ones made of silicon nitride in 57-mm HPOTP bearings. The bearings were then installed in a test rig and run at near turbopump operating conditions. The results from this test series are encouraging, with silicon nitride showing good wear resistance and thermal stability.

  18. Operation of a Thin-Film Inflatable Concentrator System Demonstrated in a Solar Thermal Vacuum Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Thin-film inflatable solar concentrators offer significant advantages in comparison to stateof- the-art rigid panel concentrators, including low weight, low stowage volume, and simple gas deployment. From June 10 to 22, 2001, the ElectroMagnetic Radiation Control Experiment (EMRCE) Team used simulated solar energy to demonstrate the operation of an inflatable concentrator system at NASA Glenn Research Center's Tank 6 thermal vacuum facility. The joint Government/industry test team was composed of engineers and technicians from Glenn, the Air Force Research Laboratory, SRS Technologies, and ATK Thiokol Propulsion. The research hardware consisted of the following: 1) A thin-film inflatable concentrator; 2) The hexapod pointing and focus control system; 3) Two rigidized support struts using two candidate technologies - ultraviolet-rigidized glass and radiation-cured isographite.

  19. New problem with sales, inventories, and operations planning in a supply chain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andre; Lamouri, Samir

    2000-10-01

    The highest level of planning and control system is necessary, because production and logistics systems are not so flexible to follow, from day to day, sales evolutions. The companies are therefore held to standardize the good practices concerning the elaboration of their Sales, Inventories and Operations Planning (SIOP). The SIOP makes it possible to implement the strategic objectives defined by Top Management at the time of the Business Plan. It is the link between sales and manufacturing planning. The objectives of each of those depend on the specificity of their trade: the Sales Department will go for a maximum sales whereas Production will endeavor to keep industrial cost prices as low as possible while the Finance Department will try to optimize the use of available funds. There are several tools for this optimization: Graphical method and linear programming. Today, the economic context requires robust optimization.

  20. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh

    1998-01-01

    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  1. Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System functional requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meitzler, W.D.

    1992-06-01

    In the context of this document and COE, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are decision support systems involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment. They are digital computer systems for capturing, processing, managing, displaying, modeling, and analyzing geographically referenced spatial data which are described by attribute data and location. The ability to perform spatial analysis and the ability to combine two or more data sets to create new spatial information differentiates a GIS from other computer mapping systems. While the CCGIS allows for data editing and input, its primary purpose is not to prepare data, but rather to manipulate, analyte, and clarify it. The CCGIS defined herein provides GIS services and resources including the spatial and map related functionality common to all subsystems contained within the COE suite of C4I systems. The CCGIS, which is an integral component of the COE concept, relies on the other COE standard components to provide the definition for other support computing services required.

  2. Designing an obstacle display for helicopter operations in degraded visual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knabl, Patrizia M.; Peinecke, Niklas

    2013-03-01

    Flying in degraded visual environment is an extremely challenging task for a helicopter pilot. The loss of the outside visual reference causes impaired situation awareness, high workload and spatial disorientation leading to incidents like obstacle or ground hits. DLR is working on identifying ways to reduce this problem by providing the pilot with additional information from fused sensor data. Therefore, different display design solutions were developed. In a first study, the design focused on the use of a synthetic head-down display, considering different representations for obstacles, color coding and terrain features. Results show a subjective preference for the most detailed obstacle display, while objective results reveal better performance for the little less detailed display. In a second study, symbology for a helmet-mounted display was designed and evaluated in a part-task simulation. Design considerations focused on different obstacle representations as well as attentional and perceptual aspects associated with the use of helmet-mounted displays. Results show consistent findings to the first experiment, indicating that the display subjectively favored does not necessarily contribute to the best performance in detection. However when additional tasks have to be performed the level of clutter seems to impair the ability to respond correctly to secondary tasks. Thus the favored display type nonetheless seems to be the most promising solution since it is accompanied by the overall best objective results integrating both detection of obstacles and the ability to perform additional tasks.

  3. Real-time processing of dual band HD video for maintaining operational effectiveness in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Steve C. J.; Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.

    2015-05-01

    Effective reconnaissance, surveillance and situational awareness, using dual band sensor systems, require the extraction, enhancement and fusion of salient features, with the processed video being presented to the user in an ergonomic and interpretable manner. HALO™ is designed to meet these requirements and provides an affordable, real-time, and low-latency image fusion solution on a low size, weight and power (SWAP) platform. The system has been progressively refined through field trials to increase its operating envelope and robustness. The result is a video processor that improves detection, recognition and identification (DRI) performance, whilst lowering operator fatigue and reaction times in complex and highly dynamic situations. This paper compares the performance of HALO™, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with conventional blended fusion for operation in degraded visual environments (DVEs), such as those experienced during ground and air-based operations. Although image blending provides a simple fusion solution, which explains its common adoption, the results presented demonstrate that its performance is poor compared to the HALO™ fusion scheme in DVE scenarios.

  4. Integration of the Total Lightning Jump Algorithm into Current Operational Warning Environment Conceptual Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Stano, Geoffrey T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. Currently, the lightning jump algorithm is being tested in two separate but important efforts. Schultz et al. (2014; AMS 10th Satellite Symposium) is exploring the transition of the algorithm from its research based formulation to a fully objective algorithm that includes storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy data and the lightning jump algorithm. Chronis et al. (2014; this conference) provides context for the transition to current operational forecasting using lightning mapping array based products. However, what remains is an end to end physical and dynamical basis for relating lightning rates to severe storm manifestation, so the forecaster has a reason beyond simple correlation to utilize the lightning jump algorithm within their severe storm conceptual models. Therefore, the physical basis for the lightning jump algorithm in relation to severe storm dynamics and microphysics is a key component that must be further explored. Many radar studies have examined flash rates and their relation to updraft strength, updraft volume, precipitation-sized ice mass, etc.; however, relation specifically to lightning jumps is fragmented within the literature. Thus the goal of this study is to use multiple Doppler techniques to

  5. Operating the Upgraded NSTX HHFW Antenna Array in an Environment with Li-coated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Philip Michael; Ellis, R.; Hosea, J.; Kung, C. C.; LeBlanc, B; Pinsker, R.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; NSTX Team,

    2011-01-01

    The single-feed, end-grounded straps of the NSTX 12-strap HHFW antenna array have been replaced with double-feed, center-grounded straps to reduce the voltages in the vicinity of the Faraday shield (FS) for a given strap current. The strap spacings to the FS and to the back plate were increased by 3 mm to decrease the electric fields for a given voltage. The electric fields near the FS have been roughly halved for the same strap currents, permitting a direct examination of the roles that internal fields play in determining antenna power limits in plasmas. Extensive RF/plasma conditioning of the antenna was required to remove enough of the evaporated Li deposits from prior wall conditioning to permit coupling in excess of 4 MW to L- and H-mode plasmas in 2009. Most arcs were associated with expulsion of Li from the FS/antenna frame surfaces. The center-grounded straps were less susceptible to arcing during ELMing Hmode plasmas. Reliable operation above 2 MW was difficult after the installation of the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in 2010. Li-compound dust was found in the antennas after this run and is believed to have contributed to the reduced power limit.

  6. Operability of an Ejector Enhanced Pulse Combustor in a Gas Turbine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Dougherty, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A pressure-gain combustor comprised of a mechanically valved, liquid fueled pulsejet, an ejector, and an enclosing shroud, was coupled to a small automotive turbocharger to form a self-aspirating, thrust producing gas turbine engine. The system was constructed in order to investigate issues associated with the interaction of pulsed combustion devices and turbomachinery. Installed instrumentation allowed for sensing of distributed low frequency pressure and temperature, high frequency pressure in the shroud, fuel flow rate, rotational speed, thrust, and laboratory noise. The engine ran successfully and reliably, achieving a sustained thrust of 5 to 6 lbf, and maintaining a rotor speed of approximately 90,000 rpm, with a combustor pressure gain of approximately 4 percent. Numerical simulations of the system without pressure-gain combustion indicated that the turbocharger would not operate. Thus, the new combustor represented a substantial improvement in system performance. Acoustic measurements in the shroud and laboratory indicated turbine stage sound pressure level attenuation of 20 dB. This is consistent with published results from detonative combustion experiments. As expected, the mechanical reed valves suffered considerable damage under the higher pressure and thermal loading characteristics of this system. This result underscores the need for development of more robust valve systems for this application. The efficiency of the turbomachinery components did not appear to be significantly affected by unsteadiness associated with pulsed combustion, though the steady component efficiencies were already low, and thus not expected to be particularly sensitive.

  7. Design for a bioreactor with sunlight supply and operations systems for use in the space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kei; Ohya, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Kanji; Furuune, Hiroyuki; Isozaki, Kyôko; Siekmeier, Peter

    An experiment was carried out to determine the characteristics of an operations system that can support fast cultivation of algae at high densities in the weightlessness of space. The experiment was conducted in glass bioreactor tanks, in which light was supplied by radiator rods connected to optical fiber cables. The illumination areas of the tanks were 2600 cm2, 6000 cm2, and 9200 cm2 per liter of solution. The characteristics of O2-CO2 gas exchange, concentration and separation of chlorella in the growth medium, dialysis of ionic salts in the growth medium, etc. were examined. Chlorella ellipsoidea was used in the experiment, yielding the following results: o (1)By increasing the ratio of illumination area to volume, growth rates of up to approximately 0.6 g/L.h could be obtained in a highly concentrated solution (one that contains 20 g/L or more of algae). (2)The most suitable proportions of carbon dioxide and oxygen gases for growing algae quickly at high concentrations were found to be 10% CO2 and 10% O2 (by volume). (3)There was a high optimum concentration for fast cultivation, and the data obtained resembled the theoretical curve postulated by P. Behrens et al. (4)It was possible to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen using gas-permeable membrane modules. (5)It was possible to separare the chlorella from the growth medium and recycle the medium.

  8. Characterization of the Radiation Environment During and Following Operation of the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riso, Victoria; Pace, D. C.; Cooper, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    A survey of the gamma ray spectrum throughout the machine hall of the DIII-D tokamak provides a detailed mapping of its energy and temporal evolution. Engineering issues related to the structural effects of radiation produced by a fusion power plant will significantly affect the cost-effectiveness of the resulting energy. While existing magnetic confinement facilities produce considerably less neutron and gamma radiation than that expected from a power plant-scale facility, it remains useful to examine the latent gamma spectrum of the surrounding structures. The DIII-D tokamak produces ~1016 neutrons per run day (resulting primarily from beam-target DD fusion), with ~75 run days per year, leading to the activation of support structures with a short half-life. Measurements are made using bismuth germinate scintillator detectors operated in pulse height analysis mode. These detectors are placed throughout the machine hall and acquire gamma data both during experiments and for some time afterward. Results of these surveys from the 2015 experiments will be presented. Supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  9. Operating The Upgraded NSTX HHFW Antenna Array In An Environment With Li-coated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P. M.; Ellis, R.; Hosea, J. C.; Kung, C. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Pinsker, R. I.

    2011-12-23

    The single-feed, end-grounded straps of the NSTX 12-strap HHFW antenna array have been replaced with double-feed, center-grounded straps to reduce the voltages in the vicinity of the Faraday shield (FS) for a given strap current. The strap spacings to the FS and to the back plate were increased by 3 mm to decrease the electric fields for a given voltage. The electric fields near the FS have been roughly halved for the same strap currents, permitting a direct examination of the roles that internal fields play in determining antenna power limits in plasmas. Extensive RF/plasma conditioning of the antenna was required to remove enough of the evaporated Li deposits from prior wall conditioning to permit coupling in excess of 4 MW to L- and H-mode plasmas in 2009. Most arcs were associated with expulsion of Li from the FS/antenna frame surfaces. The center-grounded straps were less susceptible to arcing during ELMing H-mode plasmas. Reliable operation above 2 MW was difficult after the installation of the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in 2010. Li-compound 'dust' was found in the antennas after this run and is believed to have contributed to the reduced power limit.

  10. Design for a bioreactor with sunlight supply and operations systems for use in the space environment.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Ohya, H; Matsumoto, K; Furuune, H; Isozaki, K; Siekmeier, P

    1989-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the characteristics of an operations system that can support fast cultivation of algae at high densities in the weightlessness of space. The experiment was conducted in glass bioreactor tanks, in which light was supplied by radiator rods connected to optical fiber cables. The illumination areas of the tanks were 2600 cm2, 6000 cm2, and 9200 cm2 per liter of solution. The characteristics of O2-CO2 gas exchange, concentration and separation of chlorella in the growth medium, dialysis of ionic salts in the growth medium, etc. were examined. Chloralla ellipsoidea was used in the experiment, yielding the following results: (1) By increasing the ratio of illumination area to volume, growth rates of up to approximately 0.6 g/L h could be obtained in a highly concentrated solution (one that contains 20 g/L or more of algae). (2) The most suitable proportions of carbon dioxide and oxygen gases for growing algae quickly at high concentrations were found to be 10% CO2 and 10% O2 (by volume). (3) There was a high optimum concentration for fast cultivation, and the data obtained resembled the theoretical curve postulated by P. Behrens et al. (4) It was possible to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen using gas-permeable membrane modules. (5) It was possible to separate the chlorella from the growth medium and recycle the medium. PMID:11537383

  11. Operational Impact of Improved Space Tracking on Collision Avoidance in the Future LEO Space Debris Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, D.; Borgeson, D.; Peterson, G.; Jenkin, A.; Sorge, M.

    2010-09-01

    Even if global space policy successfully curtails on orbit explosions and ASAT demonstrations, studies indicate that the number of debris objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will continue to grow solely from debris on debris collisions and debris generated from new launches. This study examines the threat posed by this growing space debris population over the next 30 years and how improvements in our space tracking capabilities can reduce the number of Collision Avoidance (COLA) maneuvers required keep the risk of operational satellite loss within tolerable limits. Particular focus is given to satellites operated by the Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community (IC) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The following debris field and space tracking performance parameters were varied parametrically in the experiment to study the impact on the number of collision avoidance maneuvers required: - Debris Field Density (by year 2009, 2019, 2029, and 2039) - Quality of Track Update (starting 1 sigma error ellipsoid) - Future Propagator Accuracy (error ellipsoid growth rates - Special Perturbations in 3 axes) - Track Update Rate for Debris (stochastic) - Track Update Rate for Payloads (stochastic) Baseline values matching present day tracking performance for quality of track update, propagator accuracy, and track update rate were derived by analyzing updates to the unclassified Satellite Catalog (SatCat). Track update rates varied significantly for active payloads and debris and as such we used different models for the track update rates for military payloads and debris. The analysis was conducted using the System Effectiveness Analysis Simulation (SEAS) an agent based model developed by the United States Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile Systems Center to evaluate the military utility of space systems. The future debris field was modeled by The Aerospace Corporation using a tool chain which models the growth of the 10cm+ debris field using high fidelity

  12. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  13. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    The sample return missions have made a very significant progress to understanding of geology, the extra-terrestrial materials, processes occurring on surface and subsurface level, as well as of interactions between such materials and mechanisms operating there. The various sample return missions in the past (e.g. Apollo missions, Luna missions, Hayabusa mission) have provided scientists with samples of extra-terrestrial materials allowing to discover answers to critical scientific questions concerning the origin and evolution of the Solar System. Several new missions are currently planned: sample return missions, e.g Russian Luna-28, ESA Phootprint and MarcoPolo-R as well as both robotic and manned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. One of the key challenges in such missions is the reliable sampling process which can be achieved by using many different techniques, e.g. static excavating technique (scoop), core drilling, sampling using dynamic mechanisms (penetrators), brushes and pneumatic systems. The effectiveness of any sampling strategy depends on many factors, including the required sample size, the mechanical and chemical soil properties (cohesive, hard or porous regolith, stones), the environment conditions (gravity, temperature, pressure, radiation). Many sampling mechanism have been studied, designed and built in the past, two techniques to collect regolith samples were chosen for the Phobos-Grunt mission. The proposed system consisted of a robotic arm with a 1,2m reach beyond the lander (IKI RAN); a tubular sampling device designed for collecting both regolith and small rock fragments (IKI RAN); the CHOMIK device (CBK PAN) - the low velocity penetrator with a single-sample container for collecting samples from the rocky surface. The functional tests were essential step in robotic arm, sampling device and CHOMIK device development process in the frame of Phobos-Grunt mission. Three major results were achieved: (i) operation scenario for autonomous

  14. Co-operation processes in dynamic environment management: evolution through training experienced pilots in flying a highly automated aircraft.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, J

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic environment management (process control, aircraft piloting, etc.) increasingly implies collective work components. Pragmatic purposes as well as epistemological interests raise important questions on collective activities at work. In particular, linked to the technological evolution in flight management, the role of the 'collective fact' appears as a key point in reliability. Beyond the development of individual competencies, the quality of the 'distributed' crew activity has to be questioned. This paper presents an empirical study about how experienced pilots co-ordinate their information and actions during the last period of training on a highly automated cockpit. A task of disturbance management (engine fire during takeoff) is chosen as amplifying cognitive requirements. Analysis focuses on the transitions between the main task and the incident to be managed. Crew performance and co-operation between two pilots are compared in three occurrences of the same task: the results are coherent with the hypothesis of a parallel evolution of the crew performance and its internal co-operation, and show that prescribed explicit co-operation is more present on action than on information about the 'state of the world'. Methodological issues are discussed about the possible effects of the specific situation of training, and about the psychological meaning of the results. PMID:11540153

  15. Towards Intelligent Environments: An Augmented Reality–Brain–Machine Interface Operated with a See-Through Head-Mount Display

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Kouji; Hata, Naoki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The brain–machine interface (BMI) or brain–computer interface is a new interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers. This technology is expected to support daily activities, especially for persons with disabilities. To expand the range of activities enabled by this type of interface, here, we added augmented reality (AR) to a P300-based BMI. In this new system, we used a see-through head-mount display (HMD) to create control panels with flicker visual stimuli to support the user in areas close to controllable devices. When the attached camera detects an AR marker, the position and orientation of the marker are calculated, and the control panel for the pre-assigned appliance is created by the AR system and superimposed on the HMD. The participants were required to control system-compatible devices, and they successfully operated them without significant training. Online performance with the HMD was not different from that using an LCD monitor. Posterior and lateral (right or left) channel selections contributed to operation of the AR–BMI with both the HMD and LCD monitor. Our results indicate that AR–BMI systems operated with a see-through HMD may be useful in building advanced intelligent environments. PMID:21541307

  16. Towards intelligent environments: an augmented reality-brain-machine interface operated with a see-through head-mount display.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kouji; Hata, Naoki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The brain-machine interface (BMI) or brain-computer interface is a new interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers. This technology is expected to support daily activities, especially for persons with disabilities. To expand the range of activities enabled by this type of interface, here, we added augmented reality (AR) to a P300-based BMI. In this new system, we used a see-through head-mount display (HMD) to create control panels with flicker visual stimuli to support the user in areas close to controllable devices. When the attached camera detects an AR marker, the position and orientation of the marker are calculated, and the control panel for the pre-assigned appliance is created by the AR system and superimposed on the HMD. The participants were required to control system-compatible devices, and they successfully operated them without significant training. Online performance with the HMD was not different from that using an LCD monitor. Posterior and lateral (right or left) channel selections contributed to operation of the AR-BMI with both the HMD and LCD monitor. Our results indicate that AR-BMI systems operated with a see-through HMD may be useful in building advanced intelligent environments. PMID:21541307

  17. Psychological factors that limit the endurance capabilities of armor crews operating in a simulated NBC environment. Technical report, July 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Tharion, W.J.; Rauch, T.M.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.; Banderet, L.E.

    1986-05-01

    Factors which limit the performance capabilities of sustained armor operations in simulated conventional- and chemical-warfare environments were studied. In the simulated chemical-warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant personality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

  18. Use of the RoboFlag synthetic task environment to investigate workload and stress responses in UAV operation.

    PubMed

    Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen

    2011-09-01

    Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed. PMID:21487900

  19. Wear modes active in angular contact ball bearings operating in liquid oxygen environment of the Space Shuttle turbopumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Thaddeus J.

    1993-04-01

    Extensive experimental investigation has been carried out on used flight bearings of the high pressure oxidizer turbopumps (HPOTP) of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) in order to determine the dominant wear modes, their extent, and causes. The paper presents the methodology, various surface analysis techniques used, results, and discussion. The mode largely responsible for premature bearing wear has been identified as adhesive/shear peeling of the upper layers of bearing balls and rings. This mode relies upon the mechanisms of scale formation, breakdown, and removal, all of which are greatly enhanced by the heavy oxidation environment of the HPOTP. Major causes of the high wear rates appear to be lubrication and cooling, both inadequate for the imposed conditions of operation. Numerous illustrations and evidence are provided.

  20. Wear modes active in angular contact ball bearings operating in liquid oxygen environment of the Space Shuttle turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Thaddeus J.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive experimental investigation has been carried out on used flight bearings of the high pressure oxidizer turbopumps (HPOTP) of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) in order to determine the dominant wear modes, their extent, and causes. The paper presents the methodology, various surface analysis techniques used, results, and discussion. The mode largely responsible for premature bearing wear has been identified as adhesive/shear peeling of the upper layers of bearing balls and rings. This mode relies upon the mechanisms of scale formation, breakdown, and removal, all of which are greatly enhanced by the heavy oxidation environment of the HPOTP. Major causes of the high wear rates appear to be lubrication and cooling, both inadequate for the imposed conditions of operation. Numerous illustrations and evidence are provided.

  1. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawedzki, Waclaw; Tarnowski, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  2. The highway and railroad operating environments for hazardous shipments in the U.S.-safer in the '90s?

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Tompkins, M. M.

    2000-04-01

    This paper seeks to illuminate the status of transportation safety and risk for large-quantity shipments of spent commercial reactor fuel and mixed and hazardous wastes by examining road and rail accident and vehicular travel data from the mid-1990s. Of special interest are the effect of speed limit changes on controlled-access expressways (chiefly the Interstate Highway System) and the possible effect of season-to-season climatic variation on road transport. We found that improvements in railroad technology and infrastructure have created a safer overall operating environment for railroad freight shipments. We also found recent evidence of an increase in accident rates of heavy combination trucks in states that have raised highway speed limits. Finally, cold weather increases road transport risk, while conditions associated with higher ambient temperatures do not. This last finding is in contrast to rail transport, for which the literature associates both hot and cold temperature extremes with higher accident rates.

  3. Overview of the commercial OPAL LiDAR optimized for rotorcraft platforms operating in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Philip; Borribanbunpotkat, Kiatchai; Trickey, Evan; Iles, Peter; Sekerka, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Neptec has developed a family of obscurant-penetrating 3D laser scanners called OPAL 2.0 that are being adapted for rotorcraft platforms. Neptec and Boeing have been working on an integrated system utilizing the OPAL LiDAR to support operations in degraded visual environments. OPAL scanners incorporate Neptec's patented obscurantpenetrating LiDAR technology which was extensively tested in controlled dust environments and helicopters for brownout mitigation. The OPAL uses a scanning mechanism based on the Risley prism pair. Data acquisition rates can go as high as 200kHz for ranges within 200m and 25kHz for ranges exceeding 200m. The scan patterns are created by the rotation of two prisms under independent motor control. The geometry and material properties of the prisms will define the conical field-of-view of the sensor, which can be set up to 120 degrees. Through detailed simulations and analysis of mission profiles, the system can be tailored for applications to rotorcrafts. Examples of scan patterns and control schemes based on these simulations will be provided along with data density predictions versus acquisition time for applicable DVE scenarios. Preliminary 3D data acquired in clear and obscurant conditions will be presented.

  4. Failure Mechanisms and Color Stability in Light-Emitting Diodes during Operation in High- Temperature Environments in Presence of Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Zhang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-05-26

    The energy efficiency of light-emitting diode (LED) technology compared to incandescent light bulbs has triggered an increased focus on solid state luminaries for a variety of lighting applications. Solid-state lighting (SSL) utilizes LEDs, for illumination through the process of electroluminescence instead of heating a wire filament as seen with traditional lighting. The fundamental differences in the construction of LED and the incandescent lamp results in different failure modes including lumen degradation, chromaticity shift and drift in the correlated color temperature. The use of LED-based products for safety-critical and harsh environment applications necessitates the characterization of the failure mechanisms and modes. In this paper, failure mechanisms and color stability has been studied for commercially available vertical structured thin film LED (VLED) under harsh environment conditions with and without the presence of contaminants. The VLED used for the study was mounted on a ceramic starboard in order to connect it to the current source. Contamination sources studied include operation in the vicinity of vulcanized rubber and adhesive epoxies in the presence of temperature and humidity. Performance of the VLEDs has been quantified using the measured luminous flux and color shift of the VLEDs subjected to both thermal and humidity stresses under a forward current bias of 350 mA. Results indicate that contamination can result in pre-mature luminous flux degradation and color shift in LEDs.

  5. MPS Editor - An Integrated Sequencing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun; Schrock, Mitchell; Catchen, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    In today's operations environment, the teams are smaller and need to be more efficient while still ensuring the safety and success of the mission. In addition, teams often begin working on a mission in its early development phases and continue on the team through actual operations. For these reasons the operations teams want to be presented with a software environment that integrates multiple needed software applications as well as providing them with context sensitive editing support for entering commands and sequences of commands. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) Editor provided by the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) supports those operational needs.

  6. Demonstrating the Operational Value of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Retrieved Profiles in the Pre-Convective Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, Danielle M.; Zavodsky, T.; Jedloved, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting partners, including a number of National Weather Service offices. SPoRT provides real-time NASA products and capabilities to its partners to address specific operational forecast challenges. One operational forecast challenge is forecasting convective weather in data-void regions such as large bodies of water (e.g. Gulf of Mexico). To address this forecast challenge, SPoRT produces a twice-daily three-dimensional analysis that blends a model first-guess from the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model with retrieved profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) -- a hyperspectral sounding instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite that provides temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. AIRS profiles are unique in that they give a three dimensional view of the atmosphere that is not available through the current rawinsonde network. AIRS has two overpass swaths across North America each day, one valid in the 0700-0900 UTC timeframe and the other in the 1900-2100 UTC timeframe. This is helpful because the rawinsonde network only has data from 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC at specific land-based locations. Comparing the AIRS analysis product with control analyses that include no AIRS data demonstrates the value of the retrieved profiles to situational awareness for the pre-convective (and convective) environment. In an attempt to verify that the AIRS analysis was a good representation of the vertical structure of the atmosphere, both the AIRS and control analyses are compared to a Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analysis used by operational forecasters. Using guidance from operational forecasters, convective available potential energy (CAPE) was determined to be a vital variable in making convective forecasts and is used herein to demonstrate the utility of the AIRS profiles in changing the vertical

  7. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  8. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  11. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Davis-Street, Janis E; Fesperman, J Vernell; Smith, Myra D; Rice, Barbara L; Zwart, Sara R

    2004-07-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures. PMID:15226467

  12. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Smith, Myra D.; Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  13. Capacitors, thermal rating/derating (ac-dc operation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borough, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Application techniques for determining performance and ratings of cased capacitors under combined operation as a function of the actual operating conditions are described. Thermal impedances between the case and external environment and between the internal hot spot and case are taken into account.

  14. Actualities and Perspectives in Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Iencean, SM; Brehar, FM

    2008-01-01

    In the field of neurosurgery, like in other surgical specialties, the last decades have brought major achievements. The series of revolutionary discoveries has started during the last century in the fifties, with stereotactic radiosurgery, then continued with the implementation of operative microscope (during the seventies), the endovascular embolisation in the nineties and finally with the major improvement in robotic neurosurgery and molecular neurosurgery at the beginning of this century. The major innovation has been brought not only in the field of therapeutical measures but also in the field of neuro– imaging. Thus, the modern MRI with more than 3 Tesla, can reveal to the neurosurgeon the most intimate structures of the nervous system. Several important areas in neurosurgery like: vascular neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery and brain tumors pathology, benefit from the modern technology and from the latest discoveries from genetic and molecular biology. In conclusion, summarizing the discoveries of the last decade, we emphasize that the related areas like genetics, molecular biology, computer technology become more and more important in the future progress of the neurosurgery. PMID:20108475

  15. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  16. Assessment of the ability of amphibious assault ship (LHA class) to perform sustained air operations in a chemical environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, B.C.; Laughlin, L.L.

    1988-03-10

    This report describes how an attack with chemical warfare agents would affect air operations on an LHA operating in support of an amphibious assault. This report overlays a chemical attack on normal flight deck operational sequences and describes in detail how having to operate in a chemically contaminated environment affects the sortie rate of troop airlift (CH-46 and CH-53 helicopters) and close air support (AH-1T) a their specific tasks while wearing the chemical protective overgarment, protective overboots and gloves. b. All the chemical defense equipment required by existing Navy directives is available and has been issued for use; c. Additional personnel required to conduct flight operations in a chemical environment are available and cross trained to perform tasks assigned in this study; d. There are no accidents, incidents, aircraft losses or battle damage which affect the tempo of flight deck operations; e. After four hours, the chemical contamination has been reduced sufficiently by weathering that flight deck personnel were able to reduce their protective posture to Mask Only. The report describes a series of recommendations to improve overall flight deck operations in a chemical environment.

  17. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  18. How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  19. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  20. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations... information and procedures you must use to determine the actual HAP loss from your leather finishing operation. By the fifteenth of each month, you must determine the actual HAP loss in pounds from your...

  1. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  2. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  3. The operational performance of hydrogen masers in the deep space network: The performance of laboratory reference frequency standards in an operational environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen masers used as aids in meeting the routine frequency and time operational requirements within the 64 m antenna Deep Space Network. Both the operational syntonation (frequency synchronization) and the the clock (epoch) synchronization requirements were established through the use of specifically calibrated H-P E215061A flying clock. The sync/synt to UTC was maintained using LORAN and TV in simultaneous reception mode. The sync/synt within the 64 m net was maintained through the use of very long base interferometry. Results indicate that the hydrogen masers perform well within the required specifications.

  4. The genesis of neurosurgery and the evolution of the neurosurgical operative environment: part II--concepts for future development, 2003 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Liu, Charles Y; Spicer, Mark; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2003-01-01

    The future development of the neurosurgical operative environment is driven principally by concurrent development in science and technology. In the new millennium, these developments are taking on a Jules Verne quality, with the ability to construct and manipulate the human organism and its surroundings at the level of atoms and molecules seemingly at hand. Thus, an examination of currents in technology advancement from the neurosurgical perspective can provide insight into the evolution of the neurosurgical operative environment. In the future, the optimal design solution for the operative environment requirements of specialized neurosurgery may take the form of composites of venues that are currently mutually distinct. Advances in microfabrication technology and laser optical manipulators are expanding the scope and role of robotics, with novel opportunities for bionic integration. Assimilation of biosensor technology into the operative environment promises to provide neurosurgeons of the future with a vastly expanded set of physiological data, which will require concurrent simplification and optimization of analysis and presentation schemes to facilitate practical usefulness. Nanotechnology derivatives are shattering the maximum limits of resolution and magnification allowed by conventional microscopes. Furthermore, quantum computing and molecular electronics promise to greatly enhance computational power, allowing the emerging reality of simulation and virtual neurosurgery for rehearsal and training purposes. Progressive minimalism is evident throughout, leading ultimately to a paradigm shift as the nanoscale is approached. At the interface between the old and new technological paradigms, issues related to integration may dictate the ultimate emergence of the products of the new paradigm. Once initiated, however, history suggests that the process of change will proceed rapidly and dramatically, with the ultimate neurosurgical operative environment of the future

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE LAN AND RELATED MICROCOMPUTER ENVIRONMENT (UA-D-1.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for using and maintaining the local area network (LAN) and related microcomputer equipment at the HRP Site of the Arizona Prevention Center. These methods were used for all data operations and maintenance routines during the Ariz...

  6. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated With Commercial Aviation Accidents: A Real-Time Turbulence Model (RTTM) Designed for the Operational Prediction of Hazardous Aviation Turbulence Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Huffman, Allan W.; Riordan, Allen J.; Slusser, Sarah W.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Charney, Joseph J.; Waight, Kenneth T.

    2004-01-01

    Real-time prediction of environments predisposed to producing moderate-severe aviation turbulence is studied. We describe the numerical model and its postprocessing system designed for said prediction of environments predisposed to severe aviation turbulence as well as presenting numerous examples of its utility. The numerical model is MASS version 5.13, which is integrated over three different grid matrices in real time on a university work station in support of NASA Langley Research Center s B-757 turbulence research flight missions. The postprocessing system includes several turbulence-related products, including four turbulence forecasting indices, winds, streamlines, turbulence kinetic energy, and Richardson numbers. Additionally, there are convective products including precipitation, cloud height, cloud mass fluxes, lifted index, and K-index. Furthermore, soundings, sounding parameters, and Froude number plots are also provided. The horizontal cross-section plot products are provided from 16 000 to 46 000 ft in 2000-ft intervals. Products are available every 3 hours at the 60- and 30-km grid interval and every 1.5 hours at the 15-km grid interval. The model is initialized from the NWS ETA analyses and integrated two times a day.

  7. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  8. Management accounting for advanced technological environments.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R S

    1989-08-25

    Management accounting systems designed decades ago no longer provide timely, relevant information for companies in today's highly competitive environment. New operational control and performance measurement systems are recognizing the importance of direct measurement of quality, manufacturing lead times, flexibility, and customer responsiveness, as well as more accurate measures of the actual costs of consumed resources. Activity-based cost systems can assign the costs of indirect and support resources to the specific products and activities that benefit from these resources. Both operational control and activity-based systems represent new opportunities for improved managerial information in complex, technologically advanced environments. PMID:17773356

  9. A modular approach for assessing the effect of radiation environments on man in operational systems. The radiobiological vulnerability of man during task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    A modular approach for assessing the affects of radiation environments on man in operational systems has been developed. The feasibility of the model has been proved and the practicality has been assessed. It has been applied to one operational system to date and information obtained has been submitted to systems analysts and mission planners for the assessment of man's vulnerability and impact on systems survivability. In addition, the model has been developed so that the radiobiological data can be input to a sophisticated man-machine interface model to properly relate the radiobiological stress with other mission stresses including the effects of a degraded system.

  10. Surgical Theatre (Operating Room) Measure STEEM (OREEM) Scoring Overestimates Educational Environment: The 1-to-L Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    The surgical theatre educational environment measures STEEM, OREEM and mini-STEEM for students (student-STEEM) comprise an up to now disregarded systematic overestimation (OE) due to inaccurate percentage calculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of and suggest a correction for this systematic bias. After an…

  11. Organization and operation of the sixth international symposium on the natural radiation environment (NRE VI). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1995-12-31

    An important source of human exposure to radiation is the natural world including cosmic rays, cosmogonic radionuclides, natural terrestrial radionuclides, and radon isotopes and its decay products. Considerable effort is being expended on a worldwide basis to characterize the exposure to the natural radiation environment and determine the important pathways for the exposure to result in dose to tissue that leads to injury and disease. The problem of background exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity has been the subject of research since the initial discovery of the radioactivity of uranium and thorium. However, with the advent of artificial sources of radiation with both benefits (medical x-rays and nuclear medicine), and harm (Chernobyl fallout), the nature and magnitude of the natural radiation environment and the effects on various populations are important in the development of overall public health strategies as ALARA principles are applied. To facilitate the exchange of information and the review of uncertainties and scientific research priorities, a series of 5 international meetings on Natural Radiation Environment, 1963, 1987, 1991. This conference (Montreal, 1995) covers the range of natural radiation environments that give rise to human exposure and dose. This document is a program summary.

  12. Assessment of an innovative antimicrobial surface disinfectant in the operating room environment using adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brian D; Spencer, Maureen; Rossi, Peter J; Lee, Cheong J; Brown, Kellie R; Malinowski, Michael; Seabrook, Gary R; Edmiston, Charles E

    2015-03-01

    Terminal cleaning in the operating room is a critical step in preventing the transmission of health care-associated pathogens. The persistent disinfectant activity of a novel isopropyl alcohol/organofunctional silane solution (ISO) was evaluated in 4 operating rooms after terminal cleaning. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence documented a significant difference (P < .048) in surface bioburden on IOS-treated surfaces versus controls. RODAC plate cultures revealed a significant (P < .001) reduction in microbial contamination on IOS-treated surfaces compared with controls. Further studies are warranted to validate the persistent disinfectant activity of ISO within selective health care settings. PMID:25728155

  13. Practice Brief: Accommodating Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Operating Room Environments--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Lisa M.; Laird-Metke, Elisa; Rollins, Mark; Gandhi, Seema; Stechert, Martin; Jain, Neera R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of deaf students in the health professions require accommodations in the clinical setting to ensure effective learning and accurate communication. Although classroom learning barriers have long been identified and addressed, barriers to clinical education have been far less analyzed. Operating room clerkships, which include many…

  14. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  15. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runco, A.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Murray-Krezan, J.

    2014-09-01

    The JSpOC Mission System is a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA). The JMS program has already delivered Increment 1 in April 2013 as initial capability to operations. The programs current focus, Increment 2, will be completed by 2016 and replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. Post 2016, JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources with more agility. In 2012, the JMS Program Office entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD have created development environments at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources. The unclassified ARCADE utilizes the Maui high performance computing (HPC) Portal, and can be accessed using a CAC or Kerberos using Yubikey. This environment gives developers a sandbox

  16. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-10-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit.

  17. Tolerance of acute hypoxia while performing operator activity and after a prolonged period under altered gas environment conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloshchinskiy, P.; Golets, L.; Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Sergiyenko, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Human and animal studies on physiological factors in resistance to acute hypoxia are elaborated. Results show that tolerance of acute hypoxia depends on gas composition and temperature in a sealed cabin, on the length of the stay and motive regime, and on the kind of operator and professional activity. After preliminary adaptation to hypoxia, resistance of the body increases not only to insufficiency of oxygen in inspired air, but also to the effects of other extremum factors of manned space flight.

  18. Characteristics of fishing operations, environment and life history contributing to small cetacean bycatch in the northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susie; Reid, David; Rogan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a key threat to cetacean species globally. Managing the impact requires an understanding of the conditions under which animals are caught and the sections of the population affected. We used observer data collected on an albacore tuna gillnet fishery in the northeast Atlantic, to assess operational and environmental factors contributing to bycatch of common and striped dolphins, using generalised linear models and model averaging. Life history demographics of the captured animals were also investigated. In both species, young males dominated the catch. The age ratio of common dolphins was significantly different from that estimated for the population in the region, based on life tables (G = 17.1, d.f. = 2, p = 0.002). Skewed age and sex ratios may reflect varying vulnerability to capture, through differences in behaviour or segregation in populations. Adult females constituted the second largest portion of the bycatch for both species, with potential consequences for population sustainability. Depth was the most important parameter influencing bycatch of both species and reflected what is known about common and striped dolphin habitat use in the region as the probability of catching common dolphins decreased, and striped dolphins increased, with increasing depth. Striped dolphin capture was similarly influenced by the extent to which operations were conducted in daylight, with the probability of capture increasing with increased operations in the pre-sunset and post-sunrise period, potentially driven by increased ability of observers to record animals during daylight operations, or by diurnal movements increasing contact with the fishery. Effort, based on net length and soak time, had little influence on the probability of capturing either species. Our results illustrate the importance of assessing the demographic of the animals captured during observer programmes and, perhaps more importantly, suggest that effort restrictions alone may not

  19. Characteristics of Fishing Operations, Environment and Life History Contributing to Small Cetacean Bycatch in the Northeast Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susie; Reid, David; Rogan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a key threat to cetacean species globally. Managing the impact requires an understanding of the conditions under which animals are caught and the sections of the population affected. We used observer data collected on an albacore tuna gillnet fishery in the northeast Atlantic, to assess operational and environmental factors contributing to bycatch of common and striped dolphins, using generalised linear models and model averaging. Life history demographics of the captured animals were also investigated. In both species, young males dominated the catch. The age ratio of common dolphins was significantly different from that estimated for the population in the region, based on life tables (G = 17.1, d.f. = 2, p = 0.002). Skewed age and sex ratios may reflect varying vulnerability to capture, through differences in behaviour or segregation in populations. Adult females constituted the second largest portion of the bycatch for both species, with potential consequences for population sustainability. Depth was the most important parameter influencing bycatch of both species and reflected what is known about common and striped dolphin habitat use in the region as the probability of catching common dolphins decreased, and striped dolphins increased, with increasing depth. Striped dolphin capture was similarly influenced by the extent to which operations were conducted in daylight, with the probability of capture increasing with increased operations in the pre-sunset and post-sunrise period, potentially driven by increased ability of observers to record animals during daylight operations, or by diurnal movements increasing contact with the fishery. Effort, based on net length and soak time, had little influence on the probability of capturing either species. Our results illustrate the importance of assessing the demographic of the animals captured during observer programmes and, perhaps more importantly, suggest that effort restrictions alone

  20. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  1. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    PubMed

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively. PMID:27271840

  2. Radio astronomy ultra-low-noise amplifier for operation at 91 cm wavelength in high RFI environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Ulyanov, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    An ultra-low-noise input amplifier intended for a use in a radio telescope operating at 91 cm wavelength is presented. The amplifier noise temperatures are 12.8 ± 1.5 and 10.0 ± 1.5 K at ambient temperatures of 293 and 263 K respectively. The amplifier does not require cryogenic cooling. It can be quickly put in operation thus shortening losses in the telescope observation time. High linearity of the amplifier (output power at 1 dB gain compression P1dB ≥ 22 dBm, output third order intercept point OIP3 ≥ 37 dBm) enables the telescope operation in highly urbanized and industrialized regions. To obtain low noise characteristics along with high linearity, high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors were used in parallel in the circuit developed. The transistors used in the amplifier are cost-effective and commercially available. The circuit solution is recommended for similar devices working in ultra-high frequency band.

  3. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively. PMID:27271840

  4. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The ARCADE formalizes capability development processes that hitherto have been ad hoc, slow to address the evolving space threat environment, and not easily repeatable. Therefore, the purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) facilitate collaboration among developers who otherwise would not collaborate due to organizational, policy, or geographical barriers, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. Over the last several years Scitor Corporation has provided systems engineering support to the JMS Increment 3 Program Office, and has worked with AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD to create a high performance computing environment and SOA at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications in an environment similar to the version of JMS currently in use by the JSpOC operators. Currently the ARCADE is operational in an unclassified environment via the High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Portal on DREN. The ARCADE also exists on SECRET and TOP SECRET environments on multiple networks. This presentation will cover the following topics: (1) Scitors role in shaping the ARCADE into its current form, (2) ARCADEs value proposition for potential technology developers, and (3) ARCADEs value proposition for the Government. These topics will be discussed by way of several case studies: a JMS

  5. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The ARCADE formalizes capability development processes that hitherto have been ad hoc, slow to address the evolving space threat environment, and not easily repeatable. Therefore, the purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) facilitate collaboration among developers who otherwise would not collaborate due to organizational, policy, or geographical barriers, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. Over the last several years Scitor Corporation has provided systems engineering support to the JMS Increment 3 Program Office, and has worked with AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD to create a high performance computing environment and SOA at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications in an environment similar to the version of JMS currently in use by the JSpOC operators. Currently the ARCADE is operational in an unclassified environment via the High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Portal on DREN. The ARCADE also exists on SECRET and TOP SECRET environments on multiple networks. This presentation will cover the following topics: (1) Scitors role in shaping the ARCADE into its current form, (2) ARCADEs value proposition for potential technology developers, and (3) ARCADEs value proposition for the Government. These topics will be discussed by way of several case studies: a JMS

  6. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  7. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  8. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  9. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  10. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  11. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  12. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  13. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  14. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  15. Operation of a Single-Photon-Counting X-Ray Charge-Coupled Device Camera Spectrometer in a Petawatt Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Sangster, T.C.; Key, M.H.; Patel, P.; Zhang, B.B.; Clarke, R.; Karsch, S.; Norreys, P.

    2004-10-12

    The use of a single-photon-counting x-ray CCD (charge-coupled device) camera as an x-ray spectrometer is a well-established technique in ultrashort-pulse laser experiments. In single-photon-counting mode, the pixel value of each readout pixel is proportional to the energy deposited from the incident x-ray photon. For photons below 100 keV, a significant fraction of the events deposits all the energy in a single pixel. A histogram of the pixel readout values gives a good approximation of the x-ray spectrum. This technique requires almost no alignment, but it is very sensitive to signal-to-background issues, especially in a high-energy petawatt environment.

  16. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  18. Separation of gaseous hydrogen from a water-hydrogen mixture in a fuel cell power system operating in a weightless environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanowski, William E. (Inventor); Suljak, George T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell power system for use in a weightless environment, such as in space, includes a device for removing water from a water-hydrogen mixture condensed from the exhaust from the fuel cell power section of the system. Water is removed from the mixture in a centrifugal separator, and is fed into a holding, pressure operated water discharge valve via a Pitot tube. Entrained nondissolved hydrogen is removed from the Pitot tube by a bleed orifice in the Pitot tube before the water reaches the water discharge valve. Water discharged from the valve thus has a substantially reduced hydrogen content.

  19. [Current problems of microbial safety of the interior environment of orbital stations after extended period of operation].

    PubMed

    Viktorov, A N; Novikova, N D; Polikarpov, N A; Gorshkova, V P; Konstantinova, S V

    1995-01-01

    The authors give considerations to one of the core hygienic problems arising in the process of long-term operation of orbital stations, i.e. ensuring microbial health of the milieu interior. Data pertaining the origin, interactions, and transformation of the microbial risk factors are analyzed as applied to this class of spacecraft. A concept of microbial health of the milieu interior including both medical and technological aspects relating to the reliability of space hardware is proposed. Based on the result of investigations in space flight, the developed criteria and indices of microbial health can be turned to practical use. The currently central tasks to be solved within the context of the problem and in view of the construction of international space station ALPHA are listed. PMID:8664877

  20. Performance of automated slidemakers and stainers in a working laboratory environment – routine operation and quality control

    PubMed Central

    SIMSON, E; GASCON-LEMA, M G; BROWN, D L

    2010-01-01

    The automated slidemaker/stainers of the four Beckman Coulter LH755 hematology systems in our laboratory are operated as analyzers, with similar requirements for setup, maintenance and quality control. A study was performed to confirm that these slide maker/stainers in routine use produce peripheral blood films that are completely satisfactory for microscopy and without cells, particularly abnormal cells, being pulled to the edges or sides of the film outside the usual working area. One hundred and thirty-nine automated blood films that had been produced during routine operation were compared with well-prepared manual films from the same patients. None of the films was unacceptable for microscopy. The distributions of normal white cell types within the counting areas of automated films compared with manual films, for all 139 samples for WBC from 1.0 to 352.8 × 109/l; for blasts and promyelocytes in the 65 samples in which they occurred and for nucleated red blood cells in the 58 samples in which they occurred all fell within the expected limits of 200 cell differential counts of CLSI H20-A. Red cell morphology and the occurrence of WBC clumps, platelet clumps and smudge cells were comparable between the automated and manual films of all samples. We conclude that automated slidemaker/stainers, as typified by those of the Beckman Coulter LH755 system, are capable of producing blood films comparable with well-prepared manual films in routine laboratory use; and that the maintenance and quality control procedures used in our laboratory ensure consistent high quality performance from these systems. PMID:19220552

  1. Managing Algorithmic Skeleton Nesting Requirements in Realistic Image Processing Applications: The Case of the SKiPPER-II Parallel Programming Environment's Operating Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudarcher, Rémi; Duculty, Florent; Serot, Jocelyn; Jurie, Frédéric; Derutin, Jean-Pierre; Dhome, Michel

    2005-12-01

    SKiPPER is a SKeleton-based Parallel Programming EnviRonment being developed since 1996 and running at LASMEA Laboratory, the Blaise-Pascal University, France. The main goal of the project was to demonstrate the applicability of skeleton-based parallel programming techniques to the fast prototyping of reactive vision applications. This paper deals with the special features embedded in the latest version of the project: algorithmic skeleton nesting capabilities and a fully dynamic operating model. Throughout the case study of a complete and realistic image processing application, in which we have pointed out the requirement for skeleton nesting, we are presenting the operating model of this feature. The work described here is one of the few reported experiments showing the application of skeleton nesting facilities for the parallelisation of a realistic application, especially in the area of image processing. The image processing application we have chosen is a 3D face-tracking algorithm from appearance.

  2. Analytical/Operational Requirements for the In Situ Chemical Analysis of Cometary and Planetary Environments Using GC-IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for the in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. The miniCIDEX instrument was developed for the chemical analysis of a cemetery environment. It combined a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with a helium based Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) to fulfill the analytical requirements of a cemetery exobiology mission: universal response; ppb sensitivity; low mass, volume and consumable MiniCIDEX is now a candidate for the chemical analysis instrument of a Titan Aero-rover Mission. The complexity of the analyses will be similar to the comet application with a heavier emphasis on organic molecules. Because the Titan Aero-Rover will be a balloon powered rover, much more attention is placed on the total mass of the instrument package. The GC will likely be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) design, smaller than the initial miniCIDEX GC by a factor of ten (with a similar reduction in consumable use). Similar miniaturization of the helium-based IMS will be necessary while maintaining the analytical capabilities. The two mission applications, the analytical requirements, and the evolution of the IMS design to accommodate these requirements will be presented.

  3. Operation of a single-photon-counting x-ray charge-coupled device camera spectrometer in a petawatt environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Sangster, T.C.; Key, M.H.; Patel, P.; Zhang, B.B.; Clarke, R.; Karsch, S.; Norreys, P.

    2004-10-01

    The use of a single-photon-counting x-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as an x-ray spectrometer is a well-established technique in ultrashort-pulse laser experiments. In single-photon-counting mode, the pixel value of each readout pixel is proportional to the energy deposited from the incident x-ray photon. For photons below 100 keV, a significant fraction of the events deposits all the energy in a single pixel. A histogram of the pixel readout values gives a good approximation of the x-ray spectrum. This technique requires almost no alignment, but it is very sensitive to signal-to-background issues, especially in a high-energy petawatt environment. Shielding the direct line of sight to the target was not sufficient to obtain a high-quality spectrum, for the experiments reported here the CCD camera had to be shielded from all sides with up to 10 cm of lead.

  4. The nonrelativistic limit of (central-extended) Poincare group and some consequences for quantum actualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ardenghi, Juan S.; Castagnino, M.; Campoamor-Stursberg, R.

    2009-10-15

    The nonrelativistic limit of the centrally extended Poincare group is considered and their consequences in the modal Hamiltonian interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed [O. Lombardi and M. Castagnino, Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys 39, 380 (2008); J. Phys, Conf. Ser. 128, 012014 (2008)]. Through the assumption that in quantum field theory the Casimir operators of the Poincare group actualize, the nonrelativistic limit of the latter group yields to the actualization of the Casimir operators of the Galilei group, which is in agreement with the actualization rule of previous versions of modal Hamiltonian interpretation [Ardenghi et al., Found. Phys. (submitted)].

  5. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  6. 40 CFR 63.2853 - How do I determine the actual solvent loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the actual solvent loss? 63.2853 Section 63.2853 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards...

  7. Dual-Phase Oxygen Transport Membranes for Stable Operation in Environments Containing Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fayos, Julio; Balaguer, María; Serra, José M

    2015-12-21

    Dual-phase membranes are appealing candidates for oxygen transport membranes owing to their unique combination of ambipolar electron-ion transport and endurance. However, O2 separation in industrial environments demands very high stability and effectiveness in the presence of CO2- and SO2-bearing process gases. Here, the composition of dual-phase membranes based on NiFe2O4-Ce(0.8) Tb(0.2)O(2-δ) (NFO-CTO) was optimized and the effective performance of catalytically-activated membranes was assessed in presence of CO2 and SO2. Further insight into the limiting mechanisms in the permeation was gained through electrical conductivity studies, permeation testing in several conditions and impedance spectroscopy analysis. The dual-phase membranes were prepared by one-pot sol-gel method and their permeability increases with increasing fluorite content. An O2 flux of 0.25 (ml min(-1)  cm(-2)) mm at 1000 °C was obtained for a thick self-standing membrane with 40:60 NFO/CTO composition. An in-depth study mimicking typical harsh conditions encountered in oxyfuel flue gases was performed on a 50:50 NFO/CTO membrane. CO2 content as well as SO2 presence in the sweep gas stream were evaluated in terms of O2 permeation. O2 fluxes of 0.13 and 0.09 mL min(-1)  cm(-2) at 850 °C were obtained for a 0.59 mm thick membrane under CO2 and 250 ppm SO2 in CO2 sweep conditions, respectively. Extended periods at work under CO2- and SO2-containing atmospheres revealed good permeation stability over time. Additionally, XRD, backscattered electrons detector (BSD)-SEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the spent membrane confirmed material stability upon prolonged exposure to SO2. PMID:26586419

  8. Novel CeO2-CuO-decorated enzymatic lactate biosensors operating in low oxygen environments.

    PubMed

    Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Stanciu, Lia A

    2016-02-25

    The detection of the lactate level in blood plays a key role in diagnosis of some pathological conditions including cardiogenic or endotoxic shocks, respiratory failure, liver disease, systemic disorders, renal failure, and tissue hypoxia. Here, we described for the first time the use of a novel mixed metal oxide solution system to address the oxygen dependence challenge of first generation amperometric lactate biosensors. The biosensors were constructed using ceria-copper oxide (CeO2-CuO) mixed metal oxide nanoparticles for lactate oxidase immobilization and as electrode material. The oxygen storage capacity (OSC, 492 μmol-O2/g) of these metal oxides has the potential to reduce the oxygen dependency, and thus eliminate false results originated from the fluctuations in the oxygen concentration. In an effort to compare the performance of our novel sensor design, ceria nanoparticle decorated lactate sensors were also constructed. The enzymatic activity of the sensors were tested in oxygen-rich and oxygen-lean solutions. Our results showed that the OSC of the electrode material has a big influence on the activity of the biosensors in oxygen-lean environments. While the CeO2 containing biosensor showed an almost 21% decrease in the sensitivity in a O2-depleted solution, the CeO2-CuO containing electrode, with a higher OSC value, experienced no drop in sensitivity when moving from oxygen-rich to oxygen-lean conditions. The CeO2-CuO decorated sensor showed a high sensitivity (89.3 ± 4 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)), a wide linear range up to 0.6 mM, and a low limit of detection of 3.3 μM. The analytical response of the CeO2-CuO decorated sensors was studied by detecting lactate in human serum with good selectivity and reliability. The results revealed that CeO2-CuO containing sensors are promising candidates for continuous lactate detection. PMID:26851092

  9. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  15. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  16. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  17. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  18. 30 CFR 206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When MMS conducts reviews and audits, we will examine whether the contract reflects more than the...-contract situation are subject to monitoring, review, audit, and adjustment. You must submit the actual... processing plant. (i) Allowable operating expenses include operations supervision and engineering,...

  19. Common Operating and Response Environment

    2009-10-02

    CORE is an architecture to bridge the gaps between disparate data integration and delivery of disparate information visualization. The CORE Technology Program includes a suite of tools and user-centered staff that can facilitate rapid delivery of a deployable integrated information to users.

  20. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  1. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  2. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in more humid environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using Eddy Covariance (EC) towers a...

  3. Indicated and actual mass inventory measurements for an inverted U-tube steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Plessinger, M.P.; Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of actual versus indicated secondary liquid level in a steam generator at steaming conditions are presented. The experimental investigation was performed in two different small scale U-tube-in-shell steam generators at typical pressurized water reactor operating conditions (5-7 MPa; saturated) in the Semiscale facility. During steaming conditions, the indicated secondary liquid level was found to vary considerably from the actual ''bottled-up'' liquid level. These difference between indicated and actual liquid level are related to the frictional pressure drop associated with the two-phase steaming condition in the riser. Data from a series of bottle-up experiments (Simultaneously, the primary heat source and secondary feed and steam are terminated) are tabulated and the actual liquid level is correlated to the indicated liquid level.

  4. An Investigation of Run-Time Operations in a Heterogeneous Desktop Grid Environment: The Texas Tech University Desktop Grid Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the dissertation study was to evaluate the existing DG scheduling algorithm. The evaluation was developed through previously explored simulated analyses of DGs performed by researchers in the field of DG scheduling optimization and to improve the current RT framework of the DG at TTU. The author analyzed the RT of an actual DG, thereby…

  5. Inhibition of RuBisCO cloned from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus and expressed in Escherichia coli with compounds predicted by Molecular Operation Environment (MOE).

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Toshio; Shiota, Kazunori; Al-Taweel, Khaled; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kensaku; Yui, Toshifumi; Wadano, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) of a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus vulcanus, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme had higher thermostability than RuBisCOs isolated from mesophilic cyanobacteria. Prediction of the tertiary structure was performed using the software Molecular Operating Environment (MOE). The predicted structure did not give any clue about the basis of thermostability. Then, the molecular docking of substrates and inhibitors in the catalytic site were carried out to test analogs for consistency of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, a RuBisCO substrate. The analogs were searched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and 99 compounds were selected for the docking. The mol files from LIGAND Database in KEGG were changed to a three dimensional (3D) structure for use in docking simulation. The docking simulation was performed on ASEDock of MOE, and the SiteFinder command suggested about 20 candidates for the docking site of the compounds. Based on the homology of these candidate sites with the xylulose 1,5-bisphosphate (XBP)-binding site of RuBisCO isolated from Synechococcus PCC 6301, one site was selected for the docking simulation. The 40 compounds with the highest docking energies included synthetic organic substances that had never been demonstrated to be inhibitors of RuBisCO. The total docking energies were -102 kcal/mol, -104 kcal/mol, -94.0 kcal/mol, and -57.7 kcal/mol for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), etidronate, risedronate, and citrate respectively. Kinetic analysis of RuBisCO revealed a K(m) value of 315 microM for RuBP, and K(i) values of 1.70, 0.93, and 2.04 mM for etidronate, risedronate, and citrate respectively. From these values, the binding energies were estimated to be -4.85, -3.84, -4.20, and -3.73 kcal/mol for RuBP, etidronate, risedronate, and citrate respectively. The differences between the values estimated from experimental data and by

  6. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... process operation type. (2) Chemical Inventory Mass Balance. Determine the actual monthly HAP loss from... month, and business purchasing records to indicate additions to the inventory of chemical supplies. The... chemical inventory from the beginning of the month chemical inventory and adding the quantities of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operation type. (2) Chemical Inventory Mass Balance. Determine the actual monthly HAP loss from your..., and business purchasing records to indicate additions to the inventory of chemical supplies. The net... chemical inventory from the beginning of the month chemical inventory and adding the quantities of...

  8. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB 12-001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was mandated by SB537 (Simitian, Chapter 650, Stats. of 2007, codified at Ed. Code Section 47613), which requires the California Research Bureau (CRB) to prepare and submit to the Legislature a report on the key elements and actual costs of charter school oversight. Charter schools are public schools that are operated by entities other…

  9. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... process operation type. (2) Chemical Inventory Mass Balance. Determine the actual monthly HAP loss from... month, and business purchasing records to indicate additions to the inventory of chemical supplies. The... chemical inventory from the beginning of the month chemical inventory and adding the quantities of...

  10. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  11. Synthetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  12. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  13. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  14. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  15. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  16. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  17. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  18. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  19. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  20. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  1. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  2. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  3. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  4. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  5. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  6. Testing data evaluation strategies for estimating precipitation and actual evaporation from precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Fank, Johann; Pütz, Thomas; Wollschläger, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Weighing lysimeters have long been recognized as valuable tools not only for monitoring of groundwater recharge and solute transport, but also for the determination of the soil water balance and quantification of water exchange processes at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. If well embedded into an equally-vegetated environment, they reach a hitherto unprecedented accuracy in estimating precipitation (P) by rain, dew, fog, rime and snow, as well as actual evapotranspiration (ET). At the same time, they largely avoid errors made by traditional micrometeorological instruments, such as the wind error of Hellman rain samplers or the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on readings from in situ instrumentation of soil water state variables. Beginning in 2008, the Helmholtz Association established a network of terrestrial environmental observatories (TERENO) that aim at long-term monitoring of climate and land-use change consequences. A total of 126 identically designed large weighing lysimeters, operating at a sampling frequency of 1 min-1, were installed for this purpose, which raises the demand for standardized data processing methods. In theory, estimating P and ET from these measurements is straightforward: An increase in the combined mass of the soil monolith and the collected seepage water indicates P, while a decrease indicates ET. However, in practice, lysimeter data are prone to numerous sources of error, including, but not limited to, outliers, systematic errors due to plant growth and removal, data gaps, and stochastic fluctuations. The latter pose a particularly challenging problem - if we would directly calculate P and ET from a time-series that is affected by random noise, every positive fluctuation would be interpreted as P and every negative one as ET. Consequently, we would overestimate both quantities by far. The aim of this study was to evaluate algorithms that focus on eliminating the effect of these fluctuations and to estimate actual fluxes

  7. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF HYGIENE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN THE PRESERVATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene. PMID:26302549

  8. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Miosge, Lisa A; Field, Matthew A; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C; Andrews, T Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Each person's genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation's functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  9. Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations

    PubMed Central

    Miosge, Lisa A.; Field, Matthew A.; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M.; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Andrews, T. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Each person’s genome sequence has thousands of missense variants. Practical interpretation of their functional significance must rely on computational inferences in the absence of exhaustive experimental measurements. Here we analyzed the efficacy of these inferences in 33 de novo missense mutations revealed by sequencing in first-generation progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated mice, involving 23 essential immune system genes. PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationAssessor, Panther, CADD, and Condel were used to predict each mutation’s functional importance, whereas the actual effect was measured by breeding and testing homozygotes for the expected in vivo loss-of-function phenotype. Only 20% of mutations predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen2 (and 15% by CADD) showed a discernible phenotype in individual homozygotes. Half of all possible missense mutations in the same 23 immune genes were predicted to be deleterious, and most of these appear to become subject to purifying selection because few persist between separate mouse substrains, rodents, or primates. Because defects in immune genes could be phenotypically masked in vivo by compensation and environment, we compared inferences by the same tools with the in vitro phenotype of all 2,314 possible missense variants in TP53; 42% of mutations predicted by PolyPhen2 to be deleterious (and 45% by CADD) had little measurable consequence for TP53-promoted transcription. We conclude that for de novo or low-frequency missense mutations found by genome sequencing, half those inferred as deleterious correspond to nearly neutral mutations that have little impact on the clinical phenotype of individual cases but will nevertheless become subject to purifying selection. PMID:26269570

  10. Comparison of actual and predicted energy savings in Minnesota gas-heated single-family homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1984-03-01

    Data available from a recent evaluation of a home energy audit program in Minnesota are sufficient to allow analysis of the actual energy savings achieved in audited homes and of the relationship between actual and predicted savings. The program, operated by Northern States Power in much of the southern half of the state, is part of Minnesota's version of the federal Residential Conservation Service. NSP conducted almost 12 thousand RCS audits between April 1981 (when the progam began) and the end of 1982. The data analyzed here, available for 346 homes that obtained an NSP energy audit, include monthly natural gas bills from October 1980 through April 1983; heating degree day data matched to the gas bills; energy audit reports; and information on household demographics, structure characteristics, and recent conservation actions from mail and telephone surveys. The actual reduction in weather-adjusted natural gas use between years 1 and 3 averaged 19 MBtu across these homes (11% of preprogram consumption); the median value of the saving was 16 MBtu/year. The variation in actual saving is quite large: gas consumption increased in almost 20% of the homes, while gas consumption decreased by more than 50 MBtu/year in more than 10% of the homes. These households reported an average expenditure of almost $1600 for the retrofit measures installed in their homes; the variation in retrofit cost, while large, was not as great as the variation in actual natural gas savings.

  11. Extra-articular scapular fractures: comparison of theoretical and actual treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brandsema, Berdien; Neuhaus, Valentin; Gradl, Gertraud

    2015-01-01

    Background Discrete radiographic thresholds of scapular fracture deformity proposed as a guide for when to utilize operative treatment are a matter of debate. The purpose of the present study was to determine how many patients would have received operative treatment according to these criteria and how many actually received operative treatment. Methods Three hundred and thirty patients with an extra-articular fracture of the scapula at two level 1 trauma centers were retrospectively analyzed. Glenopolar angle, translation, angulation and medial/lateral displacement were measured on computed tomogaphy scans or radiographs to determine the theoretical operative treatment recommendation according to Cole’s criteria. Results Sixty-two patients (19%) had one or more radiographic indications for operative treatment, half of them had more than 20 mm of lateral displacement, and one fourth of them had substantial translation. No patients had operative treatment of the scapular body. Two patients had operative treatment of an acromion fracture, neither of which met radiographic criteria for surgery. Conclusions At least in our centres, there is a striking discrepancy between theoretical and actual recommendations for surgery. There is clearly a need for more research to determine whether patients are being undertreated or whether the guidelines are too stringent. PMID:27582994

  12. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  13. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE LAN AND RELATED MICROCOMPUTER ENVIRONMENT (UA-D-1.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for using and maintaining the local area network (LAN) and related microcomputer equipment at the Health Related Professions site at the University of Arizona. These methods were used for all data operations and maintenance routi...

  14. PFBC plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsinger, F.L. )

    1992-01-01

    By operating a fluidized bed at elevated pressures, known as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC), advantages can be gained over atmospheric fluidized bed technology. Operating the process at elevated pressures allows electrical production from both the steam and the gas cycles which results in higher plant efficiencies. Additional benefits of operating at elevated pressures include the further reduction of emissions and the reduction in the physical size of the power plant. This paper describes the operation of a PFBC plant and its application at the Tidd clean coal demonstration project. Actual operating experience will be presented.

  15. Reproduction-Related Sound Production of Grasshoppers Regulated by Internal State and Actual Sensory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Ralf; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and extero-receptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behavior of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviors. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness, or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity, and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience, and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction-related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behavior in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations. This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors. PMID:22737107

  16. Comparison of Observed Beta Cloth Interactions with Simulated and Actual Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzy, R. R.; Finckenor, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A common component of multilayer insulation blankets is beta cloth, a woven fiberglass cloth impregnated with Teflon(TM). It is planned for extensive use on the International Space Station. The Environmental Etl'ects Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center Materials, Processing, and Manufacturing Department has investigated the impact of atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the optical properties of plain and aluminized beta cloth. both in the laboratory and as part of long-duration flight experiments. These investigations indicate that beta cloth is susceptible to darkening in the presence of UV radiation, dependent on the additives used. AO interactions resulted in bleaching of the beta cloth.

  17. Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Seah, Chin; Trimble, Jay P.; Sims, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Work System analysis and design is complex and non-deterministic. In this paper we describe Brahms, a multiagent modeling and simulation environment for designing complex interactions in human-machine systems. Brahms was originally conceived as a business process design tool that simulates work practices, including social systems of work. We describe our modeling and simulation method for mission operations work systems design, based on a research case study in which we used Brahms to design mission operations for a proposed discovery mission to the Moon. We then describe the results of an actual method application project-the Brahms Mars Exploration Rover. Space mission operations are similar to operations of traditional organizations; we show that the application of Brahms for space mission operations design is relevant and transferable to other types of business processes in organizations.

  18. Operation Poorman

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  19. Telepresence for mobile robots in nuclear environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.

    1996-12-01

    A growing concern with the rapid advances in technology is robotic systems will become so complex that operators will be overwhelmed by the complexity and number of controls. Thus, there is a need within the remote and teleoperated robotic field for better man-machine interfaces. Telepresence attempts to bring real world senses to the operator, especially where the scale and orientation of the robot is so different from the scale of a human operator. This paper reports on research performed at the INEL which identified and evaluated current developments in telepresence best suited for nuclear applications by surveying of national laboratories, universities, and evaluation of commercial products available in industry. The resulting telepresence system, VirtualwindoW, attempts to minimize the complexity of robot controls and to give the operator the 'feel' of the environment without actually contacting items in the environment. The authors of this report recommend that a prolonged use study be conducted on the VirtualwindoW to determine and bench mark the length of time users can be safely exposed to this technology. In addition, it is proposed that a stand alone system be developed which combines the existing multi-computer platform into a single processor telepresence platform. The stand alone system would provide a standard camera interface and allow the VirtualwindoW to be ported to other telerobotic systems.

  20. Space teleoperation research. American Nuclear Society Executive conference: Remote operations and robotics in the nuclear industry; remote maintenance in other hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meintel, A. J., Jr.; Will, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    This presentation consists of four sections. The first section is a brief introduction to the NASA Space Program. The second portion summarized the results of a congressionally mandated study of automation and robotics for space station. The third portion presents a number of concepts for space teleoperator systems. The remainder of the presentation describes Langley Research Center's teleoperator/robotic research to support remote space operations.

  1. A study to assess the influence of interprofessional point of care simulation training on safety culture in the operating theatre environment of a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Theresa; Gale, Thomas; Anderson, Ian; Roberts, Martin; Sice, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Interprofessional point of care or in situ simulation is used as a training tool in our operating theatre directorate with the aim of improving crisis behaviours. This study aimed to assess the impact of interprofessional point of care simulation on the safety culture of operating theatres. A validated Safety Attitude Questionnaire was administered to staff members before each simulation scenario and then re-administered to the same staff members after 6-12 months. Pre- and post-training Safety Attitude Questionnaire-Operating Room (SAQ-OR) scores were compared using paired sample t-tests. Analysis revealed a statistically significant perceived improvement in both safety (p < 0.001) and teamwork (p = 0.013) climate scores (components of safety culture) 6-12 months after interprofessional simulation training. A growing body of literature suggests that a positive safety culture is associated with improved patient outcomes. Our study supports the implementation of point of care simulation as a useful intervention to improve safety culture in theatres. PMID:26854195

  2. A 1-night operant learning task without food-restriction differentiates among mouse strains in an automated home-cage environment.

    PubMed

    Remmelink, Esther; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs

    2015-04-15

    Individuals are able to change their behavior based on its consequences, a process involving instrumental learning. Studying instrumental learning in mice can provide new insights in this elementary aspect of cognition. Conventional appetitive operant learning tasks that facilitate the study of this form of learning in mice, as well as more complex operant paradigms, require labor-intensive handling and food deprivation to motivate the animals. Here, we describe a 1-night operant learning protocol that exploits the advantages of automated home-cage testing and circumvents the interfering effects of food restriction. The task builds on behavior that is part of the spontaneous exploratory repertoire during the days before the task. We compared the behavior of C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ and DBA/2J mice and found various differences in behavior during this task, but no differences in learning curves. BALB/cJ mice showed the largest instrumental learning response, providing a superior dynamic range and statistical power to study instrumental learning by using this protocol. Insights gained with this home-cage-based learning protocol without food restriction will be valuable for the development of other, more complex, cognitive tasks in automated home-cages. PMID:25601577

  3. The noise environment of a school classroom due to the operation of utility helicopters. [acoustic measurements of helicopter noise during flight over building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Pegg, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Noise measurements under controlled conditions have been made inside and outside of a school building during flyover operations of four different helicopters. The helicopters were operated at a condition considered typical for a police patrol mission. Flyovers were made at an altitude of 500 ft and an airspeed of 45 miles per hour. During these operations acoustic measurements were made inside and outside of the school building with the windows closed and then open. The outside noise measurements during helicopter flyovers indicate that the outside db(A) levels were approximately the same for all test helicopters. For the windows closed case, significant reductions for the inside measured db(A) values were noted for all overflights. These reductions were approximately 20 db(A); similar reductions were noted in other subjective measuring units. The measured internal db(A) levels with the windows open exceeded published classroom noise criteria values; however, for the windows-closed case they are in general agreement with the criteria values.

  4. Computer simulation of on-orbit manned maneuvering unit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, G. M.; Garcia, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation of spacecraft on-orbit operations is discussed in reference to Martin Marietta's Space Operations Simulation laboratory's use of computer software models to drive a six-degree-of-freedom moving base carriage and two target gimbal systems. In particular, key simulation issues and related computer software models associated with providing real-time, man-in-the-loop simulations of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) are addressed with special attention given to how effectively these models and motion systems simulate the MMU's actual on-orbit operations. The weightless effects of the space environment require the development of entirely new devices for locomotion. Since the access to space is very limited, it is necessary to design, build, and test these new devices within the physical constraints of earth using simulators. The simulation method that is discussed here is the technique of using computer software models to drive a Moving Base Carriage (MBC) that is capable of providing simultaneous six-degree-of-freedom motions. This method, utilized at Martin Marietta's Space Operations Simulation (SOS) laboratory, provides the ability to simulate the operation of manned spacecraft, provides the pilot with proper three-dimensional visual cues, and allows training of on-orbit operations. The purpose here is to discuss significant MMU simulation issues, the related models that were developed in response to these issues and how effectively these models simulate the MMU's actual on-orbiter operations.

  5. Experimental investigation of panel radiator heat output enhancement for efficient thermal use under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisir, Tamer; Baskaya, Senol; Onur Yazar, Hakan; Yucedag, Sinan

    2015-05-01

    In this study the heat output of a panel-convector-convector-panel radiator (PCCP) under controlled laboratory conditions under Turkish household and especially Ankara conditions was investigated experimentally. In this sense, investigations were performed for different heating water mass flow rates, water inlet temperatures and radiator inlet and outlet connection positions, which are most commonly used in Turkey. An experimental setup was built for this purpose in a test room where temperature was controlled and held constant during the experiments. Inlet and outlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were measured and heat output of the radiator was calculated. Infrared thermal camera visualizations of the steel panel radiator front surface were also performed.

  6. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  7. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  8. Windage Power Loss in Gas Foil Bearings and the Rotor-Stator Clearance of High Speed Generators Operating in High Pressure Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) and Closed Supercritical Cycle (CSC) engines are prime candidates to convert heat from a reactor into electric power for robotic space exploration and habitation. These engine concepts incorporate a permanent magnet starter/generator mounted on the engine shaft along with the requisite turbomachinery. Successful completion of the long-duration missions currently anticipated for these engines will require designs that adequately address all losses within the machine. The preliminary thermal management concept for these engine types is to use the cycle working fluid to provide the required cooling. In addition to providing cooling, the working fluid will also serve as the bearing lubricant. Additional requirements, due to the unique application of these microturbines, are zero contamination of the working fluid and entirely maintenance-free operation for many years. Losses in the gas foil bearings and within the rotor-stator gap of the generator become increasingly important as both rotational speed and mean operating pressure are increased. This paper presents the results of an experimental study, which obtained direct torque measurements on gas foil bearings and generator rotor-stator gaps. Test conditions for these measurements included rotational speeds up to 42,000 revolutions per minute, pressures up to 45 atmospheres, and test gases of nitrogen, helium, and carbon dioxide. These conditions provided a maximum test Taylor number of nearly one million. The results show an exponential rise in power loss as mean operating density is increased for both the gas foil bearing and generator windage. These typical "secondary" losses can become larger than the total system output power if conventional design paradigms are followed. A nondimensional analysis is presented to extend the experimental results into the CSC range for the generator windage.

  9. Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

    1989-01-01

    Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

  10. On-line expert system for customer restoration and fault testing. Volume 6: CRAFT for operation and automatic switching design in user-friendly environment, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.C.; Damborg, M.J.; Ma, T.K.

    1994-04-01

    CRAFT (Customer Restoration and Fault Testing) is a rule-based expert system capable of locating line faults on multi-taped transmission lines with automatic switches. This volume describes graphical and other enhancements to CRAFT that make it suitable for use as an engineering design tool and training simulator. To make CRAFT more portable, the new version is based on the OS/2 operating system and compatible database software and compilers. The volume contains a user`s manual for the enhanced version.

  11. Program desk manual for occupational safety and health -- U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations, Office of Environment Safety and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Musen, L.G.

    1998-08-27

    The format of this manual is designed to make this valuable information easily accessible to the user as well as enjoyable to read. Each chapter contains common information such as Purpose, Scope, Policy and References, as well as information unique to the topic at hand. This manual can also be provided on a CD or Hanford Internet. Major topics include: Organization and program for operational safety; Occupational medicine; Construction and demolition; Material handling and storage; Hoisting and rigging; Explosives; Chemical hazards; Gas cylinders; Electrical; Boiler and pressure vessels; Industrial fire protection; Industrial hygiene; and Safety inspection checklist.

  12. Innovation Teams: Operating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George B.; Jones, James M.

    This examination of the operation of teams in the Pilot Communities Program is chiefly historical in character. Based on intensive examination of proposals, evaluation studies, reports, memoranda, and interviews with personnel involved in the program, it was written by two university professors who had not been involved in the actual program. The…

  13. Sample Handling in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avellar, Louisa; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2013-01-01

    Harsh environments, such as that on Venus, preclude the use of existing equipment for functions that involve interaction with the environment. The operating limitations of current high temperature electronics are well below the actual temperature and pressure found on Venus (460 deg C and 92 atm), so proposed lander configurations typically include a pressure vessel where the science instruments are kept at Earth-like temperature and pressure (25 deg C and 1 atm). The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a method for sample transfer from an external drill to internal science instruments for a lander on Venus. The initial concepts were string and pneumatically driven systems; and the latter system was selected for its ability to deliver samples at very high speed. The pneumatic system was conceived to be driven by the pressure difference between the Venusian atmosphere and the inside of the lander. The pneumatic transfer of a small capsule was demonstrated, and velocity data was collected from the lab experiment. The sample transfer system was modeled using CAD software and prototyped using 3D printing. General structural and thermal analyses were performed to approximate the proposed system's mass and effects on the temperature and pressure inside of the lander. Additionally, a sampler breadboard for use on Titan was tested and functionality problems were resolved.

  14. A Flawed Argument Against Actual Infinity in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Laraudogoitia, Jon

    2010-12-01

    In “Nonconservation of Energy and loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set” (2010) Atkinson and Johnson argue in favour of the idea that an actual infinity should be excluded from physics, at least in the sense that physical systems involving an actual infinity of component elements should not be admitted. In this paper I show that the argument Atkinson and Johnson use is erroneous and that an analysis of the situation considered by them is possible without requiring any type of rejection of the idea of infinity.

  15. Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM) upgrades for reliability and operational efficiency in a radiological contamination environment at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The Diagnostic Instrument Manipulators (DIMs) are two-staged, telescoping systems that allow the precise alignment and positioning of various x-ray, optical, nuclear, and other diagnostics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Target Chamber. Designed to be reconfigurable and exchangeable between NIF experiments, the second stage of the DIM is referred to as the Diagnostic Load Package (DLP), which is most often comprised of a cart, diagnostic, and detachable snout. As experiments continue to increase radiation levels, various upgrades have been made to the DIMs to improve reliability and operational efficiency. These upgrades reduce worker exposure and increase experimental shot rates. Specific to this paper, the design and operation of dedicated DLP handling and storage units (DHUs and DSUs) are discussed in addition to their transport equipment. Hardware and process improvements for reduced worker exposure during general DIM access are also featured. Finally, the DLP limit switches have been upgraded to magneticallyactuated proximity sensors for reliability, improved shot rate, and increased user flexibility.

  16. Defect formation in aqueous environment: Theoretical assessment of boron incorporation in nickel ferrite under conditions of an operating pressurized-water nuclear reactor (PWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rák, Zs.; Bucholz, E. W.; Brenner, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    A serious concern in the safety and economy of a pressurized water nuclear reactor is related to the accumulation of boron inside the metal oxide (mostly NiFe2O4 spinel) deposits on the upper regions of the fuel rods. Boron, being a potent neutron absorber, can alter the neutron flux causing anomalous shifts and fluctuations in the power output of the reactor core. This phenomenon reduces the operational flexibility of the plant and may force the down-rating of the reactor. In this work an innovative approach is used to combine first-principles calculations with thermodynamic data to evaluate the possibility of B incorporation into the crystal structure of NiFe2O4 , under conditions typical to operating nuclear pressurized water nuclear reactors. Analyses of temperature and pH dependence of the defect formation energies indicate that B can accumulate in NiFe2O4 as an interstitial impurity and may therefore be a major contributor to the anomalous axial power shift observed in nuclear reactors. This computational approach is quite general and applicable to a large variety of solids in equilibrium with aqueous solutions.

  17. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

  18. Operator interface for vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  19. Advances in large, transportable, highly spin-polarized, solid HD targets operable in the frozen-spin mode in a 1-4K temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron Paul

    The development of large, portable highly spin-polarized solid HD targets has been in progress at Syracuse University for the past 5 years. These targets are scheduled for deployment at Brookhaven National Laboratory, bearing the acronym SPHICE (Spin-Polarized Hydrogen Ice), for studies of the electro-magnetic spin structure of the nucleus via scattering of polarized gammas from the HD polarized protons and deuterons. The target work has just reached the milestone demonstration of the complete system, including polarization of triple targets containing 4 moles of solid HD, aging of these targets so that they retain their polarization for months under storage at a temperature of 1.3K and in an 8 Tesla field, and for at least a week at operational conditions of 1.3K and 0.7 Tesla in an in-beam cryostat. Cold-transfers of the polarized targets to a storage cryostat have been successfully carried out, and the storage cryostat has been trucked from Syracuse to BNL with one polarized target, sufficient to test the in-beam operations there. The complete system is presented here, with emphasis on innovations for engagement and disengagement of multiple targets, a solution to the challenge of attaining sufficiently strong RF fields in the large volume probe coils at acceptable power dissipation in the cables, and the polarization production and monitoring in the highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields owing to the multiple targets and the large dimensions of the targets. In this first multiple target production and extraction-to-storage cycle, air-ice accumulation in the dilution refrigerator due to repetitive use of cold sliding o-ring seals resulted in a rupture of one of the inserted targets, and a consequent partial thermal short from a solid HD ice bridge. The o-ring fault was cured with double evacuatable o-ring seals, and the air-ice was successfully cleaned out. However, the refrigerator operating base temperature was substantially higher than that normally obtained

  20. Moderating Effects of Voluntariness on the Actual Use of Electronic Health Records for Allied Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Benny PS

    2015-01-01

    Background Mandatory versus voluntary requirement has moderating effect on a person’s intention to use a new information technology. Studies have shown that the use of technology in health care settings is predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, social influence, facilitating conditions, and attitude towards computer. These factors have different effects on mandatory versus voluntary environment of use. However, the degree and direction of moderating effect of voluntariness on these factors remain inconclusive. Objective This study aimed to examine the moderating effect of voluntariness on the actual use of an electronic health record (EHR) designed for use by allied health professionals in Hong Kong. Specifically, this study explored and compared the moderating effects of voluntariness on factors organized into technology, implementation, and individual contexts. Methods Physiotherapists who had taken part in the implementation of a new EHR were invited to complete a survey. The survey included questions that measured the levels of voluntariness, technology acceptance and use, and attitude towards technology. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with actual use of a compulsory module and a noncompulsory module of the EHR. Results In total, there were 93 participants in the study. All of them had access to the noncompulsory module, the e-Progress Note, to record progress notes of their patients. Out of the 93 participants, 57 (62%) were required to use a compulsory module, the e-Registration, to register patient attendance. In the low voluntariness environment, Actual Use was associated with Effort Expectancy (mean score of users 3.51, SD 0.43; mean score of non-users 3.21, SD 0.31; P=.03). Effort Expectancy measured the perceived ease of use and was a variable in the technology context. The variables in the implementation and individual contexts did not show a difference between the two groups. In the high

  1. Functional brain imaging using near-infrared spectroscopy during actual driving on an expressway

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Kayoko; Oka, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Kouji; Takahashi, Hideki; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is considered to have a significant effect on driving behavior, but little is known about prefrontal cortex function in actual road driving. Driving simulation experiments are not the same, because the subject is in a stationary state, and the results may be different. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is advantageous in that it can measure cerebral hemodynamic responses in a person driving an actual vehicle. We mounted fNIRS equipment in a vehicle to evaluate brain functions related to various actual driving operations while the subjects drove on a section of an expressway that was not yet open to the public. Measurements were recorded while parked, and during acceleration, constant velocity driving (CVD), deceleration, and U-turns, in the daytime and at night. Changes in cerebral oxygen exchange (ΔCOE) and cerebral blood volume were calculated and imaged for each part of the task. Responses from the prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex were highly reproducible in the daytime and nighttime experiments. Significant increases in ΔCOE were observed in the frontal eye field (FEF), which has not been mentioned much in previous simulation experiments. In particular, significant activation was detected during acceleration in the right FEF, and during deceleration in the left FEF. Weaker responses during CVD suggest that FEF function was increased during changes in vehicle speed. As the FEF contributes to control of eye movement in three-dimensional space, FEF activation may be important in actual road driving. fNIRS is a powerful technique for investigating brain activation outdoors, and it proved to be sufficiently robust for use in an actual highway driving experiment in the field of intelligent transport systems (ITS). PMID:24399949

  2. Comparison of Projections to Actual Performance in the DOE-EPRI Wind Turbine Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, H.; VandenBosche, J.; McCoy, T.; Compton, A.; Smith, B.

    2000-09-11

    As part of the US Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE-EPRI) Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), Global Energy Concepts (GEC) worked with participating utilities to develop a set of performance projections for their projects based on historical site atmospheric conditions, turbine performance data, operation and maintenance (O and M) strategies, and assumptions about various energy losses. After a preliminary operation period at each project, GEC compared the actual performance to projections and evaluated the accuracy of the data and assumptions that formed the performance projections. This paper presents a comparison of 1999 power output, turbine availability, and other performance characteristics to the projections for TVP projects in Texas, Vermont, Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Alaska. Factors that were overestimated or underestimated are quantified. Actual wind speeds are compared to projections based on long-term historical measurements. Turbine power curve measurements are compared with data provided by the manufacturers, and loss assumptions are evaluated for accuracy. Overall, the projects performed well, particularly new commercial turbines in the first few years of operation. However, some sites experienced below average wind resources and greater than expected losses. The TVP project owners successfully developed and constructed wind power plants that are now in full commercial operation, serving a total of approximately 12,000 households.

  3. An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (Editor); Decher, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), a set of ten instruments integrated into a self-contained unit and scheduled to fly on shuttle Orbital Flight Tests 1 through 6 and on Spacelabs 1 and 2, is described. The IECM is designed to measure the actual environment to determine whether the strict controls placed on the shuttle system have solved the contamination problem. Measurements are taken during prelaunch, ascent, on-orbit, descent, and postlanding. The on-orbit measurements are molecular return flux, background spectral intensity, molecular deposition, and optical surface effects. During the other mission phases dew point, humidity, aerosol content, and trace gas are measured as well as optical surface effects and molecular deposition. The IECM systems and thermal design are discussed. Preflight and ground operations are presented together with associated ground support equipment. Flight operations and data reduction plans are given.

  4. 14 CFR 380.33a - Operator's option plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the actual dates or cities is at the charter operator's option. (e) Charter operators and their... operator's option plan contracts of the actual dates or cities, as applicable, as required by contracts. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operator's option plan. 380.33a Section...

  5. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  6. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  7. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  8. Self Actualization of Females in an Experimental Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wilt, Robert B.; Klocke, Ronald A.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional orientation program was developed that forced students to consider their physical and psychological outer limits. Students were confronted in a new and unique way that contributed to the self actualization process of the female portion of the group. (Author/BY)

  9. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  10. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  11. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The designated representative of a combustion source shall submit...

  12. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  13. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  14. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  15. Actual preoperative fasting time in Brazilian hospitals: the BIGFAST multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; de Almeida Dias, Ana L; Dock-Nascimento, Diana B; Correia, Maria Isabel TD; Campos, Antonio CL; Portari-Filho, Pedro Eder; Oliveira, Sergio S

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged fasting increases organic response to trauma. This multicenter study investigated the gap between the prescribed and the actual preoperative fasting times in Brazilian hospitals and factors associated with this gap. Methods Patients (18–90-years-old) who underwent elective operations between August 2011 and September 2012 were included in the study. The actual and prescribed times for fasting were collected and correlated with sex, age, surgical disease (malignancies or benign disease), operation type, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, type of hospital (public or private), and nutritional status. Results A total of 3,715 patients (58.1% females) with a median age of 49 (18–94) years from 16 Brazilian hospitals entered the study. The median (range) preoperative fasting time was 12 (2–216) hours, and fasting time was longer (P<0.001) in hospitals using a traditional fasting protocol (13 [6–216] hours) than in others that had adopted new guidelines (8 [2–48] hours). Almost 80% (n=2,962) of the patients were operated on after 8 or more hours of fasting and 46.2% (n=1,718) after more than 12 hours. Prolonged fasting was not associated with physical score, age, sex, type of surgery, or type of hospital. Patients operated on due to a benign disease had an extended duration of preoperative fasting. Conclusion Actual preoperative fasting time is significantly longer than prescribed fasting time in Brazilian hospitals. Most of these hospitals still adopt traditional rather than modern fasting guidelines. All patients are at risk of long periods of fasting, especially those in hospitals that follow traditional practices. PMID:24627636

  16. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  17. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  18. Controlling multiple security robots in a warehouse environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, H. R.; Gilbreath, G. A.; Heath-Pastore, T. A.; Laird, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC) has developed an architecture to provide coordinated control of multiple autonomous vehicles from a single host console. The multiple robot host architecture (MRHA) is a distributed multiprocessing system that can be expanded to accommodate as many as 32 robots. The initial application will employ eight Cybermotion K2A Navmaster robots configured as remote security platforms in support of the Mobile Detection Assessment and Response System (MDARS) Program. This paper discusses developmental testing of the MRHA in an operational warehouse environment, with two actual and four simulated robotic platforms.

  19. The preferred walk to run transition speed in actual lunar gravity.

    PubMed

    De Witt, John K; Edwards, W Brent; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Norcross, Jason R; Gernhardt, Michael L

    2014-09-15

    Quantifying the preferred transition speed (PTS) from walking to running has provided insight into the underlying mechanics of locomotion. The dynamic similarity hypothesis suggests that the PTS should occur at the same Froude number across gravitational environments. In normal Earth gravity, the PTS occurs at a Froude number of 0.5 in adult humans, but previous reports found the PTS occurred at Froude numbers greater than 0.5 in simulated lunar gravity. Our purpose was to (1) determine the Froude number at the PTS in actual lunar gravity during parabolic flight and (2) compare it with the Froude number at the PTS in simulated lunar gravity during overhead suspension. We observed that Froude numbers at the PTS in actual lunar gravity (1.39±0.45) and simulated lunar gravity (1.11±0.26) were much greater than 0.5. Froude numbers at the PTS above 1.0 suggest that the use of the inverted pendulum model may not necessarily be valid in actual lunar gravity and that earlier findings in simulated reduced gravity are more accurate than previously thought. PMID:25232195

  20. Perceptions of Communicator Style and Educational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, Brian; Hattie, John

    1989-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Australian high school students' perceptions of communication style and their preferred and actual educational (school and classroom) environments, and the effects of gender or grade level on that relationship. Results are discussed. (MSE)

  1. Validation of the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dominic S

    2003-08-01

    One hundred eight preregistration nursing students took part in this survey study, which assessed their perceptions of the clinical learning environment. Statistical data based on the sample confirmed the reliability and validity of the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI), which was developed using the concept of classroom learning environment studies. The study also found that there were significant differences between students' actual and preferred perceptions of the clinical learning environments. In terms of the CLEI scales, students preferred a more positive and favorable clinical environment than they perceived as being actually present. The achievement of certain outcomes of clinical field placements might be enhanced by attempting to change the actual clinical environment in ways that make it more congruent with that preferred by the students. PMID:12955969

  2. Improving coherence with nested environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, H. J.; Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.

    2015-09-01

    We have in mind a register of qubits for an quantum information system, and consider its decoherence in an idealized but typical situation. Spontaneous decay and other couplings to the far environment, considered as the world outside the quantum apparatus, will be neglected, while couplings to quantum states within the apparatus, i.e., to a near environment, are assumed to dominate. Thus the central system couples to the near environment, which in turn couples to a far environment. Considering that the dynamics in the near environment is not sufficiently well known or controllable, we shall use random matrix methods to obtain analytic results. We consider a simplified situation where the central system suffers weak dephasing from the near environment, which in turn is coupled randomly to the far environment. We find the anti-intuitive result that increasing the coupling between the near and far environment actually protects the central qubit.

  3. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  4. Using Quasi-Horizontal Alignment in the absence of the actual alignment.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mohamadreza

    2016-10-01

    Horizontal alignment is a major roadway characteristic used in safety and operational evaluations of many facility types. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) uses this characteristic in crash prediction models for rural two-lane highways, freeway segments, and freeway ramps/C-D roads. Traffic simulation models use this characteristic in their processes on almost all types of facilities. However, a good portion of roadway databases do not include horizontal alignment data; instead, many contain point coordinate data along the roadways. SHRP 2 Roadway Information Database (RID) is a good example of this type of data. Only about 5% of this geodatabase contains alignment information and for the rest, point data can easily be produced. Even though the point data can be used to extract actual horizontal alignment data but, extracting horizontal alignment is a cumbersome and costly process, especially for a database of miles and miles of highways. This research introduces a so called "Quasi-Horizontal Alignment" that can be produced easily and automatically from point coordinate data and can be used in the safety and operational evaluations of highways. SHRP 2 RID for rural two-lane highways in Washington State is used in this study. This paper presents a process through which Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are produced from point coordinates along highways by using spreadsheet software such as MS EXCEL. It is shown that the safety and operational evaluations of the highways with Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are almost identical to the ones with the actual alignments. In the absence of actual alignment the Quasi-Horizontal Alignment can easily be produced from any type of databases that contain highway coordinates such geodatabases and digital maps. PMID:27391796

  5. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  6. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  7. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  9. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care. PMID:18039565

  10. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  11. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-03-03

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

  12. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  13. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  14. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accurately indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these findings are

  15. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accuratelymore » indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these

  16. Navigation in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Erik; Hancock, Peter A.; Telke, Susan

    1996-06-01

    Virtual environments show great promise in the area of training. ALthough such synthetic environments project homeomorphic physical representations of real- world layouts, it is not known how individuals develop models to match such environments. To evaluate this process, the present experiment examined the accuracy of triadic representations of objects having learned them previously under different conditions. The layout consisted of four different colored spheres arranged on a flat plane. These objects could be viewed in either a free navigation virtual environment condition (NAV) or a single body position virtual environment condition. The first condition allowed active exploration of the environment while the latter condition allowed the participant only a passive opportunity to observe form a single viewpoint. These viewing conditions were a between-subject variable with ten participants randomly assigned to each condition. Performance was assessed by the response latency to judge the accuracy of a layout of three objects over different rotations. Results showed linear increases in response latency as the rotation angle increased from the initial perspective in SBP condition. The NAV condition did not show a similar effect of rotation angle. These results suggest that the spatial knowledge acquisition from virtual environments through navigation is similar to actual navigation.

  17. Bleeding management in remote environment: the use of fresh whole blood transfusion and lyophilised plasma.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Bruno; Marouzé, Frédéric; Roche, Céline; Carron, Mathieu; Ausset, Sylvain; Sailliol, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To mitigate medical risks in remote environments, the authors have implemented an innovative integrated medical support solution for bleeding management on board ships since 2013. Fresh whole blood transfusion (FWBT) and lyophilised plasma were put in place to address life threatening haemorrhages in maritime operations in the Arctic and Antarctica. The authors are illustrating the bleeding risks with an actual case occurring in Antarctica prior to the implementation of these procedures. They are presenting the different steps involved in the complex process of FWBT, from blood donors' qualifications to actual transfusions. The pros and cons of blood transfusion in extreme remote environment are discussed, including the training of health care professionals, equipment requirements, legal and ethical issues, decision making in complex blood group matching, medical benefits and risks. PMID:27364172

  18. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  19. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  20. Time experiences, self-actualizing values, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Yonge, G D

    1975-12-01

    The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Inventory of Temporal Experiences (ITE), and the Adjective Check List (ACL) were administered to 80 subjects. Sixteen scores were derived from the POI, 4 from the ITE and a Creativity score for the ACL. The resulting intercorrelations were interpreted in the light of the theories of Maslow and Hugenholtz which postulate a convergence of self-actualization, creativity, and certain experiences of time. The present study presents some evidence for the expected convergence and contributes to the construct validity of several of the variables studied. PMID:1202191

  1. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  2. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  3. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, T. A.; Peel, M. C.; Lowe, L.; Srikanthan, R.; McVicar, T. R.

    2013-04-01

    This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of the conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor, as well as discussions of reference crop evapotranspiration and Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i) open-surface water and (ii) landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models). The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues: (i) automatic (hard wired) calculation of evaporation estimates in commercial weather stations, (ii) evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii) at-site meteorological data, (iv) dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v) 24 h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi) uncertainty in evaporation

  4. Dynamic line rating in the operating environment

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, S.D. ); Maraio, R.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Much attention has been placed on the benefits derived by the dynamic rating of overhead conductors based on typical or single station weather data. Reported power line capacity show increases from 20 to 70% on the average over existing static rating practices. Because of the necessity of multistation monitoring and the implication with respect to critical span, Niagara Mohawk performed an extensive one year multistation power line study. The study revealed that the dynamic line rating was 20% lower than the average dynamic rating for the power line.

  5. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  6. Intelligent launch and range operations virtual testbed (ILRO-VTB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Rajkumar, Thirumalainambi

    2003-09-01

    Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB) is a real-time web-based command and control, communication, and intelligent simulation environment of ground-vehicle, launch and range operation activities. ILRO-VTB consists of a variety of simulation models combined with commercial and indigenous software developments (NASA Ames). It creates a hybrid software/hardware environment suitable for testing various integrated control system components of launch and range. The dynamic interactions of the integrated simulated control systems are not well understood. Insight into such systems can only be achieved through simulation/emulation. For that reason, NASA has established a VTB where we can learn the actual control and dynamics of designs for future space programs, including testing and performance evaluation. The current implementation of the VTB simulates the operations of a sub-orbital vehicle of mission, control, ground-vehicle engineering, launch and range operations. The present development of the test bed simulates the operations of Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test bed supports a wide variety of shuttle missions with ancillary modeling capabilities like weather forecasting, lightning tracker, toxic gas dispersion model, debris dispersion model, telemetry, trajectory modeling, ground operations, payload models and etc. To achieve the simulations, all models are linked using Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The test bed provides opportunities for government, universities, researchers and industries to do a real time of shuttle launch in cyber space.

  7. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groover, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Operation Waste Watch is a seven-unit program for grades K-6 which addresses such topics as litter control, recycling, and resources recovery. It is designed to instill in students positive feelings about the environment. (DS)

  8. NASA AMES Remote Operations Center for 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, M.; Marshall, J.; Cox, S.; Galal, K.

    1999-01-01

    There is a Memorandum of Agreement between NASA Ames, JPL, West Virginia University and University of Arizona which led to funding for the MECA microscope and to the establishment of an Ames facility for science analysis of microscopic and other data. The data and analysis will be by agreement of the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA), Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) and other PI's. This facility is intended to complement other analysis efforts with one objective of this facility being to test the latest information technologies in support of actual mission science operations. Additionally, it will be used as a laboratory for the exploration of collaborative science activities. With a goal of enhancing the science return for both Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) and Astrobiology we shall utilize various tools such as superresolution and the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI) virtual reality visualization tools. In this presentation we will describe the current planning for this facility.

  9. 43 CFR 3270.10 - What types of geothermal operations are governed by these utilization regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... facilities; (3) Related utilization facility operations; (4) Actual and allocated well field production and injection; and (5) Related well field operations. (b) The utilization regulations in subparts 3270...

  10. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  11. Actual Versus Predicted Cardiovascular Demands in Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Testing

    PubMed Central

    HOEHN, AMANDA M.; MULLENBACH, MEGAN J.; FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.

    2015-01-01

    The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max. At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO2 was r=0.84, p<0.001 with an SEE= 4.3 ml/kg/min. When split for gender, the correlation for males was r=0.94, p<0.001, SEE=2.72 ml/kg/min; for females, r=0.74, p=0.004, SEE=4.67 ml/kg/min. The results of this study indicate that the ARCET accurately estimated VO2max in a healthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical. PMID:27182410

  12. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  13. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  14. Lead-Free Experiment in a Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanche, J. F.; Strickland, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum addresses the Lead-Free Technology Experiment in Space Environment that flew as part of the seventh Materials International Space Station Experiment outside the International Space Station for approximately 18 months. Its intent was to provide data on the performance of lead-free electronics in an actual space environment. Its postflight condition is compared to the preflight condition as well as to the condition of an identical package operating in parallel in the laboratory. Some tin whisker growth was seen on a flight board but the whiskers were few and short. There were no solder joint failures, no tin pest formation, and no significant intermetallic compound formation or growth on either the flight or ground units.

  15. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254

  16. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  17. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions. PMID:26265050

  18. Spacecraft Materials in the Space Flight Environment: International Space Station-May 2002 to May 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Koontz, Steven L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Graves, Russell F.; Lorenz, Mary J.; Alred, John W.; O'Rourke, Mary Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of ISS spacecraft materials and systems on prolonged exposure to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) space flight are reported in this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are described. The space flight environments definitions (both natural and induced) used for ISS design, material selection, and verification testing are shown, in most cases, to be more severe than the actual flight environment accounting, in part, for the outstanding performance of ISS as a long mission duration spacecraft. No significant ISS material or system failures have been attributed to spacecraft-environments interactions. Nonetheless, ISS materials and systems performance data is contributing to our understanding of spacecraft material interactions with the spaceflight environment so as to reduce cost and risk for future spaceflight projects and programs.

  19. Reported and actual prescription of oral rehydration therapy for childhood diarrhoeas by retail pharmacists in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igun, U A

    1994-09-01

    This study documented what retail pharmacists and operators of patent medicine shops prescribe for childhood diarrhoeas in Borno State in the northeastern part of Nigeria. Data was generated by a combination of open and confederates survey of 135 pharmacies and patent medicine shops in the state. The study found that retail pharmacies and patent medicine shop operators, in the overwhelming majority routinely prescribe drugs, particularly, antibiotics, for both watery and bloody diarrhoea. Very few of the pharmacists and almost none of the patent medicine shop operators prescribed any form of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for watery diarrhoea. There was very high discrepancy between what respondents told interviewers they usually prescribe and what was actually prescribed to confederates in their facilities. It is suggested that the non-prescription of ORT by the majority of facilities could be accounted for by pharmacists' permissive attitude to the norms. This permissive attitude was generated by the profit motive and reinforced by mothers' expectations. The study conclude that more operators can be made to prescribe ORT by instituting incentives for those who prescribe and overt sanctions for those who do not. PMID:7973875

  20. Bridging the gap between empirical results, actual strategies, and developmental programs in soccer.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, António J; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Being one of the most prominent globalized sports, soccer played at club, national, and continental levels has a relevant societal role. At present, the specific competencies, interests, and languages of the different actors involved in the selection, development, and support of long-lasting careers of players might limit opportunities for potential talented players. Unless the cultural environment of soccer resolves the gaps between empirical results and actual soccer strategies, scientific discussion relating to the effectiveness of talent selection and development remains limited. This commentary is intended to highlight the need for developmental programs to prepare soccer personnel for a transdisciplinary dialogue, which could foster a future development of this sport. Finally, in considering the wide soccer-related employment opportunities at local, national, and international levels, the need for a clear qualification framework is crucial. PMID:24755978