Science.gov

Sample records for actual outdoor exposure

  1. Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Sherertz, P.C.; Llewellyn, G.C.; Armstrong, C.W. )

    1991-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor {number sign}1 and by 96 percent for instructor {number sign}2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

  2. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  4. Sound exposure during outdoor music festivals.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Tron V; Gelderblom, Femke B

    2016-01-01

    Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival's duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization's recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization's recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure.

  5. Sound Exposure During Outdoor Music Festivals

    PubMed Central

    Tronstad, Tron V.; Gelderblom, Femke B.

    2016-01-01

    Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival's duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization's recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization's recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure. PMID:27569410

  6. Childhood exposure to Libby amphibole during outdoor activities.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patrick H; LeMasters, Grace K; Burkle, Jeffrey; Lockey, James E; Black, Brad; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Residents of Libby, MT were exposed to amphibole asbestos through multiple environmental pathways. Previous exposure characterization has primarily relied on qualitative report of these exposure activities. The objectives of this study were to describe available data from the US EPA preremediation actions for Libby amphibole (LA) exposure in Libby, MT and develop an approach to characterize outdoor residential exposure to LA among children. Homes in Libby, MT included in the US EPA preremediation Contaminant Screening Survey (CSS) were categorized by the presence of interior and/or exterior visible vermiculite and concentrations of LA were measured in samples of dust and soil. Airborne exposure to LA while digging/gardening, raking, and mowing were estimated using US EPA activity-based sampling (ABS) results. Residential histories and frequency/duration of childhood activities were combined with ABS to demonstrate the approach for estimating potential exposure. A total of 3154 residential properties participated in the CSS and 44% of these had visible exterior vermiculite. Airborne concentrations of LA where there was visible vermiculite outdoors were 3-15 times higher during digging/gardening, raking, and mowing activities compared with homes without visible outdoor vermiculite. Digging and gardening activities represented the greatest contribution to estimated exposures and 73% of the participants reported this activity before the age of 6 years. This methodology demonstrated the use of historical preremediation data to estimate residential exposures of children for specific activities. Children younger than age 6 years may have been exposed to LA while digging/gardening, especially at homes where there is visible outdoor vermiculite. This approach may be extended to other activities and applied to the entire cohort to examine health outcomes.

  7. UV-B radiation and photosynthetic irradiance acclimate eggplant for outdoor exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.; Mitchell, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings with supplemental photosynthetically active radiation from cool-white fluorescent lamps increased growth of plants subsequently transferred outdoors relative to growth of plants that received no supplemental radiation or were shaded to 45% of solar irradiation in the greenhouse before transfer outdoors. Eggplant seedlings transferred outdoors were placed under plastic tarps either to provide relative protection from solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) using Mylar film or to allow exposure to UV-B using cellulose acetate. Protection of seedlings from UV-B radiation resulted in greater leaf expansion than for UV-B-exposed seedlings, but no change in leaf or shoot dry weight occurred after 9 days of treatment. Specific leaf weight increased in response to UV-B exposure outdoors. Exposure of eggplant to UV-B radiation from fluorescent sunlamps in the greenhouse also decreased leaf expansion and leaf and shoot dry weight gain after 5 days of treatment. However, there were no differences in leaf or shoot dry weight relative to control plants after 12 days of UV-B treatment, indicating that UV-B treated plants had acclimated to the treatment and actually had caught up with non-UV-B-irradiated plants in terms of growth.

  8. Residential indoor and outdoor coarse particles and associated endotoxin exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Lyrette, Ninon; Wallace, Lance; Foto, Mark; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Kearney, Jill; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Harrison, Ian; Rispler, Kathleen; Héroux, Marie-Eve

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that coarse particles (PM 10-2.5) have detrimental impacts upon health, especially for respiratory effects. There are limited data available for indoor residential exposures. Some data exist regarding the composition of this PM size fraction with emphasis on crustal elements and biological components. This study includes data from 146 homes sampled in Regina, Saskatchewan (SK) where 5-day integrated concurrent monitoring of indoor and outdoor coarse particles was conducted during the winter and summer of 2007. The coarse particle filters were subsequently analysed for endotoxin content to determine the contribution of this compound. Winter indoor geometric mean concentrations of coarse particles exceeded outdoor concentrations (3.73 μg m -3 vs 2.49 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001); however the reverse was found in summer (4.34 μg m -3 vs 8.82 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Linear regression indicated that winter predictors of indoor coarse particles were outdoor coarse particles, ventilation and presence of at least two or more occupants. During the summer, increased use of central air conditioning was associated with reduced coarse particles, while smoking and the presence of two or more occupants resulted in increased coarse particles. Endotoxin concentrations (EU μg -1) were lower indoors than outdoors in both seasons. Spatial variability of ambient coarse particles was assessed to determine the suitability of using a single monitoring station within a city to estimate exposure. The coefficients of variation between homes sampled simultaneously and the central monitoring station were calculated (median COV in summer = 15% and winter = 24%) and showed significant variability by week, especially during the summer months, suggesting a single site may be insufficient for characterizing exposure. Future studies should consider daily measurements per home to understand shorter term exposures and day to day

  9. Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children.

    PubMed

    Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Stock, Thomas H; Morandi, Maria T; Sexton, Ken

    2004-10-01

    We measured volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures in multiple locations for a diverse population of children who attended two inner-city schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Fifteen common VOCs were measured at four locations: outdoors (O), indoors at school (S), indoors at home (H), and in personal samples (P). Concentrations of most VOCs followed the general pattern O approximately equal to S < P less than or equal to H across the measured microenvironments. The S and O environments had the smallest and H the largest influence on personal exposure to most compounds. A time-weighted model of P exposure using all measured microenvironments and time-activity data provided little additional explanatory power beyond that provided by using the H measurement alone. Although H and P concentrations of most VOCs measured in this study were similar to or lower than levels measured in recent personal monitoring studies of adults and children in the United States, p-dichlorobenzene was the notable exception to this pattern, with upper-bound exposures more than 100 times greater than those found in other studies of children. Median and upper-bound H and P exposures were well above health benchmarks for several compounds, so outdoor measurements likely underestimate long-term health risks from children's exposure to these compounds.

  10. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  11. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  12. Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds among outdoor and indoor workers in two Mexican cities.

    PubMed

    Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence

    2007-04-15

    There are limited data on exposures to ambient air toxics experienced by inhabitants of urban areas in developing countries that have high levels of outdoor air pollution. In particular, little is known about exposures experienced by individuals working outdoors - typically as part of the informal sector of the economy - as compared to workers in office-type environments that approach the indoor air quality conditions of the more developed countries. The objective of this study is to explore these differences in personal exposures using a convenience sample of 68 outdoor and indoor workers living in Mexico City (higher outdoor air pollution) and Puebla (lower outdoor air pollution), Mexico. Occupational and non-occupational exposures to airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2 day period, monitoring 2 consecutives occupational and non-occupational periods, using organic vapor monitors (OVMs). Socio-demographic and personal time-location-activity information were collected by means of questionnaires and activity logs. Outdoor workers experienced significantly higher exposures to most VOCs compared to indoor workers in each of these cities. The outdoor workers in Mexico City had the highest exposures both during- and off-work, with maximum occupational exposures for toluene, MTBE, n-pentane, and d-limonene exceeding 1 mg/m(3). The inter-city pattern of exposures between the outdoor workers is consistent with the higher outdoor air pollution levels in Mexico City, and is above exposures reported for urban areas of the more developed countries. Results from this study suggest that elevated outdoor air pollution concentrations have a larger impact on outdoor workers' personal exposures compared to the contribution from indoor pollution sources. This contrasts with the more dominant role of indoor air VOC contributions to personal exposures typically reported for urban populations of the more developed countries.

  13. UV aging and outdoor exposure correlation for EVA PV encapsulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Charles G.; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Woods, Joseph T.

    2013-09-01

    A widely cited approximation in the solar industry is that "one week of xenon arc weather-o-meter exposure is equivalent to one year of field exposure." This statement is a generalization of test data generated in the mid-1990s as part of the NREL managed PVMaT-3 project. This approximation was based entirely upon yellowing of first generation EVA-based encapsulants in two different accelerated test conditions, xenon arc and mirror accelerated outdoor aging. First generation EVA encapsulants were developed by STR under the JPL solar project (1975-1986) and exhibit yellowing (or browning) with exposure to UV and heat. This yellowing mechanism was understood and resolved with newer generation EVA encapsulation products introduced in late 1990s. Modules were manufactured at the end of the PVMaT-3 project that included both older and newer generation encapsulants. Those modules were on a two-axis tracker in Arizona from 1996 to 2012 and are now undergoing diagnostic tests. Older generation standard-cure encapsulant used in these modules exhibited severe browning over cells and the modules exhibit approximate power loss of about two percent per year. This same standard cure encapsulant material has been tested with updated xenon arc exposure methods and optical transmission tests to estimate the loss in power due only to browning and reduction in light transmission.

  14. INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORING OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION: THE BALTIMORE ELDERLY EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was...

  15. Estimating Mortality Derived from Indoor Exposure to Particles of Outdoor Origin

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wenjing; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Following an extensive review of the literature, we further analyze the published data to examine the health effects of indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) of outdoor origin. We obtained data on all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in outdoor PM10 or PM2.5; the infiltration factors for buildings; and estimated time spent outdoors by individuals in the United States, Europe, China, and globally. These data were combined log-linear exposure–response model to estimate the all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality of exposure to indoor PM pollution of outdoor origin. Indoor PM pollution of outdoor origin is a cause of considerable mortality, accounting for 81% to 89% of the total increase in mortality associated with exposure to outdoor PM pollution for the studied regions. The findings suggest that enhancing the capacity of buildings to protect occupants against exposure to outdoor PM pollution has significant potential to improve public health outcomes. PMID:25860147

  16. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  17. Infants' indoor and outdoor residential exposure to benzene and respiratory health in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Amparo; Esplugues, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; Llop, Sabrina; Cases, Amparo; Mantilla, Enrique; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    Benzene exposure represents a potential risk for children's health. Apart from being a known carcinogen for humans (group 1 according to IARC), there is scientific evidence suggesting a relationship between benzene exposure and respiratory problems in children. But results are still inconclusive and inconsistent. This study aims to assess the determinants of exposure to indoor and outdoor residential benzene levels and its relationship with respiratory health in infants. Participants were 1-year-old infants (N = 352) from the INMA cohort from Valencia (Spain). Residential benzene exposure levels were measured inside and outside dwellings by means of passive samplers in a 15-day campaign. Persistent cough, low respiratory tract infections and wheezing during the first year of life, and covariates (dwelling traits, lifestyle factors and sociodemographic data) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Multiple Tobit regression and logistic regression models were performed to assess factors associated to residential exposure levels and health associations, respectively. Indoor levels were higher than outdoor ones (1.46 and 0.77 μg/m(3), respectively; p < 0.01). A considerable percentage of dwellings, 42% and 21% indoors and outdoors respectively, surpassed the WHO guideline of 1.7 μg/m(3) derived from a lifetime risk of leukemia above 1/100 000. Monitoring season, maternal country of birth and parental tobacco consumption were associated with residential benzene exposure (indoor and outdoors). Additionally, indoor levels were associated with mother's age and type of heating, and outdoor levels were linked with zone of residence and distance from industrial areas. After adjustment for confounding factors, no significant associations were found between residential benzene exposure levels and respiratory health in infants. Hence, our study did not support the hypothesis for the benzene exposure effect on respiratory health in children. Even so, it highlights a

  18. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  19. Monitoring personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to metals in airborne particulate matter: Risk of contamination during sampling, handling and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Pat E.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Hassan, Nouri M.; Filiatreault, Alain; Lanouette, Monique

    Rigorous sampling and quality assurance protocols are required for the reliable measurement of personal, indoor and outdoor exposures to metals in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). Testing of five co-located replicate air samplers assisted in identifying and quantifying sources of contamination of filters in the laboratory and in the field. A field pilot study was conducted in Windsor, Ont., Canada to ascertain the actual range of metal content that may be obtained on filter samples using low-flow (4 L min -1) 24-h monitoring of personal, indoor and outdoor air. Laboratory filter blanks and NIST certified reference materials were used to assess contamination, instrument performance, accuracy and precision of the metals determination. The results show that there is a high risk of introducing metal contamination during all stages of sampling, handling and analysis, and that sources and magnitude of contamination vary widely from element to element. Due to the very small particle masses collected on low-flow 24-h filter samples (median 0.107 mg for a sample volume of approximately 6 m 3) the contribution of metals from contamination commonly exceeds the content of the airborne particles being sampled. Thus, the use of field blanks to ascertain the magnitude and variability of contamination is critical to determine whether or not a given element should be reported. The results of this study were incorporated into standard operating procedures for a large multiyear personal, indoor and outdoor air monitoring campaign in Windsor.

  20. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on the Use of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied. PMID:21139867

  1. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on the use of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied.

  2. Outdoor Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Legislation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Abel A

    2016-06-01

    The total ozone column of 265 ± 11 Dobson Units in the tropical-equatorial zones and 283 ± 16 Dobson Units in the subtropics of Brazil are among the lowest on Earth, and as a result, the prevalence of skin cancer due to solar ultraviolet radiation is among the highest. Daily erythemal doses in Brazil can be over 7,500 J m. Erythemal dose rates on cloudless days of winter and summer are typically about 0.147 W m and 0.332 W m, respectively. However, radiation enhancement events yielded by clouds have been reported with erythemal dose rates of 0.486 W m. Daily doses of the diffuse component of erythemal radiation have been determined with values of 5,053 J m and diffuse erythemal dose rates of 0.312 W m. Unfortunately, Brazilians still behave in ways that lead to overexposure to the sun. The annual personal ultraviolet radiation ambient dose among Brazilian youths can be about 5.3%. Skin cancer in Brazil is prevalent, with annual rates of 31.6% (non-melanoma) and 1.0% (melanoma). Governmental and non-governmental initiatives have been taken to increase public awareness of photoprotection behaviors. Resolution #56 by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária has banned tanning devices in Brazil. In addition, Projects of Law (PL), like PL 3730/2004, propose that the Sistema Único de Saúde should distribute sunscreen to members of the public, while PL 4027/2012 proposes that employers should provide outdoor workers with sunscreen during professional outdoor activities. Similar laws have already been passed in some municipalities. These are presented and discussed in this study.

  3. Environmental degradation of polyacrylamides. II. Effects of environmental (outdoor) exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Prues, S L; Oehme, F W

    1997-06-01

    The environmental fate of a polyacrylamide thickening agent (PATA), formulated without and with a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GH), was examined under various environmental situations: formulation in surface water and ground water, volatility, and soil mobility. Environmental Fate of PATA in Surface Water and Ground Water: PATA was formulated at four concentrations in distilled-deionized water, three surface water samples, and two ground water samples, without and with a GH. Solutions were placed in glass bottles, covered with plastic wrap, and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 weeks. Acrylamide and ammonium concentration, pH, and bacterial and fungal populations were measured weekly. All solutions in this portion of the study had a homogeneous milky appearance but the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. The results of this study suggest that polyacrylamide can degrade to acrylamide under environmental conditions. Statistically, there was no linear correlation between the various parameters measured. Volatility: PATA was formulated without and with GH. Each solution plus an acrylamide standard (positive control) was placed in a glass beaker and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 days. Acrylamide concentration, ammonium concentration, pH, and solution volume were measured daily. Acrylamide and ammonium concentrations increased during the study in all formulations, except when solutions evaporated to dryness. pH did not change greatly over the course of the study for these samples. Those solutions containing PATA had a homogeneous milky appearance but by the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. This suggests a physical structural change in the polymer. Soil Mobility: PATA formulated with GH was also applied to soil columns and soil boxes containing sand, Eudora sandy loam, Eudora sandy clay, and Kohola silt loam. Acrylamide could be detected by Day 2 in all soil columns. Acrylamide could not be

  4. Use of personal-indoor-outdoor sulfur concentrations to estimate the infiltration factor and outdoor exposure factor for individual homes and persons.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lance; Williams, Ron

    2005-03-15

    A study of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM2.5 and associated elements has been carried out for 37 residents of the Research Triangle Park area in North Carolina. Participants were selected from persons expected to be at elevated risk from exposure to particles, and included 29 persons with hypertension and 8 cardiac patients with implanted defibrillators. Participants were monitored for 7 consecutive days in each of four seasons. One goal of the study was to estimate the contribution of outdoor PM2.5 to indoor concentrations. This depends on the infiltration factor Finf, the fraction of outdoor PM2.5 remaining airborne after penetrating indoors. After confirming with our measurements the findings of previous studies that sulfur has few indoor sources, we estimated an average Finf for each house based on indoor/outdoor sulfur ratios. These estimates ranged from 0.26 to 0.87, with a median value of 0.55. Since these estimates apply only to particles of size similar to that of sulfur particles (0.06-0.5 microm diameter), and since larger particles (0.5-2.5 microm) have lower penetration rates and higher deposition rates, these estimates are likely to be higher than the true infiltration factors for PM2.5 as a whole. In summer when air conditioners were in use, the sulfur-based infiltration factor was at its lowest (averaging 0.50) for most homes, whereas the average Finf for the other three seasons was 0.62-0.63. Using the daily estimated infiltration factor for each house, we calculated the contribution of outdoor PM2.5 to indoor air concentrations. The indoor-generated contributions to indoor PM2.5 had a wider range (0-33 microg/m3) than the outdoor contributions (5-22 microg/m3). However, outdoor contributions exceeded the indoor-generated contributions in 27 of 36 homes. A second goal of the study was to determine the contribution of outdoor particles to personal exposure. This is determined by the "outdoor exposure factor" Fpex, the fraction of

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR-OUTDOOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS DURING THE FRESNO PM EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle size distributions were measured indoors and outdoors of a single, detached residence during the Fresno particulate matter exposure studies in winter (February 1-28, 1999) and spring (April 18-May 16, 1999). Data was collected for particle sizes ranging from about 0....

  6. Indoor Exposure to Radiation in the Case of an Outdoor Release LBNL-60662

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P N; Jayaraman, B

    2006-07-07

    This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that ac accounts for the loss of counts particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-in-place effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

  7. Risk assessment of bioaccessible organochlorine pesticides exposure via indoor and outdoor dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-Juan; Wu, Fu-Yong; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Dust, enriched by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), was defined as a new route of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) exposure, especially for children. Chemical analyses showed the medians of ∑OCPs were 171 (outdoor) and 520 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Guangzhou (GZ) while 130 (outdoor) and 115 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Hong Kong (HK). Significantly higher accumulative effect of OCPs occurred in the size fractions of <63 and 63-100 μm than 100-280 and 280-2000 μm, therefore 0-100 μm dust particles were used for risk evaluation. Different cytotoxic effects on human hepatocellular live carcinoma cell (HepG2) and human skin keratinocyte cell line (KERTr) were found for extracts of indoor dust and outdoor dust from different functional areas. For total exposure (dust and food), OCPs intake via dust was low for adults (accounting for 0.16-3.78% of total exposure), while for children it was high (8.16-24.4% of total exposure). Non-carcinogenic OCPs exposure via dust was safe for adults; however DDT and Dieldrin exposure for children was higher than Reference Dose (RfD). The cancer risk related to indoor dust exposure for GZ and HK was moderate, below 10-4, while 42% of residences in GZ should be of concern (10-5). However, when bioaccessible OCPs used, daily intake and health risk were found to be greatly lower than the estimates without considering bioaccessibility.

  8. USE OF PERSONAL-INDOOR-OUTDOOR SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS TO ESTIMATE THE INFILTRATION FACTOR AND OUTDOOR EXPOSURE FACTOR FOR INDIVIDUAL HOMES AND PERSONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM2.5 and associated elements has been carried out for 37 residents of the Research Triangle Park area in North Carolina. Participants were selected from persons expected to be at elevated risk from exposure to particles, and ...

  9. Residual strength of repaired graphite/epoxy laminates after 5 years of outdoor exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has sponsored research to develop generic repair techniques and processes for advanced graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) composites applicable to secondary structures for commercial transport aircraft. The long-term durability of such repairs is being addressed in a 10-year outdoor exposure program at the Langley Research Center. Details of the program and results of residual strength tests after 5 years of outdoor exposure are presented. Four repair methods are being evaluated. These include: (1) externally bolted aluminum-plus adhesive; (2) precured, bonded external Gr/Ep; (3) cure-in-place external Gr/Ep; and (4) cure-in-place flush Gr/Ep. Repaired specimens as well as undamaged and damaged unrepaired controls are being exposed outdoors for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years. The residual tensile strength of stressed, unstressed, and fatigue specimens from each group is reported and compared with the tensile strength of baseline specimens which received no outdoor exposure. Identification of the commercial products and companies is used to describe adequately the test materials. The identification of these commercial products does not constitute endorsement, expressed or implied, of such products by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jessica L.; Alpers, Kathrin; Bown, Kevin J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi, we quantified the frequency of competitor exposure to the pathogens. Mass-participation outdoor events have the potential to serve as excellent windows for epidemiologic study of tickborne pathogens; their concerted use should improve spatial and temporal mapping of human exposure to infected ticks. PMID:28221107

  11. Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jessica L; Alpers, Kathrin; Bown, Kevin J; Martin, Stephen J; Birtles, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi, we quantified the frequency of competitor exposure to the pathogens. Mass-participation outdoor events have the potential to serve as excellent windows for epidemiologic study of tickborne pathogens; their concerted use should improve spatial and temporal mapping of human exposure to infected ticks.

  12. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling.

  13. Student Exposure to Actual Patients in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…

  14. Applying indoor and outdoor modeling techniques to estimate individual exposure to PM2.5 from personal GPS profiles and diaries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gerharz, Lydia E; Krüger, Antonio; Klemm, Otto

    2009-09-01

    Impacts of individual behavior on personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and the associated individual health effects are still not well understood. As outdoor PM concentrations exhibit highly temporal and spatial variations, personal PM exposure depends strongly on individual trajectories and activities. Furthermore, indoor environments deserve special attention due to the large fraction of the day people spend indoors. The indoor PM concentration in turn depends on infiltrated outdoor PM and indoor particle sources, partially caused by the activities of people indoor. We present an approach to estimate PM2.5 exposure levels for individuals based upon existing data sources and models. For this pilot study, six persons kept 24-hour diaries and GPS tracks for at least one working day and one weekend day, providing their daily activity profiles and the associated geographical locations. The survey took place in the city of Münster, Germany in the winter period between October 2006 and January 2007. Environmental PM2.5 exposure was estimated by using two different models for outdoor and indoor concentrations, respectively. For the outdoor distribution, a dispersion model was used and extended by actual ambient fixed site measurements. Indoor concentrations were modeled using a simple mass balance model with the estimated outdoor concentration fraction infiltrated and indoor activities estimated from the diaries. A limited number of three 24-hour indoor measurements series for PM were performed to test the model performance. The resulting average daily exposure of the 14 collected profiles ranged from 21 to 198 microg m(-3) and showed a high variability over the day as affected by personal behavior. Due to the large contribution of indoor particle sources, the mean 24-hour exposure was in most cases higher than the daily means of the respective outdoor fixed site monitors. This feasibility study is a first step towards a more comprehensive modeling approach for

  15. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERSONAL PM EXPOSURES FOR ELDERLY POPULATIONS AND INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS FOR THREE RETIREMENT CENTER SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure, indoor and outdoor concentration, "physical factor", and questionnaire data were collected in three retirement center settings, supporting broader PM-health studies of elderly populations. The studies varied geographically and temporally, with popul...

  16. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERSONAL PM EXPOSURES FOR ELDERLY POPULATIONS AND INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS FOR THREE RETIREMENT CENTER SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures, indoor and outdoor concentrations, and questionnaire data were collected in three retirement center settings, supporting broader PM-health studies of elderly populations. The studies varied geographically and temporally, with populations studied in Baltimor...

  17. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m−3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m−3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational) exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m−3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10−4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene’s sources and

  18. Comparison of risks from outdoor and indoor exposure to toxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    Environmental Protection Agency TEAM (Total Exposure Assessment Measurement) Studies have measured exposures of about 800 persons to 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and exposures of about 300 persons to 32 pesticides. These persons were selected to represent more than 1 million residents of industrial manufacturing cities such as Bayonne and Elizabeth, New Jersey, and Los Angeles, California; cities with light industry, such as Greensboro, North Carolina, and Baltimore, Maryland; rural areas such as Devils Lake, North Dakota; and cities with high pesticide use such as Jacksonville, Florida, as well as low-to-moderate pesticide use such as Springfield, Massachusetts. The TEAM data provide an opportunity to estimate the risks from airborne exposure to a number of suspected carcinogens for a substantial number of persons residing in a wide variety of urban, suburban, and rural areas. Because all of the TEAM Studies measured outdoor concentrations near the homes of the participants, it is possible to apportion the risks between outdoor and indoor sources. Upper-bound lifetime risks of cancer are calculated for both indoor and outdoor sources of 12 VOCs and about 23 pesticides measured in the TEAM Studies. These risk calculations are supplemented by calculations based on other studies for some additional pollutants, including radon and environmental tobacco smoke. The relationship of these upper-bound risk estimates to best-guess values is discussed. Sharper estimates of risk based on identifying population subgroups exposed to major sources are also discussed. Important gaps in our knowledge of exposure measurements are identified, e.g., particulates (including polyaromatic hydrocarbons); 1,3-butadiene, asbestos, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, and most polar organics.

  19. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  20. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  1. Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

  2. Second-hand smoke exposure in indoor and outdoor areas of cafés and restaurants: Need for extending smoking regulation outdoors?

    PubMed

    Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; San Emeterio, Noemi; Quirós, Nuria; Sureda, Xisca; Ballbè, Montse; Muñoz, Glòria; Riccobene, Anna; Centrich, Francesc; Saltó, Esteve; López, María J

    2016-07-01

    Smoke-free legislation in indoor public places has concentrated smokers in the areas outside building entrances or other outdoor areas. This study assessed the drift of second-hand smoke between outdoor and indoor areas of cafés and restaurants in Barcelona, Spain, and characterized the exposure on outdoor terraces. Using a cross-sectional design, we monitored vapor-phase nicotine in indoor areas and outside entrances simultaneously (n=47), and on some outdoor terraces (n=51). We computed the median nicotine concentration and interquartile range (IQR) to describe the data and performed multivariate analysis to describe nicotine concentration and its determinants. The overall median nicotine concentration indoors was 0.65µg/m(3) (IQR: 0.29-1.17µg/m(3)), with significant differences based on the number of smokers at the entrance (p=0.039). At outside entrances, the overall median nicotine concentration was 0.41µg/m(3) (IQR: 0.21-1.17µg/m(3)). The nicotine concentrations indoors and at the corresponding outside entrances were not significantly different, and the multivariate analysis confirmed the relationship between these variables. On terraces, the overall median nicotine concentration was 0.54µg/m(3) (IQR: 0.25-1.14µg/m(3)), but it increased to 0.60µg/m(3) when a tobacco smell was perceived, 0.72µg/m(3) on closed terraces, 1.24µg/m(3) when there were >6 smokers, and 1.24µg/m(3) when someone smoked >20min. Multivariate analysis confirmed the outdoor terrace area, the season, the type of enclosure, and the number of smokers as the most relevant variables explaining nicotine concentration (R(2)=0.396). These findings show that second-hand smoke exposure exists in indoor areas due to smokers smoking at the outside entrances. In addition, exposure may occur on outdoor terraces when smokers are present and the terrace is enclosed to some extent. Thus, the current Spanish law does not fully protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and supports extending

  3. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region.

  4. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonauto, David K.; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. Objective To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. Methods A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers’ compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. Results The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25–29, 30–33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Conclusions Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion. PMID:27716794

  5. Field comparison of portable and stationary instruments for outdoor urban air exposure assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Reche, C.; Fonseca, A. S.; Pérez, N.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of three portable monitors (micro-aethalometer AE51, DiscMini, Dusttrak DRX) was assessed for outdoor air exposure assessment in a representative Southern European urban environment. The parameters evaluated were black carbon, particle number concentration, alveolar lung-deposited surface area, mean particle diameter, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. The performance was tested by comparison with widely used stationary instruments (MAAP, CPC, SMPS, NSAM, GRIMM aerosol spectrometer). Results evidenced a good agreement between most portable and stationary instruments, with R2 values mostly >0.80. Relative differences between portable and stationary instruments were mostly <20%, and <10% between different units of the same instrument. The only exception was found for the Dusttrak DRX measurements, for which occasional concentration jumps in the time series were detected. Our results validate the performance of the black carbon, particle number concentration, particle surface area and mean particle diameter monitors as indicative instruments (tier 2) for outdoor air exposure assessment studies.

  6. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on experiential qualities of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-10-01

    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found.

  7. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups.

  8. Indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio model for human exposure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Ryu, Sung Hee; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio (IOR) model for improved estimates of indoor exposure levels. This model is useful in epidemiological studies with large population, because sampling indoor pollutants in all participants' house is often necessary but impractical. As a part of a study examining the association between air pollutants and atopic dermatitis in children, 16 parents agreed to measure the indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at their homes for 48 h. Correlation analysis and multi-step multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to develop the IOR model. Temperature and floor level were found to be powerful predictors of the IOR. Despite the simplicity of the model, it demonstrated high accuracy in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE). Especially for long-term IOR estimations, the RMSE was as low as 0.064 and 0.063 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. When using a prediction model in an epidemiological study, understanding the consequence of the modeling error and justifying the use of the model is very important. In the last section, this paper discussed the impact of the modeling error and developed a novel methodology to justify the use of the model.

  9. Outdoor Formaldehyde and NO2 Exposures and Markers of Genotoxicity in Children Living Near Chipboard Industries

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Doria, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Guarda, Linda; Pesce, Giancarlo; Pironi, Vanda; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Industrial air pollution is a public health hazard. Previous evidence documented increased respiratory symptoms and hospitalizations in children who live near the factories in the largest chipboard manufacturing district in Italy (Viadana). Objectives: We evaluated the association of outdoor exposure to formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with markers of early genotoxic damage in oral mucosa cells of randomly selected children (6–12 years of age) living in Viadana. Methods: In 2010–2011, DNA strand breaks and nuclear abnormalities were evaluated in exfoliated buccal cells by the comet and micronucleus assays, respectively, and formaldehyde and NO2 were monitored by passive sampling. Annual exposure estimates to pollutants were assigned to children’s houses by spatial interpolation. Results: Of 656 children, 413 (63%) participated. Children living near (< 2 km) the chipboard industries had the highest average exposure to formaldehyde and NO2 (p < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in formaldehyde (0.20 μg/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.03, 0.22%) higher comet tail intensity, a 0.007 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.012) higher tail moment, and a 12% relative increase [relative risk (RR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23] in nuclear buds. A 1-SD NO2 increase (2.13 μg/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.07, 0.19%) increase in binucleated cells and a 16% relative increase (RR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26) in nuclear buds. Conclusions: Exposure to pollutants was associated with markers of genotoxicity in exfoliated buccal cells of children living in a region with chipboard industries. These findings, combined with previously reported associations between chipboard industrial activities and respiratory outcomes in children, add to concerns about potential adverse effects of industry-related exposures in the Viadana district. Citation: Marcon A, Fracasso ME, Marchetti P, Doria D, Girardi P, Guarda L, Pesce G, Pironi V, Ricci P, de Marco R. 2014. Outdoor

  10. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  11. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Sam Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  12. The modifying effect of the building envelope on population exposure to PM2.5 from outdoor sources

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J; Shrubsole, C; Davies, M; Biddulph, P; Das, P; Hamilton, I; Vardoulakis, S; Mavrogianni, A; Jones, B; Oikonomou, E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have estimated population exposure to PM2.5 by examining modeled or measured outdoor PM2.5 levels. However, few have taken into account the mediating effects of building characteristics on the ingress of PM2.5 from outdoor sources and its impact on population exposure in the indoor domestic environment. This study describes how building simulation can be used to determine the indoor concentration of outdoor-sourced pollution for different housing typologies and how the results can be mapped using building stock models and Geographical Information Systems software to demonstrate the modifying effect of dwellings on occupant exposure to PM2.5 across London. Building archetypes broadly representative of those in the Greater London Authority were simulated for pollution infiltration using EnergyPlus. In addition, the influence of occupant behavior on indoor levels of PM2.5 from outdoor sources was examined using a temperature-dependent window-opening scenario. Results demonstrate a range of I/O ratios of PM2.5, with detached and semi-detached dwellings most vulnerable to high levels of infiltration. When the results are mapped, central London shows lower I/O ratios of PM2.5 compared with outer London, an apparent inversion of exposure most likely caused by the prevalence of flats rather than detached or semi-detached properties. PMID:24713025

  13. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta; Lindelöf, Bernt; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2(nd) , 5(th) and 8(th) graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. Exposures correlated with the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment.

  14. ESTIMATING CONTRIBUTIONS OF OUTDOOR FINE PARTICLES TO INDOOR CONCENTRATIONS AND PERSONAL EXPOSURES: EFFECTS OF HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND PERSONAL ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM2.5 and associated elements has been carried out for 37 residents of the Research Triangle Park area in North Carolina. Participants were monitored for 7 consecutive days in each of four seasons. One goal of the ...

  15. CONTRIBUTION OF FINE PARTICLES OF OUTDOOR ORIGIN TO PERSONAL EXPOSURES: RESULTS OF A 37-PERSON PANEL STUDY IN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA carried out a study of personal exposures to PM2.5 for 37 persons with hypertension or cardiovascular disease in North Carolina. Personal, indoor (home) and outdoor (home and central site) 24-h samples were collected for 7 consecutive days in each of four seasons in...

  16. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    PubMed

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  17. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts. PMID:26633448

  18. Personal exposure to PM 2.5 and element composition—A comparison between outdoor and indoor workers from two Mexican cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence; Blanco, Salvador

    Many individuals work outdoors in the formal and informal economy of the large urban areas in developing countries, where they are potentially exposed for long periods to high concentrations of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). This study describes the personal exposures to PM of 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter and smaller (PM 2.5) for a sample of outdoor and indoor workers in two cities, Mexico City and Puebla, in central Mexico. Thirty-six workers in Mexico City and 17 in Puebla were studied. Thirty were outdoor workers (i.e., taxi and bus drivers, street vendors, and vehicle inspectors) and 23 were indoor (office) workers. Their personal exposures to PM 2.5 were monitored for a mean 19-h period. In Mexico City, the street vendors and taxi drivers overall exposures were significantly higher than indoor workers were. In Puebla, bus drivers had a higher overall exposure than vehicle inspectors or indoor workers. Most of the exposures were above the 65 μg m -3 24-h Mexican standard. In Mexico City, exposures to Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and Cd were higher for outdoor than for indoor workers. In Puebla, exposures to Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, and Zn also were higher for outdoor workers. In Mexico City outdoor workers exposures to Cu, Pb, Cr, Se and Mo were 4 or more times higher than for Puebla outdoor workers, while Puebla outdoor workers' exposures to V, Si, Fe and Ca were 3 or more times higher than Mexico City outdoor workers. These results suggest that for these outdoor workers the elevated local ambient air PM concentrations and an extended period spent outside are more important contributors to total exposures than indoor concentrations. These workers could be at particular risk of increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient PM.

  19. Association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and problem drinking among African American women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and current problem drinking among 139 African American women aged 21 to 49 years in Central Harlem, New York City. We found that exposure to advertisements was positively related to problem drinking (13% greater odds), even after we controlled for a family history of alcohol problems and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that the density of alcohol advertisements in predominantly African American neighborhoods may add to problem drinking behavior of their residents.

  20. The NREL Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System and Photovoltaic Module Exposure Results

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.

    1998-10-31

    This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52 x 1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was '' 15% for a clear-sky summer day with '' 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40{sup o} up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OAT S

  1. The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.S.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52{times}1.83&hthinsp;m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was {plus_minus}15{percent} for a clear-sky summer day with {plus_minus} 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m{sup 2} of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40{degree} up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13{percent} TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95{percent} compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when

  2. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Methods. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. Results. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA. PMID:27924689

  3. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96.

  4. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on Experiential Qualities of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found. PMID:21139858

  5. Long-term exposure of adults to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased airway obstruction and higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Jammres, Y.; Delpierre, S.; Burnet, H.; Delvolgo, M.J.; Humbert-Tena, C.

    1998-11-01

    The authors studied the association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the severity of obstructive pulmonary disease and prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to {beta}2 agonists in two groups of adult patients who were of similar ages and who had similar smoking habits. The subjects lived in downtown districts or in the outer suburbs of Marseilles, the neighborhood that contained air samplers. The regions were similar with respect to sulfur dioxide levels, but levels of nitric oxides and particulate matter were higher in the downtown area than the suburbs. The authors assessed airway obstruction, as determined by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, mean forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of vital capacity, and an elevated value of central airway resistance. The authors tested the changes in these variables induced by inhalation of a {beta}2 agonist. Baseline lung function was altered more significantly in both male and female patients who lived in downtown Marseilles than in those who resided in the suburbs, and the differences persisted regardless of the season during which the study occurred. Prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity and symptoms of asthma were higher in the downtown than suburban male subjects. The results of this study suggest that an association exists between actual environmental exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory effects in sensitive adults represented by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.

  6. Population inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk in Beijing region: Contributions of indoor and outdoor sources and exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic air pollutants in China. Efforts in assessing population inhalation exposure to PAHs, and its contribution to lung cancer risk for Chinese residents, have been limited due to insufficient data on measured indoor concentrations. A mass-balance model to predict indoor PAH concentrations was developed, along with estimated exposures and attributable lung cancer risks for residents in the Beijing region in 2006, with a 2-stage Monte Carlo simulation framework. The exposures and risks were split into three parts, based on the sources and places of exposure, to estimate the contributions of indoor and outdoor PAH sources and exposures, in order to better understand the source and place pattern of PAH exposure. PAHs bring considerable lung cancer risk to the population of Beijing region. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of lung cancer for Beijing's overall population is 2.99% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71%-4.26%]. Median contribution of indoor exposure to outdoor-originated PAHs (OUT-in) is 78% (CI: 73%-81%) in the overall population, for 97% (CI: 94%-99%) of whom OUT-in is the largest contributor. Rural residents are facing considerable exposure to indoor-originated PAHs (IN-in), which dominates the total exposure in 12% (CI: 2%-24%) of the rural population. This model framework could be used in quantitative comparison of different interventions on exposure to PAHs as well as other airborne pollutants.

  7. Metamorphosis of two amphibian species after chronic cadmium exposure in outdoor aquatic mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian larvae at contaminated sites may experience an alteration of metamorphic traits and survival compared to amphibians in uncontaminated conditions. Effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the metamorphosis of American toads (Bufo americanus) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) were determined. The two species were reared separately from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms (1,325-L polyethylene cattle tanks) that simulated natural ponds and enhanced environmental realism relative to the laboratory. Both species exhibited a decrease in survival with increasing initial nominal aqueous Cd concentration. Cadmium treatment did not influence mass at metamorphosis for either species when survival was included as a covariate, but increased the age at metamorphosis for the American toads. The whole body Cd content of metamorphs increased with aqueous Cd treatment level for both species, and the American toads tended to possess more elevated residues. Cadmium quickly partitioned out of the water column and accumulated in and altered the abundance of the tadpoles' diet. Cadmium-contaminated sites may produce fewer metamorphs, and those that survive will metamorphose later and contain Cd. Interspecific differences in the response variables illustrate the importance of testing multiple species when assessing risk. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  8. Statistical perturbations in personal exposure meters caused by the human body in dynamic outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Begoña; Blas, Juan; Lorenzo, Rubén M; Fernández, Patricia; Abril, Evaristo J

    2011-04-01

    Personal exposure meters (PEM) are routinely used for the exposure assessment to radio frequency electric or magnetic fields. However, their readings are subject to errors associated with perturbations of the fields caused by the presence of the human body. This paper presents a novel analysis method for the characterization of this effect. Using ray-tracing techniques, PEM measurements have been emulated, with and without an approximation of this shadowing effect. In particular, the Global System for Mobile Communication mobile phone frequency band was chosen for its ubiquity and, specifically, we considered the case where the subject is walking outdoors in a relatively open area. These simulations have been contrasted with real PEM measurements in a 35-min walk. Results show a good agreement in terms of root mean square error and E-field cumulative distribution function (CDF), with a significant improvement when the shadowing effect is taken into account. In particular, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test provides a P-value of 0.05 when considering the shadowing effect, versus a P-value of 10⁻¹⁴ when this effect is ignored. In addition, although the E-field levels in the absence of a human body have been found to follow a Nakagami distribution, a lognormal distribution fits the statistics of the PEM values better than the Nakagami distribution. As a conclusion, although the mean could be adjusted by using correction factors, there are also other changes in the CDF that require particular attention due to the shadowing effect because they might lead to a systematic error.

  9. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure.

    PubMed

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper "Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure" (Kichou et al., 2016) [1].

  10. Probable Health Risks Due to Exposure to Outdoor PM2.5 in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S.; Chowdhury, S.

    2014-12-01

    . 52.1% of the additional mortality is attributed to COPD, while the corresponding numbers for stroke, IHD and LC are 19.3%, 25.2% and 3.4% respectively. In absolute terms, an additional 0.6 million (with an uncertainty of ±20%) mortality per year is estimated in India due to exposure to outdoor PM2.5 in the last decade.

  11. Actual and Potential Radiation Exposures in Digital Radiology: Analysis of Cumulative Data, Implications to Worker Classification and Occupational Exposure Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Mika; Siiskonen, Teemu; Kelaranta, Anna; Lappalainen, Kimmo

    2016-04-21

    Radiation worker categorization and exposure monitoring are principal functions of occupational radiation safety. The aim of this study was to use the actual occupational exposure data in a large university hospital to estimate the frequency and magnitude of potential exposures in radiology. The additional aim was to propose a revised categorization and exposure monitoring practice based on the potential exposures. The cumulative probability distribution was calculated from the normalized integral of the probability density function fitted to the exposure data. Conformity of the probabilistic model was checked against 16 years of national monitoring data. The estimated probabilities to exceed annual effective dose limits of 1 mSv, 6 mSv and 20 mSv were 1:1000, 1:20 000 and 1:200 000, respectively. Thus, it is very unlikely that the class A categorization limit of 6 mSv could be exceeded, even in interventional procedures, with modern equipment and appropriate working methods. Therefore, all workers in diagnostic and interventional radiology could be systematically categorized into class B. Furthermore, current personal monitoring practice could be replaced by use of active personal dosemeters that offer more effective and flexible means to optimize working methods.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability in outdoor, indoor, and personal PM 2.5 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adgate, J. L.; Ramachandran, G.; Pratt, G. C.; Waller, L. A.; Sexton, K.

    Outdoor, indoor and personal PM 2.5 measurements were made in a population of nonsmoking adults from three communities in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area between April and November 1999. Thirty-two healthy adult subjects (23 females, 9 males; mean age 42±10, range: 24-64 yr) were monitored for 2-15 days during the spring, summer, and fall monitoring seasons. Twenty-four hour average gravimetric PM 2.5 samples were collected using a federal reference monitor (Anderson RAAS2.5-300) located at outdoor (O) central sites in the Battle Creek (BCK), East St. Paul (ESP) and Phillips (PHI) communities. Concurrent 24-h average indoor (I) and personal (P), and a limited number of outdoor-at-home (O@H) samples were collected using inertial impactors (PEM™ Model 200, MSP, Inc). The O (geometric mean {GM}=8.6; n=271; range: 1.0-41 μg/m 3) were lower than I concentrations (GM=10.7; n=294; range 1.3-131 μg/m 3), which were lower than P concentrations (GM=19.0; n=332; range 2.2-298 μg/m 3). Correlation coefficients between O concentrations in the three communities were high and measured GM O levels in BCK were significantly lower than ESP, most likely because of local sources, but GM concentrations in PHI were not significantly different from BCK or ESP. On days with paired samples ( n=29), O concentrations were significantly lower (mean difference 2.9 μg/m 3; p=0.026) than O@H measurements (GM=11.3; range: 3.5-33.8 μg/m 3), likely due to local sources in communities. Observed I and P concentrations were more variable, probably because of residential central air conditioning and hours of household ventilation for I and P, and occupational and environmental tobacco smoke exposures outside the residence for P. Across all individuals and days the median PM 2.5 "personal cloud" was 5.7 μg/m 3, but the mean of the average for each participant was 15.7 μg/m 3, with very low values in participants who did not work outside the home and much higher values in subjects

  13. Short-term dynamics of indoor and outdoor endotoxin exposure: Case of Santiago, Chile, 2012.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Heyer, Johanna; Palma, Wilfredo; Edwards, Ana María; Muñoz, Marcelo; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Montoya, Lupita D

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor endotoxin in PM2.5 was measured for the very first time in Santiago, Chile, in spring 2012. Average endotoxin concentrations were 0.099 and 0.094 [EU/m(3)] for indoor (N=44) and outdoor (N=41) samples, respectively; the indoor-outdoor correlation (log-transformed concentrations) was low: R=-0.06, 95% CI: (-0.35 to 0.24), likely owing to outdoor spatial variability. A linear regression model explained 68% of variability in outdoor endotoxins, using as predictors elemental carbon (a proxy of traffic emissions), chlorine (a tracer of marine air masses reaching the city) and relative humidity (a modulator of surface emissions of dust, vegetation and garbage debris). In this study, for the first time a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was applied to outdoor endotoxin measurements. Wind trajectory analysis identified upwind agricultural sources as contributors to the short-term, outdoor endotoxin variability. Our results confirm an association between combustion particles from traffic and outdoor endotoxin concentrations. For indoor endotoxins, a predictive model was developed but it only explained 44% of endotoxin variability; the significant predictors were tracers of indoor PM2.5 dust (Si, Ca), number of external windows and number of hours with internal doors open. Results suggest that short-term indoor endotoxin variability may be driven by household dust/garbage production and handling. This would explain the modest predictive performance of published models that use answers to household surveys as predictors. One feasible alternative is to increase the sampling period so that household features would arise as significant predictors of long-term airborne endotoxin levels.

  14. Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monn, Christian

    This review describes databases of small-scale spatial variations and indoor, outdoor and personal measurements of air pollutants with the main focus on suspended particulate matter, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen dioxide and photochemical pollutants. The basic definitions and concepts of an exposure measurement are introduced as well as some study design considerations and implications of imprecise exposure measurements. Suspended particulate matter is complex with respect to particle size distributions, the chemical composition and its sources. With respect to small-scale spatial variations in urban areas, largest variations occur in the ultrafine (<0.1 μm) and the coarse mode (PM 10-2.5, resuspended dust). Secondary aerosols which contribute to the accumulation mode (0.1-2 μm) show quite homogenous spatial distribution. In general, small-scale spatial variations of PM 2.5 were described to be smaller than the spatial variations of PM 10. Recent studies in outdoor air show that ultrafine particle number counts have large spatial variations and that they are not well correlated to mass data. Sources of indoor particles are from outdoors and some specific indoor sources such as smoking and cooking for fine particles or moving of people (resuspension of dust) for coarse particles. The relationships between indoor, outdoor and personal levels are complex. The finer the particle size, the better becomes the correlation between indoor, outdoor and personal levels. Furthermore, correlations between these parameters are better in longitudinal analyses than in cross-sectional analyses. For NO 2 and O 3, the air chemistry is important. Both have considerable small-scale spatial variations within urban areas. In the absence of indoor sources such as gas appliances, NO 2 indoor/outdoor relationships are strong. For ozone, indoor levels are quite small. The study hypothesis largely determines the choice of a specific concept in exposure assessment, i.e. whether personal

  15. Passive Sampling for Indoor and Outdoor Exposures to Chlorpyrifos, Azinphos-Methyl, and Oxygen Analogs in a Rural Agricultural Community

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jenna L.; Yost, Michael G.; Negrete, Maria; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    oxygen analogs in air and highlight their potential for infiltration of indoor living environments. Citation: Gibbs JL, Yost MG, Negrete M, Fenske RA. 2017. Passive sampling for indoor and outdoor exposures to chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs in a rural agricultural community. Environ Health Perspect 125:333–341; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP425 PMID:27517732

  16. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper “Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure” (Kichou et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977439

  17. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J.

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  18. CORRELATIONS OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES WITH OUTDOOR AIR MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW OF RECENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have found a correlation between daily mortality and particle concentrations in outdoor air as measured at a central monitoring station. These studies have been the central reason for the U.S. EPA to propose new tighter particle standards. However, perso...

  19. The NREL Outdoor Accelerated-Weathering Tracking System Photovoltaic Module Exposure Results

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    Status results are presented for the Outdoor Accelerated-Weathering Tracking System (OATS) first study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. Studies began in November 1997 on pairs of commercially available crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV modules kept at constant resistive load.

  20. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM2.5 EXPOSURE. (R827928)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor, indoor and personal PM2.5 measurements were made in a population of nonsmoking adults from three communities in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area between April and November 1999. Thirty-two healthy adult subjects (23 females, 9 males; mean a...

  1. Assessing Spatial and Temporal Variability of VOCs and PM-Components in Outdoor Air during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure models for air pollutants often adjust for effects of the physical environment (e.g., season, urban vs. rural populations) in order to improve exposure and risk predictions. Yet attempts are seldom made to attribute variability in observed outdoor air measurements to spe...

  2. Effect of outdoor exposure at ambient and elevated temperatures on fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution treated and aged condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution-treated and aged heat-treatment condition were exposed outdoors at ambient and 560 K (550 F) temperatures to determine the effect of outdoor exposure on fatigue life. Effects of exposure were determined by comparing fatigue lives of exposed specimens to those of unexpected specimens. Two procedures for fatigue testing the exposed specimens were evaluated: (1) fatigue tests conducted outdoors by applying 1200 load cycles per week until failure occurred and (2) conventional fatigue tests (continuous cycling until failure occurred) conducted indoors after outdoor exposure under static load. The exposure period ranged from 9 to 28 months for the outdoor fatigue-test group and was 24 months for the static-load group. All fatigue tests were constant-amplitude bending of specimens containing a drilled hole (stress concentration factor of 1.6). The results of the tests indicate that the fatigue lives of solution-treated and aged specimens were significantly reduced by the outdoor exposure at 560 K but not by the exposure at ambient temperature. Fatigue lives of the annealed specimens were essentially unaffected by the outdoor exposure at either temperature. The two test procedures - outdoor fatigue test and indoor fatigue test after outdoor exposure - led to the same conclusions about exposure effects.

  3. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  4. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  5. Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: an improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Zhou, Bin; Kan, Haidong; Zhao, Bin

    2013-11-01

    People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles.

  6. Fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish life-stage responses to 17β-estradiol exposure in outdoor mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Rearick, Daniel C.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental and reproductive effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on two generations of fathead minnows and one generation of bluegill sunfish were assessed. Fish were exposed to E2 for six continuous weeks in outdoor mesocosms simulating natural lake environments. First generation fish were exposed while sexually mature. Second generation fathead minnows were exposed either during early development, sexual maturity, or both stages. Multiple endpoints were measured to assess effects of E2 exposure on fecundity and fish health and development. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations were highly variable in all fish. Differences in egg production timing for both species indicate differences in fecundity between females exposed to E2 and controls. First generation fathead minnows exposed to E2 had lower body condition factors and reduced secondary sexual characteristic expression by males. Only a difference in relative liver weight was observed in second generation fathead minnows. First generation bluegill males exposed to E2 had significantly smaller testes compared to controls. Although fish response was highly variable, results indicate that exposure to E2 at environmentally relevant concentrations affect fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish health and development, which may have implications for the health and sustainability of fish populations. Furthermore, exposure timing and environmental factors affect fish response to E2 exposure.

  7. Windsor, Ontario exposure assessment study: design and methods validation of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Xu, Xiaohong; Kulka, Ryan; You, Hongyu; Wallace, Lance; Mallach, Gary; Van Ryswyk, Keith; MacNeill, Morgan; Kearney, Jill; Rasmussen, Pat E; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Wang, Daniel; Poon, Raymond; Williams, Ron; Stocco, Corinne; Anastassopoulos, Angelos; Miller, J David; Dales, Robert; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures upon asthmatic children's respiratory health was assessed. Several active and passive sampling methods were applied, or adapted, for personal, indoor, and outdoor residential monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter (PM; PM-2.5 pm [PM2.5] and < or =10 microm [PM10] in aerodynamic diameter), elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, ozone, air exchange rates, allergens in settled dust, and particulate-associated metals. Participants completed five consecutive days of monitoring during the winter and summer of 2005 and 2006. During 2006, in addition to undertaking the air pollution measurements, asthmatic children completed respiratory health measurements (including peak flow meter tests and exhaled breath condensate) and tracked respiratory symptoms in a diary. Extensive quality assurance and quality control steps were implemented, including the collocation of instruments at the National Air Pollution Surveillance site operated by Environment Canada and at the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality site in Allen Park, Detroit, MI. During field sampling, duplicate and blank samples were also completed and these data are reported. In total, 50 adults and 51 asthmatic children were recruited to participate, resulting in 922 participant days of data. When comparing the methods used in the study with standard reference methods, field blanks were low and bias was acceptable, with most methods being within 20% of reference methods. Duplicates were typically within less than 10% of each other, indicating that study results can be used with confidence. This paper covers study design, recruitment, methodology, time activity diary, surveys, and quality

  8. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) for elderl...

  9. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health Effects and Ecological Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous...

  10. Assessment of microbial exposure risks from handling of biofuel wood chips and straw--effect of outdoor storage.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Aleksandra; Madsen, Anne Mette; Martensson, Lennart; Pomorska, Dorota; Larsson, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Handling of biofuels may release dust particles containing high concentrations of Hazardous microorganisms, thus representing a potential occupational health problem. We analysed the microbial dustiness of baled straw (cultivated both conventionally and ecologically) and of wood chips from piles that had been stored outdoors for up to 11 months by using total spore counting, cultivation, and measuring of endotoxin and chemical markers of fungal biomass, lipopolysaccharide, and peptidoglycan. The bacterial dustiness of straw was much greater than of wood chips whereas the fungal dustiness did not differ much. In general, samples taken from the inner part of each biofuel material were dustier than samples taken from the surface, except for fungal and bacterial biomass in wood chips and total fungi and fungal biomass in ecological straw. A considerable increase of bacterial dustiness occurred during storage over summer. Dust from ecological straw contained considerably less of bacterial components than from conventional straw and, in addition, exhibited a less pronounced increase upon storage over summer. In summary, biofuels represent sustainable energy resources of growing economic importance but may at the same time pose significant health problems. We found that storage of biofuels outdoors over summer increased the microbiological dustiness and should therefore be avoided, and that ecological straw contained less of microbe-containing dust than conventional straw and should be preferred since it reduces the exposure to harmful microbiological agents.

  11. Effects of outdoor exposure on solar cell modules in the ERDA/NASA Lewis Research Center Systems Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Curtis, H. B.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of outdoor exposure were determined by comparing standard I-V data obtained for the as-received modules with similar data obtained after removal from the field and cleaning with detergent solution. All modules measured in this way exhibited nonrecoverable degradation in P sub maximum varying from 4 to 7 percent. One module exposed for 41 days exhibited partial cell discoloration, loss of front surface metallization over the discolored portion, and a decrease in P sub maximum of 7 percent, tentatively attributed to cell damage. Measurements before and after cleaning showed a recoverable degradation due to dirt accumulation. This recoverable loss in power was 11 percent after 245 days in the field for one brand of module, 6 percent after 48 days for another brand, and 4 1/2 percent for the third brand.

  12. Simulating Real-World Exposures during Emergency Events: Studying Effects of Indoor and Outdoor Releases in the Urban Dispersion Project in Upper Manhattan, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prospective personal exposure study, involving indoor and outdoor releases, was conducted in upper Midtown Manhattan in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) focusing on atmospheric dispersion of chemicals in complex urban settings. The UDP experiments inv...

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

  14. INDOOR/OUTDOOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION RATIOS DURING THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES AS A FUNCTION OF SIZE, SEASON, AND TIME OF DAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1999 Fresno particulate matter exposure studies tools place in February (winter season) and April/May (spring season) for two periods of four weeks. During that time, near-continuous measurements of indoor and outdoor aerosol concentrations were made with a scanning mobilit...

  15. Personal exposure monitoring of PM2.5 in indoor and outdoor microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E; Semple, Sean; Twigg, Marsailidh M; Braban, Christine F; Leeson, Sarah R; Heal, Mathew R; Harrison, David; Lin, Chun; Wu, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution are a global challenge and of widespread concern. Recent high ambient concentration episodes of air pollutants in European cities highlighted the dynamic nature of human exposure and the gaps in data and knowledge about exposure patterns. In order to support health impact assessment it is essential to develop a better understanding of individual exposure pathways in people's everyday lives by taking account of all environments in which people spend time. Here we describe the development, validation and results of an exposure method applied in a study conducted in Scotland. A low-cost particle counter based on light-scattering technology - the Dylos 1700 was used. Its performance was validated in comparison with equivalent instruments (TEOM-FDMS) at two national monitoring network sites (R(2)=0.9 at a rural background site, R(2)=0.7 at an urban background site). This validation also provided two functions to convert measured PNCs into calculated particle mass concentrations for direct comparison of concentrations with equivalent monitoring instruments and air quality limit values. This study also used contextual and time-based activity data to define six microenvironments (MEs) to assess everyday exposure of individuals to short-term PM2.5 concentrations. The Dylos was combined with a GPS receiver to track movement and exposure of individuals across the MEs. Seventeen volunteers collected 35 profiles. Profiles may have a different overall duration and structure with respect to times spent in different MEs and activities undertaken. Results indicate that due to the substantial variability across and between MEs, it is essential to measure near-complete exposure pathways to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the exposure risk a person encounters on a daily basis. Taking into account the information gained through personal exposure measurements, this work demonstrates the added value of data generated by the

  16. Levels of outdoor PM 2.5, absorbance and sulphur as surrogates for personal exposures among post-myocardial infarction patients in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Lanki, Timo; Sunyer, Jordi; Cabrera, Laia; Querol, Xavier; Bellander, Tom; Moreno, Natalia; Peters, Annette; Pey, Jorge; Pekkanen, Juha

    Outdoor levels of fine particles (PM 2.5; particles <2.5 μm) have been associated with cardiovascular health. Persons with existing cardiovascular disease have been suggested to be especially vulnerable. It is unclear, how well outdoor concentrations of PM 2.5 and its constituents measured at a central site reflect personal exposures in Southern European countries. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between outdoor and personal concentrations of PM 2.5, absorbance and sulphur among post-myocardial infarction patients in Barcelona, Spain. Thirty-eight subjects carried personal PM 2.5 monitors for 24-h once a month (2-6 repeated measurements) between November 2003 and June 2004. PM 2.5 was measured also at a central outdoor monitoring site. Light absorbance (a proxy for elemental carbon) and sulphur content of filter samples were determined as markers of combustion originating and long-range transported PM 2.5, respectively. There were 110, 162 and 88 measurements of PM 2.5, absorbance and sulphur, respectively. Levels of outdoor PM 2.5 (median 17 μg m 3) were lower than personal PM 2.5 even after excluding days with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (median after exclusion 27 μg m 3). However, outdoor concentrations of absorbance and sulphur were similar to personal concentrations after exclusion of ETS. When repeated measurements were taken into account, there was a statistically significant association between personal and outdoor absorbance when adjusting for ETS (slope 0.66, p<0.001), but for PM 2.5 the association was weaker (slope 0.51, p=0.066). Adjustment for ETS had little effect on the respective association of S (slope 0.69, p<0.001). Our results suggest that outdoor measurements of absorbance and sulphur can be used to estimate both the daily variation and levels of personal exposures also in Southern European countries, especially when exposure to ETS has been taken into account. For PM 2.5, indoor sources need to

  17. Association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in China: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Yang, Chunxue; Li, Jianxin; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Bingheng; Gu, Dongfeng; Kan, Haidong

    2011-02-28

    No prior cohort studies exist in China examining the association of outdoor air pollution with mortality. We studied 70,947 middle-aged men and women in the China National Hypertension Survey and its follow-up study. Baseline data were obtained in 1991 using a standard protocol. The follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999 and 2000. Annual average air pollution exposure between 1991 and 2000, including total suspended particle (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with resident zip code. We examined the association of air pollution with mortality using proportional hazards regression model. We found significant associations between air pollution levels and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases and from lung cancer. Each 10 μg/m(3) elevation of TSP, SO(2) and NO(x) was associated with a 0.9% (95%CI: 0.3%, 1.5%), 3.2% (95%CI: 2.3%, 4.0%), and 2.3% (95%CI: 0.6%, 4.1%) increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, respectively. We found significant effects of SO(2) on mortality after adjustment for TSP. Conclusively, ambient air pollution was associated with increased cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality in China. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  18. Outdoor NO 2 and benzene exposure in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguirre-Alfaro, Amelia; Herce-Garraleta, Ma Dolores; Tardón, Adonina

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been linked to a wide range of negative health effects. NO 2, a traffic pollution marker, and benzene, an industrial pollution indicator, stand out among the types of air pollution linked to these effects. The aim of this work is to show the methodology used to assign exposure levels for both pollutants and preliminary reports in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort in Spain. This cohort consists of 494 pregnant women and their children, who have been recruited and followed since 2004. Air pollution levels were measured at 67 points by means of passive samplers. The mean NO 2 measured value was 21.2 μg m -3 (range 3.5 μg m -3 to 44.5 μg m -3), and the mean benzene value was 2.72 μg m -3 (range 0.18 μg m -3 to 9.17 μg m -3) at urban sampling points and 0.64 μg m -3 (range 0.04 μg m -3 to 2.62 μg m -3) in rural locations. The Pearson correlation coefficient among pollutants was 0.42. Land Use Regression models were built to predict exposure at the homes of pregnant women. Altitude, road distances and land use were part of the models. The percent of explained variance was 52% for NO 2 and 73% for benzene in the urban zones. No residual autocorrelation was found. Predictions were corrected based on the Air Quality Network of the Principality of Asturias taking into account pregnancy seasonality. Exposure indicators were determined for each term and for the entire pregnancy for each woman. Values for urban locations were higher than those for rural and benzene estimations for 5% of the cohort women were above the European Union annual limit value. Air pollution exposure for the INMA-Asturias cohort clearly depends on the place of residence. In particular, benzene concentrations are remarkably high if an individual lives in an urban and industrial area, which is an issue of management intervention and regulatory concern. Exposure assessment for different pollutants will allow us to evaluate potential

  19. Characterization of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor dust of e-waste workshops: implication for on-site human exposure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Yangcheng; Wang, Junxia; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Wang, Jinfu; Pan, Bishu; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-04-01

    Forty-four indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected from e-waste workshops and were analyzed to characterize the heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) as well as on-site human exposure. The results showed that the most abundant Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congener from three sites was deca-BDE, and it was penta-BDE for the other site. A significant and positive association was found between BDE-209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). The high percentage of nona-BDE indicated the debromination of deca-BDE during e-waste recycling. The ratio comparison of BDE-47 to (BDE-100 + BDE-99) indicated that the outdoor dust went through more physiochemical processes. The enrichment factors for Cu and Pb were high in both the indoor and outdoor samples. Cd significantly exceeded the Chinese soil guideline grade III. The PCA results combined with the enrichment factor (EF) values suggested common sources and behaviours of Cu, Pb and Sb in the indoor dust. Co, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn in the outdoor samples were more likely affected by crust. Strong correlations were found only for Pb and Sb with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The hazard index for on-site human exposure to Pb was at a chronic risk. Despite the low deleterious risk of BFRs, concern should be given to DBDPE; the chronic toxicity of which is not known.

  20. Assessment of physical education time and after-school outdoor time in elementary and middle school students in south Mexico City: the dilemma between physical fitness and the adverse health effects of outdoor pollutant exposure.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Acuña, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Jessica; Garduño, Mónica; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos F; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo

    2002-01-01

    Strategies to promote lifelong physical activity among children are needed to stem the adverse health consequences of inactivity. However, the health effects in growing children of long-term exposure to a polluted atmosphere are of deep concern. The atmosphere of south Mexico City (SMC) is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Radiological evidence suggests that small-airway disease could be present in clinically healthy, tobacco unexposed SMC children. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of a self-reported questionnaire, the physical education class times, daily outdoor after-school exposure time, and tobacco exposure in students attending public elementary and middle schools in SMC. Additionally, the time each student spent viewing television was assessed, and the authors measured each student's weight and height to determine body mass index (BMI, weight in kg divided by height in m2). The survey included 1,159 students in grades 7-9. The authors identified 2 critical periods of outdoor exposure in SMC children that coincided with significant concentrations of both ozone and particulate matter with diameters less than 10 micrometers (PM10): during school time after 11:00 A.M. and in the after-school outdoor activity period, usually extending from 1:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Thirty-two percent of elementary and 61% of middle school students have physical education classes after 11:00 A.M. Students in SMC spend an average of 19.6 hr/wk outdoors in the after-school period, during which time they are engaged in light to moderate physical activities. Half of the students are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, and 7% of middle school students smoke. On the basis of BMI, 60% of students were classified as undernourished, overweight, or obese. No correlations were found between BMI and time spent viewing TV, time outdoors (on weekdays and weekends), or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

  1. Comparison of the effect of outdoor exposure on the optical properties of solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dake, L.S.; Lind, M.A.; Maag, C.R.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of outdoor exposure on solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials are assessed and compared. The encapsulant materials tested included glasses, polymers and silicones. Samples of the materials were placed on stationary exposure racks in six locations that represented urban, desert, oceanside and high altitude mountain areas. Samples were removed periodically for optical characterizations. The spectral hemispherical and diffuse reflectance of the mirror samples and the spectral hemispherical transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the encapsulant materials was measured. The relative normal hemispherical transmittance of the encapsulant materials was measured. Correlations between the glass and mirror data showed that the average diffuse reflectance losses were six times larger for the mirrors than for the glass samples. The average specular reflectance losses for the mirror samples were seven times as large as the average hemispherical transmittance losses for the glass samples. These correlations may enable one to predict the performance of mirrors made using the other encapsulant materials for superstrates. It was found that the urban and oceanside sites were the dirtiest, while the desert and mountain sites were the cleanest. Average specular reflectance losses varied from 4% at the cleanest site to 50% at the dirtiest site. The range in hemispherical transmittance losses for the encapsulant materials varied between 0% and 6%. At one site, the average daily specular reflectance losses were .04% for the mirror samples and average daily hemispherical transmittance losses were about .01% for the glass samples. The polymer materials degraded somewhat more rapidly than the glasses, and the silicones irreversible degraded too rapidly and severely to be useful for either photovoltaic or solar thermal applications.

  2. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque) exposure to three novel brominated flame retardants in outdoor mesocosms: bioaccumulation and biotransformation.

    PubMed

    de Jourdan, Benjamin P; Hanson, Mark L; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R

    2014-05-01

    The phaseout of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has prompted the search for appropriate substitutes. These substitutes, referred to as novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), are poorly characterized in terms of their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. The authors assessed the bioaccumulation potential of 3 non-PBDE brominated flame retardants: 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropylether) (TBBPA-BDBPE), and BZ-54, a mixture of bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate) (BEH-TEBP) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB). Replicate outdoor aquatic mesocosms were treated individually at concentrations designed to give a maximum load of 500 ng/g of flame retardant in the upper 5 cm of the sediment. Caged fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, 24 fish per replicate) were introduced to each mesocosm and acclimated for 10 d prior to exposure. The exposure period was 42 d, followed by 28 d of depuration after transfer to a control mesocosm, during which physical, reproductive, and biochemical end points were examined. Tissue samples were taken to measure the accumulation, depuration, and biotransformation of NBFRs. Fathead minnows were observed to accumulate, after growth adjustment, BTBPE (16-4203 ng/g lipid) and TBBPA-BDBPE (>1000 ng/g lipid) but with a lack of consistent accumulation observed for EH-TBB and BEH-TEBP. However, limited biologically meaningful or consistent responses were observed in the monitored physical, reproductive, and biochemical parameters. Fathead minnows from each treatment exhibited several brominated transformation products. The authors conclude that these NBFRs have the potential to be bioaccumulative and persistent in vivo and, therefore, warrant further study of physiological effects linked to chronic, sublethal responses.

  3. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  4. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia

    PubMed Central

    Gidlow, Christopher J.; Martínez, David; de Bont, Jeroen; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Jones, Marc V.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i) the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii) the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii) the possible mechanisms explaining these effects. Material and methods People (n = 26) with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park), blue (Castelldefels beach) and urban (Eixample neighbourhood) environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes) and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD), attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task), stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF), and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF). We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience. Results When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79) points

  5. Assessment of relative exposure of minority and low-income groups to outdoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    A diverse research effort, conducted by both federal agencies and scholars in academia, has addressed the issue of environmental justice. Recent environmental justice studies have generally focused on the demographics of areas close to hazardous waste facilities; landfills; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) sites; and Superfund sites. Recent efforts at the federal and state levels to determine risk-related priorities in allocating resources for research and remediation have found that hazardous wastes present much lower health effect risks than air pollution does. Past research findings, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed disproportionately high levels of substandard air quality exposure for minority and low-income populations. This study is a continuation of that earlier research.

  6. Real time outdoor exposure testing of solar cell modules and component materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic samples, solar cell modules, and sub-modules were exposed at test sites in Florida, Arizona, Puerto Rico, and Cleveland, Ohio, in order to determine materials suitable for use in solar cell modules with a proposed 20-year lifetime. Various environments were encountered including subtropical, subtropical with a sea air atmosphere, desert, rain forest, normal urban, and urban-polluted. The samples were exposed for periods up to six months. Materials found not suitable were polyurethane, polyester, Kapton, Mylar, and UV-stabilized Lexan. Suitable materials were acrylic, FEP-A, and glass. The results of exposure of polyvinylidene fluoride were dependent on the specific formulation, but several types appear suitable. RTV silicone rubber (clear) appears to pick up and hold dirt both as a free film and as a potting medium for modules. The results indicate that dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

  7. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  8. The Effect of Chlorides on the Correlation of Accelerated Laboratory Corrosion Tests to Out-Door Exposure Tests for Ceramics-Aluminum Couples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Kilauea Volcano * Campbell Industrial Park* – Volcanic and marine...T6 Al Kilauea Kahuku Coconut Island Manoa Campbell Waipahu Ewanui Mauna Loa C o rr o s io n r a te s a t th e i n te rf a c e r e g io n ( g m d...and Discussion Kilauea Kahuku Coconut Island Manoa Campbell Waipahu Ewa Nui Mauna Loa Marine Outdoor Exposure (3 Months) • Effect of test

  9. Indoor and outdoor exposure to ultrafine, fine and microbiologically derived particulate matter related to cardiovascular and respiratory effects in a panel of elderly urban citizens.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Madsen, Anne Mette; Ketzel, Matthias; Massling, Andreas; Gunnarsen, Lars; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2015-02-02

    To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF), lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein-D (SPD) were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC), weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity.

  10. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

    PubMed Central

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Madsen, Anne Mette; Ketzel, Matthias; Massling, Andreas; Gunnarsen, Lars; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF), lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein-D (SPD) were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC), weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity. PMID:25648225

  11. Advanced mortar coatings for cultural heritage protection. Durability towards prolonged UV and outdoor exposure.

    PubMed

    Pino, F; Fermo, P; La Russa, M; Ruffolo, S; Comite, V; Baghdachi, J; Pecchioni, E; Fratini, F; Cappelletti, G

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, two kinds of hybrid polymeric-inorganic coatings containing TiO2 or SiO2 particles and prepared starting from two commercial resins (Alpha®SI30 and Bluesil®BP9710) were developed and applied to two kinds of mortars (an air-hardening calcic lime mortar [ALM] and a natural hydraulic lime mortar [HLM]) to achieve better performances in terms of water repellence and consequently damage resistance. The two pure commercial resins were also applied for comparison purposes. Properties of the coated materials and their performance were studied using different techniques such as contact angle measurements, capillary absorption test, mercury intrusion porosimetry, surface free energy, colorimetric measurements and water vapour permeability tests. Tests were also performed to determine the weathering effects on both the commercial and the hybrid coatings in order to study their durability. Thus, exposures to UV radiation, to UV radiation/condensed water cycles and to a real polluted atmospheric environment have been performed. The effectiveness of the hybrid SiO2 based coating was demonstrated, especially in the case of the HLM mortar.

  12. Measuring visual exposure to smoking behaviours: a viewshed analysis of smoking at outdoor bars and cafés across a capital city’s downtown area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of visual exposure to health-related behaviours, such as smoking, is increasingly acknowledged in the public health literature. Social contagion or normalisation is thought to operate through the visibility of those behaviours. There has been a lack of systematic and comprehensive approaches to quantifying visual exposure to these behaviours over a relatively large geographic area. We describe the novel application of a geographic tool, viewshed analysis, to estimate visual exposure to smoking outside bars/cafés across a downtown area. Methods Smoking was observed for different times and days of the week at 14 outdoor areas of bars/cafés throughout downtown Wellington, New Zealand. We used these data to extrapolate to other bars/cafés with outdoor seating. We then conducted viewshed analyses to estimate visual exposure to smoking at bars/cafés for all public outdoor spaces. Results We observed a smoking point prevalence of 16%. Visibility analyses indicated that estimated visible smoking was highest in the evenings (7-8 pm), where the average values across Wednesday and Friday ranged from zero up to 92 visible smokers (mean = 1.44). Estimated visible smoking at midday ranged from zero to 13 (mean = 0.27). Values were also higher at the end of the week compared with midweek in the evening. Maps indicate that streets with high levels of retail shops and hospitality areas had high values of estimated visible smokers, particularly in the evening where numbers were consistently above 50. Conclusions This paper highlights a useful method for measuring the extent of visual exposure to smoking behaviours across relatively large areas using a geospatial approach. Applying this method in other locations would require consideration of place-specific characteristics which impact on visibility and could be improved through more sophisticated extrapolation of observational data across the study area. The findings of this and similar research could

  13. OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

  14. Simulating real-world exposures during emergency events: studying effects of indoor and outdoor releases in the Urban Dispersion Program in upper Manhattan, NY.

    PubMed

    Vallero, Daniel; Isukapalli, Sastry

    2014-01-01

    A prospective personal exposure study, involving indoor and outdoor releases, was conducted in upper Midtown Manhattan in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) focusing on atmospheric dispersion of chemicals in complex urban settings. The UDP experiments involved releases of very low levels of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in Midtown Manhattan at separate locations, during two seasons in 2005. The study presented here includes both outdoor and indoor releases of the tracers, and realistic scripted activities for characterizing near source and neighborhood-scale exposures using 1-min and 10-min duration samples, respectively. Results showed that distributions of individual tracers and exposures to them within the study area were significantly influenced by surface winds, urban terrain, and movements of people typical of urban centers. Although in general, PFT levels returned quickly to zero in general after cessation of the emissions, in some cases, the concentrations stayed at higher levels after the releases stopped. This is likely due to accumulation of the PFTs in some buildings, which then serve as "secondary sources" when outside levels are lower than indoor levels. Measurements of neighborhood-scale PFT concentrations (up to distances of several blocks away from the release points) provided information needed to establish a baseline for determining how different types of releases could affect exposures both to the general public and to emergency responders. These data highlight the factors impacting the toxic threat levels following releases of hazardous chemicals and provide supporting information for evaluating and refining protocols for emergency event response.

  15. Personal exposure of primary school children to BTEX, NO₂ and ozone in Eskişehir, Turkey: relationship with indoor/outdoor concentrations and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Gülçin; Ozden, Ozlem; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Gaga, Eftade O

    2014-03-01

    Personal exposures of 65 primary school children to benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes (BTEX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) were measured during 24h by using organic vapor monitors and tailor-made passive samplers. Two schools were selected to represent students living in more polluted (urban) and less polluted (sub-urban) areas in the city of Eskişehir, Turkey. The pollutant concentrations were also measured in indoor and outdoor environments during the personal sampling to investigate the contribution of each micro-environment on measured personal concentrations. Socio-demographic and personal time-activity data were collected by means of questionnaires and half-hour-time resolution activity diaries. Personal exposure concentrations were found to be correlated with indoor home concentrations. Personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of all studied pollutants except for ozone were found to be higher for the students living at the urban traffic site. Ozone, on the other hand, had higher concentrations at the sub-urban site for all three types of measurements (personal, indoor and outdoor). Analysis of the questionnaire data pointed out to environmental tobacco smoke, use of solvent based products, and petrol station nearby as factors that affect personal exposure concentrations. Cancer and non-cancer risks were estimated using the personal exposure concentrations. The mean cancer risk for the urban school children (1.7×10(-5)) was found to be higher than the sub-urban school children (0.88×10(-5)). Children living with smoking parents had higher risk levels (1.7×10(-5)) than children living with non-smoking parents (1.08×10(-5)). Overall, the risk levels were <1×10(-4). All hazard quotient values for BTEX for the non-cancer health effects were <1 based on the calculations EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) part F.

  16. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  17. Sound exposure changes European seabass behaviour in a large outdoor floating pen: Effects of temporal structure and a ramp-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Neo, Y Y; Hubert, J; Bolle, L; Winter, H V; Ten Cate, C; Slabbekoorn, H

    2016-07-01

    Underwater sound from human activities may affect fish behaviour negatively and threaten the stability of fish stocks. However, some fundamental understanding is still lacking for adequate impact assessments and potential mitigation strategies. For example, little is known about the potential contribution of the temporal features of sound, the efficacy of ramp-up procedures, and the generalisability of results from indoor studies to the outdoors. Using a semi-natural set-up, we exposed European seabass in an outdoor pen to four treatments: 1) continuous sound, 2) intermittent sound with a regular repetition interval, 3) irregular repetition intervals and 4) a regular repetition interval with amplitude 'ramp-up'. Upon sound exposure, the fish increased swimming speed and depth, and swam away from the sound source. The behavioural readouts were generally consistent with earlier indoor experiments, but the changes and recovery were more variable and were not significantly influenced by sound intermittency and interval regularity. In addition, the 'ramp-up' procedure elicited immediate diving response, similar to the onset of treatment without a 'ramp-up', but the fish did not swim away from the sound source as expected. Our findings suggest that while sound impact studies outdoors increase ecological and behavioural validity, the inherently higher variability also reduces resolution that may be counteracted by increasing sample size or looking into different individual coping styles. Our results also question the efficacy of 'ramp-up' in deterring marine animals, which warrants more investigation.

  18. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environments in the eastern United States. Results of exposures, 1984--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1991-09-01

    Gravimetric changes in marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment at five sites in the eastern United States have been monitored since 1984. An earlier report describes procedures and results obtained in 1984--1988. This report presents the results of the exposure period 1984--1988 and reviews and summarizes those of prior years. A linear relationship was found between cumulative gravimetric losses and exposure period or rain depth. These losses resulted in an average recession rate of 14 to 24 {mu}m/yr for marble and twice that for limestone. Variations in recession among the various exposure sites can be ascribed to differences in rain depth and hydrogen ion concentration. The annual recession rates obtained from gravimetry yielded rates that were for marble twice those obtained from runoff experiments, and more than three times those for limestone; this indicates that physical erosion plays an important role. Gravimetric monitoring of exposed briquettes is continuing in a planned 10-yr program.

  19. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment in the eastern United States: Results of exposure 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1995-04-01

    Monitoring continued on weight changes in marble and limestone briquettes exposed to the outdoor environment at sites in the eastern US. This report presents data for the exposure period 1988--1992 and summarizes results for the entire period from 1984. Since 1989, only three exposure sites have remained active, but briquettes from preexposed material were added at those sites. A linear relationship was found between cumulative gravimetric losses and exposure period. These losses resulted in an average recession rate of 11 to 21 {micro}m/yr for marble and 21 to 45 {micro}m/yr for limestone. The recession rates are site-dependent and can be described with respect to rain depth and other atmospheric conditions, as evidenced by the very low rates at the Ohio site on the movable rack, dry regime. Weight monitoring is continuing in a planned 10-year program.

  20. Outdoor Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    One of the most interesting developments in teaching has been the growing importance of the outdoor environment. Whether it be playground, garden or field, the outdoors offers a range of challenging experiences, especially in the delivery of early mathematics. Oral feedback to parents, together with photographic displays, can show them that…

  1. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  2. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Madsen, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Massling, Andreas; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Lund, Rikke; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280 nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10 μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes.

  3. INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND COMMUNITY SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

  4. Assessment of personal exposure to inhalable indoor and outdoor particulate matter for student residents of an academic campus (IIT-Kanpur).

    PubMed

    Devi, J Jai; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N; Ujinwal, Kamal K

    2009-12-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. These effects vary with number, size, and chemical composition of particulate matter, which vary significantly with space and time. The Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur (IITK), Kanpur, India, is a relatively clean academic campus in the northwest of a heavily polluted city, Kanpur. The major objectives of the study were to evaluate total exposure of fine and coarse fractions of PM(10) to a typical IITK student resident in different indoor microenvironments within the campus; to evaluate personal exposure to student residents during outdoor trips; and to evaluate personal exposure to a typical student resident carrying out routine activities. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during the pre-monsoon season were carried out in the most common indoor microenvironments in the campus and during outdoor trips outside the campus. A 15-channel optical particle counter (model 1.108, GRIMM) was used to measure continuous real-time particle size distribution from 0.3 to 20 microm diameter. Using this instrument, exposure for 1 h at different indoor microenvironments was determined. Both the effects of location and activity, which, in turn, account for specific indoor sources and number of occupants, respectively, were carefully evaluated. Re-suspension of particles due to movement of people was found to be a major source of coarse particulate matter exposure. On the other hand, combustion sources led to elevated fine particulate levels. Chalk dust was found to be the major source of fine particulate matter in classrooms. Similar results on other sources of particulate matter are discussed in the paper. To assess the personal average size resolved particulate exposure on a student making a day trip outside the campus, study trips to most common public places in the city in a

  5. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  6. Seasonal variation in outdoor, indoor, and personal air pollution exposures of women using wood stoves in the Tibetan Plateau: Baseline assessment for an energy intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kun; Carter, Ellison; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Zhang, Yuanxun; Niu, Hongjiang; Lai, Alexandra M; Shan, Ming; Wang, Yuqin; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-09-01

    Cooking and heating with coal and biomass is the main source of household air pollution in China and a leading contributor to disease burden. As part of a baseline assessment for a household energy intervention program, we enrolled 205 adult women cooking with biomass fuels in Sichuan, China and measured their 48-h personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) in winter and summer. We also measured the indoor 48-h PM2.5 concentrations in their homes and conducted outdoor PM2.5 measurements during 101 (74) days in summer (winter). Indoor concentrations of CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) were measured over 48-h in a subset of ~80 homes. Women's geometric mean 48-h exposure to PM2.5 was 80μg/m(3) (95% CI: 74, 87) in summer and twice as high in winter (169μg/m(3) (95% CI: 150, 190), with similar seasonal trends for indoor PM2.5 concentrations (winter: 252μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295; summer: 101μg/m(3); 95% CI: 91, 112). We found a moderately strong relationship between indoor PM2.5 and CO (r=0.60, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.72), and a weak correlation between personal PM2.5 and CO (r=0.41, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.71). NO2/NO ratios were higher in summer (range: 0.01 to 0.68) than in winter (range: 0 to 0.11), suggesting outdoor formation of NO2 via reaction of NO with ozone is a more important source of NO2 than biomass combustion indoors. The predictors of women's personal exposure to PM2.5 differed by season. In winter, our results show that primary heating with a low-polluting fuel (i.e., electric stove or wood-charcoal) and more frequent kitchen ventilation could reduce personal PM2.5 exposures. In summer, primary use of a gaseous fuel or electricity for cooking and reducing exposure to outdoor PM2.5 would likely have the greatest impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure.

  7. Assessment of potential (inhalation and dermal) and actual exposure to acetamiprid by greenhouse applicators using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marín, A; Martínez Vidal, J L; Egea Gonzalez, F J; Garrido Frenich, A; Glass, C R; Sykes, M

    2004-05-25

    New analytical methods based on liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have been developed and validated for assessing the exposure of greenhouse workers to acetamiprid. Both ambient (potential inhalation and dermal exposure) and internal dose (biological monitoring of urine samples) measurements were carried out. Potential inhalation exposure was assessed using Chromosorb 102 cartridges connected to air personal samplers. Potential dermal exposure was estimated by using whole body dosimetry. The measurement of actual exposure was done by analyzing the parent compound in urine samples of the applicators, after a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step. The methods showed a good accuracy (72-92%), precision (2-13%) and lower limits (few microg l(-1)). The validated approaches have been applied to assess potential and actual exposure of agricultural workers spraying acetamiprid in greenhouses. The results shown the need to wear personal protective equipment (suits) in order to reduce the absorbed dose of acetamiprid.

  8. Levels, indoor-outdoor relationships and exposure risks of airborne particle-associated perchlorate and chlorate in two urban areas in Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Toda, Kei; Wang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Junmei; Yamasaki, Dai; Nakamura, Yukihide; Sui, Xiao; Zheng, Longfei; Wen, Liang; Xu, Caihong; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5-associated perchlorate (ClO4(-)) and chlorate (ClO3(-)) were investigated in Jinan, China, and size-resolved perchlorate and chlorate were studied in Kumamoto, Japan. The average outdoor PM2.5-associated concentrations of perchlorate and chlorate were 4.18 ng m(-3) and 2.82 ng m(-3), respectively, in Jinan. Perchlorate and chlorate were mainly distributed in fine particles, and their approximate PM2.5-associated concentrations were 0.04 ng m(-3) and 4.14 ng m(-3), respectively, in Kumamoto. The ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) ranged from 18.72 to 360.22 in Kumamoto and from 0.03 to 7.45 in Jinan. The highest concentration of perchlorate (173.76 ng m(-3)) was observed on Spring Festival Eve. This finding and the significant correlation between perchlorate and fireworks-related components (Cl(-) and K(+)) indicated that the fireworks display was a significant source of perchlorate in Jinan. The indoor concentrations of perchlorate and chlorate in Jinan were 3.54 ng m(-3) (range, 0.14-125.14 ng m(-3)) and 0.94 ng m(-3) (range, 0.10-1.80 ng m(-3)), respectively. In the absence of an indoor source of perchlorate, the occurrence of indoor concentrations higher than those found outdoors was a common effect of individual fireworks displays near the sampling sites, coupled with meteorological influences and poor indoor diffusion conditions. The exposure risks of perchlorate and chlorate indoors indicated that the potential risk of perchlorate exposure to children during fireworks displays is deserving of concern.

  9. Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Michael G.

    In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

  10. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  11. A Detailed Analysis of Visible Defects Formed in Commercial Silicon Thin-Film Modules During Outdoor Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Andreas; Johnston, Steve; Olivera-Pimentel, Guillermo; Siegloch, Max; Pieters, Bart; Rau, Uwe

    2016-11-21

    We analyzed defects in silicon thin-film tandem (a-Si:H/..mu..c-Si:H) modules from an outdoor installation in India. The inspection of several affected modules reveals that most of the defects -- which optically appear as bright spots -- were formed primarily nearby the separation and series connection laser lines. Cross-sectional SEM analysis reveals that the bright spots emerge due to electrical isolation, caused by a delamination of the cell from the front TCO in the affected area. In addition, the morphology of the a-Si:H top cell differs in the delaminated area compared to the surrounding unaffected area. We propose that these effects are potentially caused by an explosive and thermally triggered liberation of hydrogen from the a-Si:H layer. Electrical and thermal measurements reveal that these defects can impact the cell performance significantly.

  12. Personal exposures to VOC in the upper end of the distribution—relationships to indoor, outdoor and workplace concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Jantunen, Matti; Lai, Hak Kan; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Katsouyanni, Klea; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Saarela, Kristiina; Sram, Radim; Künzli, Nino

    Evaluation of relationships between median residential indoor, indoor workplace and population exposures may obscure potential strategies for exposure reduction. Evaluation of participants with personal exposures above median levels in the EXPOLIS study in Athens, Helsinki, Oxford and Prague illustrated that these participants frequently showed a different relationship to indoor and workplace levels than that shown by the population median. Thus, prioritization of environments for control measures based on median exposures may exclude important areas where effectively focused control measures are possible, and may therefore have little impact on the highest and most harmful exposures. Further, personal exposures at the upper end of the distribution may exceed the US EPA inhalation reference concentration (Rfc), illustrated here using hexane, naphthalene and benzene. For example upper 90th percentile personal exposures to benzene in Athens and Prague were 64 and 27 μg m -3 with peak exposures of 217 and 38 μg m -3, respectively for non-ETS exposed participants relative to an Rfc of 30 μg m -3. Strategies to reduce exposures to individual compounds, therefore, may benefit from focus on the high end of the distribution to identify activities and behaviors that result in elevated exposures. Control strategies targeting activities that lead to exposures in the upper end of the distribution would reduce the variability associated with population median values by bringing the upper end of the exposure distribution closer to median values. Thus, compliance with health-based standards would be more protective of the higher exposed fraction of the population, in whom health effects would be more expected.

  13. Outdoor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  14. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  15. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    PubMed

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2016-11-02

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.64.

  16. SHEDS-PM: A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PREDICTING DISTRIBUTIONS OF PM EXPOSURE AND DOSE FROM BOTH OUTDOOR AND INDOOR SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM), called the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model. SHEDS-PM uses a probabilistic approach that incorporates both variabi...

  17. Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

  18. Characterizing exposure in community health studies: A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with numerous adverse outcomes. However, community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with estimating household-level exposure through te...

  19. HOW EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE, OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS,AND INCREASED POLLEN BURDENS INFLUENCES THE INCIDENCE OF ASTHMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a multifactorial airway disease that arises from a relatively common genetic background interphased with exposures to allergens and airborne irritants. The rapid rise in asthma over the past three decades in Western societies has been attributed to numerous diverse fact...

  20. Estimating Error in Using Residential Outdoor PM2.5 Concentrations as Proxies for Personal Exposures: A Meta-Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies examining the health effects of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) commonly use ambient PM2.5 concentrations measured at distal monitoring sites as proxies for personal exposure and assume spatial homogeneity of ambient PM

  1. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements at the nearest weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10°N) to the Arctic (64°N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor, airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. Our results suggest that, depending on the measure, season, and location, outdoor weather measurements can be reliably used to represent indoor exposures and that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor exposure than temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, absolute measures of water vapor should be examined in conjunction with other measures (e.g. temperature, relative humidity) in studies of the effect of weather and climate on human health. PMID:26054827

  2. Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    Background It is commonly assumed that low socioeconomic levels are associated with greater exposure to pollution, but this is not necessarily valid. Our goal was to examine how individual socioeconomic characteristics are associated with exposure levels in a Spanish region included in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Methods The study population comprised 430 pregnant women from the Asturias INMA cohort. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression techniques. Information about the participants’ lifestyle and socioeconomic variables was collected through questionnaires. In multivariate analysis, the levels of NO2 and benzene assigned to each woman were considered as dependent variables. Other variables included in the models were residential zone, age, education, parity, smoking, season, working status during pregnancy and social class. Results The average NO2 level was 23.60 (SD=6.50) μg/m3. For benzene, the mean value was 2.31 (SD=1.32) μg/m3. We found no association of any pollutant with education. We observed an association between social class and benzene levels. Social classes I and II had the highest levels. The analysed socioeconomic and lifestyle variables accounted for little variability in air pollution in the models; this variability was explained mainly by residential zone (adjusted R2: 0.27 for NO2; 0.09 for benzene). Conclusions Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution. Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements at distances that are harmful to health. PMID:23999377

  3. Prediction of RF-EMF exposure levels in large outdoor areas through car-mounted measurements on the enveloping roads.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Joseph, Wout; Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Colussi, Loek; Kamer, Jos; Bolte, John

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of spatial and temporal trends in the environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is a key prerequisite for RF-EMF risk assessment studies attempting to establish a link between RF-EMF and potential effects on human health as well as on fauna and flora. In this paper, we determined the validity of RF exposure modelling based on inner-area kriging interpolation of measurements on the surrounding streets. The results vary depending on area size and shape and structural factors; a Spearman coefficient of 0.8 and a relative error of less than 3.5dB are achieved on a data set featuring a closed measurement ring around a decently sized area (1km(2), with an average minimum distance of the encircled area to the ring of less than 100m), containing mainly low, detached buildings. In larger areas, additional inner-area sampling is advised, lowering the average minimum distance between sampled and interpolated locations to 100m, to achieve the same level of accuracy.

  4. Outdoor Education -- Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Terry

    1974-01-01

    In Scotland, outdoor education is seen as a combination of outdoor pursuits and environmental studies. The article describes various centres in the Edinburgh area, outdoor education expeditions, and programs, such as mountaineering, rock climbing, orienteering, and canoeing. (KM)

  5. Real-time and accelerated outdoor endurance testing of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Anagnostou, E.

    1978-01-01

    Materials for solar-cell module construction have been studied on the basis of limited real-time outdoor exposure evaluations. The materials tested included transmission samples, sub-modules, and actual solar cells. The results suggest that glass, fluorinated ethylene propylene, and perfluoroalkoxy are good materials for the covering or encapsulation of solar-cell modules. In all cases, dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors.

  6. Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Roseveare, Catherine W; Goolsby, W David; Foppa, Ivo M

    2009-01-01

    Background Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Methods Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts) from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Results Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively) of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively) were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58). Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%), of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%). Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%). Conclusion While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife. PMID:19236696

  7. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  8. The Outdoor Programming Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ron

    This manual provides guidelines for developing outdoor recreation programs. The manual was prepared for adult outdoor recreation programs, but could be useful for other age groups as well. The following topics are discussed: (1) the historical perspectives of outdoor recreation programming; (2) outdoor programming models, including the club model,…

  9. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Teachers' Federation, Toronto.

    A guide and introduction to outdoor education for the classroom teacher, the manual lists 5 aims and objectives of outdoor education and discusses the means for reaching these objectives through field trips, camping, outdoor learning centers, and outdoor teaching in school environs. Selected activities are described by subject area: arts and…

  10. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Creative ways to use the outdoors as a part of the regular school curriculum are outlined in this teacher's manual for the elementary grades. Presented for consideration are the general objectives of outdoor education, suggestions for evaluating outdoor education experiences, and techniques for teaching outdoor education. The purpose and functions…

  11. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  12. Outdoors classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  13. Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Phil

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

  14. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic…

  15. Education and Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Responsibility for meeting the needs and demands of the public for outdoor recreation has led the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to cooperate with educational institutions and others in order to assist in establishing education programs and activities and to encourage public use and benefits from outdoor recreation. To this end the Bureau conducts…

  16. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  17. POWER ANALYSIS OF LINEAR RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERSONAL EXPOSURE AND INDOOR/OUTDOOR PM 2.5 CONCENTRATIONS AT BALTIMORE AND FRESNO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory is currently in the process of conducting panel studies to investigate personal exposure to particulate matter(PM). One of the primary goals of PM exposure studies is to establish mathematical relationships between personal exposure and...

  18. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  19. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  20. Play and the Outdoors: What's New under the Sun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Susan J.; Klugman, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Childhood today is very different from what it was for previous generations, and a sizable part of the difference has something to do with the changing amount of outdoor play time. Early childhood educators are in a powerful and unique position to make sure that children's exposure to the outdoors and its ever-changing wonders is woven into the…

  1. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooyers, Cobina; And Others

    Designed for teachers to provide students with an awareness of the world of nature which surrounds them, the manual presents the philosophy of outdoor education, goals and objectives of the school program, planning for outdoor education, the Wildwood Programs, sequential program planning for students, program booking and resource list. Content…

  2. Outdoor Recreation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubenville, Alan

    The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

  3. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  4. Outdoor Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's County Board of Education, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    Developed primarily as a source of information for teachers planning outdoor education experiences, the material in this resource book can be used by any teacher in environmental studies. Subjects and activities most often taught as part of the outdoor education program are outlined both as resource (basic information) and teaching units. The…

  5. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  6. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  7. Photography in Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Cornelius; And Others

    The use of photography to add a new dimension to outdoor education activities is described in this paper. It is noted that photography can be an aid to outdoor education in a number of ways: students learn to communicate ideas visually, students learn to think through problems and find ways of solving them, students gain increased appreciation of…

  8. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  9. Outdoor Classroom Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

  10. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  11. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  12. Outdoor Education: Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Compiled to serve as a reference to help teachers locate outdoor education materials available from Canadian government and private agencies, this catalogue lists services and publications which can be utilized by educators in planning and implementing outdoor education programs. Among the services listed is a sampling of organizations,…

  13. Outdoor Recreation Space Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    With increased concern in recent years for the quality of our cultural and physical environment, there has been a corresponding increase in the need for information on standards used for planning playgrounds and parks, sports facilities, and outdoor areas for camping and hiking. Standards for various types of outdoor recreational facilities as…

  14. The Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dorothy E.

    An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

  15. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 1 - COMPARISON OF AMBIENT, RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR, INDOOR AND APARTMENT PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combined epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co...

  16. Parents’ perceptions of preschool activities: exploring outdoor play

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings Outdoor play is important for children’s health and development, yet many preschool-aged children in childcare settings do not receive the recommended 60 minutes/day of outdoor play. Childcare providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate clothing for their children and parents’ preference for academics over active play. This study explored parent perceptions and knowledge of outdoor playtime in childcare environments. On average, parents reported wanting their child to spend significantly more time playing outside during a full day of childcare than the recommended minimum. However, over one-half of parents reported that they did not know how much time their child actually spent playing outside and 43% reported that they did not know their childcare center’s outdoor play policies. Practice or Policy Childcare providers may over-perceive parent-related barriers to outdoor play. Parents generally support outdoor play for their preschooler during center-based childcare but are not well informed about outdoor playtime and policies. Encouraging communication between parents and early childhood educators about these topics could lead to more universal support and strategies for promoting outdoor and active play opportunities for children which are important for their health and development.

  17. Persistence Testing of Brucella suis on Outdoor Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report presents the results of an investigation to evaluate Brucella suis persistence on five materials (typically found in the outdoor environment) under various environmental conditions and exposure durations.

  18. Individual particle analysis of indoor, outdoor, and community samples from the 1998 Baltimore particulate matter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Teri L.; Norris, Gary A.; Landis, Matthew S.; Williams, Ronald W.

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual human PM exposures within a susceptible (elderly) sub-population. Personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. The main objective of this work was to use computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) with individual-particle X-ray analysis to measure the chemical and physical characteristics of geological and trace element particles collected at the various sampling locations in and around the retirement facility. The CCSEM results show that the relative abundances of some geological and trace element particle classes identified at the outdoor and community locations differ from each other and from the indoor location. Particle images acquired during the computer-controlled analyses played a key role in the identification of certain particle types. Review of these images was particularly useful in distinguishing spherical particles (usually indicative of combustion) from non-spherical particles of similar chemical composition. Pollens and spores were also identified through a manual review of the particle images.

  19. Environmental Outdoor Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.

    2004-05-01

    Lighting for the outdoor environment presents challenges not usually found in interior lighting. Outdoors, the universal standard is the daytime sun, yet nighttime electric lighting falls far short of daylight. This presentation provides guidance in dealing with these shortcomings, allowing electric lighting systems to solve multiple needs while being responsive to the need for quality exterior lighting. Main aspects include visual issues, ordinances, sources, energy conservation, structure, softscape and hardscape, roadways and walkways, retail and parking lots, sports, and outdoor hospitality lighting. We will review many of the present recommendations for such lighting applications, ones designed to minimize any adverse effects.

  20. PRN 94-9: Announcing the Formation of Two Industry-Wide Task Forces: Agricultural Reentry Task Force and Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice announces two industry-wide Task Forces being formed in response to generic exposure data requirements. It contains EPA's policy on a registrant's options for, and responsibilities when joining Task Force as a way to satisfy data requirements.

  1. Outdoor fitness routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000891.htm Outdoor fitness routine To use the sharing features on this ... you and is right for your level of fitness. Here are some ideas: Warm up first. Get ...

  2. Take Your Class Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellenberger, Barbara R.

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions for designing outdoor activities to provide students with opportunities for exploring, observing, and discovering. Outlines several science activities for each of the following topics: trees, rocks, soil, insects, wild flowers, grasses, lichens, and clouds. (DS)

  3. Dissemination of Go Sun Smart in Outdoor Recreation: Effect of Program Exposure on Sun Protection of Guests at High Altitude Ski Areas

    PubMed Central

    WALKOSZ, BARBARA J.; BULLER, DAVID B.; ANDERSEN, PETER A.; SCOTT, MICHAEL D.; DIGNAN, MARK B.; CUTTER, GARY R.; LIU, XIA; MALOY, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Go Sun Smart (GSS) is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun protection behaviors of employees and guests at high altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of GSS, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, upon sun protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy, enhanced versus basic, was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relationship of message exposure to guests’ sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 GSS materials in guest-only areas and 9 GSS materials throughout the area increased guests’ message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not in the low-use ski areas. The importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industry-wide are underscored. PMID:24617350

  4. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    PubMed

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  5. Color measurements on marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment in the Eastern United States. Volume I: Results of exposure 1984-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1994-04-01

    In a long-term program that began in 1984, limestone and marble briquettes have been exposed to both anthropogenic acid deposition and natural weathering at four field sites in the eastern United States. Similar tests began at an Ohio site in 1986. Effects of exposure on the briquettes and other materials at the sites are evaluated periodically by several federal agencies cooperating in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). One of the primary contributions of Argonne National Laboratory to the NAPAP has been the measurement of tristimulus color change on samples exposed to the environment. Results from the first six years indicate a yellowing of the marble and a darkening of limestone on both the skyward and groundward surfaces of fresh and preexposed briquettes. The relationship between discoloration and exposure period appears to be linear. Discoloration rates as a function of a cumulative exposure time are almost constant for marble and slightly decreasing for limestone Dark spots on groundward surfaces were measured with tristimulus color equipment prior to chemical analysis to determine if a correlation exists between darkening (change in reflectance) and SO{sub 4} concentration. Taking exposure time into consideration, and assuming that the airborne concentration of dark particles, which cause darkening, is proportional to airborne SO{sub 2} concentration, one can establish a linear relationship between exposure time, darkening, and SO{sub 2} concentration. The program is continuing so that additional data can be obtained.

  6. Associations between inflammatory and immune response genes and adverse respiratory outcomes following exposure to outdoor air pollution: a HuGE systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vawda, Seema; Mansour, Rafif; Takeda, Andrea; Funnell, Paula; Kerry, Sally; Mudway, Ian; Jamaludin, Jeenath; Shaheen, Seif; Griffiths, Chris; Walton, Robert

    2014-02-15

    Variants of inflammatory and immune response genes have been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes following exposure to air pollution. However, the genes involved and their associations are not well characterized, and there has been no systematic review. Thus, we conducted a review following the guidelines of the Human Genome Epidemiology Network. Six observational studies and 2 intervention studies with 14,903 participants were included (2001-2010). Six studies showed at least 1 significant gene-pollutant interaction. Meta-analysis was not possible due to variations in genes, pollutants, exposure estimates, and reported outcomes. The most commonly studied genes were tumor necrosis factor α (TNFA) (n = 6) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (n = 3). TNFA -308G>A modified the action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on lung function, asthma risk, and symptoms; however, the direction of association varied between studies. The TLR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1927911, rs10759931, and rs6478317 modified the association of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide with asthma. The transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1) polymorphism -509C>T also modified the association of pollutants with asthma. This review indicates that genes controlling innate immune recognition of foreign material (TLR4) and the subsequent inflammatory response (TGFB1, TLR4) modify the associations of exposure to air pollution with respiratory function. The associations observed have biological plausibility; however, larger studies with improved reporting are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  8. Outdoor Warning Systems Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Fig. 3, it is recommended I i | that the device carry a large sign advising bystanders to leave the immediate area when the warning device begins to...Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. l-- AA 016 LEVEL I Report No. 4100 I I I Outdoor Warning Systems Guide (Approved and Cleared Final Report) I I Contract...2234E *5~**5 E~34*CAQ~E4. T IT L E (and " #,,h s, S. T Y P E O F’ R E PO ,,T & P E RIO D C O V E R E D OUTDOOR WARNING SYSTEMS GUIDE p FINAL

  9. Outdoor and indoor UFP in primary schools across Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Reche, C; Viana, M; Rivas, I; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time ultrafine particles (UFP; N10-700 in this study) number concentration and average diameter were collected twice at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. Simultaneous outdoor N concentration measurements at schools under different traffic exposures showed the important role of this source, with higher levels by 40% on average at schools near heavy traffic, highlighting thus the increased exposure of children due to urban planning decisions. A well-defined spatial pattern of outdoor UFP levels was observed. Midday increases in outdoor N levels mainly attributed to nucleation processes have been recorded both at high and low temperatures in several of the outdoor school sites (increasing levels by 15%-70%). The variation of these increases also followed a characteristic spatial pattern, pointing at schools' location as a key variable in terms of UFP load owing to the important contribution of traffic emissions. Indoor N concentrations were to some extent explained by outdoor N concentrations during school hours, together with average temperatures, related with natural ventilation. Outdoor midday increases were generally mimicked by indoor N concentrations, especially under warm temperatures. At specific cases, indoor concentrations during midday were 30%-40% higher than outdoor. The time scale of these observations evidenced the possible role of: a) secondary particle formation enhanced by indoor precursors or conditions, maybe related with surface chemistry reactions mediated by O3, and/or b) UFP from cooking activities. Significant indoor N increases were detected after school hours, probably associated with cleaning activities, resulting in indoor N concentrations up to 3 times higher than those in outdoor. A wide variability of indoor/outdoor ratios of N concentrations and mean UFP sizes was detected among schools and measurement periods

  10. Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and the Economy of Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Interviews and a literature review found that outdoor recreation contributes significantly to Scotland's tourist income, particularly in rural areas; outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas; the provision of outdoor education by secondary schools has decreased in the last 20 years; and therapeutic outdoor…

  11. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  12. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  13. Outdoor Creative Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Guidelines are given for the development of outdoor play areas on school sites to provide children with natural areas and simple facilities for creative play. Site selection, analysis, and development are discussed. Natural, topographical features of the environment and natural play equipment are suggested. Illustrations are also presented to aid…

  14. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  15. Outdoors at Grassroots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, David B.

    1981-01-01

    The Grassroots Project provides a one-year, college level program in the conservation occupations of agriculture, forestry, and wildlife management. Each year, 75 young men and women who wish to pursue outdoor careers are selected to study conservation in a small rural community in Vermont. (JN)

  16. Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray

    Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

  17. Outdoor Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet Home Central School District 7, Buffalo, NY.

    Guidelines for an entire school system to implement an outdoor education program in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades are presented in this 1968 document. General and specific objectives are given, followed by concepts and suggested learning experiences for use in the areas of science (including living things, weather, and conservation), math, language…

  18. Your Brain Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2012-01-01

    The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

  19. Outdoor Adventure Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Howard L.

    1978-01-01

    Outdoor adventure training resulted in increased sensitivity, self-confidence, carry-over into intellectual activities, and pro-social change in a variety of university, juvenile, and penal institutional settings. Modifications for urban adventure training opportunities have also been developed but not yet evaluated. (MJB)

  20. Take Math Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

  1. Outdoor Ecology School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

  2. Technology and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Technology is influencing the evolution of adventure and outdoor education. Technology can negate adventure by dispelling the need of skill and mastery for attainment and by fostering a consumer mentality. Technology can enhance adventure by creating new experiences and suggesting that more is now possible. The challenge is to embody appropriate…

  3. [Science in the Outdoors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarage, Joe; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

  4. Outdoor Education in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Providing an overview of the Outdoor Education Workshop provided by the Georgia Migrant Education Program to give migrant students and staff an opportunity to learn new skills which they can then share with other migrant children upon their return to the regular school setting, the paper briefly discusses the administrative steps necessary when…

  5. Women Outdoor Leaders Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Wilma; Yerkes, Rita

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaire responses of 130 women outdoor leaders representing Outward Bound, all-women groups, university recreation instructors, and primary/secondary school teachers were compared as to background, income, motivations, and leadership perceptions. Essential leadership qualities were identified: effective communication skills and knowledge of…

  6. Journey to the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    A keen personal interest in natural history, involvement in environmental organisations, and experience, first as a secondary biology teacher and later as a field teacher, means that this author has spent many years working outdoors. Any part of the curriculum involving ecological concepts would lead her to open the door and go outside. She…

  7. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  8. The Values of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes outdoor play as a solid foundation and a central vehicle of knowledge about the real world. Outdoor play is important to all age levels, but particularly in early childhood and the elementary years. Children's outdoor play is not a luxury. It is critical in children's ability to learn about the world, others, and themselves.…

  9. Children and the Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

  10. Vision + Community = Outdoor Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles; Tatarchuk, Shawna; Anderson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor learning areas are becoming more popular as a means for community-based, cross-curricular learning where children study issues of local relevance (Sobel 2004). Outdoor learning areas, any place outside of the school building where children can observe and interact with the natural world around them, include outdoor structures for seating…

  11. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. Methods and Results The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 - April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is non-linear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). AH exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Conclusions Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  12. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, J L; Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    2014-02-01

    Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 to April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is nonlinear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). Absolute humidity exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round.

  13. Personal exposure to particles in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Brauer, M; Hrubá, F; Mihalíková, E; Fabiánová, E; Miskovic, P; Plziková, A; Lendacká, M; Vandenberg, J; Cullen, A

    2000-01-01

    to outdoor exposures from 2.1 to 4.1. For a combined group of office workers and students, personal PM10/PM2.5 levels were predicted by statistically significant multivariate models incorporating indoor (for PM2.5) or outdoor (for PM10) PM levels, and nicotine exposure (for PM10). Small but significant fractions of the overall variability, 15% for PM2.5 and 17% for PM10, were explained by these models. The results indicate that central site monitors underpredict actual human exposures to PM2.5 and PM10. Personal exposure to SO4(2-) was found to be predicted by outdoor or indoor SO4(2-) levels with 23-71% of the overall variability explained by these predictors. We conclude that personal exposure measurements and additional demographic and daily activity data are crucial for accurate evaluation of exposure to particles in this setting.

  14. Monitoring and simulation of the thermal performance of solar heated outdoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, E.; Kuebler, R. )

    1994-07-01

    Based on detailed measurements of two outdoor swimming pools (at Leonberg and Moehringen) a computer model has been developed and validated for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of such pools. The subroutine is compatible to TRNSYS 13.1. Correlations for the heat losses due to evaporation, convection, and radiation were taken from literature and tested in the model. It was not possible to select one optimal correlation for the description of the evaporative heat losses of both swimming pools due to the different exposure to wind. Using the most suitable correlation for the evaporative heat losses of each pool allowed for the simulation of the pool temperature with less than 0.5 K standard deviation between measured and simulated temperature. the major problem was the measurement of the relevant wind speed to be used in the correlations describing the evaporative heat losses under real outdoor conditions. A method is described detailing how to calibrate the model using the heating energy requirement and the measured pool temperature during actual operation periods. The analysis of the measured data of two different outdoor swimming pools under the same climatic conditions showed differences of a factor 2 and more in the heat demand per unit pool area. This was mainly caused by the difference in local wind speed which differed by more than a factor 4. The two pools investigated were heated by solar energy with a fraction of 28% and 14%, respectively, and the seasonal efficiency of the solar systems was 37.7% and 33.4%. Simulations show that a reduction of the water temperature from 24[degrees]C to 22[degrees]C during periods with low outdoor temperatures and few visitors, reduces the fuel consumption to less than half and increases the solar fraction from 28% to 50% in one pool.

  15. Exposure Modeling of Residential Infiltration of Black Carbon for NEXUS Participants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using outdoor concentrations. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improve ex...

  16. Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

  17. Assessment of indoor and outdoor PM species at schools and residences in a high-altitude Ecuadorian urban center.

    PubMed

    Raysoni, Amit U; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, M Margaret; Montoya, Teresa; Eschanique, Patricia; Racines, Marcia; Li, Wen-Whai

    2016-07-01

    An air monitoring campaign to assess children's environmental exposures in schools and residences, both indoors and outdoors, was conducted in 2010 in three low-income neighborhoods in Z1 (north), Z2 (central), and Z3 (southeast) zones of Quito, Ecuador - a major urban center of 2.2 million inhabitants situated 2850 m above sea level in a narrow mountainous basin. Z1 zone, located in northern Quito, historically experienced emissions from quarries and moderate traffic. Z2 zone was influenced by heavy traffic in contrast to Z3 zone which experienced low traffic densities. Weekly averages of PM samples were collected at schools (one in each zone) and residences (Z1 = 47, Z2 = 45, and Z3 = 41) every month, over a twelve-month period at the three zones. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 10.6 ± 4.9 μg/m(3) (Z1 school) to 29.0 ± 30.5 μg/m(3) (Z1 residences) and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations varied from 10.9 ± 3.2 μg/m(3) (Z1 school) to 14.3 ± 10.1 μg/m(3) (Z2 residences), across the three zones. The lowest values for PM10-2.5 for indoor and outdoor microenvironments were recorded at Z2 school, 5.7 ± 2.8 μg/m(3) and 7.9 ± 2.2 μg/m(3), respectively. Outdoor school PM concentrations exhibited stronger associations with corresponding indoor values making them robust proxies for indoor exposures in naturally ventilated Quito public schools. Correlation analysis between the school and residential PM size fractions and the various pollutant and meteorological parameters from central ambient monitoring (CAM) sites suggested varying degrees of temporal relationship. Strong positive correlation was observed for outdoor PM2.5 at Z2 school and its corresponding CAM site (r = 0.77) suggesting common traffic related emissions. Spatial heterogeneity in PM2.5 concentrations between CAM network and sampled sites was assessed using Coefficient of Divergence (COD) analysis. COD values were lower when CAM sites were paired with outdoor

  18. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.

  19. Inglemoor High School Curriculum Guide for Outdoor Recreation & Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Jim

    Descriptions of 12-week courses in hunting and fishing and in outdoor activities for male and female students at Inglemoor High School in Bothell, Washington, are presented in this curriculum guide for outdoor education and recreation. Offering both classroom and field experience, each of the two courses meets 55 minutes daily; recommended class…

  20. A Young Child's Perspectives on Outdoor Play: A Case Study from Vancouver, British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing amount of concern about the lack of direct exposure that young children have to nature and the outdoors in Canada and the United States, leading to an increase in outdoor- and nature-based learning models for young children. However, very little research has been done in the field of early childhood environmental…

  1. Outdoor and Adventurous Activities in Undergraduate Physical Education Teacher Education at Chichester Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boniface, Maggie; Bunyan, Peter

    The School of Physical Education at Chichester Institute (England) has developed an outdoor and adventurous activities (OAA) program that trains teachers to optimize the full potential of the outdoors as classroom. The philosophy underpinning the OAA program challenges the traditional view that exposure to adventure necessarily results in…

  2. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  3. A Manual of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rex A.

    Within the realm of outdoor education, there are as many definitions of what it is or what it isn't as there are books. One definition is that outdoor education is teaching outside the classroom. It combines with and blends as part of the total curriculum. This handbook is designed as a manual to help train and support staff related to outdoor…

  4. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  5. Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Matt

    Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

  6. Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

    2007-01-01

    At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

  7. OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

  8. Outdoor Education Areas and Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The facilities described for outdoor education and camping areas are designed to be an integral part of the large college or university campus, and to serve the educational and recreational programs of the educational institution and the total community. The establishment of an outdoor resident center is followed from the rationale for site…

  9. Selected Bibliography for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Sixty-one books and articles published between 1940 and 1967 are listed. Although the major portion of the bibliography is devoted to outdoor education, also included are publications on recreational activities, conservation, national and state parks, camping, and outdoor crafts. (SW)

  10. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  11. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  12. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  13. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W; Steck, Daniel J; Field, R William

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m(-3). Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure.

  14. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

  15. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. ASSESSMENT OF OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM CONCENTRATION DIFFERENCES BY CONTINUOUS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many sources and factors affect the particle concentrations inside a home, often causing indoor PM concentrations to be higher than outdoors. Furthermore, daytime personal PM exposures are, on average, 50% higher than that indicated by stationary monitoring. The increased conce...

  17. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  18. Recommended Competencies for Outdoor Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michelle; Simmons, Deborah

    This digest provides a framework for professional development of outdoor educators. Outdoor and environmental educators share similar principles of outdoor learning. Thus, the performance standards recently drafted by the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) can serve as a useful guide for outdoor education generally.…

  19. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  20. Outdoor Experiences for Young Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…

  1. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  2. Outdoor Education and Troubled Youth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    This digest briefly summarizes the parallel development of outdoor education and outdoor therapeutic programs for troubled and adjudicated youth, describes the rationale supporting outdoor approaches, and reports related research and evaluation findings. First attempts to use the outdoors as a healing environment were "tent therapy"…

  3. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  4. Factsheet about Anacostia's Great Outdoors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In partnership with the federal government, the District ofColumbia and State of Maryland are working to restore theAnacostia River and provide safe and convenient means forpeople to access the Anacostia River and enjoy the outdoors.

  5. [Outdoor and indoor allergens and the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macán, B; Macan, J; Plavec, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of common outdoor and indoor allergens which cause sensitisation of the respiratory tract and considers relevant biological and ecological hallmarks and symptoms of allergies. Grass, tree, and weed pollens as well as moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria species) are a major source of allergens in the outdoor environment whereas mites (Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae), animals (pets, rodents, and insects), and moulds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor species) are a major source in the indoor environment. The paper pays attention to the seasonal, geographical, and climatic influence on the concentration of allergen in the environment. The authors discuss differences between exposure to outdoor and indoor allergens, as well as the impact of pollutants on sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The paper proceeds with a short description of the primary prevention measures such as avoidance of the allergens and the secondary measures which are intended to prevent the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory symptoms in sensitised persons.

  6. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  7. Real-time indoor and outdoor measurements of black carbon at primary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reche, C.; Rivas, I.; Pandolfi, M.; Viana, M.; Bouso, L.; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated the association between Black Carbon in indoor and outdoor air and the occurrence of health risks. Data on air quality in schools is of special interest, as children are more vulnerable to health hazards. In this context, indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) were collected at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. A main contribution of road traffic emissions to indoor and outdoor EBC levels was evidenced through different approaches. Simultaneous measurements of EBC levels at schools under different traffic conditions revealed concentrations by 30-35% higher at schools exposed to higher vehicles intensities. Moreover, a significant correlation was obtained between average outdoor EBC levels at different districts of the city and the percentage of surface area in each district used for the road network (R2 = 0.61). Higher indoor than outdoor levels were recorded at some instances when the indoor sampling location was relatively closer to road traffic, even under low outdoor temperatures. Indeed, the average indoor/outdoor EBC ratios for each school correlate moderately between campaigns in spite of significant differences in temperature between sampling periods. These two facts highlight the strong dependency of the EBC levels on the distance to traffic. The peaks of exposure inside the classrooms seemed to be determined by outdoor concentrations, as shown by the parallelism between indoor and outdoor mean EBC daily cycles and the similar contribution of traffic rush hours to indoor and outdoor daily mean levels. The airtightness of the classroom was suggested as the responsible for the indoor/outdoor ratios of EBC higher than 1 recorded at nights.

  8. DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tovalin, H; Valverde, M; Morandi, M T; Blanco, S; Whitehead, L; Rojas, E

    2006-01-01

    Background Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in less developed countries. Aims To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities. Methods DNA damage (Comet assay) and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds, PM2.5, and ozone were investigated in 55 outdoor and indoor workers from México City and Puebla. Results In México City, outdoor workers had greater DNA damage, reflected by a longer tail length, than indoor workers (median 46.8 v 30.1 μm), and a greater percentage of highly damaged cells (cells with tail length ⩾41 μm); in Puebla, outdoor and indoor workers had similar DNA damage. There were more alkali labile sites in outdoor than indoor workers. The DNA damage magnitude was positively correlated with PM2.5 and ozone exposure. Outdoor and indoor workers with ⩾60% of highly damaged cells (highly damaged workers) had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, ozone, and some volatile organic compounds. The main factors associated with the highly damaged workers were ozone, PM2.5, and 1‐ethyl‐2‐methyl benzene exposure. Conclusions With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the Comet assay. It is suggested that the use of personal exposure assessment and biological endpoints evaluation could be an important tool to generate a more precise assessment of the associated potential health risks. PMID:16556741

  9. Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

  10. Outdoor Education and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alistair

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the importance of increasing effective communication in outdoor education programs. Examines sensory preferences and how they affect vocabulary, voice tone, and body language. Describes ways that outdoor educators can use this information to improve their communication skills. (LP)

  11. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-01

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  12. Tobacco control policies in outdoor areas of high volume American transit systems.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Berman, Micah

    2014-08-01

    Very little is known about how smoking and other tobacco use is regulated in outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces across transit systems. The purpose of this study was to understand how American transit systems are regulating cigarettes and other tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes, in outdoor or quasi-outdoor spaces. Within four regions of the United States, a purposive convenience sample was taken of the top five volume American transit systems (n = 20) based on annual ridership. Each transit authority website was systematically reviewed to produce a cross-sectional study of the published policies regarding tobacco product use for indoor, outdoor, and quasi-outdoor spaces of transit property; rules regarding cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes were identified. Policies regulating tobacco use were enacted by transit systems and/or the cities and states in which transit systems are located. The majority (80%) of transit systems banned smoking in outdoor areas; few prohibited smokeless tobacco use (15%, n = 3) and some disallowed e-cigarettes (30%, n = 6). Violation consequences ranged widely from none to verbal warnings, ejection from transit property, fines, and imprisonment. Regulating smoking in outdoor or quasi-outdoor environments is common in American transit environments. These policies can help protect vulnerable populations from exposure to secondhand smoke and communicate a tobacco-free norm.

  13. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  14. Social Justice in Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Russek, Angel

    Equitable outdoor leadership responsive to social justice issues has historically been absent in the field of adventure education. The call for social justice in the field has been hampered by lack of information, negligible programmatic support, personal conditioning and bias, resistance to reform from those in power, and firmly established…

  15. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  16. Outdoor Recreation Activities at Cispus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cispus Environmental Center, Randle, WA.

    Most of the activities in this booklet have been developed around skills related to the outdoors and, in particular, to the logging industry and forest fire fighting. The activities attempt to develop muscles, coordination skills, and teamwork. They also give the students (junior high school or high school) and staff the opportunity to do…

  17. Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities

    MedlinePlus

    ... deposited or drains into a body of fresh water (lake, river, stream, etc.) or soil, the bacteria can survive there for weeks to months. Leptospirosis exists worldwide, but it is more likely to be found in tropical climates. The ... close contact with fresh water or wet soil when they participate in outdoor ...

  18. Outdoor Education as Wilderness Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Presents outline for introductory course designed to allow student exploration of outdoor opportunities and instill interest and basic knowledge. Includes nature trail development, edible wild plants, Adirondack/St. Lawrence geology, mountain climbing, fall camping, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, winter camping, ice fishing, knots,…

  19. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  20. An Outdoor Workshop: Raku Firing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siver, David

    1978-01-01

    The process of building and firing a raku kiln is a memorable happening. The cost is low and students learn to appreciate the work involved in firing a kiln while the pots are a pleasant reminder of an outdoor workshop. (Author/RK)

  1. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  2. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1974-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project. This program has as its rationale the idea that a basic understanding of ecosystems, populations, communities, food chains, and interactions of organisms with the environment is essential in making intelligent decisions about the environment. (PEB)

  3. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  4. Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

    This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a budget.…

  5. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  6. TEACHER'S GUIDE TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RYAN, ARTHUR J.

    INCLUDED ARE (1) A DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE, AND (2) A TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR THE UNION COUNTY OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER. THE PROGRAM CONSISTS OF A DAY CENTER, WHICH PROVIDES ONE- AND TWO-DAY SESSIONS OF AT LEAST FOUR HOURS DURATION FOR GRADE 5 STUDENTS FROM PUBLIC AND NON-PROFIT SCHOOLS IN UNION COUNTY. THE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE RELATES (1) THE LOCATION…

  7. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  8. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  9. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  10. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  11. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  12. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  13. Women Outdoors: Who Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkes, Rita; Miranda, Wilma

    1985-01-01

    Questionnaires were distributed to participants in all-women outdoor programs to discover why these women chose an all-women program, how the experience influenced their lives, and if they planned to continue with this type of program. Findings are discussed. (DF)

  14. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  15. Instructional Program Planning for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others

    A guide on instructional program planning for outdoor education, prepared for Oakland County (Michigan) teachers, contains suggestions for program planning and lists information sources on suitable outdoor activities. The purpose of outdoor education is defined as being: "to enrich, vitalize and complement content areas of the school…

  16. Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Bonnie

    Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor…

  17. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Directed to the Multnomah County (Oregon) sixth grade students participating in the Outdoor School program, the handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Information is provided on the Outdoor School site and staff;…

  18. Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony

    Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

  19. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  20. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8528 of May 28, 2010 Great Outdoors Month, 2010 By the President of the United... friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew our enduring commitment to protect our natural landscapes... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2010 as Great Outdoors Month. I urge...

  1. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8833 of June 1, 2012 Great Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the..., trials, and triumphs. During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our long legacy of environmental... Outdoors Month is a time for all Americans to share in the natural splendor of which we are all...

  2. How Effective Are Outdoor Education Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Twelve classes of students in grades 4 through 6 studied beaver ecology, either at an outdoor-education center near Toronto or in the classroom. Results indicate that outdoor education was more effective in promoting students' cognitive achievement than classroom study, but did not confirm the popular belief that outdoor programs influence…

  3. The OBIS Story. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.

    Active participation in a variety of outdoor activities by small groups of youngsters aged 10 to 15 is the focus of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project, designed to provide the firsthand outdoor experience necessary for understanding biological relationships. OBIS provides community-sponsored youth organizations and schools…

  4. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  5. Outdoor Education in an Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedie, Paul

    In 1995 the streamlined British national curriculum defined outdoor education as "outdoor and adventurous activities" (OAA) and placed it within the physical education (PE) curriculum. However, many PE teachers lack a knowledge of outdoor education and, when faced with limitations in time, resources, facilities, and expertise, may choose…

  6. Relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples) were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89) than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71), suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation), in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy.

  7. Relationships among Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Airborne Japanese Cedar Pollen Counts

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples) were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89) than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71), suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation), in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy. PMID:26110813

  8. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  9. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  10. 40 CFR 158.1020 - Applicator exposure data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., nonprofessional, pesticide applications. (c) Key. R=Required; CR=Conditionally required; TEP=Typical end-use... Test substance Test Note No. 875.1100 Dermal outdoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 3 875.1200 Dermal indoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 4 875.1300 Inhalation outdoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 3 875.1400 Inhalation...

  11. Laboratory and outdoor assessment of UV protection offered by flax and hemp fabrics dyed with natural dyes.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Daniele; Bacci, Laura; Zipoli, Gaetano; Carreras, Giulia; Baronti, Silvia; Sabatini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The safest protection from UV radiation (UVR) exposure is offered by clothing and its protectiveness depends on fabric composition (natural, artificial or synthetic fibers), fabric parameters (porosity, weight and thickness) and dyeing (natural or synthetic dyes, dye concentration, UV absorbing properties, etc.). In this study the UV protection properties of two fabrics made of natural fibers (flax and hemp) dyed with some of the most common natural dyes were investigated. UVR transmittance of fabrics was measured by two methods: one based on the utilization of a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere (in vitro test), and the other based on outdoor measurements taken by a spectroradiometer. Transmittance measurements were used to calculate the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). Experimental results revealed that natural dyes could confer good UV protection, depending mainly on their different UVR-absorbing properties, provided that the fabric construction already guaranteed good cover. An increase in cover factor caused by the dyeing process was also detected. Weld-dyed fabrics gave the highest protection level. The comparison between the two methods applied to measure fabric transmittance pointed out that the UPFs calculated by in vitro measurements were generally lower than those based on outdoor data, indicating an underestimation of the actual protection level of tested fabrics assessed by the in vitro test.

  12. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. Th...

  13. Nature connection, outdoor play, and environmental stewardship in residential environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejewski, Robert G.

    A lack of exposure to the natural world has led to a generation of children disconnected from nature. This phenomenon has profound negative implications for the physical and psychological well being of today's youth. Residential environmental education provides one avenue to connect children to nature. One purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Outdoor School, a residential environmental education program, on ecological knowledge, children's connection to nature, school belonging, outdoor play attitude, environmental stewardship attitude, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior, as reported by participants. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized in the study. A total of 228 fifth grade students (156 treatment, 72 control) from central Pennsylvania participated. The results of the program evaluation indicated that Outdoor School was successful in achieving significant, positive gains in the areas of ecological knowledge, connection to nature, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior. No change was found from pretest to post-test in outdoor play attitudes, environmental stewardship attitudes, and school belonging. Additionally, the study addressed gaps in the literature regarding the relationship between connection to nature, environmental stewardship, and outdoor play using two different approaches. An adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to predict outdoor play behavior in children. In this model, favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control lead to intentions to perform a given behavior. Intention to perform the behavior is the best predictor for behavior performance. For this study, participants' feeling of connection to nature was added as an affective independent variable. This model explained 45% of the variance in outdoor play. The hypothesis that a connection to nature would be a significant predictor of both attitudes toward outdoor play was

  14. Outdoor radioactivity and health risks in Balikesir, northwestern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kapdan, E; Varinlioglu, A; Karahan, G

    2012-02-01

    External irradiation from radionuclides naturally present in the environment or released from man-made practices or events is usually an important component of the exposure of human populations. These exposures derive primarily from gamma radiation arising from the decay of these radionuclides at locations outside the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the radioactivity levels and health risks due to terrestrial radionuclides in the soil of Balikesir, one of the largest cities of the country, northwestern Turkey. For this purpose, activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil and outdoor gamma dose rates (terrestrial and cosmic) have been investigated in the city of Balikesir. In addition, maps for the radionuclide activity concentrations of soil and the outdoor gamma dose rate distributions have been plotted for the region. The average activities of radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K, (235)U and (137)Cs in the soil were determined to be 37.6 ± 10.8, 54.7 ± 15.1, 674.5 ± 203.2, 3.6 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the region. The average outdoor gamma dose rates due to terrestrial and cosmic radiations were found to be 78.5 ± 12.4 and 48.9 ± 5.8 nGy h(-1) with the total of 127.4 ± 18.9 nGy h(-1) in the region. Annual effective dose due to environmental outdoor gamma radiation exposures was determined to be 156.3 nSv. The mean estimated cancer risk values were found to be 0.063 × 10(-2) for the region using risk factors of ICRP 103. The results of the study were discussed with the studies done in other cities of Turkey and the worldwide averages.

  15. Modeling Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for the Diabetes and Environment Panel Study (DEPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies of fine particulate matter (PM) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. To improve exposure assessments, we developed and evaluated an exposure model for individuals (EMI), which predicts five tiers of individual-level exposure metric...

  16. Teaching Nature in Cities and Towns. Urban Outdoor Biology and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogl, Sonia Wolff; Vogl, Robert L.

    Developed to assist teachers in the teaching of outdoor biology and ecology, this guide contains lessons that can be conducted in an urban environment for elementary level students. Each lesson begins with thought-provoking introductory questions which lead into the actual activity, and concludes with discussion questions and suggestions for…

  17. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m−3. Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. PMID:24936021

  18. The transformation of outdoor ammonium nitrate aerosols in theindoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Littlejohn, David; Fischer, Marc L.; Hering, Susanne V.; Sextro, Richard G.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2002-01-31

    Recent studies associate particulate air pollution with adverse health effects; however, the exposure to indoor particles of outdoor origin is not well characterized, particularly for individual chemical species. In response to this, a field study in an unoccupied, single-story residence in Clovis, California has been conducted. Real-time particle monitors were used both outdoors and indoors to quantify PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate, and carbon. The results show that reduced indoor sulfate and carbon levels are primarily due to deposition and penetration losses. However, measured indoor ammonium nitrate levels were often observed to be at significantly lower levels than expected based solely on penetration and deposition losses. The additional reduction appears to be due to the transformation of ammonium nitrate into ammonia and nitric acid indoors, which are subsequently lost by deposition and sorption to indoor surfaces. The size of the effect is dependent upon factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation rate.

  19. Correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Yu, Li-Chieh; Gu, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Channel cracking fragmentation testing and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were utilized to study mechanical and chemical degradation of a multilayered backsheet after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. A model sample of commercial PPE backsheet, namely polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/ethylene vinyl acetate (PET/PET/EVA) was investigated. Outdoor aging was performed in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA for up to 510 days, and complementary accelerated laboratory aging was conducted on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure). Fracture energy, mode I stress intensity factor and film strength were analyzed using an analytical model based on channel cracking fragmentation testing results. The correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation was discussed for both outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. The results of this work provide preliminary understanding on failure mechanism of backsheets after weathering, laying the groundwork for linking outdoor and indoor accelerated laboratory testing for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets.

  20. Outdoor Leadership Education: The Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugerman, Deborah

    This paper examines academic degree programs that train outdoor leaders. A review of previous studies of outdoor leadership noted 12 critical core competencies of an effective outdoor leader. A survey of college outdoor programs identified 15 four-year academic degree programs in outdoor leadership at U.S. colleges and universities. The programs…

  1. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  2. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  3. The Outdoor Education Umbrella: A Metaphoric Model To Conceptualize Outdoor Experiential Learning Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisson, Christian

    Explaining what outdoor experiential education is can be problematic, as a variety of terms are being used to identify a wide range of outdoor experiential learning methods. This paper proposes the metaphoric model of an umbrella to explain the relationships existing among these terms and their respective outdoor experiential learning methods. The…

  4. Columbus Outdoor Pursuits: A Model Structure for Volunteer Based Outdoor Pursuits Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerckens, Ann E.

    Columbus Outdoor Pursuits (COP) is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization in Ohio that has offered outdoor educational and recreational opportunities to its members for 63 years. COP day and trip programs focus on outdoor activities such as bicycling, kayaking, hiking, and rock climbing. In addition, COP offers classes in the skills required for…

  5. PAH EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposures to 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 9 children, ages 2-5 yr, were measured over 48 hr at day care and at home. Sampled media included indoor and outdoor air, floor dust, outdoor play area soil, hand surface, and solid and liquid food. Urine samples ...

  6. Relationship between indoor, outdoor, and personal fine particle concentrations for individuals with COPD and predictors of indoor-outdoor ratio in Mexico city.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Holguin-Molina, Fernando; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Gutiérrez-Avedoy, Victor; Mandujano, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Personal exposure and indoor and outdoor exposure to PM(10) and PM(2.5) of 38 individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was characterized from February through November 2000. All participants lived in Mexico City and were selected based on their area of residence southeast (n=15), downtown (n=15), and southwest (n=8). Participants were monitored at home using personal PM(2.5) monitoring devices. Indoor and outdoor levels of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were measured using MiniVol samplers. Concurrent individual exposure measurements, indoor and outdoor levels of PM(2.5), which averaged 38.4 (SD 21.4), 30.6 (SD 15.8), and 30.5 mug/m(3) (SD 19.4), respectively. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations explained 40% of the variability of personal exposure. In addition, the factors that most affected personal exposure were regular indoor contact with animals, mold, cooking activities, and aerosol use, indicating that internal sources may largely affect individual exposure.

  7. Integrated Outdoor Education/Adventure. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The 12 brief articles in this "feature" or theme issue describe successful approaches to development of outdoor education programs which successfully integrate individuals with and without disabilities. Titles and authors are: "Outdoor Education and Adventure: Challenges and Rewards for All" (Stuart J. Schleien); "Benefits of Integrated Outdoor…

  8. Outdoor Education for the Whole Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Frederick A.

    Focusing on outdoor education in a broad sense, this book comprehensively provides elementary school teachers with rationale, planning guidance, and specific ideas for using the outdoors to enhance the development of the whole child through the stimulation of both right and left hemispheres of the brain. Part I presents a definition, rationale,…

  9. Multiculturalism: Implications for Outdoor and Conservation Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    This paper addresses the role of multiculturalism in outdoor and conservation education. Multiculturalism promotes appreciation of diversity including differences originating from race, ethnicity, gender, and abilities, thereby developing tolerance and human understanding. Several trends make multiculturalism relevant to outdoor activities. By the…

  10. Inside Outdoor Education: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    This case study examines the teaching practices of Alan Woods, (pseudonym) who teaches elementary students in an outdoor education program. It describes a typical teaching day, including Alan's comments about his work and important aspects of being an outdoor educator. Alan stated that he used recitation questioning (asking students to recite…

  11. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C., Comp.; Burgess, Robert A., Comp.

    Directed to the Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade students who participate in the Outdoor School program, the reusable handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Each week, four sixth grade classes from different…

  12. Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Camille J.

    Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

  13. Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

    Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

  14. OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER, PLANNING PROJECT REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COCKRELL, LLOYD

    REPORTED ARE THE PLANS FOR A PROPOSED OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR THE ALBUQUERQUE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. DISCUSSED ARE (1) A PROGRAM RATIONALE, (2) CURRICULUM, (3) MATERIALS FOR OUTDOOR TEACHING, (4) STAFFING, (5) PUPIL SELECTION, (6) THE EDUCATIONAL PLAN, (7) DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED FACILITIES AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, (8) BUDGET ESTIMATES, (9)…

  15. Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Edward

    Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

  16. Teaching Science in an Outdoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Phyllis; Railton, Esther P.

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide suggestions for teaching science outdoors through the use of the California Natural History Guides. Specific references to the Guides are made throughout the handbook. Learning activities related to outdoor science education are grouped under the following topics: objectives, suggested activities,…

  17. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  18. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  19. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  20. Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.

    Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

  1. Therapeutic Uses of Outdoor Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    This digest examines the positive effects on emotional well-being of several types of outdoor education programs. Although many outdoor education and experiential programs enhance emotional growth, such "therapeutic" outcomes may be considered incidental to program goals. In contrast, programs aimed primarily at "therapy"…

  2. Early Beginnings in Outdoor Education: Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor education has roots in the Nature Study Movement of the late 1800s; organized camping, which was started by groups such as the Young Men's and Women's Christian Association and the Boy and Girl Scouts; progressive education; and environmental education. Several doctoral dissertations in 1930 mark the beginning of outdoor education as a…

  3. A Youth Perspective on Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardin, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Arizona Outdoor Recreation Coordinating Commission and Arizona State Parks Board conducted a survey of students in grades 4-12 to gather information on their recreation needs and desires. Results provided recreation planners and providers with a profile of the young outdoor recreation customer to help them develop the most appropriate…

  4. The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles A., Jr.

    Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

  5. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011 Great Outdoors Month, 2011 By the President of the United... stretching over rolling hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great Outdoors Month, we... healthy, active, and energized, while reconnecting with their natural heritage. This month, let each of...

  6. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8988 of May 31, 2013 Great Outdoors Month... Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the land entrusted to us by our forebears and resolve to pass it on... inspired us toward bold new horizons. This month, let us reflect on those timeless gifts, and let us vow...

  7. Extraversion and Outdoor Play in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alasdair

    1978-01-01

    Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory was administered to 334 Aberdeen children, age 11 plus. Familiarity with traditional outdoor games was pretested; reported attachment to indoor activities provided "home orientation" rating. No relationships were found among extraversion, indoor activity rejection, and outdoor game familiarity. Playground…

  8. Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

  9. Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

    A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

  10. Ethical Frameworks, Moral Practices and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karen M.; Lautt, Mick

    Insights from quantum physics and chaos theory help create new metaphors about ethical frameworks and moral practices in outdoor education. The seemingly straightforward concept of values is analogous to the initial simple nonlinear equation of a fractal. The value claims of outdoor education--trust, cooperation, environmental awareness,…

  11. Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Connie L.

    Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

  12. The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettenger, Jim

    Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

  13. Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

    This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

  14. A School-Based Outdoor Adventure Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollandsworth, James G.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of and the development of a year-round outdoor-oriented adventure education program at The Asheville School in North Carolina is discussed. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

  15. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  16. Outdoor Education for Sustainability: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor education should broaden its scope beyond outdoor activities to include education for sustainability. Provides practical ideas for incorporating holistic environmental awareness into programs by exploring the concepts of connection and consequence with such basic elements as water, air, food, shelter, darkness, solitude, time, and nature.…

  17. Developing Outdoor Leaders: Paul Petzoldt's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Cashel, Christine

    Paul Petzoldt, an early pioneer in outdoor education, saw the need for trained outdoor leaders. This paper presents material from unpublished papers retrieved after his death that clarify and expand on his philosophy of leadership development. Key ideas such as: judgment, 20-20 vision, and use of wilderness expeditions, are expanded upon and…

  18. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior…

  19. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  20. Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)

  1. A Guide for Conducting Outdoor Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Since research indicates teachers generally lack confidence in their ability to conduct lessons in the outdoors and feel inadequate regarding knowledge of the natural world, this guide has been developed to build teacher confidence in utilizing the outdoors. Designed to be used in conjunction with a practicum workshop, this guide presents…

  2. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  3. "An Outdoor Renaissance". Proceedings of the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation (4th, Boone, North Carolina, November 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jim, Ed.; And Others

    This conference proceedings record contains 17 papers concerning outdoor education, outdoor recreation programs, adventure education, and environmental education. Papers include: "Nature's University" (keynote speech on environmental ethics and outdoor education); "Mission '90" (a workshop on developing a mission statement for…

  4. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland.

  5. Outdoor Air Pollution and Pterygium in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Woong; Choi, Yoon Hyeong; Hwang, Sung Ha; Paik, Hae Jung; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired. Associations of multiple air pollutants with pterygium or pterygium recurrence after surgery were examined using multivariate logistic models, after adjusting for several covariates. Distributed lag models were additionally used for estimating cumulative effects of air pollution on pterygium. None of air pollution factors was significantly associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence (each P > 0.05). Distributed lag models also showed that air pollution factors were not associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence in 0-to-2 year lags (each P > 0.05). However, primary pterygium showed a weak association with PM10 after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; [per 5 μg/m³ PM₁₀ increase]; P = 0.023). Aging, male sex, and greater sun exposure were associated with pterygium, while higher education level and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium (each P ≤ 0.001). Male sex and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium recurrence (each P < 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to higher PM10 levels was associated with primary pterygium, although this study observed no significant association between air pollution and overall pterygium or pterygium recurrence in Korean adults.

  6. A new method to measure the acoustic surface impedance outdoors.

    PubMed

    Carpinello, S; L'Hermite, Ph; Bérengier, M; Licitra, G

    2004-01-01

    In the European countries noise pollution is considered to be one of the most important environmental problems. With respect to traffic noise, different researchers are working on the reduction of noise at the source, on the modelling of the acoustic absorption of the road structure and on the effects of the pavement on the propagation. The aim of this paper is to propose a new method to measure the acoustic impedance of surfaces located outdoors, which allows us to further noise propagation models, in order to evaluate exactly the noise exposure.

  7. Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.R.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2004-06-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.

  8. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  9. Indoor and outdoor biomonitoring using lichens at urban and rural primary schools.

    PubMed

    Canha, N; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring particulate matter (PM) and its chemical constituents in classrooms is a subject of special concern within the scientific community in order to control and minimize child exposure. Regulatory sampling methods have presented several limitations in their application to larger number of classrooms due to operational and financial constraints. Consequently, passive sampling methodologies using filters were developed for indoor sampling. However, such methodologies could not provide parallel information for outdoors, which is important to identify pollution sources and assess outdoor contribution to the indoors. Therefore, biomonitoring with transplanted lichens, a technique usually applied for outdoor studies, was used both indoor and outdoor of classrooms. Three main objectives were proposed, to (i) characterize simultaneously indoor and outdoor of classrooms regarding inorganic air pollutants, (ii) investigate spatial patterns of lichen conductivity, and (iii) assess pollution sources that contribute to a poor indoor air quality in schools. Lichens Flavoparmelia caperata were transplanted to indoor and outdoor of classrooms for 59 d. After exposure, electric conductivity of lichens leachate was measured to evaluate lichen vitality and cell damage. Outdoors lichen conductivity was higher near the main highways, and indoors there was great variability in levels, which indicates different emissions sources and different ventilation patterns. Chemical content of lichens was assessed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Yb, and Zn were determined. Element accumulation, crustal enrichment factors, and spatial variability of elements were analyzed and contaminants from anthropogenic sources, such as traffic (As, Sb, and Zn) and indoor chalk (Ca) found. Classrooms with potential indoor air quality problems were identified by presenting higher accumulations of

  10. Randomized Trial Testing a Worksite Sun Protection Program in an Outdoor Recreation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Giese, Aimee J.

    2005-01-01

    Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in…

  11. A PARTICIPANT-BASED APPROACH TO INDOOR/OUTDOOR AIR MONITORING IN COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring da...

  12. INDOOR-OUTDOOR-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF SELECTED FINE PARTICLE TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this work is to better understand not only the sources of outdoor PM but also the sources that contribute to personal PM exposures. This paper summarizes the results of x-ray fluorenscence (XRF) analysis on 24-hr PM2.5 samples collected both inside and outs...

  13. *A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring in Community Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring data from...

  14. Indoor and outdoor carbonyl compounds in the hotel ballrooms in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yanli; Wen, Sheng; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; He, Qiusheng; Tang, Jianhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Twenty-one carbonyl compounds were measured simultaneously at four hotel ballrooms in urban Guangzhou during the autumn, 2002. In each ballroom, measurements were carried out in business hours in the evening (20:30-24:00) on 7 consecutive days without any disturbance of the ballroom's normal operation. Nineteen out of the 21 target carbonyl compounds were identified in indoor and outdoor air. In the outdoor environment, formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl, followed by acetaldehyde, and there existed a strong correlation between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In the indoor air, however, acetaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl, its concentrations seemed to be affected significantly by smoking. The indoor concentrations of carbonyls were found higher than their outdoor counterparts with only a few exceptions. Further studies concerning the indoor/outdoor ratios and mutual correlation of the carbonyls indicated that apart from direct emission from indoor materials and infiltration of outdoor air, other anthropogenic sources, e.g. tobacco smoke, also significantly contributed to carbonyl compounds. The possible sources of some high molecular weight carbonyls, e.g. nonanaldehyde, were also discussed briefly. Preliminary estimate of the exposures and risks due to carbonyls in the ballrooms was made, which indicated that long-term exposure in such places might cause increased chance of developing cancers.

  15. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  16. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  18. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Rudel, Ruthann A; Perovich, Laura J

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals-that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  19. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals—that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  20. Injury causation in the great outdoors: A systems analysis of led outdoor activity injury incidents.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G; Finch, Caroline F; Cassell, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Despite calls for a systems approach to assessing and preventing injurious incidents within the led outdoor activity domain, applications of systems analysis frameworks to the analysis of incident data have been sparse. This article presents an analysis of 1014 led outdoor activity injury and near miss incidents whereby a systems-based risk management framework was used to classify the contributing factors involved across six levels of the led outdoor activity 'system'. The analysis identified causal factors across all levels of the led outdoor activity system, demonstrating the framework's utility for accident analysis efforts in the led outdoor activity injury domain. In addition, issues associated with the current data collection framework that potentially limited the identification of contributing factors outside of the individuals, equipment, and environment involved were identified. In closing, the requirement for new and improved data systems to be underpinned by the systems philosophy and new models of led outdoor activity accident causation is discussed.

  1. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

  2. A Teachers' Guide for the Outdoor School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

    The general aim of this guide is to aid the teachers of the fifth and sixth grade boys and girls who participate in the Outdoor School program at the Battle Creek Outdoor Center. Another major aim of this guide is to aid the outdoor school teachers who bear the major responsibility in implementing the outdoor school program. An historical overview…

  3. Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education…

  4. Lightning Safety and Outdoor Sports Activities

    MedlinePlus

    ... by surprise. Based on cases documented by the National Weather Service in recent years, about 30 people are killed ... involved at risk. For organized outdoor activities, the National Weather Service recommends that organizers have a lightning safety plan ...

  5. Outdoor Management Development: Use and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Beryl; Sadler-Smith, Eugene; Michie, Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 54 of 100 British companies showed that those who use outdoor management development programs believe them effective for personal, team, and leadership development. However, these conclusions seem based more on anecdote and intuition than empirical evidence. (SK)

  6. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.127 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When... sunlight. (b) Shelter from inclement weather. Natural or artificial shelter appropriate to the...

  7. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.127 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When... sunlight. (b) Shelter from inclement weather. Natural or artificial shelter appropriate to the...

  8. Robotic Lander Completes Multiple Outdoor Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Robotic Lander Development Project in Huntsville, Ala., has successfully completed seven autonomous outdoor flight tests of a lander prototype, dubbed Mighty Eagle. On Oct. 14, Mighty Eagl...

  9. Class Outdoors in the District of Columbia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Specially-designed outdoor education areas surrounded by rain gardens and other green features have been added to the grounds of three District of Columbia schools, providing students with hands-on learning experiences while reducing stormwater pollution.

  10. Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8 g · kg (- 1) of either ice slurry ( - 1.4°C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9°C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 ± 0.8°C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2 715 ± 396 s) than CON (2 730 ± 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 ± 0.2°C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 ± 0.1°C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 ± 0.6°C) than CON (39.8 ± 0.4°C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run ( - 1.2 ± 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments.

  11. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  12. Aeromycological profile of indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena; Delgado, José Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the differences between indoor and outdoor aeromicological composition. The aerobiological study was performed, from 15 January to 14 April 2008, using two volumetric spore traps, one placed indoors and another positioned outdoors on the roof of the Faculdade de Ciências building. A total of 23 000 spores were sampled outdoors and 15 500 spores were identified indoors. In both environments, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Aspergillus/Penicillium, Agaricus, Rusts, Agrocybe and Lepthosphaeria. Moreover, Alternaria, Botrytis, Coprinus, Fusarium and Ganoderma spores were also detected in the outdoor air. The outdoor maximum (858 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was registered on the 9 February whereas the indoor peak (614 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was reached two days later. Qualitative similarities were found between the indoor and outdoor aeromicological content however quantitatively spore concentrations differed, suggesting the existence of airflows between the two environments due to ventilation, inefficient isolation or passive transport of spores. The majority of the selected fungal types were night sporulators, the exceptions were Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium, with daily maximum values during the morning and the afternoon, respectively. Several of the identified spores have been proved as causal agents of respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to know the microbial composition of indoor air in order to take measures to improve air quality helping to reduce health problems related to respiratory allergic diseases in sensitized patients.

  13. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  14. Seasonal variations in vitamin D status in indoor and outdoor female athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARUYAMA-NAGAO, ASAKO; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency is a concern, particularly among young females. The VD status shows seasonal variations, since it correlates with duration of sunlight exposure. VD insufficiency in indoor athletes is therefore suggested in winter. The aim of the present study was to determine seasonal variations in VD and bone status among indoor and outdoor female athletes. The prospective study was conducted in participants aged 20–22 years old. The participants comprised of 15 indoor and 15 outdoor athletes. The biochemical markers and bone parameters were measured in March, June, September and December. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentration showed a seasonal oscillation, with a nadir in March (indoor, 19±4.0 ng/ml; outdoor, 32±2.7 ng/ml) and a peak in September (indoor, 32±6.6 ng/ml; outdoor, 39±5.7 ng/ml). The amplitude of oscillation was greater in the indoor compared to the outdoor athletes. Seasonal variations in serum calcium exhibited a similar pattern, while the parathyroid hormone showed an inverse pattern to serum 25-OH-VD. The nadir in bone mass, measured as speed of sound, occurred in June after peaking in December among the indoor and outdoor athletes. The pattern followed 3 months after the changes in 25-OH-VD. Indoor sports athletes are more susceptible to VD insufficiency compared to outdoor sports athletes. Insufficiency is most likely to arise in winter, and could affect bone mineralization observed 3 months after. PMID:27347414

  15. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  16. Seasonality and indoor/outdoor relationships of flame retardants and PCBs in residential air.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Kalina, Jiří; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2016-11-01

    This study is a systematic assessment of different houses and apartments, their ages and renovation status, indoors and outdoors, and in summer vs. winter, with a goal of bringing some insight into the major sources of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and their variability. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs) were determined at 17-20 homes in Czech Republic in winter and summer. Indoor concentrations were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for all compounds; indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 2-20, with larger differences for the current use NFRs than for legacy PCBs. Seasonal trends differed according to the use status of the compounds: the PCBs had higher summer concentrations both indoors and outdoors, suggesting volatilization as a source of PCBs to air. PBDEs had no seasonal trends indoors, but higher summer concentrations outdoors. Several NFRs (TBX, PBT, PBEB) had higher indoor concentrations in winter relative to summer. The seasonal trends in the flame retardants suggest differences in air exchange rates due to lower building ventilation in winter could be driving the concentration differences. Weak relationships were found with building age for PCBs, with higher concentrations indoors in buildings built before 1984, and with the number of electronics for PBDEs, with higher concentrations in rooms with three or more electronic items. Indoor environments are the primary contributor to human inhalation exposure to these SVOCs, due to the high percentage of time spent indoors (>90%) combined with the higher indoors levels for all the studied compounds. Exposure via the indoor environment contributed ∼96% of the total chronic daily intake via inhalation in summer and ∼98% in winter.

  17. The Outdoor World: An Outdoor Science and Culture Program for Seneca Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobey, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an outdoor summer science program for Seneca Indian children in grades 5-7 that featured weekly outdoor topics integrating science, traditional Native American/Seneca culture, and skills in reading and language arts. Daily activities included field trips, community guests, storytelling, and individual and group projects. (LP)

  18. Student Learning in Outdoor Education: A Case Study from the National Outdoor Leadership School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Karen; Furman, Nathan; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2008-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to what students learn in outdoor education settings, little has been paid to the process through which that learning occurs. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which students report learning one of six targeted objectives on courses offered by the National Outdoor Leadership School.…

  19. Outdoor Learning: Primary Pupils' Experiences and Teachers' Interaction in Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws upon research undertaken for the Outdoor Pedagogies project and explores the processes of teaching and learning at one outdoor residential education centre with children and staff from "Oliver" Primary School. Data were collected through ethnographic research and include participant observation, interviews with teachers…

  20. An Ethnography of the Outdoor Classroom--How Teachers Manage Risk in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stan, Ina; Humberstone, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the approaches to risk that some teachers adopt when they are involved in facilitating outdoor activities. The research was carried out at a residential outdoor centre as part of a PhD study and a follow-up pilot project. The participants were primary school pupils, their teachers and the centre staff. For the purpose of this…

  1. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

  2. Fate and effects of the insecticide-miticide chlorfenapyr in outdoor aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Rand, Gary M

    2004-05-01

    The concentrations of chlorfenapyr in water and sediment in a lentic pond following early and late applications in a Florida crop treatment program were predicted using PRZM and EXAMS modeling and incorporating 30 years of actual rainfall data. An outdoor microcosm study was also conducted to determine the fate of chlorfenapyr and its effects on zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, and fish in a freshwater system under exposure conditions representing simulated surface runoff and/or spray drift. The microcosm design used a regression model with five treatments (i.e., 300 microg/L spray, 30 microg/L spray, 15 microg/L spray and 30 microg/L runoff, 1.2 microg/L spray and 2.5 microg/L runoff, 30 microg/L runoff) plus a control. Chlorfenapyr was applied as an aqueous suspension concentrate (36% a.i.) to six microcosm tanks (30.9 m3). The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) for zooplankton was the water concentration produced from the combination 1.2 microg/L spray and 2.5 microg/L runoff treatment. The NOEC for bluegill sunfish was the water concentration produced from the 30 microg/L runoff, which was significantly higher than the exposure concentrations from the lowest combination treatment. Chlorfenapyr was more toxic via spray to the water than via an exposure simulating surface runoff. The 96-h time weighted average concentrations (TWAs) from the lowest joint treatment and the 30 microg/L runoff treatment in the microcosm study were similar to model-predicted water 96-h TWA concentrations from early and late applications. The toxicity data from laboratory and microcosm studies along with water exposure data indicate low hazard to zooplankton species in the water column. Although chlorfenapyr remained in sediment, TWAs concentrations from the microcosm study along with model-predicted concentrations indicate low hazard to benthic invertebrate species based on acute toxicity to amphipods in the laboratory. Results from this assessment indicate that

  3. Comparison of human exposure model estimates of PM2.5 exposure variability using fine-scale CMAQ simulations from the Baltimore DISCOVER-AQ evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure models estimate population distributions of exposure to air pollutants by combining ambient (outdoor) concentration data with human activity patterns to account for the time people spend in different locations (e.g., outdoors, indoors, in vehicles) and the various ...

  4. Analysis of Personal and Home Characteristics Associated with the Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air in the RIOPA Study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patrick H; Brokamp, Cole; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Rao, M B

    2015-12-01

    The complex mixture of chemicals and elements that constitute particulate matter (PM*) varies by season and geographic location because source contributors differ over time and place. The composition of PM having an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is hypothesized to be responsible, in part, for its toxicity. Epidemiologic studies have identified specific components and sources of PM2.5 that are associated with adverse health outcomes. The majority of these studies use measures of outdoor concentrations obtained from one or a few central monitoring sites as a surrogate for measures of personal exposure. Personal PM2.5 (and its elemental composition), however, may be different from the PM2.5 measured at stationary outdoor sites. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the relationships between the concentrations of various elements in indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 samples, (2) to identify groups of individuals with similar exposures to mixtures of elements in personal PM2.5 and to examine personal and home characteristics of these groups, and (3) to evaluate whether concentrations of elements from outdoor PM2.5 samples are appropriate surrogates for personal exposure to PM2.5 and its elements and whether indoor PM2.5 concentrations and information about home characteristics improve the prediction of personal exposure. The objectives of the study were addressed using data collected as part of the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. The RIOPA study has previously measured the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and its elemental constituents during 48-hour concurrent indoor, outdoor (directly outside the home), and personal samplings in three urban areas (Los Angeles, California; Houston, Texas; and Elizabeth, New Jersey). The resulting data and information about personal and home characteristics (including air-conditioning use, nearby emission sources, time spent indoors, census-tract geography, air-exchange rates, and

  5. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  6. Radon in outdoor air in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.G.; Rigby, J.G.; Christensen, L.

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. The state-wide median of 15 Bq m{sup -3} (0.4 pCi L{sup -1}) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m{sup -3} (0.07-1.40 pCi L{sup -1}). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which >20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations >48 Bq m{sup -3} (4 pCi L{sup -1}) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Radon in outdoor air in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Price, J G; Rigby, J G; Christensen, L; Hess, R; LaPointe, D D; Ramelli, A R; Desilets, M; Hopper, R D; Kluesner, T; Marshall, S

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. (1991). The statewide median of 15 Bq m-3 (0.4 pCi L-1) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m-3 (0.07-1.40 pCi L-1). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which > 20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations > 48 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both.

  8. Iron deficiency in outdoor pig production.

    PubMed

    Szabo, P; Bilkei, G

    2002-09-01

    It has been claimed that outdoor-reared suckling piglets do not need iron supplementation. According to practical experience, outdoor-reared and non-iron-supplemented piglets show a lower performance in comparison with their iron-supplemented counterparts. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of iron supplementation on outdoor-reared suckling piglets. In a large Hungarian outdoor pig production unit, 4691 piglets were assigned to one of two treatment groups. Piglets in group 1 (n = 2344): received no iron supplementation, whereas piglets in group 2 (n = 2347) were intramuscularly injected in the neck on day 3 post-partum with 1.5 ml of Ferriphor 10% solution (TAD Pharmaceutical GmbH, Bremerhaven, Germany). Animal weights, morbidity, haemoglobin concentration and mortality were recorded and analysed. At weaning the iron-injected piglets were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier. The iron-supplemented piglets also revealed significantly (P < 0.01) less pre-weaning morbidity and mortality and higher (P < 0.01) blood haemoglobin concentration compared with the non-injected ones. This study suggests that in order to prevent pre-weaning losses and support piglet health and weight performance, iron supplementation should be administered to piglets in outdoor pig production units.

  9. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  10. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  11. The Relationship between Perceived Health and Physical Activity Indoors, Outdoors in Built Environments, and Outdoors in Nature

    PubMed Central

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and public health. Methods: National survey data (n = 2,070) from Finland was analysed using structural regression analyses. Perceived general health, emotional well-being, and sleep quality were regressed on the weekly frequency of physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and in nature. Socioeconomic factors and other plausible confounders were controlled for. Results: Emotional well-being showed the most consistent positive connection to physical activity in nature, whereas general health was positively associated with physical activity in both built and natural outdoor settings. Better sleep quality was weakly connected to frequent physical activity in nature, but the connection was outweighed by other factors. Conclusion: The results indicate that nature provides an added value to the known benefits of physical activity. Repeated exercise in nature is, in particular, connected to better emotional well-being. PMID:25044598

  12. A Look at the Life of an Outdoor Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselheim, Alan J.

    1981-01-01

    The article describes some of the less romantic aspects of being an outdoor educator, such as dealing with severe weather, insects, monotonous portable food, culture shock, and student motivation, and minimizing the ecological impact of outdoor education. (SB)

  13. Small scale spatial gradients of outdoor and indoor benzene in proximity of an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Licen, Sabina; Tolloi, Arianna; Briguglio, Sara; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Adami, Gianpiero; Barbieri, Pierluigi

    2016-05-15

    Benzene is known as a human carcinogen, whose annual mean concentration exceeded the EU limit value (5 μg/m(3)) only in very few locations in Europe during 2012. Nevertheless 10% to 12% of the EU-28 urban population was still exposed to benzene concentrations above the WHO reference level of 1.7 μg/m(3). WHO recommended a wise choice of monitoring stations positioning in proximity of "hot spots" to define and assess the representativeness of each site paying attention to micro-scale conditions. In this context benzene and other VOCs of health concern (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) concentrations have been investigated, with weekly passive sampling for one year, both in outdoor and indoor air in inhabited buildings in close proximity (180 m far up to 1100 m) of an integrated steel plant in NE of Italy. Even though the outdoor mean annual benzene concentration was below the EU limit in every site, in the site closest to the works the benzene concentration was above 5 μg/m(3) in 14 weeks. These events were related to a benzene over toluene ratio above one, which is diagnostic for the presence of an industrial source, and to meteorological factors. These information pointed at the identification of the coke ovens of the plant as the dominant outdoor source of benzene. Benzene gradients with the increasing distance from coke ovens have been found for both outdoor and indoor air. Linear models linking outdoor to indoor benzene concentrations have been then identified, allowing to estimate indoor exposure from ambient air benzene data. In the considered period, a narrow area of about 250 m appeared impacted at a higher degree than the other sites both considering outdoor and indoor air. Passive BTEX sampling permits to collect information on both ambient air and daily life settings, allowing to assemble a valuable data support for further environmental cost-benefit analyses.

  14. Human Exposure to Early Morning Anopheles funestus Biting Behavior and Personal Protection Provided by Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets

    PubMed Central

    Moiroux, Nicolas; Damien, Georgia B.; Egrot, Marc; Djenontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Killeen, Gerry F.; Pennetier, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    A shift towards early morning biting behavior of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus have been observed in two villages in south Benin following distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), but the impact of these changes on the personal protection efficacy of LLINs was not evaluated. Data from human and An. funestus behavioral surveys were used to measure the human exposure to An. funestus bites through previously described mathematical models. We estimated the personal protection efficacy provided by LLINs and the proportions of exposure to bite occurring indoors and/or in the early morning. Average personal protection provided by using of LLIN was high (≥80% of the total exposure to bite), but for LLIN users, a large part of remaining exposure occurred outdoors (45.1% in Tokoli-V and 68.7% in Lokohoué) and/or in the early morning (38.5% in Tokoli-V and 69.4% in Lokohoué). This study highlights the crucial role of LLIN use and the possible need to develop new vector control strategies targeting malaria vectors with outdoor and early morning biting behavior. This multidisciplinary approach that supplements entomology with social science and mathematical modeling illustrates just how important it is to assess where and when humans are actually exposed to malaria vectors before vector control program managers, policy-makers and funders conclude what entomological observations imply. PMID:25115830

  15. Differences in indoor versus outdoor concentrations of ultrafine particles, PM2.5, PMabsorbance and NO2 in Swiss homes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Eeftens, Marloes; Phuleria, Harish C; Ineichen, Alex; Corradi, Elisabetta; Davey, Mark; Fierz, Martin; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Schindler, Christian; Rochat, Thierry; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing concern as we spend the majority of time indoors and as new buildings are increasingly airtight for energy saving purposes. For a better understanding of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland we conducted repeated 1-2-week-long indoor and outdoor measurements of particle number concentrations (PNC), particulate matter (PM), light absorbance of PM2.5 (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Residents of all homes were enrolled in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Indoor levels were comparable in urban areas and generally low in rural homes. Average indoor levels were 7800 particles/cm(3) (interquartile range=7200); 8.7 μg/m(3) (6.5) PM2.5 and 10.2 μg/m(3) (11.2) NO2. All pollutants showed large variability of indoor/outdoor ratios between sites. We observed similar diurnal patterns for indoor and outdoor PNC. Nevertheless, the correlation of average indoor and outdoor PNC between sites as well as longitudinal indoor/outdoor correlations within sites were low. Our results show that a careful evaluation of home characteristics is needed when estimating indoor exposure to pollutants with outdoor origin.

  16. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  17. Long-Lasting Permethrin-Impregnated Clothing Protects Against Mosquito Bites in Outdoor Workers.

    PubMed

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Patel, Jaymin C; Vaughn, Meagan; Funkhauser, Sheana; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Grippin, Crystal; Jameson, Sam B; Apperson, Charles; Mores, Christopher N; Wesson, Dawn M; Colpitts, Tonya M; Meshnick, Steven R

    2015-10-01

    Outdoor exposure to mosquitoes is a risk factor for many diseases, including malaria and dengue. We have previously shown that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing protects against tick and chigger bites in a double-blind randomized controlled trial in North Carolina outdoor workers. Here, we evaluated whether this clothing is protective against mosquito bites by measuring changes in antibody titers to mosquito salivary gland extracts. On average, there was a 10-fold increase in titer during the spring and summer when mosquito exposure was likely to be the highest. During the first year of the study, the increase in titer in subjects wearing treated uniforms was 2- to 2.5-fold lower than that of control subjects. This finding suggests that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing provided protection against mosquito bites.

  18. Long-Lasting Permethrin-Impregnated Clothing Protects against Mosquito Bites in Outdoor Workers

    PubMed Central

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Patel, Jaymin C.; Vaughn, Meagan; Funkhauser, Sheana; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Grippin, Crystal; Jameson, Sam B.; Apperson, Charles; Mores, Christopher N.; Wesson, Dawn M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor exposure to mosquitoes is a risk factor for many diseases, including malaria and dengue. We have previously shown that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing protects against tick and chigger bites in a double-blind randomized controlled trial in North Carolina outdoor workers. Here, we evaluated whether this clothing is protective against mosquito bites by measuring changes in antibody titers to mosquito salivary gland extracts. On average, there was a 10-fold increase in titer during the spring and summer when mosquito exposure was likely to be the highest. During the first year of the study, the increase in titer in subjects wearing treated uniforms was 2- to 2.5-fold lower than that of control subjects. This finding suggests that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing provided protection against mosquito bites. PMID:26195460

  19. Indoor-outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations at four sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.R.; Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the major outdoor anthropogenic source of carbon monoxide (CO) is the 4,280,986 cars registered in the Kingdom last year. Of these vehicles, approximately 1,300,000 are registered in the Riyadh area. The major sources of indoor CO in Riyadh are gas cooking facilities, kerosene heaters, charcoal burners, hubble bubble pipes (water pipes), and tobacco smoking. The current Saudi Arabian Ambient Air Quality Standards (SAAQS) for CO are 10 mg/m{sup 3} (9 ppm) maximum for 8-hour average exposure, and 40 mg/m{sup 3} (35 ppm) for 1-hour average exposure. The allowable exceedance is twice per month. These standards are the same for the United States except no exceedance is allowed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO levels indoors and outdoors at four sites in Riyadh. Continuous sampling was conducted at four sites with Ecolyzer Series 200 Monitors, together with Rustrak Recorders Model 288.

  20. STUDY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EXPOSURE COMPONENT OF THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biologicals,...

  1. INDOOR AEROSOLS AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of both indoor aerosol concentration measurements, and the considerations for assessment of exposure to aerosols in non-occupational settings. The fixed-location measurements of concentration at an outdoor location, while commuting inside an a...

  2. Outdoor Adventure Leadership at Laurentian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Graduating with a Bachelor of Physical and Health Education (BPHE) degree with a specialty in Outdoor Adventure Leadership (ADVL) is a unique reality in Canada offered by Sudbury's Laurentian University. Developed over 20 years ago, the ADVL program has been one of Laurentian's six landmark Human Kinetics programs. From a scholastic perspective…

  3. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds shall be kept sufficiently free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or...

  4. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds shall be kept sufficiently free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or...

  5. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds shall be kept sufficiently free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or...

  6. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds shall be kept sufficiently free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or...

  7. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds shall be kept sufficiently free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or...

  8. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  9. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  10. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  11. Outdoor Education Curriculum Guide, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Lakewood, CO.

    As developed for a 6th grade outdoor education program, this curriculum guide is organized around a common core designed to teach conservation and appreciation of natural resources. Program initiation, methods and procedures, information on natural resources, suggested time schedules, learning activities, nature hikes, and field trips are…

  12. Enhancing Outdoor Play with an Obstacle Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Christina; Rinn, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Discusses building an outdoor obstacle course with found materials to enhance static playground equipment and promote developmentally appropriate play activity for 3- to 8-year olds. Discusses developmental and learning goals of obstacle courses; includes photographs of building equipment and sample layouts. Encourages enlisting children to help…

  13. Camping Out: An Outdoor Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Mark

    Camping Out is an outdoor education program designed to meet the needs of hearing-impaired, mentally retarded children. The program aims to help children overcome language deficits and restrictions of their limited environments while learning recreation skills which can enhance their motor, cognitive, and affective skills. The program covers seven…

  14. Standards and Practices in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Stuart, Ed.

    The guide provides a series of checklists and guidelines to assist Quebec outdoor education teachers and/or leaders and their principals in planning safe, enjoyable, educational experiences for elementary and secondary school students. The basic planning checklist itemizes specific tasks under eight categories: (1) preliminary discussion with…

  15. The Cemetery: An Outdoor Education Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; Smith, Joseph

    Utilizing the local cemetery as a resource for the study of local history, this outdoor education resource packet is multidisciplinary and is designed to be adapted to different age and class groups. The resource materials presented in this packet include the following: suggestions for pre-trip activities (social studies and history discussions,…

  16. Response of Migrant Children to Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Thomas L.

    An outdoor education program for migrant children was compared with a typical school program during the summer of 1969. The Wide Range Achievement Test was administered to both groups to obtain a pretest and posttest measure of reading and arithmetic. Visual-motor development was measured by the Bender-Gestalt scored by the Koppitz Developmental…

  17. Respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.E.; Levin, J.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and the quality of the environment. However, epidemiologic studies of these effects are difficult to control because of confounding variables such as age and cigarette smoking and the difficulty in estimating doses of pollutants. Drs Griffith and Levin discuss the relationship between major types of pollutants and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease.35 references.

  18. Paddle Making: A Craft for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Allison

    2001-01-01

    Crafting experiences, such as paddle making, fit in with the ideals and goals of outdoor and experiential education and can be linked to environmental education by creating environmental consciousness. Crafting a canoe paddle from harvested materials directly engages students with the land and can lead to reflection on material objects, patterns…

  19. Outdoor Recreation in Two European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by older adults in Luxembourg (N=138) and in France (N=100) revealed a high extent of participation in outdoor recreation (a demonstrated predictor of successful aging) in the two countries. Identified similarities and differences in socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and environmental factors associated with…

  20. The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Kent

    Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

  1. Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peta

    2007-01-01

    Officially founded in 1972 (but existing in another form before that), the Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association (SOEEA) is steadily approaching its 40th birthday and still going strong. A year ago (2006), however, this was not the case. At that time both the past-president and administrative assistant (a married couple)…

  2. Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

  3. Private Outdoor Recreation Enterprises in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hugh A.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to determine to what extent recreation enterprises in rural Appalachia can help meet the growing urban demands for outdoor recreation and provide profitable use of rural resources and employment for rural people. The analysis, drawn from a 1966 nationwide survey, included 35 campgrounds, 18 fishing areas, 14 vacation farms,…

  4. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Student's Handbook: Environmental Education Outdoor School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

    The student handbook was developed for use with students who intend to particpate in the Environmental Education Outdoor School Program in Santa Barbara County, California. After the form for the student to complete with personal information, i.e., name, school, etc., the handbook begins with a letter to the students, welcoming them to the…

  6. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon…

  7. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  8. Colorado Outdoor Education Center Teacher's Field Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Outdoor Education Center, Inc., Florissant.

    The Colorado Outdoor Education Center aims to educate the total person by offering programs which help each individual to gain a sense of the earth, of community, and of self. At High Trails the students are brought into direct contact with nature, utilizing small groups and emphasizing direct experiences. The integrated, multi-disciplinary…

  9. Emotional Safety in Outdoor and Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Wendy

    This paper introduces the concept of emotional safety in outdoor programming. Information and protocols developed by the Canadian Outward Bound Wilderness School are included that outline procedures that staff follow in the event of an "assault" on any student, volunteer, or staff. For clarification, definitions are given for emotional,…

  10. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  11. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions. PMID:10931793

  12. Children's Outdoor Environment in Icelandic Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate what characterizes the discourse on the role of the outdoor environment in young children's learning in educational policy documents in Iceland. Policy documents, laws and regulations, national curriculum guides for pre- and compulsory school levels, and documents from municipalities were analyzed. A…

  13. Outdoor Education Project Report, Camp Alpine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, N. J.

    A report is given of Project Alpine, two summer pilot programs in outdoor education sponsored by the Mesa Public Schools of Arizona. The report outlines the duties of camp personnel and includes an instruction sheet used by camp counselors. Various activities held for the campers (boys and girls from both upper elementary and secondary grades) are…

  14. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  15. Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, John H.; And Others

    Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

  16. The Counselors' Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Materials available in this manual are designed to aid camp counselors in working effectively with students and with other camp personnel in making the overall camping experience as meaningful as possible. The manual includes sections on (1) the role of the junior counselor in relation to all other persons at the camp, (2) how the Outdoor School…

  17. The Seed Scene: An Outdoor Teaching Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    The study of seeds and their dispersal is an excellent way to help students understand basic concepts which will help them in their adult decision-making activities regarding environmental problems. This article discusses the purpose of seeds, aspects of seeds, and collecting seeds. Classroom and outdoor activities with seeds are listed. (NQ)

  18. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  19. Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

    Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

  20. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  1. Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

    An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

  2. Outdoor Education: Opening and Closing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter, Comp.

    Opening activites (to create an atmosphere of cooperation and a desire to work, explore, and learn together) and closing activities (to summarize what has happened or been learned) for outdoor education programs are described. All activities are intended to incite enthusiasm to learn and make the learning activity a desired, joyful experience.…

  3. Ohio Sampler: Outdoor and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballbach, Joann, Ed.

    This document provides practical suggestions and meaningful activities for implementing Ohio's model curriculum in science for instruction that emphasizes hands-on experience and diverse learning opportunities. It also includes a variety of nonscience activities that emphasize and utilize the outdoors. This Sampler lists activities by indoor or…

  4. Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

  5. North Carolina Outdoor Education Association Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Journal of Outdoor Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Gives the Association's constitution which covers membership, executive board, elections, terms of office, duties of officers, committees, parliamentary authority, amendments, and quorum. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal…

  6. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  7. Outdoor Recreation. Curriculum Materials for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwee, Robert; And Others

    This curriculum guide for agricultural education contains nine chapters on outdoor recreation. Each is written by a different author (professors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and follows a similar format: Objectives, list of references, list of teaching materials, notes on teacher preparation, content for presentation,…

  8. Changing Pace: Outdoor Games for Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consalvo, Carmine M.

    This book aims to assist facilitators and trainers of human resource development in the use of outdoor games as a vehicle for learning. The games address such work-related areas as communication, decision making, problem solving, teamwork, leadership, and goal setting. The introduction offers a commentary on how and why the use of experiential…

  9. Reflections on Connecting through Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen; Brinkman, Danielle; Wabano, Mary Jo; Young, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Connecting through outdoor adventure is a process that may or may not seem obvious. The word "connecting" resonates with a powerful and extensive implied meaning that the authors feel compelled to share. A recent collaborative research project between leaders from the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve and researchers from Laurentian…

  10. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  11. A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

  12. The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisson, Christian

    Academic training programs in the field of outdoor education and recreation have increased considerably in the past few decades, but their true costs are often hidden. A survey of 15 outdoor college programs in the United States and Canada examined special fees associated with outdoor courses. The cost of necessary personal equipment and clothing…

  13. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  14. Stop Making Sense: The Outdoors as Art. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Applied outdoor experiences may be seen as theater and, as such, can allow a more flexible, integrative approach to outdoor learning. Both the arts (particularly theater) and outdoor experiential learning contain nine common elements, including elements of working with groups, and personal and transpersonal components of experience. Three…

  15. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  16. The Content of a College-Level Outdoor Leadership Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    This research study used the Delphi technique to determine the ideal content of a college-level outdoor leadership course for land-based outdoor pursuits in the Pacific Northwest. Topics were generated and value-rated by 61 Pacific Northwest outdoor leaders using a Likert-type scale in three separate questionnaires. Thirty-five topics were…

  17. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  18. Outdoor Play and Learning for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Suzanne M.

    Infants and toddlers like to crawl, climb, run, and explore in wide open, outdoor spaces. This publication provides ideas for day care providers on using outdoor play to facilitate learning in infants and toddlers. Section 1 discusses the benefits of daily outdoor play, including learning to interact with others, practicing language skills,…

  19. Leadership and Administration of Outdoor Pursuits. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis; Blanchard, Jim

    Outdoor leadership aims to assist outdoor participants in making logical and safe transitions from the routine of everyday life to a positive interaction with the natural world. Designed for outdoor leaders and administrators of recreational, educational, and adventure programs, this book provides an overview of current professional practices in…

  20. Potential for Excellence: Interdisciplinary Learning Outdoors as a Moral Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Pete; Carr, David; Meldrum, George

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the place and status of outdoor learning within formal schooling. In light of recent British outdoor educational trends, it considers the general educational significance of outdoor learning in the context of the recent Scottish "Curriculum for Excellence". The article begins with an overview of some key…

  1. Outdoor Education and Experiential Learning in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter, Ed.; Humberstone, Barbara, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers that describe a spectrum of experiential and outdoor education opportunities in the United Kingdom. The first section focuses on provision of outdoor education in schools, colleges, and outdoor education centers, drawing on formal curricula, including the British national curriculum. The second section examines outdoor…

  2. Research in Outdoor Education: (Summaries of Doctoral Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Donald R., Comp.; And Others

    Approximately 117 doctoral studies on outdoor education which were completed in the past 3 decades are presented. The documents are available to the Council on Outdoor Education and Camping of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation for publication and distribution to outdoor education leaders interested in the…

  3. Cooperative Programs in Residential Outdoor Environmental Education: Teacher's Materials Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

    Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief…

  4. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  5. Monitoring an outdoor smoking area by means of PM2.5 measurement and vegetal biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Fleck, Alan; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa, Fernando; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2016-11-01

    The extension of pollutant accumulation in plant leaves associated with its genotoxicity is a common approach to predict the quality of outdoor environments. However, this approach has not been used to evaluate the environmental quality of outdoor smoking areas. This study aims to evaluate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by assessing particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5) levels, the pollen abortion assay, and trace elements accumulated in plant leaves in an outdoor smoking area of a hospital. For this, PM2.5 was measured by active monitoring with a real time aerosol monitor for 10 days. Eugenia uniflora trees were used for pollen abortion and accumulated element assays. Accumulated elements were also assessed in Tradescantia pallida leaves. The median concentration of PM2.5 in the smoking area in all days of monitoring was 66 versus 34 μg/m(3) in the control area (P < 0.001). In addition, the elements Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, and V in Tradescantia pallida and Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb, and Zn in Eugenia uniflora were in higher concentration in the smoking area when compared to control area. Smoking area also showed higher rate of aborted grains (26.1 ± 10.7 %) compared with control (17.6 ± 4.5 %) (P = 0.003). Under the study conditions, vegetal biomonitoring proved to be an effective tool for assessing ETS exposure in outdoor areas. Therefore, vegetal biomonitoring of ETS could be a complement to conventional analyses and also proved to be a cheap and easy-handling tool to assess the risk of ETS exposure in outdoor areas.

  6. Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection methods and descriptive analyses.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Clifford P; Zhang, Junfeng; Turpin, Barbara J; Morandi, Maria T; Colome, Steven; Stock, Thomas H; Spektor, Dalia M; Korn, Leo; Winer, Arthur M; Kwon, Jaymin; Meng, Qing Yu; Zhang, Lin; Harrington, Robert; Liu, Weili; Reff, Adam; Lee, Jong Hoon; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Mohan, Kishan; Shendell, Derek; Jones, Jennifer; Farrar, L; Maberti, Slivia; Fan, Tina

    2005-11-01

    This study on the relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) was undertaken to collect data for use in evaluating the contribution of outdoor sources of air toxics and particulate matter (PM) to personal exposure. The study was not designed to obtain a population-based sample, but rather to provide matched indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations in homes that varied in their proximity to outdoor pollution sources and had a wide range of air exchange rates (AERs). This design allowed examination of relations among indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations of air toxics and PM across a wide range of environmental conditions; the resulting data set obtained for a wide range of environmental pollutants and AERs can be used to evaluate exposure models. Approximately 100 households with residents who do not smoke participated in each of three cities in distinct locations expected to have different climates and housing characteristics: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Questionnaires were administered to characterize homes, neighborhoods, and personal activities that might affect exposures. The concentrations of a suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds, as well as the fraction of airborne particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5), were measured during continuous 48-hour sessions in which indoor, outdoor, and personal air samples were collected simultaneously. During the same 48-hour period, the AER (exchanges/hr; x hr(-1)) was determined in each home, and carbonyl compounds were measured inside vehicle cabins driven by a subset of the participants. In most of the homes, measurements were made twice, during two different seasons, to obtain a wide distribution of AERs. This report presents in detail the data collection methods, quality control measures, and initial analyses of data distributions and relations among indoor, outdoor, and

  7. Outdoor Education. The Classroom Teacher Series in Health Education, Physical Education, and Recreation, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    Outdoor Education is presented as a means of curriculum enrichment through experiences in and for the outdoors. Discussion includes the definition and need for outdoor education, enrichment activities in the out-of-doors, outdoor education laboratories, day camp and resident camp programs, and resources for outdoor education. Outdoor school…

  8. THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field data collections for the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) have completed one-half of the planned study design. The DEARS is collecting personal, residential indoor, residential outdoor and central community monitoring data involving particulate matter, v...

  9. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  10. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  11. Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Indianapolis, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, E D; Clayton, C A; Rodes, C E; Mason, R E; Piper, L L; Fort, B; Pfeifer, G; Lynam, D

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of PM(2.5) and manganese (Mn) personal exposures was determined over a 4-month period in Indianapolis, IN, at a time when the gasoline additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), was not being used. The data collection period coincided with the data collection period in the Toronto, ON, study, where MMT had been used as a gasoline additive for over 20 years. The inferential or target population consisted of noninstitutionalized residents of the Indianapolis area during the monitoring period (from May 1996 through August 1996) who were at least 16 years old. The survey instruments used in this study (and also in Toronto) included a household screener form (HSF), a study questionnaire (SQ), and a time and activity questionnaire (TAQ). The SQ was administered to elicit information about the participant and his/her activities, occupation, and surroundings that might be relevant to his/her exposure to particles and Mn. In addition to the personal particulate matter (PM) and elemental 3-day monitoring, 240 participants completed a TAQ on a daily basis during the actual monitoring period. Also, a subset of participants had 3-day outdoor and indoor stationary monitoring at their home (approximately 58 observations), and sampling was conducted at a fixed site (approximately thirty-three 3-day observations). The quality of data was assessed and compared to the Toronto study in terms of linearity of measurement, instrument and method sensitivity, measurement biases, and measurement reproducibility. Twenty-six of the sample filters were subjected to two analyses to characterize the within-laboratory component of precision in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs). The median RSD for Mn was 8.7%, as compared to 2.2% for Toronto. The quality assurance (QA) laboratory exhibited a clear positive bias relative to the primary laboratory for Al and Ca, but no systematic difference was evident for Mn. A high interlaboratory correlation (>0

  12. Indoor-outdoor relationships of airborne particles and nitrogen dioxide inside Parisian buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Romain; Mazoué, Sophie; Géhin, Évelyne; Ionescu, Anda

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated passengers' exposure to traffic air pollution inside the articulated buses of the line 91 in Paris during 10 working days in May, 2010. Twenty articulated buses were studied on 32 routes in order to determine the influence of the sampling position on the pollutant concentrations. This parameter is still poorly known for the rigid buses and is even less known for the articulated ones. However this parameter must be studied for articulated buses because the greater length may cause a pollutant concentration gradient in the cabin. Portable devices were used to measure pollutants in the presence of passengers from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., time periods corresponding to the peak traffic and travellers. PM2.5 mass concentration, particle number concentration between 0.3 and 20 μm and nitrogen dioxide concentration were simultaneously measured on three positions inside the buses (front, middle and rear) in order to study the spatial distribution of these compounds. These measurements inside the buses were compared to the outdoor concentrations at the same moment of the day provided by the Parisian air quality monitoring network; they were also compared to the results of a previous monitoring campaign performed in 2008. The results obtained during the 2010 campaign revealed that in-cabin NO2 mean concentrations were 1.5-3.5 times higher than the outside concentration levels; a maximum concentration of 234 ± 40 μg m-3 was found in the rear position (location of the engine and exhaust gas). Mean in-cabin PM2.5 mass concentrations varied from one week to another one, but they were globally the same at the three positions inside the instrumented buses. In order to determine the impact of outdoor levels, correlations have been calculated between the results measured inside the buses and those measured by the outdoor air monitoring stations. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.29 for NO2 data whereas the highest Pearson

  13. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  14. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  15. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  16. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    PubMed

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  17. Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Hering, Susanne V.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2007-06-25

    A field study was conducted in an unoccupied single story residence in Clovis, California to provide data to address issues important to assess the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin. Measurements of black and organic carbonaceous aerosols were performed using a variety of methods, resulting in both near real-time measurements as well as integrated filter based measurements. Comparisons of the different measurement methods show that it is crucial to account for gas phase adsorption artifacts when measuring organic carbon (OC). Measured concentrations affected by the emissions of organic compounds sorbed to indoor surfaces imply a higher degree of infiltration of outdoor organic carbon aerosols into the indoor environment for our unoccupied house. Analysis of the indoor and outdoor data for black carbon (BC) aerosols show that, on average, the indoor concentration of black carbon aerosols behaves in a similar manner to sulfate aerosols. In contrast, organic carbon aerosols are subject to chemical transformations indoors that, for our unoccupied home, resulted in lower indoor OC concentrations than would be expected by physical loss mechanisms alone. These results show that gas to particle partitioning of organic compounds, as well as gas to surface interactions within the residence, are an important process governing the indoor concentration to OC aerosols of outdoor origin.

  18. Particle exposure in a baroque church during Sunday Masses.

    PubMed

    Polednik, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Particle concentrations were measured in a Baroque church during five Sunday Masses. The highest particle number and mass concentrations were observed when both candles and the incense were burned. They were respectively 16.8 and 14.3 times higher than outdoors for submicron particles. The exposure to particles experienced by the churchgoers, especially priests and church workers who participated in several Masses on that day, was considerably higher than the exposure experienced at the same time outdoors.

  19. Transient Response of Cadmium Telluride Modules to Light Exposure: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; del Cueto, J.; Albin, D. S.; Petersen, C.; Tyler, L.; TamizhMani, G.

    2011-07-01

    Commercial cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules from three different manufacturers were monitored for performance changes during indoor and outdoor light-exposure. Short-term transients in Voc were recorded on some modules, with characteristic times of ~1.1 hours. Outdoor performance data shows a similar drop in Voc after early morning light exposure. Preliminary analysis of FF changes show light-induced changes on multiple time scales, including a long time scale.

  20. The relationship of student achievement to learning elementary science outdoors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Steve Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teaching elementary science outdoors and student achievement on science standards. The study also considered student attitudes toward learning outdoors in the schoolyard and their achievement on a science standard appropriate for teaching outdoors. The seminal work in the field (Louv, 2005) created the phrase "nature deficit disorder" to describe the condition of children that spend little time outdoors learning from and playing in nature. Five fourth grade classes took part in outdoor instruction on particular standards after taking an attitudinal survey on learning outdoors and a pretest on the science content. Both measures were repeated after outdoor instruction. The hypotheses of the study were that students receiving outdoor instruction demonstrate improved science achievement and that student attitudes towards learning science outdoors has a significant impact on student achievement related to a science standard. The results of the study indicate a gain in student achievement followed the outdoor science lessons, allowing the research to accept the hypothesis as valid. However, the study found that student attitude toward learning science outdoors was not a significant factor in predicting gains in student achievement.

  1. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations☆

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures’ responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 °C, 13.8 °C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings PMID:22071034

  2. Outdoor air pollution in close proximity to a continuous point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Gabel, Etienne B.; Ott, Wayne R.; Switzer, Paul

    Data are lacking on human exposure to air pollutants occurring in ground-level outdoor environments within a few meters of point sources. To better understand outdoor exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars, and exposure to other types of outdoor point sources, we performed more than 100 controlled outdoor monitoring experiments on a backyard residential patio in which we released pure carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer gas for continuous time periods lasting 0.5-2 h. The CO was emitted from a single outlet at a fixed per-experiment rate of 120-400 cc min -1 (˜140-450 mg min -1). We measured CO concentrations every 15 s at up to 36 points around the source along orthogonal axes. The CO sensors were positioned at standing or sitting breathing heights of 2-5 ft (up to 1.5 ft above and below the source) and at horizontal distances of 0.25-2 m. We simultaneously measured real-time air speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature at single points on the patio. The ground-level air speeds on the patio were similar to those we measured during a survey of 26 outdoor patio locations in 5 nearby towns. The CO data exhibited a well-defined proximity effect similar to the indoor proximity effect reported in the literature. Average concentrations were approximately inversely proportional to distance. Average CO levels were approximately proportional to source strength, supporting generalization of our results to different source strengths. For example, we predict a cigarette smoker would cause average fine particle levels of approximately 70-110 μg m -3 at horizontal distances of 0.25-0.5 m. We also found that average CO concentrations rose significantly as average air speed decreased. We fit a multiplicative regression model to the empirical data that predicts outdoor concentrations as a function of source emission rate, source-receptor distance, air speed and wind direction. The model described the data reasonably well, accounting for ˜50% of the log

  3. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  4. *Combining regional - and local-scale air quality models with exposure models for use in environmental health studies - Title changed from Linking air quality and exposure models for use in environmental health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based human exposure models predict the distribution of personal exposures to pollutants of outdoor origin using a variety of inputs, including air pollution concentrations; human activity patterns, such as the amount of time spent outdoors versus indoors, commuting, w...

  5. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  6. Polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers for outdoor use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogl, O.

    1982-01-01

    Polymeric materials that are stable enough to use outdoors without changes in excess of 20 years are investigated. Ultraviolet stabilizers or plastic materials were synthesized, polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers, particularly of the 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)2H-benzotriazole family were prepared their polymerization, copolymerization and grafting onto other polymers were demonstrated, and ultraviolet stabilizing systems were devised. These materials were evaluated from the photophysical point of view.

  7. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  8. Gender and race in beliefs about outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2002-08-01

    Universal need for, or reactions to, risk communications should not be assumed; potential differences across demographic groups in environmental risk beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors could affect risk levels or opportunities for risk reduction. This article reports relevant findings from a survey experiment involving 1,100 potential jurors in Philadelphia concerning public responses to outdoor air pollution and air quality information. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found significant differences in risk ratings for multiple hazards, and in generic risk beliefs, between white men (or a subset) and all others (white women, nonwhite men, and nonwhite women). This study examined whether white men had significantly different responses to air pollution and air pollution information. An opportunity sample of volunteers from those awaiting potential jury duty in city courts (matching census estimates for white versus nonwhite proportions, but more female than the city's adult population and more likely to have children) filled out questionnaires distributed quasi-randomly. On most measures there were no statistically significant differences among white men (N = 192), white women (N = 269), nonwhite men (N = 165), and nonwhite women (N = 272). Nonwhites overall (particularly women) reported more concern about and sensitivity to air pollution than whites, and were more concerned by (even overly sensitive to) air pollution information provided as part of the experiment. Nonwhites also were more likely (within-gender comparisons) to report being active outdoors for at least four hours a day, a measure of potential exposure to air pollution, and to report intentions to reduce such outdoor activity after reading air pollution information. Differences between men and women were less frequent than between whites and nonwhites; the most distinctive group was nonwhite women, followed by white men. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found a far larger

  9. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means.

  10. Combining Regional- and Local-Scale Air Quality Models with Exposure Models for Use in Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based human exposure models predict the distribution of personal exposures to pollutants of outdoor origin using a variety of inputs, including: air pollution concentrations; human activity patterns, such as the amount of time spent outdoors vs. indoors, commuting, wal...

  11. The fraction of total hand surface area involved in young children's outdoor hand-to-object contacts

    SciTech Connect

    AuYeung, Willa; Canales, Robert A. Leckie, James O.

    2008-11-15

    Information on the fraction of total hand surface area touching a contaminated object is necessary in accurately estimating contaminant (e.g., pesticides, pathogens) loadings onto the hands during hand-to-object contacts. While several existing physical-stochastic human exposure models require such surface area data to estimate dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure, there are very limited data sets. This paper provides statistical distributions of fractional surface areas (FSAs) for children's outdoor hand contacts. These distributions were constructed by combining information collected from two distinct studies exploring children's activity patterns and quantifying hand contact surface area. Results show that for outdoor contacts with 'All Objects', a range of 0.13-0.27 captured median FSAs, while a range of 0.12-0.24 captured time-weighted FSAs. Overall, an FSA of 0.31 captured 80-100% of FSAs involved in each child's outdoor hand contacts, depending upon the object of interest. These values are much lower than the often conservative assumptions of up to 1 (i.e., the entire hand) that researchers currently make regarding FSAs involved in indoor and outdoor contacts [USEPA, 1997. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for residential exposure assessments. Contract no. 68-W6-0030. < (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf)>].

  12. The fraction of total hand surface area involved in young children's outdoor hand-to-object contacts.

    PubMed

    AuYeung, Willa; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2008-11-01

    Information on the fraction of total hand surface area touching a contaminated object is necessary in accurately estimating contaminant (e.g., pesticides, pathogens) loadings onto the hands during hand-to-object contacts. While several existing physical-stochastic human exposure models require such surface area data to estimate dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure, there are very limited data sets. This paper provides statistical distributions of fractional surface areas (FSAs) for children's outdoor hand contacts. These distributions were constructed by combining information collected from two distinct studies exploring children's activity patterns and quantifying hand contact surface area. Results show that for outdoor contacts with "All Objects", a range of 0.13-0.27 captured median FSAs, while a range of 0.12-0.24 captured time-weighted FSAs. Overall, an FSA of 0.31 captured 80-100% of FSAs involved in each child's outdoor hand contacts, depending upon the object of interest. These values are much lower than the often conservative assumptions of up to 1 (i.e., the entire hand) that researchers currently make regarding FSAs involved in indoor and outdoor contacts [USEPA, 1997. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for residential exposure assessments. Contract no. 68-W6-0030. http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf].

  13. Infiltration of outdoor ultrafine particles into a test house.

    PubMed

    Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Persily, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) (<100 nm) have been related to adverse human health effects such as oxidative stress and cardiovascular mortality. However, human exposure to particles of outdoor origin is heavily dependent on their infiltration into homes. The infiltration factor (Finf) and its variation as a function of several factors becomes of enormous importance in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the transport of UFP into a residential building and to determine the functional dependence of infiltration on particle size and air change rate. A secondary objective was to estimate the values of the penetration coefficient P and composite deposition rate kcomp that enter into the definition of Finf. Using continuous measurements of indoor and outdoor concentrations of size-resolved particles ranging from 5 to 100 nm in a manufactured test house, particle penetration through the building, composite deposition, and the resulting value of Finf were calculated for two cases: closed windows and one window open 7.5 cm. Finf ranged from close to 0 (particles<10 nm) to 0.3 (particles>80 nm) with windows closed and from 0 to 0.6 with one window open. The penetration coefficient (closed windows) increased from about 0.2 for 10-nm particles to an asymptote near 0.6 for particles from 30-100 nm. Open window penetration coefficients were higher, ranging from 0.6 to 0.8. Closed-window composite deposition rates, which included losses to the furnace filter and to the ductwork as well as to interior surfaces, monotonically decreased from levels of about 1.5 h(-1) for 10-nm particles to 0.3 h(-1) for 100-nm particles. For the open-window case, composite deposition rates were higher for particles<20 nm, reaching values of 3.5 h(-1). Mean standard errors associated with estimates of P, kcomp, and Finf for two series of measurements ranged from 1.0% to 4.4%.

  14. Changes in Time Spent Outdoors During the Daytime in Rural Populations in Four Geographically Distinct Regions in China: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Wang, Fang; Hu, Liwen; Yu, Jiaming; Liu, Rong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Changes in time-activity patterns may influence personal exposure to various environmental factors and affect individual health. However, few studies have investigated the changes in patterns of time spent outdoors. To investigate the trends in outdoor activity in recent decades in China, a retrospective questionnaire was used to examine the amount and pattern of time spent outdoors during the day by 2076 subjects in four geographically distinct rural regions of China. Rural Chinese people spent less time outdoors than they used to because of the economic development, increase in education and changes in working conditions that occurred over time. Outdoor time was the shortest during the school stage of life (Sanya: 3.24-3.61; Shaoxing: 3.35-3.68; Lhasa: 4.37-4.54; Xiuyan: 2.94-3.26 h per day). Subjects in wealthy regions spent less time outdoors during their working stage of life. In the four regions in this study, the average daily times spent outdoors were 3-13% lower for subjects aged 40-59 years and 20-38% lower for those under 40 years compared to subjects aged 60 years and over. Certain health-related issues, such as vitamin D deficiency, will become more prominent in China if this trend continues.

  15. A Three Year Study on 14 VOCs at One Site in Rome: Levels, Seasonal Variations, Indoor/Outdoor Ratio and Temporal Trends

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Sergio; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds—were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown. PMID:21139860

  16. A three year study on 14 VOCs at one site in Rome: levels, seasonal variations, indoor/outdoor ratio and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Fuselli, Sergio; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2010-10-01

    Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds-were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown.

  17. Effects of Nanoparticles on the Environment and Outdoor Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sayed Mohammad; Momenpour, Mahdiye; Azarian, Maryam; Ahmadian, Mohammad; Souri, Faramarz; Taghavi, Sayed Ali; Sadeghain, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Today, most parts of different nanotechnologies are growing and developing without any special rules and regulations. This could result in undesirable changes in the environment and affect workers in indoor and outdoor workplaces. Carbon-based nanoparticles, such as fullerenes, nanotubes, the oxides of metals such as iron and titanium, and natural inorganic compounds, including asbestos and quartz, can have biological effects on the environment and human health. The risk assessment of such nanoparticles requires evaluation of their mobility, reactivity, environmental toxicity, and stability. With the increasing use of nanoparticles for commercial and industrial purposes, the debate becomes whether the numerous benefits of nanoparticles can overcome the economic costs, environmental impacts, and unknown risks resulting from their use. To date, few studies have been conducted on the toxic and environmental effects that result from direct and indirect exposure to nanoparticles, and there are no clear standards to determine their effects. Lack of technical information in this regard has provided an appropriate context for supporters and opponents of nanoparticles to present contradictory and ill-considered results. Such an uncertain atmosphere has caused increased concerns about the effects of nanoparticles. Therefore, adequate studies to determine the exact, real risks of the use of nanoparticles are required. The information resulting from these studies can be useful in minimizing the environmental hazards that could arise from the use of nanoparticles. Thus, this paper briefly explains the classification of environmental nanoparticles and how to deal with their formation, diffusion, environmental fate and impacts, and our exposure to them. PMID:26120406

  18. PubMed search filters for the study of putative outdoor air pollution determinants of disease

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. Methods We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one ‘more specific’, one ‘more sensitive’). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. Results The ‘more specific’ filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The ‘more sensitive’ filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the ‘more specific’ filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the ‘more sensitive’ one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the ‘more specific’ filter and 3.3 for the ‘more sensitive’ one. Conclusions The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. PMID:28003291

  19. Environmental and biological monitoring of arsenic in outdoor workers exposed to urban air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ciarrocca, Manuela; Tomei, Gianfranco; Palermo, Paola; Caciari, Tiziana; Cetica, Carlotta; Fiaschetti, Maria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Tasciotti, Zaira; Tomei, Francesco; Sancini, Angela

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate personal exposure to As in urban air in two groups of outdoor workers (traffic policemen and police drivers) of a big Italian city through: (a) environmental monitoring of As obtained by personal samples and (b) biological monitoring of total urinary As. The possible influence of smoking habit on urinary As was evaluated. We studied 122 male subjects, all Municipal Police employees: 84 traffic policemen and 38 police drivers exposed to urban pollutants. Personal exposure to As in air was significantly higher in traffic policemen than in police drivers (p=0.03). Mean age, length of service, alcohol drinking habit, number of cigarettes smoked/day and BMI were comparable between the groups of subjects studied. All subjects were working in the same urban area where they had lived for at least 5 yrs. Dietary habits and consumption of water from the water supply and/or mineral water were similar in traffic policemen and in police drivers. The values of total urinary As were significantly higher in traffic policemen (smokers and non smokers) than in police drivers (smokers and non smokers) (p=0.02). In the subgroup of non-smokers the values of total urinary As were significantly higher in traffic policemen than in police drivers (p=0.03). In traffic policemen and in police drivers total urinary As values were significantly correlated to the values of As in air (respectively r=0.9 and r=0.8, p<0.001). This is the first research in literature studying the exposure to As in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to urban pollutants, such as traffic policemen and police drivers. Personal exposure to As in the air, as well as the urinary excretion of As, is significantly higher in traffic policemen compared to drivers. These results can provide information about exposure to As in streets and in car for other categories of outdoor workers similarly exposed.

  20. Outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Dakik, Habib; Elias, Elias; Abou Abbas, Linda; Levêque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious threat for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between outdoor pollutants and cardiovascular diseases among adults in Lebanon and to examine the possible moderator effect of cigarette smoking status on this association. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Cases were hospitalized patients diagnosed with CVD by a cardiologist while the control group subjects were free of any cardiac diseases. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, self-rated global health, pollution exposure, and other risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression revealed that living near busy highway (OR 5.04, 95% CI (4.44-12.85), P < 0.001) and close to local diesel generator (OR 4.76, 95% CI (2.07-10.91), P < 0.001) was significantly associated with CVD. The association between the CVD and exposure to outside pollutants differed by cigarette smoking status. A clear difference was noted between nonsmokers and current smokers OR 4.6, 95% CI (1.10-19.25) and OR 10.11, 95% CI (7.33-20.23), respectively. Forthcoming studies are needed to clarify the potential link between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Public health interventions must be implemented to reduce air pollution and to improve air quality.