Science.gov

Sample records for actual outdoor exposure

  1. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  2. An outdoor exposure testing program for optical materials used in solar thermal electric technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.; Jorgensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developing low-cost, durable advanced optical materials is important for making solar thermal energy. technologies viable for electricity production. The objectives of a new outdoor testing program recently initiated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are to determine the expected lifetimes of candidate reflector materials and demonstrate their optical durability in real-world service conditions. NREL is working with both utilities and industry in a collaborative effort to achieve these objectives. To date, simulated/accelerated exposure testing of these materials has not been correlated with actual outdoor exposure testing. Such a correlation is desirable to provide confidence in lifetime predictions based upon accelerated weathering results. This outdoor testing program will allow outdoor exposure data to be obtained for realistic environments and will establish a data base for correlating simulated/accelerated outdoor exposure data with actual outdoor exposure data. In this program, candidate reflector materials are subjected to various outdoor exposure conditions in a network of sites across the southwestern United States. Important meteorological data are continuously recorded at these sites; these data will be analyzed for possible correlations with material optical performance. Weathered samples are characterized on a regular basis using a series of optical tests. These tests provide the basis for tracking material performance and durability with exposure time in the various outdoor environments. This paper describes the outdoor testing program in more detail including meteorological monitoring capabilities and the optical tests that are performed on these materials.

  3. Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Sherertz, P.C.; Llewellyn, G.C.; Armstrong, C.W. )

    1991-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor {number sign}1 and by 96 percent for instructor {number sign}2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

  4. Personal UV exposure for different outdoor sports.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos; Gurrea, Gonzalo

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major environmental risk factor in the development of skin cancers and it occurs mainly during outdoor activities. The purpose of this study is to quantify the UV exposure suffered by amateur athletes (tennis players, hikers and runners) in their training schedules. The study on tennis player exposure took place at a tennis club in Valencia during the month of June 2011. With respect to the hiking group, the hikes studied took place in several mountainous areas of Spain and France from June to August 2011. Finally, the exposure suffered by ten runners while participating in a running circuit in the province of Valencia, from March to November 2011, was studied. The athletes were monitored using personal dosimeters (VioSpor), with the tennis players and runners wearing them on the wrist and the hikers on the shoulder. The median daily personal UV exposure for the hikers was 8.1 Standard Erythema Dose (SED) and for the tennis players 7.5 SED per day of training. The runners received a median of 14.6 SED while participating in the running circuit and about 2 SED per competition day. Median daily UV exposure of the hikers and tennis players exceeded 5 SED, which means that, in the case of non-sun-adapted skin type III and the non-use of sun protection, erythema may be induced in these subjects. However, the exposure suffered by the runners did not exceed the maximum personal exposure of 5 SED. Accordingly, it is necessary to encourage the use of high protection sunscreens and protective clothing and to avoid UV exposure in the hottest part of the day. PMID:24535504

  5. MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

  6. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  8. Sound exposure during outdoor music festivals.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Tron V; Gelderblom, Femke B

    2016-01-01

    Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival's duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization's recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization's recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure. PMID:27569410

  9. Childhood exposure to Libby amphibole during outdoor activities.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patrick H; LeMasters, Grace K; Burkle, Jeffrey; Lockey, James E; Black, Brad; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Residents of Libby, MT were exposed to amphibole asbestos through multiple environmental pathways. Previous exposure characterization has primarily relied on qualitative report of these exposure activities. The objectives of this study were to describe available data from the US EPA preremediation actions for Libby amphibole (LA) exposure in Libby, MT and develop an approach to characterize outdoor residential exposure to LA among children. Homes in Libby, MT included in the US EPA preremediation Contaminant Screening Survey (CSS) were categorized by the presence of interior and/or exterior visible vermiculite and concentrations of LA were measured in samples of dust and soil. Airborne exposure to LA while digging/gardening, raking, and mowing were estimated using US EPA activity-based sampling (ABS) results. Residential histories and frequency/duration of childhood activities were combined with ABS to demonstrate the approach for estimating potential exposure. A total of 3154 residential properties participated in the CSS and 44% of these had visible exterior vermiculite. Airborne concentrations of LA where there was visible vermiculite outdoors were 3-15 times higher during digging/gardening, raking, and mowing activities compared with homes without visible outdoor vermiculite. Digging and gardening activities represented the greatest contribution to estimated exposures and 73% of the participants reported this activity before the age of 6 years. This methodology demonstrated the use of historical preremediation data to estimate residential exposures of children for specific activities. Children younger than age 6 years may have been exposed to LA while digging/gardening, especially at homes where there is visible outdoor vermiculite. This approach may be extended to other activities and applied to the entire cohort to examine health outcomes. PMID:23695492

  10. UV-B radiation and photosynthetic irradiance acclimate eggplant for outdoor exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.; Mitchell, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings with supplemental photosynthetically active radiation from cool-white fluorescent lamps increased growth of plants subsequently transferred outdoors relative to growth of plants that received no supplemental radiation or were shaded to 45% of solar irradiation in the greenhouse before transfer outdoors. Eggplant seedlings transferred outdoors were placed under plastic tarps either to provide relative protection from solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) using Mylar film or to allow exposure to UV-B using cellulose acetate. Protection of seedlings from UV-B radiation resulted in greater leaf expansion than for UV-B-exposed seedlings, but no change in leaf or shoot dry weight occurred after 9 days of treatment. Specific leaf weight increased in response to UV-B exposure outdoors. Exposure of eggplant to UV-B radiation from fluorescent sunlamps in the greenhouse also decreased leaf expansion and leaf and shoot dry weight gain after 5 days of treatment. However, there were no differences in leaf or shoot dry weight relative to control plants after 12 days of UV-B treatment, indicating that UV-B treated plants had acclimated to the treatment and actually had caught up with non-UV-B-irradiated plants in terms of growth.

  11. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  12. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  13. OUTDOOR VS. HUMAN EXPOSURE: NERL PM EXPOSURE PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An association has been demonstrated between ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) concentrations and human morbidity/mortality. However, little is known regarding the most important sources of PM exposure, interpersonal and intrapersonal variability in exposure, and the...

  14. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  15. Assessment of noise exposure for indoor and outdoor firing ranges.

    PubMed

    Murphy, William J; Tubbs, Randy L

    2007-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received an employee request for a health hazard evaluation of a Special Weapons Assault Team (SWAT) in January 2002. The department was concerned about noise exposures and potential hearing damage from weapons training on their indoor and outdoor firing ranges. NIOSH investigators conducted noise sampling with an acoustic mannequin head and 1/4 -inch microphone to characterize the noise exposures that officers might experience during small arms qualification and training when wearing a variety of hearing protection devices provided by the department. The peak sound pressure levels for the various weapons ranged from 156 to 170 decibels (dB SPL), which are greater than the recommended allowable 140 dB SPL exposure guideline from NIOSH. The earplugs, ear muffs, and customized SWAT team hearing protectors provided between 25 and 35 dB of peak reduction. Double hearing protection (plugs plus muffs) added 15-20 dB of peak reduction. PMID:17654224

  16. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Méhu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-02-15

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 "Hygiene, Health and Environment" of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, "runoff" and "stagnation", and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials. PMID:19118868

  17. Monitoring of daily integrated exposure of outdoor workers to respirable particulates in an urban region

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, M.M.; Patil, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    A realization is gradually emerging that estimation of daily integrated exposure of population to air pollutants is more relevant rather than the ambient air quality, since it gives a better indicator of health risk. Outdoor workers in urban region are generally of low income category and suffer from both indoor and outdoor air pollution of high levels. These respondent population sub-group have been selected for this study. The outdoor workers are divided into two categories - stationary and mobile. Stationary outdoor workers are further divided into two groups viz. traffic police and casual outdoor workers like watchman, roadside shopkeeper, etc. The mobile outdoor workers include drivers and workers who have to travel for a majority period of their occupation time. Most of the respondents are from lower income group. The sampling frequency is once a week. The study region is situated in the N-W part of Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation. It can be classified as industrial cum residential area. Ambient air quality monitoring stations are established at three sites viz. Marol, Sakinaka and Jogeshwari in this region and respondents for the exposure measurement are selected from the cluster of residential houses (slums) near these stations. In the present study, outdoor workers residing and working in the study region are selected. This has eliminated the commuting microenvironment. The daily integrated exposure of the outdoor workers consists of two major microenvironments viz. occupation and indoor residential. In addition, activity diary of the respondents is maintained to check whether there are any other major microenvironments.

  18. INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORING OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION: THE BALTIMORE ELDERLY EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was...

  19. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  20. Volatile organic compounds concentrations in residential indoor and outdoor and its personal exposure in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Busoon; Breysse, Patrick; Yang, Wonho

    2003-04-01

    To date, personal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exposure and residential indoor and outdoor VOCs levels have not been characterized in Korea. In this study, residential indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations were measured and compared simultaneously with the personal exposure for each of 30 participants in a medium city, Asan, and in a metropolitan city, Seoul. Factors that influence personal VOCs exposures were assessed in relation to house characteristics and time activity information. All VOC concentrations were measured using passive samplers during a 24-h period and analyzed using GC-MS. Ten target VOCs were benzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, o-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, MIBK, n-octane, styrene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Residential indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations measured in Seoul were significantly higher than those in Asan. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for all target compounds ranged from 0.94 to 1.51 and I/O ratios of Asan were a little higher than those of Seoul. Results indicate that time activity information can be used to predict personal exposures, although such predictions will result in an over estimation compared to measured exposures. Factors which influence the indoor VOCs level and its personal exposure in relation to house characteristics included house age, indoor smoking, and house type. PMID:12605940

  1. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on the use of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied. PMID:21139867

  2. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on the Use of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied. PMID:21139867

  3. Monitoring personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to metals in airborne particulate matter: Risk of contamination during sampling, handling and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Pat E.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Hassan, Nouri M.; Filiatreault, Alain; Lanouette, Monique

    Rigorous sampling and quality assurance protocols are required for the reliable measurement of personal, indoor and outdoor exposures to metals in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). Testing of five co-located replicate air samplers assisted in identifying and quantifying sources of contamination of filters in the laboratory and in the field. A field pilot study was conducted in Windsor, Ont., Canada to ascertain the actual range of metal content that may be obtained on filter samples using low-flow (4 L min -1) 24-h monitoring of personal, indoor and outdoor air. Laboratory filter blanks and NIST certified reference materials were used to assess contamination, instrument performance, accuracy and precision of the metals determination. The results show that there is a high risk of introducing metal contamination during all stages of sampling, handling and analysis, and that sources and magnitude of contamination vary widely from element to element. Due to the very small particle masses collected on low-flow 24-h filter samples (median 0.107 mg for a sample volume of approximately 6 m 3) the contribution of metals from contamination commonly exceeds the content of the airborne particles being sampled. Thus, the use of field blanks to ascertain the magnitude and variability of contamination is critical to determine whether or not a given element should be reported. The results of this study were incorporated into standard operating procedures for a large multiyear personal, indoor and outdoor air monitoring campaign in Windsor.

  4. Outdoor Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Legislation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Abel A

    2016-06-01

    The total ozone column of 265 ± 11 Dobson Units in the tropical-equatorial zones and 283 ± 16 Dobson Units in the subtropics of Brazil are among the lowest on Earth, and as a result, the prevalence of skin cancer due to solar ultraviolet radiation is among the highest. Daily erythemal doses in Brazil can be over 7,500 J m. Erythemal dose rates on cloudless days of winter and summer are typically about 0.147 W m and 0.332 W m, respectively. However, radiation enhancement events yielded by clouds have been reported with erythemal dose rates of 0.486 W m. Daily doses of the diffuse component of erythemal radiation have been determined with values of 5,053 J m and diffuse erythemal dose rates of 0.312 W m. Unfortunately, Brazilians still behave in ways that lead to overexposure to the sun. The annual personal ultraviolet radiation ambient dose among Brazilian youths can be about 5.3%. Skin cancer in Brazil is prevalent, with annual rates of 31.6% (non-melanoma) and 1.0% (melanoma). Governmental and non-governmental initiatives have been taken to increase public awareness of photoprotection behaviors. Resolution #56 by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária has banned tanning devices in Brazil. In addition, Projects of Law (PL), like PL 3730/2004, propose that the Sistema Único de Saúde should distribute sunscreen to members of the public, while PL 4027/2012 proposes that employers should provide outdoor workers with sunscreen during professional outdoor activities. Similar laws have already been passed in some municipalities. These are presented and discussed in this study. PMID:27115230

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR-OUTDOOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS DURING THE FRESNO PM EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle size distributions were measured indoors and outdoors of a single, detached residence during the Fresno particulate matter exposure studies in winter (February 1-28, 1999) and spring (April 18-May 16, 1999). Data was collected for particle sizes ranging from about 0....

  6. Residential exposure to outdoor air pollution from livestock operations and perceived annoyance among citizens.

    PubMed

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Suh, Helen; Nadimi, Esmaeil S; Løfstrøm, Per; Ellermann, Thomas; Andersen, Helle V; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that residential exposure to livestock odors can affect the health and wellbeing of rural citizens. However, exposure-response models for this relationship have not been developed. One of the main challenges is to identify a compound that can be used as proxy for livestock odor exposure. In this paper we developed models that describe the relationship between long-term averaged outdoor residential ammonia (NH(3)) exposures and livestock odor annoyance experienced by rural residents, and investigated person-related variables associated with annoyance responses. We used emission-based atmospheric dispersion modeling data to estimate household-specific outdoor concentrations and survey data to characterize the study subjects. Binomial and multinomial logistic regressions were used for model development. Residential NH(3) exposure was positively associated with moderate, high and extreme odor annoyance (adjusted odds ratio=10.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-83.13, for each unit increase in Log(e)NH(3) exposure). Specific characteristics of the exposed subjects (i.e., age, time per week spent at home, presence of children at home and job) act as co-determinants of odor annoyance responses. Predictive models showed classification accuracies of 67-72%. The results suggest that NH(3) exposure in the residential outdoor environment can be used as a predictor of livestock odor annoyance in population studies. PMID:22280927

  7. Risk assessment of bioaccessible organochlorine pesticides exposure via indoor and outdoor dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-Juan; Wu, Fu-Yong; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Dust, enriched by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), was defined as a new route of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) exposure, especially for children. Chemical analyses showed the medians of ∑OCPs were 171 (outdoor) and 520 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Guangzhou (GZ) while 130 (outdoor) and 115 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Hong Kong (HK). Significantly higher accumulative effect of OCPs occurred in the size fractions of <63 and 63-100 μm than 100-280 and 280-2000 μm, therefore 0-100 μm dust particles were used for risk evaluation. Different cytotoxic effects on human hepatocellular live carcinoma cell (HepG2) and human skin keratinocyte cell line (KERTr) were found for extracts of indoor dust and outdoor dust from different functional areas. For total exposure (dust and food), OCPs intake via dust was low for adults (accounting for 0.16-3.78% of total exposure), while for children it was high (8.16-24.4% of total exposure). Non-carcinogenic OCPs exposure via dust was safe for adults; however DDT and Dieldrin exposure for children was higher than Reference Dose (RfD). The cancer risk related to indoor dust exposure for GZ and HK was moderate, below 10-4, while 42% of residences in GZ should be of concern (10-5). However, when bioaccessible OCPs used, daily intake and health risk were found to be greatly lower than the estimates without considering bioaccessibility.

  8. USE OF PERSONAL-INDOOR-OUTDOOR SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS TO ESTIMATE THE INFILTRATION FACTOR AND OUTDOOR EXPOSURE FACTOR FOR INDIVIDUAL HOMES AND PERSONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM2.5 and associated elements has been carried out for 37 residents of the Research Triangle Park area in North Carolina. Participants were selected from persons expected to be at elevated risk from exposure to particles, and ...

  9. Residual strength of repaired graphite/epoxy laminates after 5 years of outdoor exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has sponsored research to develop generic repair techniques and processes for advanced graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) composites applicable to secondary structures for commercial transport aircraft. The long-term durability of such repairs is being addressed in a 10-year outdoor exposure program at the Langley Research Center. Details of the program and results of residual strength tests after 5 years of outdoor exposure are presented. Four repair methods are being evaluated. These include: (1) externally bolted aluminum-plus adhesive; (2) precured, bonded external Gr/Ep; (3) cure-in-place external Gr/Ep; and (4) cure-in-place flush Gr/Ep. Repaired specimens as well as undamaged and damaged unrepaired controls are being exposed outdoors for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years. The residual tensile strength of stressed, unstressed, and fatigue specimens from each group is reported and compared with the tensile strength of baseline specimens which received no outdoor exposure. Identification of the commercial products and companies is used to describe adequately the test materials. The identification of these commercial products does not constitute endorsement, expressed or implied, of such products by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Passive samplers for ambient ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide: Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Grosjean, E.

    1994-12-31

    Time-integrated measurements of air pollutants have many applications in the context of regulations pertaining to indoor air quality, outdoor (ambient) monitoring, and personal exposure assessment. For several years, the passive samplers developed at DGA have been applied to cost-effective measurements of parts per billion levels of ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide. Examples of applications will be described. These include (a) formaldehyde measurements in indoor settings including museums, public buildings and personal exposure; (b) ozone measurements indoor (museums, cultural heritage buildings) and outdoor (Class 1 Wilderness areas; air quality surveys in Europe, Canada and Latin America, long-term monitoring of ozone exposure in forests) and (c) surveys of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in several eastern European countries.

  11. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. PMID:23315952

  12. Public effective doses from environmental natural gamma exposures indoors and outdoors in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Roositalab, Jalil; Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2015-12-01

    The effective doses of public in Iran due to external gamma exposures from terrestrial radionuclides and from cosmic radiation indoors and outdoors of normal natural background radiation areas were determined by measurements and by calculations. For direct measurements, three measurement methods were used including a NaI(TI) scintillation survey meter for preliminary screening, a pressurised ionising chamber for more precise measurements and early warning measurement equipment systems. Measurements were carried out in a large number of locations indoors and outdoors ∼1000 houses selected randomly in 36 large cities of Iran. The external gamma doses of public from living indoors and outdoors were also calculated based on the radioactivity measurements of samples taken from soil and building materials by gamma spectrometry using a high-resolution HPGe system. The national mean background gamma dose rates in air indoors and outdoors based on measurements are 126.9±24.3 and 111.7±17.72 nGy h(-1), respectively. When the contribution from cosmic rays was excluded, the values indoors and outdoors are 109.2±20.2 and 70.2±20.59.4 nGy h(-1), respectively. The dose rates determined for indoors and outdoors by calculations are 101.5±9.2 and 72.2±9.4 nGy h(-1), respectively, which are in good agreement with directly measured dose rates within statistical variations. By considering a population-weighted mean for terrestrial radiation, the ratio of indoor to outdoor dose rates is 1.55. The mean annual effective dose of each individual member of the public from terrestrial radionuclides and cosmic radiation, indoors and outdoors, is 0.86±0.16 mSv y(-1) by measurements and 0.8±0.2 mSv y(-1) by calculations. The results of this national survey of public annual effective doses from national natural background external gamma radiation determined by measurements and calculations indoors and outdoors of 1000 houses in 36 cities of Iran are presented and discussed. PMID

  13. Correlating outdoor exposure with accelerated aging tests for aluminum solar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wette, Johannes; Sutter, Florian; Fernández-García, Aránzazu

    2016-05-01

    Guaranteeing the durability of concentrated solar power (CSP) components is crucial for the success of the technology. The reflectors of the solar field are a key component of CSP plants, requiring reliable methods for service lifetime prediction. So far, no proven correlations exist to relate accelerated aging test results in climate chambers with relevant CSP exposure sites. In this work, correlations have been derived for selected testing conditions that excite the same degradation mechanisms as for outdoor exposure. Those testing conditions have been identified by performing an extensive microscopic comparison of the appearing degradation mechanisms on reference samples that have been weathered outdoors with samples that underwent a high variety of accelerated aging experiments. The herein developed methodology is derived for aluminum reflectors and future work will study its applicability to silvered-glass mirrors.

  14. INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL AIR EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES, ELEMENTS, AND NICOTINE FOR 178 RESIDENTS OF RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal, indoor, and outdoor concentrations of inhalable particles and 15 elements were measured for a probability sample of 178 persons representing 139,000 nonsmoking residents of Riverside, California. ewly designed personal monitors were employed. ersonal exposures often exc...

  15. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERSONAL PM EXPOSURES FOR ELDERLY POPULATIONS AND INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS FOR THREE RETIREMENT CENTER SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures, indoor and outdoor concentrations, and questionnaire data were collected in three retirement center settings, supporting broader PM-health studies of elderly populations. The studies varied geographically and temporally, with populations studied in Baltimor...

  16. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERSONAL PM EXPOSURES FOR ELDERLY POPULATIONS AND INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS FOR THREE RETIREMENT CENTER SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure, indoor and outdoor concentration, "physical factor", and questionnaire data were collected in three retirement center settings, supporting broader PM-health studies of elderly populations. The studies varied geographically and temporally, with popul...

  17. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m−3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m−3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational) exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m−3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10−4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene’s sources and

  18. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector. PMID:18938291

  19. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Levels in Outdoor Hospitality Venues: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review of the Research Literature

    PubMed Central

    LICHT, ANDREA S; HYLAND, ANDREW; TRAVERS, MARK J; CHAPMAN, SIMON

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper considers the evidence on whether outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) is present in high enough levels of hospitality venues to potentially pose health risks, particularly among employees of such establishments. Data Sources Search strings in PubMed and Web of Science included combinations of environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, or passive smoke AND outdoor, yielding 217 and 5,199 results, respectively through June, 2012. Study Selection Sixteen studies were selected based on abstract review that either entirely or partly measured outdoor SHS exposures (particulate matter (PM) or other SHS indicators). Data Extraction The methods used to measure SHS indicators, particularly PM, were assessed for inclusion of extraneous variables that may affect such measurements or the corroboration of ambient levels with known standards. Data Synthesis The magnitude of SHS exposure (PM2.5) is dependent on the number of smokers present, proximity to the measuring device, outdoor enclosures, and wind. Under specific conditions, peak outdoor PM2.5 levels can be comparable to those recorded in indoor smoky environments. Using data from both observational and experimental studies, annual excess PM2.5 exposure of full-time waitstaff at outdoor smoking environments could average 4.0 to 12.2 μg/m3 under variable smoking conditions. Conclusions Although highly transitory, outdoor SHS exposures could occasionally exceed annual ambient air quality exposure guidelines. However, such exposures are likely to be higher for occupationally exposed individuals compared to patrons due to repeated and cumulative outdoor SHS exposures. Personal monitoring studies of waitstaff are warranted to corroborate these modeled estimates. PMID:23220937

  20. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  1. Source Attribution of Personal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixture Using Concurrent Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Spengler, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Relative importance of multiple indoor and outdoor venues on personal exposure concentrations to pro-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) remains poorly understood. This is particularly challenging because many c-PAHs share sources and occur as a complex mixture. Accurate and precise apportionment of personal exposure according to exposure venues could aid in understanding of human health effects due to given source. Here, we partitioned indoor and personal exposure concentrations to seven c-PAHs and pyrene according to the indoor- and outdoor- origins. Methods A simultaneous, integrated monitoring of personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of nine PAHs was conducted in 75 homes for a consecutive 48-hour period across a two-year period in Kraków, Poland. Due to few known indoor sources for chrysene, we used this PAH species as a tracer for infiltration of outdoor PAHs. Personal and indoor concentrations of seven c-PAHs and pyrene were apportioned to home indoor, non-home indoor and outdoor origin. Results Using Chrysenein / Chryseneout as proxy for an infiltration factor, Finf, infiltrated PAHs of outdoor origin are overall higher in concentration than those emitted from the indoor origin. Average contribution by the outdoor sources on B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were 92%, 79%, and 78% across all seasons. In contrast, in homes where a household members smoked, average contribution by the outdoor sources on B[ghi]P, B[a]P, D[ah]A, and IP were lower (i.e., 67%, 65%, 67%, and 66%, respectively). Season-averaged contribution by the outdoor sources on personal exposure to B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were 92%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. On the other hand, season-averaged home indoor source contribution on personal exposure to B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were estimated at 6%, 15%, and 19%, respectively. Similar contributions by season-averaged home indoor sources on personal exposure were estimated at 28% for B[ghi]P, 31% for B[a]P, 25% for D

  2. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  3. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region. PMID:17195994

  4. Second-hand smoke exposure in indoor and outdoor areas of cafés and restaurants: Need for extending smoking regulation outdoors?

    PubMed

    Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; San Emeterio, Noemi; Quirós, Nuria; Sureda, Xisca; Ballbè, Montse; Muñoz, Glòria; Riccobene, Anna; Centrich, Francesc; Saltó, Esteve; López, María J

    2016-07-01

    Smoke-free legislation in indoor public places has concentrated smokers in the areas outside building entrances or other outdoor areas. This study assessed the drift of second-hand smoke between outdoor and indoor areas of cafés and restaurants in Barcelona, Spain, and characterized the exposure on outdoor terraces. Using a cross-sectional design, we monitored vapor-phase nicotine in indoor areas and outside entrances simultaneously (n=47), and on some outdoor terraces (n=51). We computed the median nicotine concentration and interquartile range (IQR) to describe the data and performed multivariate analysis to describe nicotine concentration and its determinants. The overall median nicotine concentration indoors was 0.65µg/m(3) (IQR: 0.29-1.17µg/m(3)), with significant differences based on the number of smokers at the entrance (p=0.039). At outside entrances, the overall median nicotine concentration was 0.41µg/m(3) (IQR: 0.21-1.17µg/m(3)). The nicotine concentrations indoors and at the corresponding outside entrances were not significantly different, and the multivariate analysis confirmed the relationship between these variables. On terraces, the overall median nicotine concentration was 0.54µg/m(3) (IQR: 0.25-1.14µg/m(3)), but it increased to 0.60µg/m(3) when a tobacco smell was perceived, 0.72µg/m(3) on closed terraces, 1.24µg/m(3) when there were >6 smokers, and 1.24µg/m(3) when someone smoked >20min. Multivariate analysis confirmed the outdoor terrace area, the season, the type of enclosure, and the number of smokers as the most relevant variables explaining nicotine concentration (R(2)=0.396). These findings show that second-hand smoke exposure exists in indoor areas due to smokers smoking at the outside entrances. In addition, exposure may occur on outdoor terraces when smokers are present and the terrace is enclosed to some extent. Thus, the current Spanish law does not fully protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and supports extending

  5. Field comparison of portable and stationary instruments for outdoor urban air exposure assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Reche, C.; Fonseca, A. S.; Pérez, N.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of three portable monitors (micro-aethalometer AE51, DiscMini, Dusttrak DRX) was assessed for outdoor air exposure assessment in a representative Southern European urban environment. The parameters evaluated were black carbon, particle number concentration, alveolar lung-deposited surface area, mean particle diameter, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. The performance was tested by comparison with widely used stationary instruments (MAAP, CPC, SMPS, NSAM, GRIMM aerosol spectrometer). Results evidenced a good agreement between most portable and stationary instruments, with R2 values mostly >0.80. Relative differences between portable and stationary instruments were mostly <20%, and <10% between different units of the same instrument. The only exception was found for the Dusttrak DRX measurements, for which occasional concentration jumps in the time series were detected. Our results validate the performance of the black carbon, particle number concentration, particle surface area and mean particle diameter monitors as indicative instruments (tier 2) for outdoor air exposure assessment studies.

  6. Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Neela; Cohen, Aaron; Laden, Francine; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Samet, Jonathan M.; Vineis, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Saldiva, Paulo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution was recently designated a Group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This determination was based on the evidence regarding the relationship of PM2.5 and PM10 to lung cancer risk; however, the IARC evaluation did not include a quantitative summary of the evidence. Objective: Our goal was to provide a systematic review and quantitative summary of the evidence regarding the relationship between PM and lung cancer. Methods: We conducted meta-analyses of studies examining the relationship of exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 with lung cancer incidence and mortality. In total, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria and provided the information necessary to estimate the change in lung cancer risk per 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM. We used random-effects analyses to allow between-study variability to contribute to meta-estimates. Results: The meta-relative risk for lung cancer associated with PM2.5 was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.14). The meta-relative risk of lung cancer associated with PM10 was similar, but less precise: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.17). Estimates were robust to restriction to studies that considered potential confounders, as well as subanalyses by exposure assessment method. Analyses by smoking status showed that lung cancer risk associated with PM2.5 was greatest for former smokers [1.44 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.01)], followed by never-smokers [1.18 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.39)], and then current smokers [1.06 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.15)]. In addition, meta-estimates for adenocarcinoma associated with PM2.5 and PM10 were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.83) and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.63), respectively. Conclusion: The results of these analyses, and the decision of the IARC Working Group to classify PM and outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic (Group 1), further justify efforts to reduce exposures to air pollutants that can arise from many sources. Citation: Hamra GB, Guha N, Cohen A, Laden F, Raaschou

  7. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on experiential qualities of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-10-01

    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found. PMID:21139858

  8. Home outdoor models for traffic-related air pollutants do not represent personal exposure measurements in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducret-Stich, R.; Delfino, R. J.; Tjoa, T.; Gemperli, A.; Ineichen, A.; Wu, J.; Phuleria, H. C.; Liu, L.-J. S.

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have used measurements or estimates of traffic-related air pollutants at home or school locations to link associations between exposure and health. However, little is known about the validity of these outdoor concentrations as an estimate for personal exposure to traffic. This paper compares modelled outdoor concentrations at home with personal exposure to traffic air pollution of 63 children in two areas in Los Angeles in 2003/2004. Exposure monitoring consisted of sixteen 10-day monitoring runs, with each run monitoring 4 subjects concurrently with the active personal DataRAM for particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM25), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). One child per run had concurrent indoor/outdoor home monitoring. Measurements at central sites (24-hr PM25, EC, OC) were taken daily and concentrations of PM25, EC, and OC from traffic sources were calculated using the CALINE4 model for individual residences. We modelled outdoor concentrations of PM2 5, EC and OC with multilinear regression including GIS and meteorological parameters and adjusted for auto-correlation between repeated measurements. The model fit (R2) for home outdoor estimates was 0.94, 0.74 and 0.80 for PM25, EC and OC, respectively. Comparisons between these outdoor estimates and the personal measurements showed a good agreement for PM25 (R2=0.65-0.70) with a mean bias of -0.7±11.8|ag for the smog receptor area, and 18.9±16.2|ag for the traffic impacted area. However the outdoor estimates were not related to personal exposure for EC (R2=0.01-0.29) and OC (R2=0.03- 0.14). Conclusions: Predictions of outdoor concentrations can be used as approximations of personal exposure to PM25. However, they are not appropriate for estimating personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants including EC and OC in studies of acute exposure-response relationships.

  9. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups. PMID:26995021

  10. Toward refined estimates of ambient PM2.5 exposure: Evaluation of a physical outdoor-to-indoor transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodas, Natasha; Meng, Qingyu; Lunden, Melissa M.; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2014-02-01

    Because people spend the majority of their time indoors, the variable efficiency with which ambient PM2.5 penetrates and persists indoors is a source of error in epidemiologic studies that use PM2.5 concentrations measured at central-site monitors as surrogates for ambient PM2.5 exposure. To reduce this error, practical methods to model indoor concentrations of ambient PM2.5 are needed. Toward this goal, we evaluated and refined an outdoor-to-indoor transport model using measured indoor and outdoor PM2.5 species concentrations and air exchange rates from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air Study. Herein, we present model evaluation results, discuss what data are most critical to prediction of residential exposures at the individual-subject and populations levels, and make recommendations for the application of the model in epidemiologic studies. This paper demonstrates that not accounting for certain human activities (air conditioning and heating use, opening windows) leads to bias in predicted residential PM2.5 exposures at the individual-subject level, but not the population level. The analyses presented also provide quantitative evidence that shifts in the gas-particle partitioning of ambient organics with outdoor-to-indoor transport contribute significantly to variability in indoor ambient organic carbon concentrations and suggest that methods to account for these shifts will further improve the accuracy of outdoor-to-indoor transport models.

  11. Indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio model for human exposure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Ryu, Sung Hee; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio (IOR) model for improved estimates of indoor exposure levels. This model is useful in epidemiological studies with large population, because sampling indoor pollutants in all participants' house is often necessary but impractical. As a part of a study examining the association between air pollutants and atopic dermatitis in children, 16 parents agreed to measure the indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at their homes for 48 h. Correlation analysis and multi-step multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to develop the IOR model. Temperature and floor level were found to be powerful predictors of the IOR. Despite the simplicity of the model, it demonstrated high accuracy in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE). Especially for long-term IOR estimations, the RMSE was as low as 0.064 and 0.063 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. When using a prediction model in an epidemiological study, understanding the consequence of the modeling error and justifying the use of the model is very important. In the last section, this paper discussed the impact of the modeling error and developed a novel methodology to justify the use of the model.

  12. Outdoor Formaldehyde and NO2 Exposures and Markers of Genotoxicity in Children Living Near Chipboard Industries

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Doria, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Guarda, Linda; Pesce, Giancarlo; Pironi, Vanda; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Industrial air pollution is a public health hazard. Previous evidence documented increased respiratory symptoms and hospitalizations in children who live near the factories in the largest chipboard manufacturing district in Italy (Viadana). Objectives: We evaluated the association of outdoor exposure to formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with markers of early genotoxic damage in oral mucosa cells of randomly selected children (6–12 years of age) living in Viadana. Methods: In 2010–2011, DNA strand breaks and nuclear abnormalities were evaluated in exfoliated buccal cells by the comet and micronucleus assays, respectively, and formaldehyde and NO2 were monitored by passive sampling. Annual exposure estimates to pollutants were assigned to children’s houses by spatial interpolation. Results: Of 656 children, 413 (63%) participated. Children living near (< 2 km) the chipboard industries had the highest average exposure to formaldehyde and NO2 (p < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in formaldehyde (0.20 μg/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.03, 0.22%) higher comet tail intensity, a 0.007 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.012) higher tail moment, and a 12% relative increase [relative risk (RR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23] in nuclear buds. A 1-SD NO2 increase (2.13 μg/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.07, 0.19%) increase in binucleated cells and a 16% relative increase (RR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26) in nuclear buds. Conclusions: Exposure to pollutants was associated with markers of genotoxicity in exfoliated buccal cells of children living in a region with chipboard industries. These findings, combined with previously reported associations between chipboard industrial activities and respiratory outcomes in children, add to concerns about potential adverse effects of industry-related exposures in the Viadana district. Citation: Marcon A, Fracasso ME, Marchetti P, Doria D, Girardi P, Guarda L, Pesce G, Pironi V, Ricci P, de Marco R. 2014. Outdoor

  13. HUMAN EXPOSURES TO VOLATILE HALOGENATED ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile halogenated organic chemicals are found in indoor and outdoor air, often at concentrations substantially above those in remote, unpopulated areas. The outdoor ambient concentrations vary considerably among sampling stations throughout the United States, as well as diurna...

  14. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  15. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Sam Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  16. ESTIMATING CONTRIBUTIONS OF OUTDOOR FINE PARTICLES TO INDOOR CONCENTRATIONS AND PERSONAL EXPOSURES: EFFECTS OF HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND PERSONAL ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM2.5 and associated elements has been carried out for 37 residents of the Research Triangle Park area in North Carolina. Participants were monitored for 7 consecutive days in each of four seasons. One goal of the ...

  17. CONTRIBUTION OF FINE PARTICLES OF OUTDOOR ORIGIN TO PERSONAL EXPOSURES: RESULTS OF A 37-PERSON PANEL STUDY IN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA carried out a study of personal exposures to PM2.5 for 37 persons with hypertension or cardiovascular disease in North Carolina. Personal, indoor (home) and outdoor (home and central site) 24-h samples were collected for 7 consecutive days in each of four seasons in...

  18. The modifying effect of the building envelope on population exposure to PM2.5 from outdoor sources

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J; Shrubsole, C; Davies, M; Biddulph, P; Das, P; Hamilton, I; Vardoulakis, S; Mavrogianni, A; Jones, B; Oikonomou, E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have estimated population exposure to PM2.5 by examining modeled or measured outdoor PM2.5 levels. However, few have taken into account the mediating effects of building characteristics on the ingress of PM2.5 from outdoor sources and its impact on population exposure in the indoor domestic environment. This study describes how building simulation can be used to determine the indoor concentration of outdoor-sourced pollution for different housing typologies and how the results can be mapped using building stock models and Geographical Information Systems software to demonstrate the modifying effect of dwellings on occupant exposure to PM2.5 across London. Building archetypes broadly representative of those in the Greater London Authority were simulated for pollution infiltration using EnergyPlus. In addition, the influence of occupant behavior on indoor levels of PM2.5 from outdoor sources was examined using a temperature-dependent window-opening scenario. Results demonstrate a range of I/O ratios of PM2.5, with detached and semi-detached dwellings most vulnerable to high levels of infiltration. When the results are mapped, central London shows lower I/O ratios of PM2.5 compared with outer London, an apparent inversion of exposure most likely caused by the prevalence of flats rather than detached or semi-detached properties. PMID:24713025

  19. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    PubMed

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts. PMID:26633448

  20. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts. PMID:26633448

  1. Personal exposure to PM 2.5 and element composition—A comparison between outdoor and indoor workers from two Mexican cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence; Blanco, Salvador

    Many individuals work outdoors in the formal and informal economy of the large urban areas in developing countries, where they are potentially exposed for long periods to high concentrations of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). This study describes the personal exposures to PM of 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter and smaller (PM 2.5) for a sample of outdoor and indoor workers in two cities, Mexico City and Puebla, in central Mexico. Thirty-six workers in Mexico City and 17 in Puebla were studied. Thirty were outdoor workers (i.e., taxi and bus drivers, street vendors, and vehicle inspectors) and 23 were indoor (office) workers. Their personal exposures to PM 2.5 were monitored for a mean 19-h period. In Mexico City, the street vendors and taxi drivers overall exposures were significantly higher than indoor workers were. In Puebla, bus drivers had a higher overall exposure than vehicle inspectors or indoor workers. Most of the exposures were above the 65 μg m -3 24-h Mexican standard. In Mexico City, exposures to Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and Cd were higher for outdoor than for indoor workers. In Puebla, exposures to Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, and Zn also were higher for outdoor workers. In Mexico City outdoor workers exposures to Cu, Pb, Cr, Se and Mo were 4 or more times higher than for Puebla outdoor workers, while Puebla outdoor workers' exposures to V, Si, Fe and Ca were 3 or more times higher than Mexico City outdoor workers. These results suggest that for these outdoor workers the elevated local ambient air PM concentrations and an extended period spent outside are more important contributors to total exposures than indoor concentrations. These workers could be at particular risk of increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient PM.

  2. The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Thomas S.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52×1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was ±15% for a clear-sky summer day with ± 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40° up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OATS tracking

  3. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. PMID:23759207

  4. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on Experiential Qualities of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found. PMID:21139858

  5. Long-term exposure of adults to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased airway obstruction and higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Jammres, Y.; Delpierre, S.; Burnet, H.; Delvolgo, M.J.; Humbert-Tena, C.

    1998-11-01

    The authors studied the association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the severity of obstructive pulmonary disease and prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to {beta}2 agonists in two groups of adult patients who were of similar ages and who had similar smoking habits. The subjects lived in downtown districts or in the outer suburbs of Marseilles, the neighborhood that contained air samplers. The regions were similar with respect to sulfur dioxide levels, but levels of nitric oxides and particulate matter were higher in the downtown area than the suburbs. The authors assessed airway obstruction, as determined by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, mean forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of vital capacity, and an elevated value of central airway resistance. The authors tested the changes in these variables induced by inhalation of a {beta}2 agonist. Baseline lung function was altered more significantly in both male and female patients who lived in downtown Marseilles than in those who resided in the suburbs, and the differences persisted regardless of the season during which the study occurred. Prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity and symptoms of asthma were higher in the downtown than suburban male subjects. The results of this study suggest that an association exists between actual environmental exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory effects in sensitive adults represented by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.

  6. Mortality Associations with Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution in a National English Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Iain M.; Kent, Andrew J.; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cook, Derek G.; Anderson, H. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cohort evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and mortality has come largely from the United States. There is relatively little evidence from nationally representative cohorts in other countries. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to a range of pollutants and causes of death in a national English cohort. Methods: A total of 835,607 patients aged 40–89 years registered with 205 general practices were followed from 2003–2007. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 (PM10) and less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1 km2 resolution, estimated from emission-based models, were linked to residential postcode. Deaths (n = 83,103) were ascertained from linkage to death certificates, and hazard ratios (HRs) for all- and cause-specific mortality for pollutants were estimated for interquartile pollutant changes from Cox models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and area-level socioeconomic status markers. Measurements and Main Results: Residential concentrations of all pollutants except ozone were positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02, 1.03, and 1.04 for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2, respectively). Associations for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were larger for respiratory deaths (HR, 1.09 each) and lung cancer (HR, 1.02, 1.06, and 1.05) but nearer unity for cardiovascular deaths (1.00, 1.00, and 1.04). Conclusions: These results strengthen the evidence linking long-term ambient air pollution exposure to increased all-cause mortality. However, the stronger associations with respiratory mortality are not consistent with most US studies in which associations with cardiovascular causes of death tend to predominate. PMID:23590261

  7. Estimating Error in Using Residential Outdoor PM2.5 Concentrations as Proxies for Personal Exposures: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Christy L.; Mills, Katherine T.; Williams, Ronald; McGraw, Kathleen A.; Poole, Charles; Smith, Richard L.; Whitsel, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies examining the health effects of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) commonly use ambient PM2.5 concentrations measured at distal monitoring sites as proxies for personal exposure and assume spatial homogeneity of ambient PM2.5. An alternative proxy—the residential outdoor PM2.5 concentration measured adjacent to participant homes—has few advantages under this assumption. Objectives We systematically reviewed the correlation between residential outdoor PM2.5 and personal PM2.5 (r̄j) as a means of comparing the magnitude and sources of measurement error associated with their use as exposure surrogates. Methods We searched seven electronic reference databases for studies of the within-participant residential outdoor-personal PM2.5 correlation. Results The search identified 567 candidate studies, nine of which were abstracted in duplicate, that were published between 1996 and 2008. They represented 329 nonsmoking participants 6–93 years of age in eight U.S. cities, among whom r̄j was estimated (median, 0.53; range, 0.25–0.79) based on a median of seven residential outdoor-personal PM2.5 pairs per participant. We found modest evidence of publication bias (symmetric funnel plot; pBegg = 0.4; pEgger = 0.2); however, we identified evidence of heterogeneity (Cochran’s Q-test p = 0.05). Of the 20 characteristics examined, earlier study midpoints, eastern longitudes, older mean age, higher outdoor temperatures, and lower personal-residential outdoor PM2.5 differences were associated with increased within-participant residential outdoor-personal PM2.5 correlations. Conclusions These findings were similar to those from a contemporaneous meta-analysis that examined ambient-personal PM2.5 correlations (r̄j = median, 0.54; range, 0.09–0.83). Collectively, the meta-analyses suggest that residential outdoor-personal and ambient-personal PM2.5 correlations merit greater consideration when evaluating the potential for bias

  8. ESTIMATING HEALTH EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR AND INDOOR SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals are exposed to wide variety of pollutants in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments during the course of a typical day. Sources of pollution in various indoor and outdoor locations produce particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants with different physical an...

  9. Population inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk in Beijing region: Contributions of indoor and outdoor sources and exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic air pollutants in China. Efforts in assessing population inhalation exposure to PAHs, and its contribution to lung cancer risk for Chinese residents, have been limited due to insufficient data on measured indoor concentrations. A mass-balance model to predict indoor PAH concentrations was developed, along with estimated exposures and attributable lung cancer risks for residents in the Beijing region in 2006, with a 2-stage Monte Carlo simulation framework. The exposures and risks were split into three parts, based on the sources and places of exposure, to estimate the contributions of indoor and outdoor PAH sources and exposures, in order to better understand the source and place pattern of PAH exposure. PAHs bring considerable lung cancer risk to the population of Beijing region. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of lung cancer for Beijing's overall population is 2.99% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71%-4.26%]. Median contribution of indoor exposure to outdoor-originated PAHs (OUT-in) is 78% (CI: 73%-81%) in the overall population, for 97% (CI: 94%-99%) of whom OUT-in is the largest contributor. Rural residents are facing considerable exposure to indoor-originated PAHs (IN-in), which dominates the total exposure in 12% (CI: 2%-24%) of the rural population. This model framework could be used in quantitative comparison of different interventions on exposure to PAHs as well as other airborne pollutants.

  10. Development of outdoor exposure model of traffic-related air pollution for epidemiologic research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Isao; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nataami, Taro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Shima, Masayuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Yokota, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We developed an exposure estimation model for an epidemiological study on the effect of traffic-related air pollutants on respiratory diseases. The model estimates annual average outdoor concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC). The model is composed of three nested plume dispersion type submodels treating different spatial scales from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The emissions from road traffic was estimated at high spatial resolution along the paths of roads taking into account the effects of individual building shape and traffic signals to secure accuracy near trunk roads where most of the subjects of the epidemiological study resided. Model performance was confirmed by field measurements at permanent local government stations and purpose-built temporary stations; the latter supplemented roadside monitoring points and provided EC concentrations, which are not measured routinely. We infer that EC emissions were underestimated by using the available database because there were significant contributions to EC concentrations from sources that did not emit much NOx. An adjustment concentration yielded good agreement between model estimates and field measurements. PMID:23715083

  11. Metamorphosis of two amphibian species after chronic cadmium exposure in outdoor aquatic mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian larvae at contaminated sites may experience an alteration of metamorphic traits and survival compared to amphibians in uncontaminated conditions. Effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the metamorphosis of American toads (Bufo americanus) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) were determined. The two species were reared separately from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms (1,325-L polyethylene cattle tanks) that simulated natural ponds and enhanced environmental realism relative to the laboratory. Both species exhibited a decrease in survival with increasing initial nominal aqueous Cd concentration. Cadmium treatment did not influence mass at metamorphosis for either species when survival was included as a covariate, but increased the age at metamorphosis for the American toads. The whole body Cd content of metamorphs increased with aqueous Cd treatment level for both species, and the American toads tended to possess more elevated residues. Cadmium quickly partitioned out of the water column and accumulated in and altered the abundance of the tadpoles' diet. Cadmium-contaminated sites may produce fewer metamorphs, and those that survive will metamorphose later and contain Cd. Interspecific differences in the response variables illustrate the importance of testing multiple species when assessing risk. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  12. Outdoor testing of advanced optical materials for solar thermal electric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendelin, T. J.; Jorgensen, G.; Goggin, R. M.

    1992-05-01

    The development of low-cost, durable advanced optical materials is an important element in making solar energy viable for electricity production. It is important to determine the expected lifetime of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions. The demonstration of the optical durability of such materials in outdoor environments is critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal electric technologies. For many years, optical performance data have been collected and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for candidate reflector materials subjected to simulated outdoor exposure conditions. Much of this testing is accelerated in order to predict service durability. Some outdoor testing has occurred, but not in a systematic manner. To date, simulated/accelerated testing has had limited correlation with actual outdoor exposure testing. Such a correlation is desirable to provide confidence in lifetime predictions based upon accelerated weathering methods. To obtain outdoor exposure data for realistic environments and to establish a data base for correlating simulated/accelerated outdoor exposure data with actual outdoor exposure data, the development of an expanded outdoor testing program has recently been initiated by NREL. Several outdoor test sites will be selected based on the solar climate, potential for solar energy utilization by industry, and cost of installation. Test results are site dependent because exposure conditions vary with geographical location. The importance of this program to optical materials development is outlined, and the process used to determine and establish the outdoor test sites is described. Candidate material identification and selection is also discussed.

  13. Outdoor testing of advanced optical materials for solar thermal electric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.J.; Jorgensen, G.; Goggin, R.M.

    1992-05-01

    The development of low-cost, durable advanced optical materials is an important element in making solar energy viable for electricity production. It is important to determine the expected lifetime of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions. The demonstration of the optical durability of such materials in outdoor environments is critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal electric technologies. For many years optical performance data have been collected and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for candidate reflector materials subjected to simulated outdoor exposure conditions. Much of this testing is accelerated in order to predict service durability. Some outdoor testing has occurred but not in a systematic manner. To date, simulated/accelerated testing has been limited correlation with actual outdoor exposure testing. Such a correlation is desirable to provide confidence in lifetime predictions based upon accelerated weathering methods. To obtain outdoor exposure data for realistic environments and to establish a data base for correlating simulated/accelerated outdoor exposure data with actual outdoor exposure data, the development of an expanded outdoor testing program has recently been initiated by NREL. Several outdoor test sites will be selected based on the solar climate, potential for solar energy utilization by industry, and cost of installation. Test results are site dependent because exposure conditions vary with geographical location. The importance of this program to optical materials development is outlined, and the process used to determine and establish the outdoor test sites is described. Candidate material identification and selection is also discussed. 10 refs.

  14. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure.

    PubMed

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper "Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure" (Kichou et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977439

  15. Association of Campus Tobacco Policies With Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Intention to Smoke on Campus, and Attitudes About Outdoor Smoking Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Roditis, Maria

    2015-01-01

    College campus tobacco-free policies are an emerging trend. Between September 2013 and May 2014, we surveyed 1309 college students at 8 public 4-year institutions across California with a range of policies (smoke-free indoors only, designated outdoor smoking areas, smoke-free, and tobacco-free). Stronger policies were associated with fewer students reporting exposure to secondhand smoke or seeing someone smoke on campus. On tobacco-free college campuses, fewer students smoked and reported intention to smoke on campus. Strong majorities of students supported outdoor smoking restrictions across all policy types. Comprehensive tobacco-free policies are effective in reducing exposure to smoking and intention to smoke on campus. PMID:25521901

  16. Probable Health Risks Due to Exposure to Outdoor PM2.5 in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S.; Chowdhury, S.

    2014-12-01

    . 52.1% of the additional mortality is attributed to COPD, while the corresponding numbers for stroke, IHD and LC are 19.3%, 25.2% and 3.4% respectively. In absolute terms, an additional 0.6 million (with an uncertainty of ±20%) mortality per year is estimated in India due to exposure to outdoor PM2.5 in the last decade.

  17. Determinants of Indoor and Personal Exposure to PM2.5 of Indoor and Outdoor Origin during the RIOPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing Yu; Spector, Dalia; Colome, Steven; Turpin, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical/environmental factors on fine particle (PM2.5) exposure, outdoor-to-indoor transport and air exchange rate (AER) were examined. The fraction of ambient PM2.5 found indoors (FINF) and the fraction to which people are exposed (α) modify personal exposure to ambient PM2.5. Because FINF, α, and AER are infrequently measured, some have used air conditioning (AC) as a modifier of ambient PM2.5 exposure. We found no single variable that was a good predictor of AER. About 50% and 40% of the variation in FINF and α, respectively, was explained by AER and other activity variables. AER alone explained 36% and 24% of the variations in FINF and α, respectively. Each other predictor, including Central AC Operation, accounted for less than 4% of the variation. This highlights the importance of AER measurements to predict FINF and α. Evidence presented suggests that outdoor temperature and home ventilation features affect particle losses as well as AER, and the effects differ. Total personal exposures to PM2.5 mass/species were reconstructed using personal activity and microenvironmental methods, and compared to direct personal measurement. Outdoor concentration was the dominant predictor of (partial R2 = 30–70%) and the largest contributor to (20–90%) indoor and personal exposures for PM2.5 mass and most species. Several activities had a dramatic impact on personal PM2.5 mass/species exposures for the few study participants exposed to or engaged in them, including smoking and woodworking. Incorporating personal activities (in addition to outdoor PM2.5) improved the predictive power of the personal activity model for PM2.5 mass/species; more detailed information about personal activities and indoor sources is needed for further improvement (especially for Ca, K, OC). Adequate accounting for particle penetration and persistence indoors and for exposure to non-ambient sources could potentially increase the power of epidemiological analyses linking health

  18. Short-term dynamics of indoor and outdoor endotoxin exposure: Case of Santiago, Chile, 2012.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Heyer, Johanna; Palma, Wilfredo; Edwards, Ana María; Muñoz, Marcelo; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Montoya, Lupita D

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor endotoxin in PM2.5 was measured for the very first time in Santiago, Chile, in spring 2012. Average endotoxin concentrations were 0.099 and 0.094 [EU/m(3)] for indoor (N=44) and outdoor (N=41) samples, respectively; the indoor-outdoor correlation (log-transformed concentrations) was low: R=-0.06, 95% CI: (-0.35 to 0.24), likely owing to outdoor spatial variability. A linear regression model explained 68% of variability in outdoor endotoxins, using as predictors elemental carbon (a proxy of traffic emissions), chlorine (a tracer of marine air masses reaching the city) and relative humidity (a modulator of surface emissions of dust, vegetation and garbage debris). In this study, for the first time a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was applied to outdoor endotoxin measurements. Wind trajectory analysis identified upwind agricultural sources as contributors to the short-term, outdoor endotoxin variability. Our results confirm an association between combustion particles from traffic and outdoor endotoxin concentrations. For indoor endotoxins, a predictive model was developed but it only explained 44% of endotoxin variability; the significant predictors were tracers of indoor PM2.5 dust (Si, Ca), number of external windows and number of hours with internal doors open. Results suggest that short-term indoor endotoxin variability may be driven by household dust/garbage production and handling. This would explain the modest predictive performance of published models that use answers to household surveys as predictors. One feasible alternative is to increase the sampling period so that household features would arise as significant predictors of long-term airborne endotoxin levels. PMID:27065310

  19. Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monn, Christian

    This review describes databases of small-scale spatial variations and indoor, outdoor and personal measurements of air pollutants with the main focus on suspended particulate matter, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen dioxide and photochemical pollutants. The basic definitions and concepts of an exposure measurement are introduced as well as some study design considerations and implications of imprecise exposure measurements. Suspended particulate matter is complex with respect to particle size distributions, the chemical composition and its sources. With respect to small-scale spatial variations in urban areas, largest variations occur in the ultrafine (<0.1 μm) and the coarse mode (PM 10-2.5, resuspended dust). Secondary aerosols which contribute to the accumulation mode (0.1-2 μm) show quite homogenous spatial distribution. In general, small-scale spatial variations of PM 2.5 were described to be smaller than the spatial variations of PM 10. Recent studies in outdoor air show that ultrafine particle number counts have large spatial variations and that they are not well correlated to mass data. Sources of indoor particles are from outdoors and some specific indoor sources such as smoking and cooking for fine particles or moving of people (resuspension of dust) for coarse particles. The relationships between indoor, outdoor and personal levels are complex. The finer the particle size, the better becomes the correlation between indoor, outdoor and personal levels. Furthermore, correlations between these parameters are better in longitudinal analyses than in cross-sectional analyses. For NO 2 and O 3, the air chemistry is important. Both have considerable small-scale spatial variations within urban areas. In the absence of indoor sources such as gas appliances, NO 2 indoor/outdoor relationships are strong. For ozone, indoor levels are quite small. The study hypothesis largely determines the choice of a specific concept in exposure assessment, i.e. whether personal

  20. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper “Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure” (Kichou et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977439

  1. The effects of indoor and outdoor dust exposure on the growth, sensitivity to oxidative-stress, and biofilm production of three opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Suraju, Mohammed O; Lalinde-Barnes, Sloan; Sanamvenkata, Sachindra; Esmaeili, Mahsa; Shishodia, Shishir; Rosenzweig, Jason A

    2015-12-15

    Within the last decade, many studies have highlighted the radical changes in the components of indoor and outdoor dust. For example, agents like automobile emitted platinum group elements and different kinds of organic phthalates and esters have been reported to be accumulating in the biosphere. Humans consistently face dermal, respiratory, and dietary exposures to these particles while indoors and outdoors. In fact, dust particulate matter has been associated with close to 500,000 deaths per year in Europe and about 200,000 deaths per year in the United States. To date, there has been limited examination of the physiological impact of indoor and outdoor dust exposure on normal flora microbes. In this study, the effect of indoor- and outdoor-dust exposure on three opportunistic bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was assessed. Specifically, bacterial growth, oxidative stress resistance, and biofilm production were measured following indoor- and outdoor-dust exposures. Studies were conducted in nutritionally-rich and -poor environments typically encountered by bacteria. Surprisingly, indoor-dust (200μg/mL), enhanced the growth of all three bacterial species in nutrient-poor conditions, but slowed growth in nutrient-rich conditions. In nutrient-rich medium, 100μg/mL exposure of either indoor- or outdoor-dust resulted in significantly reduced oxidative stress resistance in E. coli. Most interestingly, dust (indoor and outdoor), either in nutrient-rich or -poor conditions, significantly increased biofilm production in all three bacterial species. These data suggest that indoor and outdoor dust, can modify opportunistic bacteria through altering growth, sensitivity to oxidative stress, and their virulence potential through enhanced biofilm formation. PMID:26363607

  2. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J.

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  3. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM2.5 EXPOSURE. (R827928)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor, indoor and personal PM2.5 measurements were made in a population of nonsmoking adults from three communities in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area between April and November 1999. Thirty-two healthy adult subjects (23 females, 9 males; mean a...

  4. CORRELATIONS OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES WITH OUTDOOR AIR MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW OF RECENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have found a correlation between daily mortality and particle concentrations in outdoor air as measured at a central monitoring station. These studies have been the central reason for the U.S. EPA to propose new tighter particle standards. However, perso...

  5. Assessing Spatial and Temporal Variability of VOCs and PM-Components in Outdoor Air during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure models for air pollutants often adjust for effects of the physical environment (e.g., season, urban vs. rural populations) in order to improve exposure and risk predictions. Yet attempts are seldom made to attribute variability in observed outdoor air measurements to spe...

  6. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  7. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-10-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  8. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in indoor and outdoor dusts around a mega fluorochemical industrial park in China: Implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongqiao; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Shi, Yajuan; Li, Qifeng; Zhou, Yunqiao; Johnson, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of fluorochemicals can lead to high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) contaminating the surrounding environment and consequently elevated exposure to the local residents. In this study, measurements of PFAAs associated with indoor and outdoor dusts around a mega fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) were made. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4-C7 PFCAs) were the predominant forms in all samples. The signature of the PFAAs in dusts in the local area matched that found within the FIP complex. The contamination plume in the local area could be linked to the prevailing wind direction starting from the FIP. The dust concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from the FIP (noticeably in the first 5km). PFAAs contamination could be detected at the furthest location, 20km away from the FIP. The concentrations of PFAAs were higher in indoor dust (73-13,500ng/g, median: 979ng/g) than those in outdoor dust (5-9495ng/g, median: 62ng/g) at every location. The highest estimated daily intake of PFOA via dust ingestion (26.0ng/kg·bw/day) was for toddlers (2-5years) living 2km away from the FIP, which is posing human health risk, though exposure remains within the provisional tolerable daily intake values. PMID:27393120

  9. Effect of outdoor exposure at ambient and elevated temperatures on fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution treated and aged condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution-treated and aged heat-treatment condition were exposed outdoors at ambient and 560 K (550 F) temperatures to determine the effect of outdoor exposure on fatigue life. Effects of exposure were determined by comparing fatigue lives of exposed specimens to those of unexpected specimens. Two procedures for fatigue testing the exposed specimens were evaluated: (1) fatigue tests conducted outdoors by applying 1200 load cycles per week until failure occurred and (2) conventional fatigue tests (continuous cycling until failure occurred) conducted indoors after outdoor exposure under static load. The exposure period ranged from 9 to 28 months for the outdoor fatigue-test group and was 24 months for the static-load group. All fatigue tests were constant-amplitude bending of specimens containing a drilled hole (stress concentration factor of 1.6). The results of the tests indicate that the fatigue lives of solution-treated and aged specimens were significantly reduced by the outdoor exposure at 560 K but not by the exposure at ambient temperature. Fatigue lives of the annealed specimens were essentially unaffected by the outdoor exposure at either temperature. The two test procedures - outdoor fatigue test and indoor fatigue test after outdoor exposure - led to the same conclusions about exposure effects.

  10. French children's exposure to metals via ingestion of indoor dust, outdoor playground dust and soil: contamination data.

    PubMed

    Glorennec, Philippe; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Bot, Barbara

    2012-09-15

    In addition to dietary exposure, children are exposed to metals via ingestion of soils and indoor dust, contaminated by natural or anthropogenic outdoor and indoor sources. The objective of this nationwide study was to assess metal contamination of soils and dust which young French children are exposed to. A sample of 484 children (6 months to 6 years) was constituted in order to obtain representative results for young French children. In each home indoor settled dust was sampled by a wipe in up to five rooms. Outdoor playgrounds were sampled with a soil sample ring (n=315) or with a wipe in case of hard surfaces (n=53). As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V were measured because of their potential health concern due to soil and dust ingestion. The samples were digested with hydrochloric acid, and afterwards aqua regia in order to determine both leachable and total metal concentrations and loadings by mass spectrometry with a quadrupole ICP-MS. In indoor settled dust most (total) loadings were below the Limit of Quantification (LOQ), except for Pb and Sr, whose median loadings were respectively 9 and 10 μg/m². The 95th percentile of loadings were 2 μg/m² for As, <0.8 for Cd, 18 for Cr, 49 for Cu, <64 for Mn, 63 for Pb, 2 for Sb, 56 for Sr, and <8 for V. Median/95th percentile of loadings in settled dust on outdoor playgrounds were 2/16, <0.8/1.3, 17/53, 49/330, 99/424, 32/393, 2/13, 86/661 and 10/37 μg/m² for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V respectively. In outdoor playground soil median/95th percentile of concentrations (μg/g) were 8/26, <0.65/1, 25/52, <26/53,391/956, 27/254, 0.7/4, 54/295, 23/57 for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V respectively. These results are comparable with those observed in other countries. Because of their representative nature, we can assess children's exposures to these metals via soil and dust and the associated risks in urban and rural environments. Ratios of leachable/total concentrations and loadings, calculated on

  11. Fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish life-stage responses to 17β-estradiol exposure in outdoor mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Rearick, Daniel C.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental and reproductive effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on two generations of fathead minnows and one generation of bluegill sunfish were assessed. Fish were exposed to E2 for six continuous weeks in outdoor mesocosms simulating natural lake environments. First generation fish were exposed while sexually mature. Second generation fathead minnows were exposed either during early development, sexual maturity, or both stages. Multiple endpoints were measured to assess effects of E2 exposure on fecundity and fish health and development. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations were highly variable in all fish. Differences in egg production timing for both species indicate differences in fecundity between females exposed to E2 and controls. First generation fathead minnows exposed to E2 had lower body condition factors and reduced secondary sexual characteristic expression by males. Only a difference in relative liver weight was observed in second generation fathead minnows. First generation bluegill males exposed to E2 had significantly smaller testes compared to controls. Although fish response was highly variable, results indicate that exposure to E2 at environmentally relevant concentrations affect fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish health and development, which may have implications for the health and sustainability of fish populations. Furthermore, exposure timing and environmental factors affect fish response to E2 exposure.

  12. Windsor, Ontario exposure assessment study: design and methods validation of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Xu, Xiaohong; Kulka, Ryan; You, Hongyu; Wallace, Lance; Mallach, Gary; Van Ryswyk, Keith; MacNeill, Morgan; Kearney, Jill; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Wang, Daniel; Poon, Raymond; Williams, Ron; Stocco, Corinne; Anastassopoulos, Angelos; Miller, J David; Dales, Robert; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2011-02-01

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures upon asthmatic children's respiratory health was assessed. Several active and passive sampling methods were applied, or adapted, for personal, indoor, and outdoor residential monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter (PM; PM < or = 2.5 microm [PM2.5] and < or = 10 microm [PM10] in aerodynamic diameter), elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, ozone, air exchange rates, allergens in settled dust, and particulate-associated metals. Participants completed five consecutive days of monitoring during the winter and summer of 2005 and 2006. During 2006, in addition to undertaking the air pollution measurements, asthmatic children completed respiratory health measurements (including peak flow meter tests and exhaled breath condensate) and tracked respiratory symptoms in a diary. Extensive quality assurance and quality control steps were implemented, including the collocation of instruments at the National Air Pollution Surveillance site operated by Environment Canada and at the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality site in Allen Park, Detroit, MI. During field sampling, duplicate and blank samples were also completed and these data are reported. In total, 50 adults and 51 asthmatic children were recruited to participate, resulting in 922 participant days of data. When comparing the methods used in the study with standard reference methods, field blanks were low and bias was acceptable, with most methods being within 20% of reference methods. Duplicates were typically within less than 10% of each other, indicating that study results can be used with confidence. This paper covers study design, recruitment, methodology, time activity diary, surveys, and

  13. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) for elderl...

  14. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health Effects and Ecological Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous...

  15. Source apportionment of human personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in homes, offices and outdoors by chemical mass balance and genetic algorithm receptor models.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sharad; Kohajda, Tibor; Schlink, Uwe

    2008-12-15

    A number of past studies have shown the prevalence of a considerable amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in workplace, home and outdoor microenvironments. The quantification of an individual's personal exposure to VOCs in each of these microenvironments is an essential task to recognize the health risks. In this paper, such a study of source apportionment of the human exposure to VOCs in homes, offices, and outdoors has been presented. Air samples, analysed for 25 organic compounds and sampled during one week in homes, offices, outdoors and close to persons, at seven locations in the city of Leipzig, have been utilized to recognize the concentration pattern of VOCs using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. In result, the largest contribution of VOCs to the personal exposure is from homes in the range of 42 to 73%, followed by outdoors, 18 to 34%, and the offices, 2 to 38% with the corresponding concentration ranges of 35 to 80 microg m(- 3), 10 to 45 microg m(- 3) and 1 to 30 microg m(- 3) respectively. The species such as benzene, dodecane, decane, methyl-cyclopentane, triethyltoluene and trichloroethylene dominate outdoors; methyl-cyclohexane, triethyltoluene, nonane, octane, tetraethyltoluene, undecane are highest in the offices; while, from the terpenoid group like 3-carane, limonene, a-pinene, b-pinene and the aromatics toluene and styrene most influence the homes. A genetic algorithm (GA) model has also been applied to carry out the source apportionment. Its results are comparable with that of CMB. PMID:18822447

  16. Residential Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Anthropometric Measures at Birth in a Multicenter Cohort in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Ferran; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Llop, Sabrina; Freire, Carmen; Tardón, Adonina; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background: A growing body of research suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution may be harmful to fetal development. We assessed the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in four areas within the Spanish Children’s Health and Environment (INMA) mother and child cohort study. Methods: Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene was estimated for the residence of each woman (n = 2,337) for each trimester and for the entire pregnancy. Outcomes included birth weight, length, and head circumference. The association between residential outdoor air pollution exposure and birth outcomes was assessed with linear regression models controlled for potential confounders. We also performed sensitivity analyses for the subset of women who spent more time at home during pregnancy. Finally, we performed a combined analysis with meta-analysis techniques. Results: In the combined analysis, an increase of 10 µg/m3 in NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in birth length of –0.9 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), –1.8 to –0.1 mm]. For the subset of women who spent ≥ 15 hr/day at home, the association was stronger (–0.16 mm; 95% CI, –0.27 to –0.04). For this same subset of women, a reduction of 22 g in birth weight was associated with each 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure in the second trimester (95% CI, –45.3 to 1.9). We observed no significant relationship between benzene levels and birth outcomes. Conclusions: NO2 exposure was associated with reductions in both length and weight at birth. This association was clearer for the subset of women who spent more time at home. PMID:21429861

  17. Correlated model for indoor and outdoor air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Lee, J.S.; Cheng, K.S.

    1998-12-31

    This study tries to correlate outdoor concentration of air pollutants with indoor data statistically and physically by means of on-site measurement. The authors measured concentrations of THC, NMHC, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at two residential sites where were closed to a fossil industry area. An air sampling system was designed to alternately sample air from different locations, therefore they can obtain semi-simultaneously indoor and outdoor concentration of air pollutants. Four measurements were taken during a year period. The measured data were analyzed by means of statistical regression and were used to calibrate indoor decay constants in a mass balance physical model. The results of statistical regression show that indoor concentration of air pollutant is highly correlated with outdoor concentration and indoor concentration at one hour earlier rather than outdoor climate parameters such as wind speed, temperature and humidity. The results explained that outdoor concentration actually included factors of outdoor climate parameters implicitly. In physical model, they calibrated the indoor concentration decay constants in an indoor/outdoor mass conservation equation at various air exchange rates under different seasons and day/night conditions. The established statistical and physical models can be used to estimate indoor air quality from monitored or calculated outdoor data. With the proposed correlation models it becomes convenient to perform the overall indoor and outdoor air pollutants exposure and risk assessment.

  18. Effects of outdoor exposure on solar cell modules in the ERDA/NASA Lewis Research Center Systems Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Curtis, H. B.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of outdoor exposure were determined by comparing standard I-V data obtained for the as-received modules with similar data obtained after removal from the field and cleaning with detergent solution. All modules measured in this way exhibited nonrecoverable degradation in P sub maximum varying from 4 to 7 percent. One module exposed for 41 days exhibited partial cell discoloration, loss of front surface metallization over the discolored portion, and a decrease in P sub maximum of 7 percent, tentatively attributed to cell damage. Measurements before and after cleaning showed a recoverable degradation due to dirt accumulation. This recoverable loss in power was 11 percent after 245 days in the field for one brand of module, 6 percent after 48 days for another brand, and 4 1/2 percent for the third brand.

  19. How exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollutants, and increased pollen burdens influences the incidence of asthma.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, M Ian; Jaakkola, Maritta S; London, Stephanie J; Nel, Andre E; Rogers, Christine A

    2006-04-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial airway disease that arises from a relatively common genetic background interphased with exposures to allergens and airborne irritants. The rapid rise in asthma over the past three decades in Western societies has been attributed to numerous diverse factors, including increased awareness of the disease, altered lifestyle and activity patterns, and ill-defined changes in environmental exposures. It is well accepted that persons with asthma are more sensitive than persons without asthma to air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, traffic emissions, and photochemical smog components. It has also been demonstrated that exposure to a mix of allergens and irritants can at times promote the development phase (induction) of the disease. Experimental evidence suggests that complex organic molecules from diesel exhaust may act as allergic adjuvants through the production of oxidative stress in airway cells. It also seems that climate change is increasing the abundance of aeroallergens such as pollen, which may result in greater incidence or severity of allergic diseases. In this review we illustrate how environmental tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollution, and climate change may act as environmental risk factors for the development of asthma and provide mechanistic explanations for how some of these effects can occur. PMID:16581557

  20. INDOOR/OUTDOOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION RATIOS DURING THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES AS A FUNCTION OF SIZE, SEASON, AND TIME OF DAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1999 Fresno particulate matter exposure studies tools place in February (winter season) and April/May (spring season) for two periods of four weeks. During that time, near-continuous measurements of indoor and outdoor aerosol concentrations were made with a scanning mobilit...

  1. Simulating Real-World Exposures during Emergency Events: Studying Effects of Indoor and Outdoor Releases in the Urban Dispersion Project in Upper Manhattan, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prospective personal exposure study, involving indoor and outdoor releases, was conducted in upper Midtown Manhattan in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) focusing on atmospheric dispersion of chemicals in complex urban settings. The UDP experiments inv...

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

  3. The outdoor air quality flag program in central California: a school-based educational intervention to potentially help reduce children's exposure to environmental asthma triggers.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Rawling, Mary-Michal; Foster, Christine; Bohlke, Alicia; Edwards, Bobbie; Rico, Susie A; Felix, Justina; Eaton, Sandra; Moen, Stephanie; Roberts, Eric M; Love, Mary Beth

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a novel school-based, visual environmental public health educational intervention intended to help reduce the exposure of children-and adults-to outdoor air pollution, including known environmental asthma triggers like ozone and particles. The overarching goal was to enhance the learning, recreational, and work environments of students and staff. The specific purpose of the Asthma-Friendly Outdoor (Ambient) Air Quality Flag Program was to establish an education and communication tool for Central California communities that would accomplish two things: (1) Establish permanent local policy change to existing operating procedures in school districts and schools to help reduce the exposure of students, teachers, staff, and nearby communities to outdoor environmental asthma triggers and (2) provide education on air quality and potential health effects of exposure to air pollutants. Data on the program from its initial years are presented. To date, the following important lessons have been learned: (1) Science-based, simple, visual, low-cost school-based educational interventions to help reduce human exposure to outdoor environmental asthma triggers (i.e., ozone, particles, and pollens) can work in socioeconomically and ethnically diverse urban and rural or agricultural communities, and (2) local health and environmental justice groups such as asthma coalitions can successfully lead school-based environmental interventions to help improve children's quality of life. PMID:17941400

  4. Personal exposure monitoring of PM2.5 in indoor and outdoor microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E; Semple, Sean; Twigg, Marsailidh M; Braban, Christine F; Leeson, Sarah R; Heal, Mathew R; Harrison, David; Lin, Chun; Wu, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution are a global challenge and of widespread concern. Recent high ambient concentration episodes of air pollutants in European cities highlighted the dynamic nature of human exposure and the gaps in data and knowledge about exposure patterns. In order to support health impact assessment it is essential to develop a better understanding of individual exposure pathways in people's everyday lives by taking account of all environments in which people spend time. Here we describe the development, validation and results of an exposure method applied in a study conducted in Scotland. A low-cost particle counter based on light-scattering technology - the Dylos 1700 was used. Its performance was validated in comparison with equivalent instruments (TEOM-FDMS) at two national monitoring network sites (R(2)=0.9 at a rural background site, R(2)=0.7 at an urban background site). This validation also provided two functions to convert measured PNCs into calculated particle mass concentrations for direct comparison of concentrations with equivalent monitoring instruments and air quality limit values. This study also used contextual and time-based activity data to define six microenvironments (MEs) to assess everyday exposure of individuals to short-term PM2.5 concentrations. The Dylos was combined with a GPS receiver to track movement and exposure of individuals across the MEs. Seventeen volunteers collected 35 profiles. Profiles may have a different overall duration and structure with respect to times spent in different MEs and activities undertaken. Results indicate that due to the substantial variability across and between MEs, it is essential to measure near-complete exposure pathways to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the exposure risk a person encounters on a daily basis. Taking into account the information gained through personal exposure measurements, this work demonstrates the added value of data generated by the

  5. Exposure assessment for estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Michael; Amann, Markus; Burnett, Rick T.; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Ezzati, Majid; Henderson, Sarah B.; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Martin, Randall V.; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Thurston, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health impacts. Previous assessments of global attributable disease burden have been limited to urban areas or by coarse spatial resolution of concentration estimates. Recent developments in remote sensing, global chemical-transport models, and improvements in coverage of surface measurements facilitate virtually complete spatially resolved global air pollutant concentration estimates. We combined these data to generate global estimates of long- term average ambient concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 1990 and 2005. In 2005, 89% of the world’s population lived in areas where the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 (annual average) was exceeded. Globally, 32% of the population lived in areas exceeding the WHO Level 1 Interim Target of 35 μg/m3; driven by high proportions in East (76%) and South (26%) Asia. The highest seasonal ozone levels were found in North and Latin America, Europe, South and East Asia, and parts of Africa. Between 1990 and 2005 a 6% increase in global population-weighted PM2.5 and a 1% decrease in global population- weighted ozone concentrations was apparent, highlighted by increased concentrations in East, South and Southeast Asia and decreases in North America and Europe. Combined with spatially resolved population distributions, these estimates expand the evaluation of the global health burden associated with outdoor air pollution. PMID:22148428

  6. PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICLE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: OUTDOOR SOURCE TRACERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The most carcinogenic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the 4-5 ring PAH found preferentially adsorbed to the fine particles (<2.54u in urban ambient air and personal air. Personal exposure to the carcinogenic particle bound PAH is also highly correlated ...

  7. Outdoor NO 2 and benzene exposure in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguirre-Alfaro, Amelia; Herce-Garraleta, Ma Dolores; Tardón, Adonina

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been linked to a wide range of negative health effects. NO 2, a traffic pollution marker, and benzene, an industrial pollution indicator, stand out among the types of air pollution linked to these effects. The aim of this work is to show the methodology used to assign exposure levels for both pollutants and preliminary reports in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort in Spain. This cohort consists of 494 pregnant women and their children, who have been recruited and followed since 2004. Air pollution levels were measured at 67 points by means of passive samplers. The mean NO 2 measured value was 21.2 μg m -3 (range 3.5 μg m -3 to 44.5 μg m -3), and the mean benzene value was 2.72 μg m -3 (range 0.18 μg m -3 to 9.17 μg m -3) at urban sampling points and 0.64 μg m -3 (range 0.04 μg m -3 to 2.62 μg m -3) in rural locations. The Pearson correlation coefficient among pollutants was 0.42. Land Use Regression models were built to predict exposure at the homes of pregnant women. Altitude, road distances and land use were part of the models. The percent of explained variance was 52% for NO 2 and 73% for benzene in the urban zones. No residual autocorrelation was found. Predictions were corrected based on the Air Quality Network of the Principality of Asturias taking into account pregnancy seasonality. Exposure indicators were determined for each term and for the entire pregnancy for each woman. Values for urban locations were higher than those for rural and benzene estimations for 5% of the cohort women were above the European Union annual limit value. Air pollution exposure for the INMA-Asturias cohort clearly depends on the place of residence. In particular, benzene concentrations are remarkably high if an individual lives in an urban and industrial area, which is an issue of management intervention and regulatory concern. Exposure assessment for different pollutants will allow us to evaluate potential

  8. The Impact of Extremes in Outdoor Temperature and Sunshine Exposure on Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Poeran, Jashvant; Birnie, Erwin; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2016-01-01

    Following the "fetal origins of adult disease" hypothesis, environmental determinants of birth weight regained interest. The authors applied a detailed spatial-time exposure model for climatological factors thought to affect fetal growth: seasonality, temperature, and sunshine. Daily climatological data (29 stations) were linked to 1,460,401 term births with an individual exposure matrix for each pregnancy. Linear regression was utilized to determine effects of climatological factors on individual birth weight and existing spatial variations in birth weight. In The Netherlands substantial regional climatological differences exist. Summer was associated with significantly reduced birth weight (16-19 g). Minimum and maximum temperatures were significantly associated with increased and reduced birth weight, respectively. Spatial birth weight differences ranged from -11 to +25 g, with lowest birth weights in inland areas. The authors demonstrate birth weight to be associated with climatological factors; negative birth weight effects of maximum temperature exposure confirm results from animal studies. Consequently, a climate footprint is visible in the spatial birth weight differences. PMID:26867297

  9. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances ('toxicants') by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.). In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the 'waterpipe' antismoking literature since 2002 is based. PMID:21584212

  10. Assessment of physical education time and after-school outdoor time in elementary and middle school students in south Mexico City: the dilemma between physical fitness and the adverse health effects of outdoor pollutant exposure.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Acuña, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Jessica; Garduño, Mónica; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos F; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo

    2002-01-01

    Strategies to promote lifelong physical activity among children are needed to stem the adverse health consequences of inactivity. However, the health effects in growing children of long-term exposure to a polluted atmosphere are of deep concern. The atmosphere of south Mexico City (SMC) is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Radiological evidence suggests that small-airway disease could be present in clinically healthy, tobacco unexposed SMC children. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of a self-reported questionnaire, the physical education class times, daily outdoor after-school exposure time, and tobacco exposure in students attending public elementary and middle schools in SMC. Additionally, the time each student spent viewing television was assessed, and the authors measured each student's weight and height to determine body mass index (BMI, weight in kg divided by height in m2). The survey included 1,159 students in grades 7-9. The authors identified 2 critical periods of outdoor exposure in SMC children that coincided with significant concentrations of both ozone and particulate matter with diameters less than 10 micrometers (PM10): during school time after 11:00 A.M. and in the after-school outdoor activity period, usually extending from 1:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Thirty-two percent of elementary and 61% of middle school students have physical education classes after 11:00 A.M. Students in SMC spend an average of 19.6 hr/wk outdoors in the after-school period, during which time they are engaged in light to moderate physical activities. Half of the students are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, and 7% of middle school students smoke. On the basis of BMI, 60% of students were classified as undernourished, overweight, or obese. No correlations were found between BMI and time spent viewing TV, time outdoors (on weekdays and weekends), or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

  11. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively. PMID:25233919

  12. Comparison of the effect of outdoor exposure on the optical properties of solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dake, L.S.; Lind, M.A.; Maag, C.R.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of outdoor exposure on solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials are assessed and compared. The encapsulant materials tested included glasses, polymers and silicones. Samples of the materials were placed on stationary exposure racks in six locations that represented urban, desert, oceanside and high altitude mountain areas. Samples were removed periodically for optical characterizations. The spectral hemispherical and diffuse reflectance of the mirror samples and the spectral hemispherical transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the encapsulant materials was measured. The relative normal hemispherical transmittance of the encapsulant materials was measured. Correlations between the glass and mirror data showed that the average diffuse reflectance losses were six times larger for the mirrors than for the glass samples. The average specular reflectance losses for the mirror samples were seven times as large as the average hemispherical transmittance losses for the glass samples. These correlations may enable one to predict the performance of mirrors made using the other encapsulant materials for superstrates. It was found that the urban and oceanside sites were the dirtiest, while the desert and mountain sites were the cleanest. Average specular reflectance losses varied from 4% at the cleanest site to 50% at the dirtiest site. The range in hemispherical transmittance losses for the encapsulant materials varied between 0% and 6%. At one site, the average daily specular reflectance losses were .04% for the mirror samples and average daily hemispherical transmittance losses were about .01% for the glass samples. The polymer materials degraded somewhat more rapidly than the glasses, and the silicones irreversible degraded too rapidly and severely to be useful for either photovoltaic or solar thermal applications.

  13. Real time outdoor exposure testing of solar cell modules and component materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic samples, solar cell modules, and sub-modules were exposed at test sites in Florida, Arizona, Puerto Rico, and Cleveland, Ohio, in order to determine materials suitable for use in solar cell modules with a proposed 20-year lifetime. Various environments were encountered including subtropical, subtropical with a sea air atmosphere, desert, rain forest, normal urban, and urban-polluted. The samples were exposed for periods up to six months. Materials found not suitable were polyurethane, polyester, Kapton, Mylar, and UV-stabilized Lexan. Suitable materials were acrylic, FEP-A, and glass. The results of exposure of polyvinylidene fluoride were dependent on the specific formulation, but several types appear suitable. RTV silicone rubber (clear) appears to pick up and hold dirt both as a free film and as a potting medium for modules. The results indicate that dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

  14. Assessment of relative exposure of minority and low-income groups to outdoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    A diverse research effort, conducted by both federal agencies and scholars in academia, has addressed the issue of environmental justice. Recent environmental justice studies have generally focused on the demographics of areas close to hazardous waste facilities; landfills; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) sites; and Superfund sites. Recent efforts at the federal and state levels to determine risk-related priorities in allocating resources for research and remediation have found that hazardous wastes present much lower health effect risks than air pollution does. Past research findings, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed disproportionately high levels of substandard air quality exposure for minority and low-income populations. This study is a continuation of that earlier research.

  15. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

    PubMed Central

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Madsen, Anne Mette; Ketzel, Matthias; Massling, Andreas; Gunnarsen, Lars; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF), lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein-D (SPD) were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC), weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity. PMID:25648225

  16. Indoor and outdoor exposure to ultrafine, fine and microbiologically derived particulate matter related to cardiovascular and respiratory effects in a panel of elderly urban citizens.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Madsen, Anne Mette; Ketzel, Matthias; Massling, Andreas; Gunnarsen, Lars; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF), lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein-D (SPD) were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC), weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity. PMID:25648225

  17. Measuring visual exposure to smoking behaviours: a viewshed analysis of smoking at outdoor bars and cafés across a capital city’s downtown area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of visual exposure to health-related behaviours, such as smoking, is increasingly acknowledged in the public health literature. Social contagion or normalisation is thought to operate through the visibility of those behaviours. There has been a lack of systematic and comprehensive approaches to quantifying visual exposure to these behaviours over a relatively large geographic area. We describe the novel application of a geographic tool, viewshed analysis, to estimate visual exposure to smoking outside bars/cafés across a downtown area. Methods Smoking was observed for different times and days of the week at 14 outdoor areas of bars/cafés throughout downtown Wellington, New Zealand. We used these data to extrapolate to other bars/cafés with outdoor seating. We then conducted viewshed analyses to estimate visual exposure to smoking at bars/cafés for all public outdoor spaces. Results We observed a smoking point prevalence of 16%. Visibility analyses indicated that estimated visible smoking was highest in the evenings (7-8 pm), where the average values across Wednesday and Friday ranged from zero up to 92 visible smokers (mean = 1.44). Estimated visible smoking at midday ranged from zero to 13 (mean = 0.27). Values were also higher at the end of the week compared with midweek in the evening. Maps indicate that streets with high levels of retail shops and hospitality areas had high values of estimated visible smokers, particularly in the evening where numbers were consistently above 50. Conclusions This paper highlights a useful method for measuring the extent of visual exposure to smoking behaviours across relatively large areas using a geospatial approach. Applying this method in other locations would require consideration of place-specific characteristics which impact on visibility and could be improved through more sophisticated extrapolation of observational data across the study area. The findings of this and similar research could

  18. OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

  19. Size fraction effect on phthalate esters accumulation, bioaccessibility and in vitro cytotoxicity of indoor/outdoor dust, and risk assessment of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Fu-Yong; Huang, Min-Juan; Kang, Yuan; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-15

    Indoor and outdoor dusts from two urban centers in the Pearl River Delta, China, were analyzed and phthalate esters varied from 4.95 to 2,220 μg g(-1) in indoor dust, significantly higher than outdoor dust (1.70-869 μg g(-1)). Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the dominant phthalate found and the highest distribution factor (DF) (1.56 ± 0.41) was noted in the <63 μm fraction (p<0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity of dust extract on human T cell lymphoblast leukemic cell line (CCRF-CEM) indicated by Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) decreased with particle size. The power model was found as a better fit for explaining the relationship between LC50 and phthalates (R(2)=0.46, p<0.01). Bioaccessibility of phthalates in dust varied with different particle sizes, with the greatest bioaccessible fraction (2.49-38.6%) obtained in <63 μm. Risk assessment indicated that indoor dust ingestion accounted for the major source for DEHP exposure (81.4-96.4% of non-dietary exposure and 36.5% of total exposure), especially for toddlers. The cancer risks associated with DEHP via home dust were high (10(-6)-10(-4)), with 10% of houses estimated with unacceptable risks (>10(-4)). After corrected with the bioaccessibility of phthalates, the cancer risks of dust exposure were moderate (10(-7)-10(-5)). PMID:23755845

  20. Personal exposure of primary school children to BTEX, NO₂ and ozone in Eskişehir, Turkey: relationship with indoor/outdoor concentrations and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Gülçin; Ozden, Ozlem; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Gaga, Eftade O

    2014-03-01

    Personal exposures of 65 primary school children to benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes (BTEX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) were measured during 24h by using organic vapor monitors and tailor-made passive samplers. Two schools were selected to represent students living in more polluted (urban) and less polluted (sub-urban) areas in the city of Eskişehir, Turkey. The pollutant concentrations were also measured in indoor and outdoor environments during the personal sampling to investigate the contribution of each micro-environment on measured personal concentrations. Socio-demographic and personal time-activity data were collected by means of questionnaires and half-hour-time resolution activity diaries. Personal exposure concentrations were found to be correlated with indoor home concentrations. Personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of all studied pollutants except for ozone were found to be higher for the students living at the urban traffic site. Ozone, on the other hand, had higher concentrations at the sub-urban site for all three types of measurements (personal, indoor and outdoor). Analysis of the questionnaire data pointed out to environmental tobacco smoke, use of solvent based products, and petrol station nearby as factors that affect personal exposure concentrations. Cancer and non-cancer risks were estimated using the personal exposure concentrations. The mean cancer risk for the urban school children (1.7×10(-5)) was found to be higher than the sub-urban school children (0.88×10(-5)). Children living with smoking parents had higher risk levels (1.7×10(-5)) than children living with non-smoking parents (1.08×10(-5)). Overall, the risk levels were <1×10(-4). All hazard quotient values for BTEX for the non-cancer health effects were <1 based on the calculations EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) part F. PMID:24388904

  1. Sound exposure changes European seabass behaviour in a large outdoor floating pen: Effects of temporal structure and a ramp-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Neo, Y Y; Hubert, J; Bolle, L; Winter, H V; Ten Cate, C; Slabbekoorn, H

    2016-07-01

    Underwater sound from human activities may affect fish behaviour negatively and threaten the stability of fish stocks. However, some fundamental understanding is still lacking for adequate impact assessments and potential mitigation strategies. For example, little is known about the potential contribution of the temporal features of sound, the efficacy of ramp-up procedures, and the generalisability of results from indoor studies to the outdoors. Using a semi-natural set-up, we exposed European seabass in an outdoor pen to four treatments: 1) continuous sound, 2) intermittent sound with a regular repetition interval, 3) irregular repetition intervals and 4) a regular repetition interval with amplitude 'ramp-up'. Upon sound exposure, the fish increased swimming speed and depth, and swam away from the sound source. The behavioural readouts were generally consistent with earlier indoor experiments, but the changes and recovery were more variable and were not significantly influenced by sound intermittency and interval regularity. In addition, the 'ramp-up' procedure elicited immediate diving response, similar to the onset of treatment without a 'ramp-up', but the fish did not swim away from the sound source as expected. Our findings suggest that while sound impact studies outdoors increase ecological and behavioural validity, the inherently higher variability also reduces resolution that may be counteracted by increasing sample size or looking into different individual coping styles. Our results also question the efficacy of 'ramp-up' in deterring marine animals, which warrants more investigation. PMID:27061472

  2. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment in the eastern United States: Results of exposure 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1995-04-01

    Monitoring continued on weight changes in marble and limestone briquettes exposed to the outdoor environment at sites in the eastern US. This report presents data for the exposure period 1988--1992 and summarizes results for the entire period from 1984. Since 1989, only three exposure sites have remained active, but briquettes from preexposed material were added at those sites. A linear relationship was found between cumulative gravimetric losses and exposure period. These losses resulted in an average recession rate of 11 to 21 {micro}m/yr for marble and 21 to 45 {micro}m/yr for limestone. The recession rates are site-dependent and can be described with respect to rain depth and other atmospheric conditions, as evidenced by the very low rates at the Ohio site on the movable rack, dry regime. Weight monitoring is continuing in a planned 10-year program.

  3. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environments in the eastern United States. Results of exposures, 1984--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1991-09-01

    Gravimetric changes in marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment at five sites in the eastern United States have been monitored since 1984. An earlier report describes procedures and results obtained in 1984--1988. This report presents the results of the exposure period 1984--1988 and reviews and summarizes those of prior years. A linear relationship was found between cumulative gravimetric losses and exposure period or rain depth. These losses resulted in an average recession rate of 14 to 24 {mu}m/yr for marble and twice that for limestone. Variations in recession among the various exposure sites can be ascribed to differences in rain depth and hydrogen ion concentration. The annual recession rates obtained from gravimetry yielded rates that were for marble twice those obtained from runoff experiments, and more than three times those for limestone; this indicates that physical erosion plays an important role. Gravimetric monitoring of exposed briquettes is continuing in a planned 10-yr program.

  4. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Madsen, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Massling, Andreas; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Lund, Rikke; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280 nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10 μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes. PMID:25233101

  5. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. PMID:21477057

  6. Seasonal variation in outdoor, indoor, and personal air pollution exposures of women using wood stoves in the Tibetan Plateau: Baseline assessment for an energy intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kun; Carter, Ellison; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Zhang, Yuanxun; Niu, Hongjiang; Lai, Alexandra M; Shan, Ming; Wang, Yuqin; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-09-01

    Cooking and heating with coal and biomass is the main source of household air pollution in China and a leading contributor to disease burden. As part of a baseline assessment for a household energy intervention program, we enrolled 205 adult women cooking with biomass fuels in Sichuan, China and measured their 48-h personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) in winter and summer. We also measured the indoor 48-h PM2.5 concentrations in their homes and conducted outdoor PM2.5 measurements during 101 (74) days in summer (winter). Indoor concentrations of CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) were measured over 48-h in a subset of ~80 homes. Women's geometric mean 48-h exposure to PM2.5 was 80μg/m(3) (95% CI: 74, 87) in summer and twice as high in winter (169μg/m(3) (95% CI: 150, 190), with similar seasonal trends for indoor PM2.5 concentrations (winter: 252μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295; summer: 101μg/m(3); 95% CI: 91, 112). We found a moderately strong relationship between indoor PM2.5 and CO (r=0.60, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.72), and a weak correlation between personal PM2.5 and CO (r=0.41, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.71). NO2/NO ratios were higher in summer (range: 0.01 to 0.68) than in winter (range: 0 to 0.11), suggesting outdoor formation of NO2 via reaction of NO with ozone is a more important source of NO2 than biomass combustion indoors. The predictors of women's personal exposure to PM2.5 differed by season. In winter, our results show that primary heating with a low-polluting fuel (i.e., electric stove or wood-charcoal) and more frequent kitchen ventilation could reduce personal PM2.5 exposures. In summer, primary use of a gaseous fuel or electricity for cooking and reducing exposure to outdoor PM2.5 would likely have the greatest impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure. PMID:27316628

  7. An evidence-based assessment for the association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Shui; Zhao, Hao; Wang, Xin; Deng, Qin; Fan, Wen-Yan; Wang, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Although outdoor air pollution has been identified as carcinogenic to humans, the magnitude of the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for lung cancer in relation to outdoor air pollution remain uncertain. On a global scale, we quantified the risk of lung cancer associated with long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution using a meta-analytic approach. Relevant cohort studies from two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) through 31 May 2014 were searched, and a total of 21 cohort studies were identified in the analysis. The risk of lung cancer mortality or morbidity increased 7.23 (95% CI: 1.48-13.31)%/10 μg/m increase in fine particles (PM2.5), 13.17 (95% CI: 5.57-21.30)%/10 parts per billion (ppb) increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.14-1.49)%/10 ppb increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 14.76 (95% CI: 1.04-30.34)%/10 ppb increase in sulfur dioxide (SO2). These positive associations remained when analysis was restricted to never-smokers or studies with high methodological quality, and showed no difference by sex. In addition, the association of fine particles with lung cancer was suggestively stronger among never-smokers (RR per each 10 μg/m=1.18, 95% CI: 1.06-1.32). There was a null association for carbon monoxide and ozone. Our study indicated that long-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, NOx, and SO2 may be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Although the magnitude of the RR is relatively small, our finding, if validated, may be of public health importance because a large proportion of the population is exposed to air pollution globally. PMID:25757194

  8. Levels, indoor-outdoor relationships and exposure risks of airborne particle-associated perchlorate and chlorate in two urban areas in Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Toda, Kei; Wang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Junmei; Yamasaki, Dai; Nakamura, Yukihide; Sui, Xiao; Zheng, Longfei; Wen, Liang; Xu, Caihong; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5-associated perchlorate (ClO4(-)) and chlorate (ClO3(-)) were investigated in Jinan, China, and size-resolved perchlorate and chlorate were studied in Kumamoto, Japan. The average outdoor PM2.5-associated concentrations of perchlorate and chlorate were 4.18 ng m(-3) and 2.82 ng m(-3), respectively, in Jinan. Perchlorate and chlorate were mainly distributed in fine particles, and their approximate PM2.5-associated concentrations were 0.04 ng m(-3) and 4.14 ng m(-3), respectively, in Kumamoto. The ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) ranged from 18.72 to 360.22 in Kumamoto and from 0.03 to 7.45 in Jinan. The highest concentration of perchlorate (173.76 ng m(-3)) was observed on Spring Festival Eve. This finding and the significant correlation between perchlorate and fireworks-related components (Cl(-) and K(+)) indicated that the fireworks display was a significant source of perchlorate in Jinan. The indoor concentrations of perchlorate and chlorate in Jinan were 3.54 ng m(-3) (range, 0.14-125.14 ng m(-3)) and 0.94 ng m(-3) (range, 0.10-1.80 ng m(-3)), respectively. In the absence of an indoor source of perchlorate, the occurrence of indoor concentrations higher than those found outdoors was a common effect of individual fireworks displays near the sampling sites, coupled with meteorological influences and poor indoor diffusion conditions. The exposure risks of perchlorate and chlorate indoors indicated that the potential risk of perchlorate exposure to children during fireworks displays is deserving of concern. PMID:25898387

  9. Strength of graphite/epoxy bolted wing-skin splice specimens subjected to outdoor exposure under constant load and yearly fatigue loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichorek, G. R.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to provide long-term durability data on detailed full-scale graphite/epoxy wing-skin joint designs under environmental exposure and cyclic loading associated with commercial transport aircraft are reported. The specimens consisted of a single-row bolt configuration fabricated from T300/5208 and a double-row bolt configuration fabricated from T300/5209. The unpainted specimens were exposed to the outdoor environment under a sustained tensile load, and at yearly intervals, they were subjected to fatigue loading. Experimental results showed a slight reduction in residual tensile strength for both graphite/epoxy joints under the exposure times and fatigue loadings reported. A 7.5-percent decrease in residual strength was observed for the T300/5208 single-row joint after 5 years exposure and two lifetimes of fatigue loading. A 5.3-percent decrease in residual strength was observed for the T300/5209 double-row joint after 7 years exposure and 2.8 lifetimes of fatigue loading. The 5208 epoxy material was more susceptible to degradation by ultraviolet radiation than the 5209 epoxy material.

  10. Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Michael G.

    In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

  11. Adult asthma and traffic exposure at residential address, workplace address, and self-reported daily time outdoor in traffic: A two-stage case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most epidemiologic studies use traffic at residential address as a surrogate for total traffic exposure when investigating effects of traffic on respiratory health. This study used GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to estimate traffic exposure, not only on residential, but also on workplace address, in addition to survey questions on time spent in traffic during commuting or other daily activities. The aim was to investigate 1) if there is an association between traffic exposure and prevalence of adult asthma and asthma symptoms, and 2) if so, does this association become stronger using more complete traffic exposure information. Methods This study was conducted in two stages: A first cross-sectional survey in Southern Sweden 2004 (n = 24819, 18-80 years, response rate 59%) was followed by a case-control study in 2005 to obtain more detailed exposure and confounder information (n = 2856, asthmatics and controls (1:3), 86% response rate). In the first survey, only residential address was known. In the second survey, questions about workplace addresses and daily time spent in traffic were also included. Residential and workplace addresses were geocoded and linked with GIS to road data and dispersion modelled outdoor concentrations of NOx (annual mean, 250 × 250 m resolution). Results Living within 50 m of a road (measured by GIS) with traffic intensity of >10 cars/minute (compared with no road within this distance) was associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = (1.1-2.8), and with asthma symptoms last 12 months. No statistically significant effects were seen for traffic exposure at workplace address, daily time spent in traffic, or commuting time to work, after adjustment for confounders. A combined total exposure estimate did not give a stronger association with asthma prevalence or asthma symptoms. Conclusions Traffic exposure at close proximity to residential address showed association with asthma prevalence and asthma

  12. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity. PMID:26054827

  13. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  14. Outdoor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  15. Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

  16. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  17. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  18. SHEDS-PM: A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PREDICTING DISTRIBUTIONS OF PM EXPOSURE AND DOSE FROM BOTH OUTDOOR AND INDOOR SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM), called the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model. SHEDS-PM uses a probabilistic approach that incorporates both variabi...

  19. HOW EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE, OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS,AND INCREASED POLLEN BURDENS INFLUENCES THE INCIDENCE OF ASTHMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a multifactorial airway disease that arises from a relatively common genetic background interphased with exposures to allergens and airborne irritants. The rapid rise in asthma over the past three decades in Western societies has been attributed to numerous diverse fact...

  20. Estimating Error in Using Residential Outdoor PM2.5 Concentrations as Proxies for Personal Exposures: A Meta-Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies examining the health effects of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) commonly use ambient PM2.5 concentrations measured at distal monitoring sites as proxies for personal exposure and assume spatial homogeneity of ambient PM

  1. Characterizing exposure in community health studies: A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with numerous adverse outcomes. However, community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with estimating household-level exposure through te...

  2. Assessing human exposure to aluminium, chromium and vanadium through outdoor dust ingestion in the Bassin Minier de Provence, France.

    PubMed

    Reis, A P; Patinha, C; Noack, Y; Robert, S; Dias, A C

    2014-04-01

    The Western part of the "Bassin Minier de Provence", a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. The identified pollution sources that raise more concern in the population are the emission of gases and dusts, as well as the storage of raw and transformed materials. In 2011, a preliminary survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk-assessment study. This first survey intends to assess human exposure through ingestion and health risk associated with potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in ground-level dusts collected in recreational areas used by children. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of public parks, public gardens, playgrounds and schools. Pseudo-total concentrations of 53 elements were determined by ICP-MS. Bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the unified bioaccessibility method. This study presents the results obtained for Al, V and Cr, which seem to be related with industry and show similar distribution patterns. PHEs presumably related to traffic or other urban pollution sources are not discussed in this study. The highest total concentrations occur in dusts near the alumina plant that have significant amounts of Al mineral phases (gibbsite and alumina). However, in these dusts only small fractions of the elements under study are in bioaccessible forms. The highest bioaccessible fractions occur in dusts collected near the coal-fired power plant. Further investigation is required to assess potential pathways of exposure and health risk in this area. PMID:23990126

  3. Prediction of RF-EMF exposure levels in large outdoor areas through car-mounted measurements on the enveloping roads.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Joseph, Wout; Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Colussi, Loek; Kamer, Jos; Bolte, John

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of spatial and temporal trends in the environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is a key prerequisite for RF-EMF risk assessment studies attempting to establish a link between RF-EMF and potential effects on human health as well as on fauna and flora. In this paper, we determined the validity of RF exposure modelling based on inner-area kriging interpolation of measurements on the surrounding streets. The results vary depending on area size and shape and structural factors; a Spearman coefficient of 0.8 and a relative error of less than 3.5dB are achieved on a data set featuring a closed measurement ring around a decently sized area (1km(2), with an average minimum distance of the encircled area to the ring of less than 100m), containing mainly low, detached buildings. In larger areas, additional inner-area sampling is advised, lowering the average minimum distance between sampled and interpolated locations to 100m, to achieve the same level of accuracy. PMID:27364986

  4. Outdoor Education -- Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Terry

    1974-01-01

    In Scotland, outdoor education is seen as a combination of outdoor pursuits and environmental studies. The article describes various centres in the Edinburgh area, outdoor education expeditions, and programs, such as mountaineering, rock climbing, orienteering, and canoeing. (KM)

  5. The Outdoor Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Lily

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some characteristics and skills of the effective outdoor leader: confidence, feeling "at home" in the outdoors, continuing awareness of and curiosity about the outdoors, good communication skills, creative thinking, and team-building abilities. (SV)

  6. Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications: patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Goidanich, S; Brunk, J; Herting, G; Arenas, M A; Odnevall Wallinder, I

    2011-12-15

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites. PMID:22051551

  7. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  8. Outdoors classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  9. Estimate of the dose-increment due to outdoor exposure to gamma rays from uranium progeny deposited on the soil around a coal-fired power plant in Ajka Town, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z; Dezsö, Z

    2003-06-01

    Brown coal unusually rich in uranium is burnt in a coal-fired power plant that lies inside the confines of a small industrial town named Ajka, Hungary, and has been operational since 1943. The 238U (226Ra) activity discharged to the atmosphere per unit electrical energy produced was about 330-400 GBq (GW y)(-1), which is 66-80 times more than that was estimated by UNSCEAR (1988) as a characteristic value for old type coal-fired power plants [5 GBq (GW y)(-1)]. The objective of this study was the experimentally established assessment of the artificial increment in the dose from external exposure to gamma rays of terrestrial radionuclides outdoors. Soil samples were collected in and near Ajka from 81 locations. The samples were investigated by Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry. Considerably elevated concentrations of uranium and its progeny have been measured in most of the samples that were collected near to the plant. Concentrations of 238U and 226Ra in the top (0-5 cm depth) layer of undisturbed soil at public areas inside town were 4.7 times higher, on average, than those in the uncontaminated deeper layers. Dose rate in air (air kerma) from external exposure to terrestrial gamma rays outdoors at a height of 1 m and effective doses were estimated from the measured activity concentrations using some relevant literature data. The estimated artificial increment in the dose rate in air was, on average, 32.8, 10.3, and 102.1 nGy h(-1) at public areas, vegetable gardens, and backyards, respectively. The mean artificial increment in the annual per caput effective dose from external exposure to terrestrial radionuclides outdoors is 21.8 microSv y(-1). The collective dose commitment per unit energy generated from outdoor exposure to the deposited uranium progeny is about 8.0-9.1 person Sv (GW y)(-1), which is 67-76 times more than that evaluated by UNSCEAR (1988) for a typical "old" coal-fired power plant [0.12 person Sv (GW y)(-1)]. Ajka is a suitable place for studying the

  10. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

  11. POWER ANALYSIS OF LINEAR RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERSONAL EXPOSURE AND INDOOR/OUTDOOR PM 2.5 CONCENTRATIONS AT BALTIMORE AND FRESNO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory is currently in the process of conducting panel studies to investigate personal exposure to particulate matter(PM). One of the primary goals of PM exposure studies is to establish mathematical relationships between personal exposure and...

  12. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  13. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  14. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  15. Low willingness and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; Yan, Huamei; Ning, Zhen; Cai, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yin; Pan, Rong; Zhou, Yanqiu; Zheng, Huang; Gao, Meiyang; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; He, Na

    2016-05-23

    Little is known about the acceptance and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. This study is the baseline survey of an intervention study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of tenofovirdisoproxil fumarate (TDF) on a daily use for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among MSM in Shanghai, China. From October 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1,033 MSM in Shanghai were recruited by local district Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a MSM community-based non-governmental organization (NGO). Among them, 197 (19.1%) participants expressed willingness to use the TDF group at baseline survey, but only 26 (2.5%) participated in the TDF group and took TDF one tablet a day. Higher willingness to use PrEP was associated with being 45 years or older, non-local residents, having more male sex partners in the past 6 months and not using condom at last anal sex with man. Acutal uptake of PrEP was associated with having ≥ 11 male sex partners in lifetime and reporting no female sex partners in lifetime. Reasons for not participating in TDF group among those who expressed willingness to use PrEP at baseline survey included loss of contact, ineligiblity because of abnormal results for liver or renal function tests, change of mind, and HIV seroconversion before uptake of PrEP. Our findings suggest that promotion of PrEP in MSM remains challenging at current circumstancein China. Future research is needed to solicit effective education and intervention programs to promote acceptance of PrEP among Chinese MSM. PMID:27052151

  16. UV exposure of elementary school children in five Japanese cities.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masaji; Munakata, Nobuo; Watanabe, Shaw

    2005-01-01

    A 1 week UV-exposure measurement and outdoor-activity pattern survey was conducted for elementary school children for four seasons at five sites in Japan, i.e. Sapporo (43 degrees 05' N, altitude 40 m), Tsukuba (36 degrees 05' N, 20 m), Tokyo (35 degrees 40' N, 45 m), Miyazaki (31 degrees 60' N, 40 m) and Naha (26 degrees 10' N, 5 m), and UV exposure was measured directly and estimated using outdoor-activity records. The study site with largest UV exposure was Miyazaki, a southern rural area. Comparing the results for boys and girls, UV exposure was larger in boys. UV exposure was large in spring and summer and small in winter. The total amount of UV exposure in spring and summer contributed 57.7-73.4% of total exposure for the year. As a whole, 8.1% and 1.8% of the schoolchildren were exposed to more than 1 minimum erythemal dose (MED) and 2 MED of solar UV in a day, respectively. The estimated yearly UV exposure ranged from 49 207 J/m2 in Miyazaki to 31 520 J/m2 in Tsukuba. The actual UV exposure correlated to potential UV exposure, estimated using outdoor-activity records and ambient UV irradiance, but the ratio differed by season and site. The yearly average of percent UV exposure to ambient UV on a horizontal plane ranged from 9.9% in Tokyo to 4.0% in Naha. In the questionnaire survey on outdoor-activity pattern, a short question "How long did you spend time outdoors between 0900 and 1500 h?" gives the best estimates of UV exposure. PMID:15581388

  17. Play and the Outdoors: What's New under the Sun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Susan J.; Klugman, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Childhood today is very different from what it was for previous generations, and a sizable part of the difference has something to do with the changing amount of outdoor play time. Early childhood educators are in a powerful and unique position to make sure that children's exposure to the outdoors and its ever-changing wonders is woven into the…

  18. Uncertainty in outdoor noise measurement and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. Keith

    2005-09-01

    Standards for outdoor noise are intended to ensure that (1) measurements are representative of actual exposure and (2) noise prediction procedures are consistent and scientifically defensible. Attainment of these worthwhile goals is hindered by the many complexities of sound interaction with the local atmosphere and terrain. The paradigm predominant in current standards might be described as measuring/predicting ``somewhat worse than average'' conditions. Measurements/predictions are made for moderate downward refraction conditions, since that is when noise annoyance is most often expected to occur. This paradigm is reasonable and practical, although one might argue that current standards could implement it better. A different, potentially more rigorous, paradigm is to explicitly treat the statistical nature of noise imissions as produced by variability in the atmospheric environment and by uncertainties in its characterization. For example, measurements and prediction techniques could focus on exceedance levels. For this to take place, a better conceptual framework must be developed for predictions that are averaged over environmental states, frequency bands, and various time intervals. Another increasingly important issue is the role of computer models. As these models continue to grow in fidelity and capability, there will be increasing pressure to abandon standard calculations in many applications.

  19. The Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dorothy E.

    An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

  20. Outdoor Education, Camp Casey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansberry, Steve; And Others

    A curriculum guide for the Camp Casey Outdoor Education program is contained in this document. Designed for fifth grade students and teachers in Northshore School District, Bothell, Washington, it emphasizes learning activities for use in the outdoors. General understandings relevant to the objectives of the program form the frame into which the…

  1. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooyers, Cobina; And Others

    Designed for teachers to provide students with an awareness of the world of nature which surrounds them, the manual presents the philosophy of outdoor education, goals and objectives of the school program, planning for outdoor education, the Wildwood Programs, sequential program planning for students, program booking and resource list. Content…

  2. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  3. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  4. Outdoor Classroom Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

  5. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  6. Outdoor Recreation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubenville, Alan

    The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

  7. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  8. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  9. Queering Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Connie; Sarick, Tema; Kennelly, Jackie

    2003-01-01

    Queer pedagogy is rife with possibilities for outdoor educators to challenge the status quo of heterosexism and sexism. From recognizing and addressing the heteronormative assumptions that influence the outdoor classroom, to subverting oppressive gender norms, to noticing the cultural constructs through which we view nature, queer pedagogy can…

  10. PROBLEMS IN THE ESTIMATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO COMPONENTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problems associated with estimation of human exposures to ambient air pollution are discussed. Ideally the authors would prefer to have some indication of actual dose. For most pollutants this is not presently feasible. Specific problems discussed are adequacy of outdoor monitors...

  11. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 1 - COMPARISON OF AMBIENT, RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR, INDOOR AND APARTMENT PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combined epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co...

  12. Environmental Outdoor Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.

    2004-05-01

    Lighting for the outdoor environment presents challenges not usually found in interior lighting. Outdoors, the universal standard is the daytime sun, yet nighttime electric lighting falls far short of daylight. This presentation provides guidance in dealing with these shortcomings, allowing electric lighting systems to solve multiple needs while being responsive to the need for quality exterior lighting. Main aspects include visual issues, ordinances, sources, energy conservation, structure, softscape and hardscape, roadways and walkways, retail and parking lots, sports, and outdoor hospitality lighting. We will review many of the present recommendations for such lighting applications, ones designed to minimize any adverse effects.

  13. Take Your Class Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellenberger, Barbara R.

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions for designing outdoor activities to provide students with opportunities for exploring, observing, and discovering. Outlines several science activities for each of the following topics: trees, rocks, soil, insects, wild flowers, grasses, lichens, and clouds. (DS)

  14. Color measurements on marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment in the Eastern United States. Volume I: Results of exposure 1984-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1994-04-01

    In a long-term program that began in 1984, limestone and marble briquettes have been exposed to both anthropogenic acid deposition and natural weathering at four field sites in the eastern United States. Similar tests began at an Ohio site in 1986. Effects of exposure on the briquettes and other materials at the sites are evaluated periodically by several federal agencies cooperating in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). One of the primary contributions of Argonne National Laboratory to the NAPAP has been the measurement of tristimulus color change on samples exposed to the environment. Results from the first six years indicate a yellowing of the marble and a darkening of limestone on both the skyward and groundward surfaces of fresh and preexposed briquettes. The relationship between discoloration and exposure period appears to be linear. Discoloration rates as a function of a cumulative exposure time are almost constant for marble and slightly decreasing for limestone Dark spots on groundward surfaces were measured with tristimulus color equipment prior to chemical analysis to determine if a correlation exists between darkening (change in reflectance) and SO{sub 4} concentration. Taking exposure time into consideration, and assuming that the airborne concentration of dark particles, which cause darkening, is proportional to airborne SO{sub 2} concentration, one can establish a linear relationship between exposure time, darkening, and SO{sub 2} concentration. The program is continuing so that additional data can be obtained.

  15. Dissemination of Go Sun Smart in Outdoor Recreation: Effect of Program Exposure on Sun Protection of Guests at High Altitude Ski Areas

    PubMed Central

    WALKOSZ, BARBARA J.; BULLER, DAVID B.; ANDERSEN, PETER A.; SCOTT, MICHAEL D.; DIGNAN, MARK B.; CUTTER, GARY R.; LIU, XIA; MALOY, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Go Sun Smart (GSS) is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun protection behaviors of employees and guests at high altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of GSS, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, upon sun protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy, enhanced versus basic, was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relationship of message exposure to guests’ sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 GSS materials in guest-only areas and 9 GSS materials throughout the area increased guests’ message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not in the low-use ski areas. The importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industry-wide are underscored. PMID:24617350

  16. PARTICLE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (PTEAM) STUDY: DISTRIBUTIONS OF AEROSOL AND ELEMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS IN PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES IN A SOUTHERN CALIFORNIACOMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle concentrations were measured for a probability-based sample of 178 nonsmoking individuals aged 10 or older residing in Riverside, California, in the fall of 1990. Two 12-hr personal-exposure PM10 samples were obtained for each participant, along with fixed-location PM10 ...

  17. Time outdoors and the prevention of myopia.

    PubMed

    French, Amanda N; Ashby, Regan S; Morgan, Ian G; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to be, or to become myopic, irrespective of how much near work they do, or whether their parents are myopic. It is currently uncertain if time outdoors also blocks progression of myopia. It has been suggested that the mechanism of the protective effect of time outdoors involves light-stimulated release of dopamine from the retina, since increased dopamine release appears to inhibit increased axial elongation, which is the structural basis of myopia. This hypothesis has been supported by animal experiments which have replicated the protective effects of bright light against the development of myopia under laboratory conditions, and have shown that the effect is, at least in part, mediated by dopamine, since the D2-dopamine antagonist spiperone reduces the protective effect. There are some inconsistencies in the evidence, most notably the limited inhibition by bright light under laboratory conditions of lens-induced myopia in monkeys, but other proposed mechanisms possibly associated with time outdoors such as relaxed accommodation, more uniform dioptric space, increased pupil constriction, exposure to UV light, changes in the spectral composition of visible light, or increased physical activity have little epidemiological or experimental support. Irrespective of the mechanisms involved, clinical trials are now underway to reduce the development of myopia in children by increasing the amount of time they spend outdoors. These trials would benefit from more precise definition of thresholds for protection in terms of intensity and duration of light exposures. These can be investigated in animal experiments in appropriate models, and can also be determined in epidemiological studies, although more precise measurement of exposures than those currently provided by questionnaires is desirable. PMID:23644222

  18. Benchmark on outdoor scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hairong; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Jia, Fukai; Li, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Depth super-resolution is becoming popular in computer vision, and most of test data is based on indoor data sets with ground-truth measurements such as Middlebury. However, indoor data sets mainly are acquired from structured light techniques under ideal conditions, which cannot represent the objective world with nature light. Unlike indoor scenes, the uncontrolled outdoor environment is much more complicated and is rich both in visual and depth texture. For that reason, we develop a more challenging and meaningful outdoor benchmark for depth super-resolution using the state-of-the-art active laser scanning system.

  19. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  20. Outdoor and indoor UFP in primary schools across Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Reche, C; Viana, M; Rivas, I; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time ultrafine particles (UFP; N10-700 in this study) number concentration and average diameter were collected twice at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. Simultaneous outdoor N concentration measurements at schools under different traffic exposures showed the important role of this source, with higher levels by 40% on average at schools near heavy traffic, highlighting thus the increased exposure of children due to urban planning decisions. A well-defined spatial pattern of outdoor UFP levels was observed. Midday increases in outdoor N levels mainly attributed to nucleation processes have been recorded both at high and low temperatures in several of the outdoor school sites (increasing levels by 15%-70%). The variation of these increases also followed a characteristic spatial pattern, pointing at schools' location as a key variable in terms of UFP load owing to the important contribution of traffic emissions. Indoor N concentrations were to some extent explained by outdoor N concentrations during school hours, together with average temperatures, related with natural ventilation. Outdoor midday increases were generally mimicked by indoor N concentrations, especially under warm temperatures. At specific cases, indoor concentrations during midday were 30%-40% higher than outdoor. The time scale of these observations evidenced the possible role of: a) secondary particle formation enhanced by indoor precursors or conditions, maybe related with surface chemistry reactions mediated by O3, and/or b) UFP from cooking activities. Significant indoor N increases were detected after school hours, probably associated with cleaning activities, resulting in indoor N concentrations up to 3 times higher than those in outdoor. A wide variability of indoor/outdoor ratios of N concentrations and mean UFP sizes was detected among schools and measurement periods

  1. Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and the Economy of Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Interviews and a literature review found that outdoor recreation contributes significantly to Scotland's tourist income, particularly in rural areas; outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas; the provision of outdoor education by secondary schools has decreased in the last 20 years; and therapeutic outdoor…

  2. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  3. Journey to the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    A keen personal interest in natural history, involvement in environmental organisations, and experience, first as a secondary biology teacher and later as a field teacher, means that this author has spent many years working outdoors. Any part of the curriculum involving ecological concepts would lead her to open the door and go outside. She…

  4. Outdoor Education. Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    The material in this catalog has been compiled to serve as a ready reference for teachers to assist them in locating outdoor education materials and obtaining environmental student project assistance available from government departments and private organizations within the province of Manitoba. Part 1 lists agencies that can provide speakers,…

  5. Women in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Women engaging in outdoor activities tend to be more supportive of each other and more willing to express their feelings and apprehensions about adventurous settings than are men. It is important for women to have strong female leaders as role models. Instructors should be aware that women's learning styles and learning curves differ from men's.…

  6. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  7. Your Brain Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2012-01-01

    The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

  8. Outdoor Ecology School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

  9. Take Math Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

  10. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  11. [Science in the Outdoors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarage, Joe; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

  12. Outdoor Education in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Providing an overview of the Outdoor Education Workshop provided by the Georgia Migrant Education Program to give migrant students and staff an opportunity to learn new skills which they can then share with other migrant children upon their return to the regular school setting, the paper briefly discusses the administrative steps necessary when…

  13. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  14. Outdoor Unified Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Louise

    Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to set…

  15. Children and the Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

  16. Contemporary Perspectives in Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles A., Jr., Ed.; Carlson, Marcia K., Ed.

    Designed to provide the student of outdoor education with a synthesis of current literature in the field, this collection presents 26 articles which range from administrative to practical applications of outdoor education theory and philosophy. Articles include discussions of: (1) the philosophy of outdoor education; (2) a London school and its…

  17. Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla

    Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

  18. Vision + Community = Outdoor Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles; Tatarchuk, Shawna; Anderson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor learning areas are becoming more popular as a means for community-based, cross-curricular learning where children study issues of local relevance (Sobel 2004). Outdoor learning areas, any place outside of the school building where children can observe and interact with the natural world around them, include outdoor structures for seating…

  19. Outdoor Programmes for Women Only?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Tammy Leigh; Priest, Simon

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for women-only outdoor programs as an alternative to mixed programs, socialization and stereotyping of gender roles and behavior in society, and barriers to outdoor participation for women. Describes some women-only outdoor programs and their benefits and disadvantages. Provides recommendations concerning program design and…

  20. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  1. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  2. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, J L; Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    2014-02-01

    Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 to April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is nonlinear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). Absolute humidity exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  3. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. Methods and Results The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 - April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is non-linear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). AH exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Conclusions Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  4. Exposure Modeling of Residential Infiltration of Black Carbon for NEXUS Participants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using outdoor concentrations. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improve ex...

  5. Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

  6. Assessment of indoor and outdoor PM species at schools and residences in a high-altitude Ecuadorian urban center.

    PubMed

    Raysoni, Amit U; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, M Margaret; Montoya, Teresa; Eschanique, Patricia; Racines, Marcia; Li, Wen-Whai

    2016-07-01

    An air monitoring campaign to assess children's environmental exposures in schools and residences, both indoors and outdoors, was conducted in 2010 in three low-income neighborhoods in Z1 (north), Z2 (central), and Z3 (southeast) zones of Quito, Ecuador - a major urban center of 2.2 million inhabitants situated 2850 m above sea level in a narrow mountainous basin. Z1 zone, located in northern Quito, historically experienced emissions from quarries and moderate traffic. Z2 zone was influenced by heavy traffic in contrast to Z3 zone which experienced low traffic densities. Weekly averages of PM samples were collected at schools (one in each zone) and residences (Z1 = 47, Z2 = 45, and Z3 = 41) every month, over a twelve-month period at the three zones. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 10.6 ± 4.9 μg/m(3) (Z1 school) to 29.0 ± 30.5 μg/m(3) (Z1 residences) and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations varied from 10.9 ± 3.2 μg/m(3) (Z1 school) to 14.3 ± 10.1 μg/m(3) (Z2 residences), across the three zones. The lowest values for PM10-2.5 for indoor and outdoor microenvironments were recorded at Z2 school, 5.7 ± 2.8 μg/m(3) and 7.9 ± 2.2 μg/m(3), respectively. Outdoor school PM concentrations exhibited stronger associations with corresponding indoor values making them robust proxies for indoor exposures in naturally ventilated Quito public schools. Correlation analysis between the school and residential PM size fractions and the various pollutant and meteorological parameters from central ambient monitoring (CAM) sites suggested varying degrees of temporal relationship. Strong positive correlation was observed for outdoor PM2.5 at Z2 school and its corresponding CAM site (r = 0.77) suggesting common traffic related emissions. Spatial heterogeneity in PM2.5 concentrations between CAM network and sampled sites was assessed using Coefficient of Divergence (COD) analysis. COD values were lower when CAM sites were paired with outdoor

  7. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. PMID:27545734

  8. A Young Child's Perspectives on Outdoor Play: A Case Study from Vancouver, British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing amount of concern about the lack of direct exposure that young children have to nature and the outdoors in Canada and the United States, leading to an increase in outdoor- and nature-based learning models for young children. However, very little research has been done in the field of early childhood environmental…

  9. Outdoor and Adventurous Activities in Undergraduate Physical Education Teacher Education at Chichester Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boniface, Maggie; Bunyan, Peter

    The School of Physical Education at Chichester Institute (England) has developed an outdoor and adventurous activities (OAA) program that trains teachers to optimize the full potential of the outdoors as classroom. The philosophy underpinning the OAA program challenges the traditional view that exposure to adventure necessarily results in…

  10. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  11. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  12. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  13. Preparing Effective Outdoor Pursuit Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon

    Information related to selecting, training, and certifying outdoor leaders for high adventure pursuits, is provided by selected experts from five English-speaking nations (Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States). Patterns of differences and similarities among these nations regarding outdoor leadership components and…

  14. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  15. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  16. Outdoor Education Areas and Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The facilities described for outdoor education and camping areas are designed to be an integral part of the large college or university campus, and to serve the educational and recreational programs of the educational institution and the total community. The establishment of an outdoor resident center is followed from the rationale for site…

  17. Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

    2007-01-01

    At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

  18. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  19. OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

  20. Outdoor Education Manual. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado City Independent School District, Texas.

    Many of the articles included in this supplement to the original "Outdoor Education Manual" were submitted by classroom teachers in Ontario. Major areas covered are photography in outdoor education, enrichment of the curriculum through use of the school yard, canoe tripping, winter activities, and forestry. Suggested activities in each of these…

  1. Creating Outdoor Play & Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Randy; Stoecklin, Vicki L.

    Why typical playgrounds are designed the way they are by adults is discussed, including what the ideal outdoor play/learning environment for children is and how the outdoor space should be considered as an extension of the classroom. The paper emphasizes the importance of nature to children, discusses the criteria playground designers should…

  2. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  3. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  4. Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Matt

    Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

  5. Personality Preferences of Outdoor Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashel, Christine; Montgomery, Diane; Lane, Suzie

    A study investigated the personality type preferences of people who voluntarily chose to participate in a structured, field-based, outdoor education program. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 87 participants prior to beginning a 10-day Wilderness Education Association outdoor leadership trip. Participants were 18-46 years…

  6. Outdoor heat exchanger section

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, A.F.; Smiley, W.A. III; Wendt, M.E.

    1988-02-09

    An outdoor section for an air conditioning system is described comprising: a compressor; a heat exchanger; a cabinet having an upper cabinet section, a lower cabinet section and a louvered lower section top cover, the heat exchanger and the compressor being housed in the lower cabinet section and the upper cabinet section having a solid top which overlies the louvers in the lower section top cover; and a fan disposed in the lower cabinet section to draw air through the sides of the lower cabinet section and through the heat exchanger housed therein, the fan discharging air, after having been drawn through the heat exchanger, upward through the louvers in the lower cabinet section top cover and into the interior of the upper cabinet section.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM CONCENTRATION DIFFERENCES BY CONTINUOUS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many sources and factors affect the particle concentrations inside a home, often causing indoor PM concentrations to be higher than outdoors. Furthermore, daytime personal PM exposures are, on average, 50% higher than that indicated by stationary monitoring. The increased conce...

  8. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  9. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  10. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  11. Outdoor Experiences for Young Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…

  12. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  13. Exposure to atmospheric radon.

    PubMed Central

    Steck, D J; Field, R W; Lynch, C F

    1999-01-01

    We measured radon (222Rn) concentrations in Iowa and Minnesota and found that unusually high annual average radon concentrations occur outdoors in portions of central North America. In some areas, outdoor concentrations exceed the national average indoor radon concentration. The general spatial patterns of outdoor radon and indoor radon are similar to the spatial distribution of radon progeny in the soil. Outdoor radon exposure in this region can be a substantial fraction of an individual's total radon exposure and is highly variable across the population. Estimated lifetime effective dose equivalents for the women participants in a radon-related lung cancer study varied by a factor of two at the median dose, 8 mSv, and ranged up to 60 mSv (6 rem). Failure to include these doses can reduce the statistical power of epidemiologic studies that examine the lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9924007

  14. Outdoor durability of radiation-cured coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, R.; Kennedy, R.

    1997-12-31

    Radiation cured coatings are used almost exclusively on products which have little or no exposure to moisture or the weather; inks, furniture varnishes, floor varnishes and coatings for electronic components. However there is considerable interest in being able to use this technology in exterior environments as a substitute for solvent-borne coatings. A 3-year study examining the possible reasons for the poor durability of radiation curable coatings showed that the resistance of the monomers and oligomers to hydrogen abstraction was crucially important, and the water permeability of the cured coating influenced the long-term adhesion performance. The project concluded that with the appropriate combination of curing technology and monomer/oligomer selection, the prospects of UV curable coatings for outdoor exposure are very encouraging.

  15. Indoor/outdoor elemental concentration relationships at a nursery school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannefors, H.; Hansson, H.-C.

    1981-03-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of lead and bromine have been measured at a nursery school, using streaker samples with 2.4 h resolution. The observed variations in concentration were well-correlated with traffic intensity variations. In addition to their closely related time-variation curves, the bromine to lead ratios pointed to the emissions from leaded gasoline-powered vehicles as the main source of these elements both in and outdoors. Time-variation patterns on weekdays and during weekends indicated that the lead and bromine containing particles entered the nursery school mainly by leaking. Only a minor fraction seemed to be brought in and resuspended by the staff and children. The indoor concentrations of the elements studied were about 5 times lower than the outdoor levels thus considerably reducing the indoor exposure.

  16. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  17. Real-time indoor and outdoor measurements of black carbon at primary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reche, C.; Rivas, I.; Pandolfi, M.; Viana, M.; Bouso, L.; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated the association between Black Carbon in indoor and outdoor air and the occurrence of health risks. Data on air quality in schools is of special interest, as children are more vulnerable to health hazards. In this context, indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) were collected at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. A main contribution of road traffic emissions to indoor and outdoor EBC levels was evidenced through different approaches. Simultaneous measurements of EBC levels at schools under different traffic conditions revealed concentrations by 30-35% higher at schools exposed to higher vehicles intensities. Moreover, a significant correlation was obtained between average outdoor EBC levels at different districts of the city and the percentage of surface area in each district used for the road network (R2 = 0.61). Higher indoor than outdoor levels were recorded at some instances when the indoor sampling location was relatively closer to road traffic, even under low outdoor temperatures. Indeed, the average indoor/outdoor EBC ratios for each school correlate moderately between campaigns in spite of significant differences in temperature between sampling periods. These two facts highlight the strong dependency of the EBC levels on the distance to traffic. The peaks of exposure inside the classrooms seemed to be determined by outdoor concentrations, as shown by the parallelism between indoor and outdoor mean EBC daily cycles and the similar contribution of traffic rush hours to indoor and outdoor daily mean levels. The airtightness of the classroom was suggested as the responsible for the indoor/outdoor ratios of EBC higher than 1 recorded at nights.

  18. DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tovalin, H; Valverde, M; Morandi, M T; Blanco, S; Whitehead, L; Rojas, E

    2006-01-01

    Background Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in less developed countries. Aims To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities. Methods DNA damage (Comet assay) and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds, PM2.5, and ozone were investigated in 55 outdoor and indoor workers from México City and Puebla. Results In México City, outdoor workers had greater DNA damage, reflected by a longer tail length, than indoor workers (median 46.8 v 30.1 μm), and a greater percentage of highly damaged cells (cells with tail length ⩾41 μm); in Puebla, outdoor and indoor workers had similar DNA damage. There were more alkali labile sites in outdoor than indoor workers. The DNA damage magnitude was positively correlated with PM2.5 and ozone exposure. Outdoor and indoor workers with ⩾60% of highly damaged cells (highly damaged workers) had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, ozone, and some volatile organic compounds. The main factors associated with the highly damaged workers were ozone, PM2.5, and 1‐ethyl‐2‐methyl benzene exposure. Conclusions With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the Comet assay. It is suggested that the use of personal exposure assessment and biological endpoints evaluation could be an important tool to generate a more precise assessment of the associated potential health risks. PMID:16556741

  19. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  20. Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers’ consumption, non-smokers’ perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Setting Barcelona, Spain. Participants Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Primary and secondary outcomes Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Results Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Conclusions Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. PMID:25854974

  1. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-01

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  2. Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

  3. Outdoor Education and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alistair

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the importance of increasing effective communication in outdoor education programs. Examines sensory preferences and how they affect vocabulary, voice tone, and body language. Describes ways that outdoor educators can use this information to improve their communication skills. (LP)

  4. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  5. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  6. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  7. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  8. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  9. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  10. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1974-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project. This program has as its rationale the idea that a basic understanding of ecosystems, populations, communities, food chains, and interactions of organisms with the environment is essential in making intelligent decisions about the environment. (PEB)

  11. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  12. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  13. Outdoor Adventure and Legal Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helesic, Terri; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Examines ways in which outdoor adventure programs can guard against charges of negligence and the possibility of lawsuits without diluting challenge or participant satisfaction. Discusses risk management, insurance, safety guidelines to use in the development of program-specific standards, and accident prevention. Contains 19 references. (SV)

  14. Outdoor Education--Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jean, Comp.; And Others

    Learning activities; lesson plans, and various resource materials are contained in this guide for the fifth grade outdoor education program in the Dixon Public Schools, Dixon, Illinois. Well over 100 activities are suggested, and many of these are described in detail. Although some information is specific to the Dixon program, which has access to…

  15. Outdoor Recreation Activities at Cispus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cispus Environmental Center, Randle, WA.

    Most of the activities in this booklet have been developed around skills related to the outdoors and, in particular, to the logging industry and forest fire fighting. The activities attempt to develop muscles, coordination skills, and teamwork. They also give the students (junior high school or high school) and staff the opportunity to do…

  16. An Outdoor Workshop: Raku Firing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siver, David

    1978-01-01

    The process of building and firing a raku kiln is a memorable happening. The cost is low and students learn to appreciate the work involved in firing a kiln while the pots are a pleasant reminder of an outdoor workshop. (Author/RK)

  17. Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

    This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a budget.…

  18. Outdoor Education as Wilderness Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Presents outline for introductory course designed to allow student exploration of outdoor opportunities and instill interest and basic knowledge. Includes nature trail development, edible wild plants, Adirondack/St. Lawrence geology, mountain climbing, fall camping, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, winter camping, ice fishing, knots,…

  19. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  20. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  1. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  2. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  3. The Teacher's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Active preparation, participation, and follow up by the classroom teacher are essential to the success of the Outdoor School, a week-long, resident, coeducational program of outdoor education for all Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade classes and their teachers. Teacher orientation to the Outdoor School includes an on-site overnight workshop in…

  4. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Directed to the Multnomah County (Oregon) sixth grade students participating in the Outdoor School program, the handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Information is provided on the Outdoor School site and staff;…

  5. A National Study of Outdoor Wilderness Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.

    A study examined the learning and character development effects of the outdoor wilderness experience. The research consisted of a retrospective study in which surveys were completed by 429 participants in outdoor programs sponsored by the Student Conservation Association, the National Outdoor Leadership School, and Outward Bound; and a…

  6. Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

  7. THE TEACHERS' HANDBOOK FOR THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURGESS, ROBERT A.; GILFILLAN, WARREN C.

    THIS HANDBOOK FOR OREGON PUBLIC AND PAROCHIAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IS FOR USE IN PLANNING AND UTILIZING THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL OF THE REGIONAL OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAM HEADQUARTERED AT PORTLAND, OREGON. THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL WHICH UTILIZES CAMPS OWNED BY YOUTH-SERVING ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDES ELEMENTARY CLASSES (PRIMARY GRADE 6) AND THEIR TEACHERS…

  8. How Effective Are Outdoor Education Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Twelve classes of students in grades 4 through 6 studied beaver ecology, either at an outdoor-education center near Toronto or in the classroom. Results indicate that outdoor education was more effective in promoting students' cognitive achievement than classroom study, but did not confirm the popular belief that outdoor programs influence…

  9. Instructional Program Planning for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others

    A guide on instructional program planning for outdoor education, prepared for Oakland County (Michigan) teachers, contains suggestions for program planning and lists information sources on suitable outdoor activities. The purpose of outdoor education is defined as being: "to enrich, vitalize and complement content areas of the school curriculum by…

  10. Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony

    Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

  11. Learning "In" and "For" the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses outdoor education to improve student participation and learning in skill and subject areas. Relates outdoor education to constructivism, flexible scheduling, hands-on experiences, performance-based standards, multiple intelligences, cooperative learning, and interdisciplinary curriculum. Lists Web sites related to outdoor education. (DLH)

  12. Cooperative Learning and Outdoor/Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This newsletter contains 14 items on cooperative learning and outdoor education, with a particular focus on environmental education and ecology. "Cooperative Teaching/Learning Strategies and Objectives in Outdoor/Environmental Education" by Clifford E. Knapp is about cooperative teaching and learning strategies in outdoor education and emphasizes…

  13. Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Bonnie

    Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor…

  14. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  15. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  16. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  17. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  18. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  19. Relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples) were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89) than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71), suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation), in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy. PMID:26110813

  20. Relationships among Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Airborne Japanese Cedar Pollen Counts

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples) were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89) than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71), suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation), in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy. PMID:26110813

  1. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. Th...

  2. Indoor ozone concentrations: Ventilation rate impacts and mechanisms of outdoor concentration attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Cano-Ruiz, J.A.; Modera, M.P.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1992-07-01

    The classification of outdoor (ambient) air as fresh for the purposes of ventilation is not always appropriate, particularly in urban areas. In many cities of the world, urban air frequently violates health-based air quality standards due to high ozone concentrations. The degree of protection from exposure to ozone offered by the indoor environment depends on the relationship between indoor and outdoor ozone levels. Existing concentration data indicates that indoor/outdoor ozone ratios range between 10 and 80%. This paper analyzes several of the key issues influencing indoor ozone concentrations, including: (1) the degree of penetration of outdoor ozone indoors, (2) removal within the indoor environment (removal at surfaces and within air distribution systems), and (3) the correlation in time between outdoor ozone levels and ventilation rates. A model for calculating the degree of ozone removal in typical building leaks and air distribution systems is described and applied to a range of typical cases. This model indicates that the degree of removal is minimal for most wooden building cracks, but could be significant in leaks in concrete or brick structures, and is strongly dependent on the lining material for air distribution systems. Indoor ozone exposure estimates based on hourly outdoor ozone monitoring data and hour-by-hour weather-based simulations of infiltration rates and building operation are reported for a few residential scenarios. These estimates serve as a basis for exploring the impact of energy-efficient ventilation strategies on indoor ozone exposures.

  3. Relationships between indoor and outdoor air pollution by carcinogenic PAHs and PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, E.; Iacovella, N.; Monfredini, F.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L.

    PAHs and PCBs were collected simultaneously indoors and outdoors at eight non-smoking homes located in four buildings in high-traffic areas of Rome. The purpose was to evaluate the relevance of indoor air in contributing to the overall exposure of the urban population. The vertical distribution was also investigated by collecting outdoor samples at both road and roof level, and indoor samples in both a high and a low floor flat of each building. At one coal-heated building, samples were collected during both the heating and the non-heating season. No evident PAH source was present indoors. Indoor and outdoor daily concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged, respectively, 0.1-4.6 ng m -3 and 0.7-2.3 ng m -3. With the heating on, indoor PAH concentrations equalled or exceeded those outdoors, with BaP indoor/outdoor ratios up to 4; during the warm season, ratios decreased to 0.2-0.6. Indoor PAHs at the low floors exceeded the high-floor ones when the heating was off (vehicle exhausts being the dominant source), while being equal or lower with the heating on; the vertical gradient of indoor PAHs between different floors was within a factor of 2. Outdoor PAHs at roof level were 20-70% of those at road level, which in turn exceeded those at the medium-traffic station up to a factor of 4. The outdoor concentrations of Σ6 indicator PCBs ranged 0.1-1.6 ng m -3. Indoor PCB concentrations exceeded those outdoors by an approximate factor of 2-50. No vertical gradient was observed. The results indicated that indoor air may contribute to the overall exposure to PAHs and PCBs more than the urban air. They were also consistent with recent findings suggesting that indoor air can be a relevant source of PCBs for outdoor air.

  4. Nature connection, outdoor play, and environmental stewardship in residential environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejewski, Robert G.

    A lack of exposure to the natural world has led to a generation of children disconnected from nature. This phenomenon has profound negative implications for the physical and psychological well being of today's youth. Residential environmental education provides one avenue to connect children to nature. One purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Outdoor School, a residential environmental education program, on ecological knowledge, children's connection to nature, school belonging, outdoor play attitude, environmental stewardship attitude, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior, as reported by participants. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized in the study. A total of 228 fifth grade students (156 treatment, 72 control) from central Pennsylvania participated. The results of the program evaluation indicated that Outdoor School was successful in achieving significant, positive gains in the areas of ecological knowledge, connection to nature, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior. No change was found from pretest to post-test in outdoor play attitudes, environmental stewardship attitudes, and school belonging. Additionally, the study addressed gaps in the literature regarding the relationship between connection to nature, environmental stewardship, and outdoor play using two different approaches. An adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to predict outdoor play behavior in children. In this model, favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control lead to intentions to perform a given behavior. Intention to perform the behavior is the best predictor for behavior performance. For this study, participants' feeling of connection to nature was added as an affective independent variable. This model explained 45% of the variance in outdoor play. The hypothesis that a connection to nature would be a significant predictor of both attitudes toward outdoor play was

  5. Correlations between short-term indoor and outdoor PM concentrations at residences with evaporative coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Whai; Paschold, Helmut; Morales, Hugo; Chianelli, Julian

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was monitored at 10 residences in the El Paso, Texas region in the summer of 2001. Concurrent indoor and outdoor 10-min averaged PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were recorded for 2 days each to establish the indoor-outdoor PM correlation for typical west Texas residences equipped with evaporative coolers. Indoor PM concentrations stabilize in approximately 10 min in a typical house equipped with evaporative coolers. If the ambient PM concentration remains steady, a 10-min average indoor air sample after the first 10-min period would contain 99% outdoor air and a 1-h average indoor air sample would actually be represented by 95% of the outdoor air. A strong diurnal pattern of PM 10 indoor and outdoor was observed in 9 out of the 10 tested houses independent of the possible human activities and other indoor sources at each residence. Consistent with prior regional studies, indoor and outdoor PM 10 concentrations at these houses frequently peaked with strong association with each other in the evening hours between 6 and 9 pm. In addition, it is observed that both indoor and outdoor PM 10 peaked after the wind speed and wind gust peaked. Indoor PM concentration peaks clearly correlated with documentation of human activities, however, these peaks tended to be of shorter duration due to the high ventilation rates of the evaporative coolers. Evaporative coolers were found to act as PM filters that effectively replace indoor air rapidly creating indoor concentrations approximately 40% of outdoor PM 10 and 35% of outdoor PM 2.5. Both cooler types, rigid media and aspen pad, appeared to produce similar reduction rates for both PM 2.5 and PM 10.

  6. An Examination of Negligence, Assumption of Risk, and Risk Management in Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Travis L.

    This paper stresses the outdoor recreation and education professionals should understand aspects of liability, negligence, and risk management. There are four elements that must be present if a person or organization is to be considered negligent: the presence of a legal duty of care, a breach of duty, proximate cause, and actual damages. When…

  7. Teaching Nature in Cities and Towns. Urban Outdoor Biology and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogl, Sonia Wolff; Vogl, Robert L.

    Developed to assist teachers in the teaching of outdoor biology and ecology, this guide contains lessons that can be conducted in an urban environment for elementary level students. Each lesson begins with thought-provoking introductory questions which lead into the actual activity, and concludes with discussion questions and suggestions for…

  8. [Effects of outdoor pollutants on the respiratory health of children].

    PubMed

    Frischer, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The exposure against common air pollutants such as NO2, PM10 and SO2 has decreased in the last decades due to efforts of the EC to reduce emissions of industrial or traffic related origins. However, ozone exposure demonstrates an upward trend. New epidemiologic studies use geographical information systems for a more precise special and temporal categorisation of exposure. They show adverse effects of ultrafine particles as well as elemental carbon on the respiratory system of children. Children growing up next to busy traffic routes are most affected. Adverse effects include respiratory symptoms as well as a delay in lung growth. Intrauterine exposure against PM10 seems to effect lung function in newborns. There is a lack of data about other organic substances widely used in synthetic materials in the outdoor air such as phthalates or bisphenols, some studies show detrimental effects. PMID:26335772

  9. A computerized bibliographic literature information system for total human exposure monitoring research

    SciTech Connect

    Dellarco, M.; Ott, W.; Wallace, L. ); Hunt, H. )

    1988-01-01

    Total human exposure monitoring is a new concept that seeks to determine, with known precision and accuracy, the pollutant concentrations actually reaching people through the food they eat, the water they drink, and the air they breath regardless of whether people are located indoors, outdoors, or in-transit. Such monitoring provides the key information needed to protect public health and to make risk assessment through representative samples of the general population, using personal monitors to measure air exposure and making direct measurements of contaminants in food, drinking water, and breath. This paper discusses the new field which also includes: surveys of what people do, where, and when, called human activity patterns, special models designed to predict human exposures from activity pattern data, and studies of the pollutant concentrations found in the small physical microenvironments that people visit, such as in-transit vehicles (for example, buses, automobiles, trains, and subways); indoor settings (for example, schools, auditoriums, stores, churches, offices, and homes); and outdoor settings(for example, sidewalks, intersections, outdoor parking areas, street canyons).

  10. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  11. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  12. Emissivity measurement for outdoor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.G.

    1987-07-01

    The author tests a radiometric method of measuring emissivity for outdoor structures. The method measures emissivity from the functional relationship between the brightness of the emission from a source with a known standard emitter and the temperature which is the same as that for the working surface with its coating. The standard sources were provided by special paint coatings whose emissivities were 0.40-0.95. A portable pyrometer was used for the measurements. The radiation temperature and the brightness in relation to the emissivity are shown, as are the coating temperatures as functions of emissivity.

  13. Columbus Outdoor Pursuits: A Model Structure for Volunteer Based Outdoor Pursuits Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerckens, Ann E.

    Columbus Outdoor Pursuits (COP) is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization in Ohio that has offered outdoor educational and recreational opportunities to its members for 63 years. COP day and trip programs focus on outdoor activities such as bicycling, kayaking, hiking, and rock climbing. In addition, COP offers classes in the skills required for…

  14. Outdoor Adventure in Australian Outdoor Education: Is It a Case of Roast for Christmas Dinner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Outdoor adventure activities, typically originating from other countries, form the basis of most Australian outdoor education programs. Research on adventure-based outdoor education in Australia and elsewhere has tended to focus on determining the benefits of participating in such programs. Less attention has been paid to a critical examination of…

  15. Determinants of personal, indoor and outdoor VOC concentrations: An analysis of the RIOPA data

    PubMed Central

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Community and environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been associated with a number of emission sources and activities, e.g., environmental tobacco smoke and pumping gasoline. Such factors have been identified from mostly small studies with relatively limited information regarding influences on VOC levels. This study uses data from the Relationship of Indoor Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study to investigate environmental, individual and social determinants of VOC concentrations. RIOPA included outdoor, indoor and personal measurements of 18 VOCs from 310 non-smoking households and adults in three cities and two seasons, and collected a wide range of information pertaining to participants, family members, households, and neighborhoods. Exposure determinants were identified using stepwise regressions and linear mixed-effect models. Most VOC exposure (66 to 78% of the total exposure, depending on VOC) occurred indoors, and outdoor VOC sources accounted for 5 (d-limonene) to 81% (carbon tetrachloride) of the total exposure. Personal exposure and indoor measurements had similar determinants, which depended on the VOC. Gasoline-related VOCs (e.g., benzene, methyl tertiary butyl ether) were associated with city, residences with attached garages, self-pumping of gas, wind speed, and house air exchange rate (AER). Odorant and cleaning-related VOCs (e.g., 1,4-dichlorobenzene and chloroform) also were associated with city and AER, and with house size and family members showering. Dry-cleaning and industry-related VOCs (e.g., tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene) were associated with city, residence water supply type, and dry-cleaner visits. These and other relationships were significant, explained from 10 to 40% of the variation, and are consistent with known emission sources and the literature. Outdoor concentrations had only two common determinants: city and wind speed. Overall, personal exposure was dominated by the home setting, although a

  16. Accelerated aging of outdoor insulation under acid rain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Nancy Ellen

    2000-11-01

    Outdoor insulation has evolved from glass to ceramics to epoxy in the past decades, and more recently into the area of polymer composites. Accelerated aging must be performed to examine the effectiveness of materials prior to use under actual service conditions. Traditionally this aging has been performed with sodium chloride as the conductive component in the high humidity and wet tests. This approach does not necessarily represent actual service conditions, as globally the precipitation is acidic in nature and contains many constituents in addition to sodium and chloride. The main focus of this work was to examine the effect of acid precipitation on materials used in outdoor insulation applications. This was achieved through the use of a rotating tracking wheel and a controlled high humidity chamber with the application of a synthetic acid rain solution. The analysis techniques utilized to examine the results of the accelerated aging were leakage current monitoring, evaluation of changes in dielectric properties as well as electron microscopy. In addition, changes in hydrophobicity were quantified. Based on experimental observations, a first order life prediction model was developed to investigate the usefulness of the acid rain aging technique. This model was founded on the results of a series of tests conducted with varying solution conductivity, while maintaining constant acid content. This model permits the prediction of the life of a material at normal precipitation conductivity levels.

  17. Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

    Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

  18. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C., Comp.; Burgess, Robert A., Comp.

    Directed to the Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade students who participate in the Outdoor School program, the reusable handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Each week, four sixth grade classes from different…

  19. Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Connie L.

    Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

  20. Outdoor Adventure Leadership Program at Laurentian University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Roger T.

    2001-01-01

    Laurentian University (Ontario) offers a 4-year holistic outdoor adventure leadership program that promotes personal growth, develops leadership skills, and trains individuals to be safety-minded in various outdoor settings. A strong environmental ethic is promoted through courses in biology and Canadian Native culture. Practicums, internships,…

  1. Outdoor Education for Sustainability: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor education should broaden its scope beyond outdoor activities to include education for sustainability. Provides practical ideas for incorporating holistic environmental awareness into programs by exploring the concepts of connection and consequence with such basic elements as water, air, food, shelter, darkness, solitude, time, and nature.…

  2. Teaching Conservation Through Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is for teachers (K-12) interested in developing and using outdoor education areas. Student participation is presented as the key to a successful program. A discussion of what can be done by outdoor education programs is presented. The guide suggests sites to be chosen in terms of accessability, size, attractiveness, safety, drinking…

  3. Ethical Frameworks, Moral Practices and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karen M.; Lautt, Mick

    Insights from quantum physics and chaos theory help create new metaphors about ethical frameworks and moral practices in outdoor education. The seemingly straightforward concept of values is analogous to the initial simple nonlinear equation of a fractal. The value claims of outdoor education--trust, cooperation, environmental awareness,…

  4. Early Beginnings in Outdoor Education: Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor education has roots in the Nature Study Movement of the late 1800s; organized camping, which was started by groups such as the Young Men's and Women's Christian Association and the Boy and Girl Scouts; progressive education; and environmental education. Several doctoral dissertations in 1930 mark the beginning of outdoor education as a…

  5. Planning and Design of Outdoor Sports Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Information required for the planning and design of outdoor sports facilities is provided in the format of an outline text and design criteria placed opposite an accompanying page of definitive drawings. Scope of the manual covers those outdoor sports and games most commonly played for competition and/or recreation by military and civilian…

  6. Developing an Environmental Ethic in Outdoor Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Keith

    1986-01-01

    Argues that both short- and long-term outdoor education and wilderness programs should promote environmental awareness and the development of an environmental ethic. Outlines examples of approaches to integrating environmental goals and concepts into outdoor experiential education programs offered by Australian elementary and secondary schools and…

  7. Outdoor Education Provision in Scottish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Beth; Beames, Simon; Higgins, Peter; Nicol, Robbie; Ross, Hamish

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the frequency and nature of outdoor learning provision in Scottish schools, with specific attention paid to teachers' approaches to learning outdoors, and it considers what further support and professional development teachers need to progress their practice. This enquiry is timely as limited data has been gathered over the…

  8. Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Camille J.

    Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

  9. The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles A., Jr.

    Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

  10. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  11. Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Edward

    Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

  12. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13947 Filed 6-6-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8833 of June 1, 2012 Great Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the..., trials, and triumphs. During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our long legacy of...

  13. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-13666 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45 am] Billing code...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8528 of May 28, 2010 Great Outdoors Month, 2010 By the President of the United... friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew our enduring commitment to protect our natural...

  14. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-14185 Filed 6-6-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011 Great Outdoors Month, 2011 By the President of the United... stretching over rolling hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great Outdoors Month,...

  15. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13540 Filed 6-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8988 of May 31, 2013 Great Outdoors Month... Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the land entrusted to us by our forebears and resolve to pass it...

  16. Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

  17. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  18. Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)

  19. Traditional Adventure Activities in Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the place of adventure activities in outdoor education has become contentious, particularly in Australia and the United Kingdom. It can be challenging for outdoor leaders to incorporate adventure activities with attempts to foster environmental awareness, understanding and action. Recently, some authors have suggested practitioners…

  20. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  1. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  2. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  3. A Guide for Conducting Outdoor Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Since research indicates teachers generally lack confidence in their ability to conduct lessons in the outdoors and feel inadequate regarding knowledge of the natural world, this guide has been developed to build teacher confidence in utilizing the outdoors. Designed to be used in conjunction with a practicum workshop, this guide presents…

  4. Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

    A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

  5. Teachers' Guide to Outdoor Education, Grade VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Denver C.

    The aim of this guide is to aid sixth-grade teachers whose classes participate in the San Diego City and County outdoor education programs. The guide enables the teacher to improve the quality of outdoor education through suggestions for better planning and preparation procedures for the camping experience and for more active student participation…

  6. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  7. Liability Management for Outdoor Experiential Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Outdoor experiential program providers must be aware of certain issues in order to reduce or eliminate liability claims against their organization and employees. These include liability insurance, liability education, risk control, and record keeping. Recommends that all outdoor program providers provide risk management training to employees and…

  8. The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettenger, Jim

    Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

  9. Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

    This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

  10. Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Statements of several national and state leaders concerning the importance of outdoor recreation begin this report. Methods of financing outdoor recreation by State and Federal agencies, private foundations, and regional and intergovernmental departments are given and briefly discussed. The section on organization and administration is divided…

  11. Integrating Whole Language and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinsey, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Compares the philosophies of whole-language instruction and outdoor education. Both incorporate other subjects in a theme approach, use meaningful materials, are student-centered, and are process-oriented. An outline of a teaching unit based on the story "Sarah Plain and Tall" integrates whole language and outdoor education. (KS)

  12. Multicultural Issues in Outdoor Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nina S.; Rodriguez, Donald A.

    The 1990s saw the outdoor education community undergo a process of critical redefinition as it attempted to address multicultural issues. This digest defines multicultural education, reviews the current status of multicultural diversity in outdoor education, poses questions for researchers and practitioners, and offers suggestions for relevant…

  13. Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.

    Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

  14. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. PMID:26070024

  15. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  16. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  17. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  18. EFFECTS OF AMBIENT OZONE ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN HEALTHY ADULTS EXERCISING OUTDOORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day but exercise intensit...

  19. Randomized Trial Testing a Worksite Sun Protection Program in an Outdoor Recreation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Giese, Aimee J.

    2005-01-01

    Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in…

  20. *A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring in Community Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring data from...

  1. INDOOR-OUTDOOR-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF SELECTED FINE PARTICLE TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this work is to better understand not only the sources of outdoor PM but also the sources that contribute to personal PM exposures. This paper summarizes the results of x-ray fluorenscence (XRF) analysis on 24-hr PM2.5 samples collected both inside and outs...

  2. Indoor and outdoor carbonyl compounds in the hotel ballrooms in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yanli; Wen, Sheng; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; He, Qiusheng; Tang, Jianhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Twenty-one carbonyl compounds were measured simultaneously at four hotel ballrooms in urban Guangzhou during the autumn, 2002. In each ballroom, measurements were carried out in business hours in the evening (20:30-24:00) on 7 consecutive days without any disturbance of the ballroom's normal operation. Nineteen out of the 21 target carbonyl compounds were identified in indoor and outdoor air. In the outdoor environment, formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl, followed by acetaldehyde, and there existed a strong correlation between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In the indoor air, however, acetaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl, its concentrations seemed to be affected significantly by smoking. The indoor concentrations of carbonyls were found higher than their outdoor counterparts with only a few exceptions. Further studies concerning the indoor/outdoor ratios and mutual correlation of the carbonyls indicated that apart from direct emission from indoor materials and infiltration of outdoor air, other anthropogenic sources, e.g. tobacco smoke, also significantly contributed to carbonyl compounds. The possible sources of some high molecular weight carbonyls, e.g. nonanaldehyde, were also discussed briefly. Preliminary estimate of the exposures and risks due to carbonyls in the ballrooms was made, which indicated that long-term exposure in such places might cause increased chance of developing cancers.

  3. Sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Amato, F; Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Bouso, L; Reche, C; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-15

    Children spend a third of their day in the classroom, where air pollution levels may differ substantially from those outdoors due to specific indoor sources. Air pollution exposure assessments based on atmospheric particle mass measured outdoors may therefore have little to do with the daily PM dose received by school children. This study aims to investigate outdoor and indoor sources of PM2.5 measured at 39 primary schools in Barcelona during 2012. On average 47% of indoor PM2.5 measured concentrations was found to be generated indoors due to continuous resuspension of soil particles (13%) and a mixed source (34%) comprising organic (skin flakes, clothes fibers, possible condensation of VOCs) and Ca-rich particles (from chalk and building deterioration). Emissions from seven outdoor sources penetrated easily indoors being responsible for the remaining 53% of measured PM2.5 indoors. Unpaved playgrounds were found to increase mineral contributions in classrooms by 5-6 μg/m(3) on average with respect to schools with paved playgrounds. Weekday traffic contributions varied considerably across Barcelona within ranges of 1-14 μg/m(3) outdoor and 1-10 μg/m(3) indoor. Indoors, traffic contributions were significantly higher (more than twofold) for classrooms with windows oriented directly to the street, rather than to the interior of the block or to playgrounds. This highlights the importance of urban planning in order to reduce children's exposure to traffic emissions. PMID:24907610

  4. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  5. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals—that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  6. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  7. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

  8. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  9. Effective, Exemplary, Extraordinary? Towards an Understanding of "Extraordinary" Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heidi; Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The outdoor education literature commonly discusses what it means to be an effective outdoor leader and judgements about the effectiveness or quality of outdoor leadership and leaders are an everyday occurrence in outdoor leaders' professional lives. The basis upon which qualitative judgements are made about leaders and/or leadership and the…

  10. Environmental Respect: A New Approach to Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huck, Albert R.; Decker, Eugene

    Most outdoor education programs do not include the teaching of correct outdoor behavior. The purpose of this manual is to assist educators and concerned lay persons in establishing an outdoor education program with an instructional strategy that will manipulate students into becoming responsible, ethical, respectful outdoor citizens. Both lay…

  11. A Teachers' Guide for the Outdoor School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

    The general aim of this guide is to aid the teachers of the fifth and sixth grade boys and girls who participate in the Outdoor School program at the Battle Creek Outdoor Center. Another major aim of this guide is to aid the outdoor school teachers who bear the major responsibility in implementing the outdoor school program. An historical overview…

  12. The Current Status of Women's Employment in Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeffler, T. A.

    A common assumption in the outdoor field has been that women's development as outdoor leaders has not kept pace with their participation in outdoor adventure activities. A survey about women's employment was mailed to 103 outdoor education programs with an adventure component; 62 responded. The programs served 160,585 participants in 1994, of…

  13. Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education directly exposes…

  14. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be provided for all rabbits...

  15. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be provided for all rabbits...

  16. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be provided for all rabbits...

  17. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be provided for all rabbits...

  18. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be provided for all rabbits...

  19. Robotic Lander Completes Multiple Outdoor Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Robotic Lander Development Project in Huntsville, Ala., has successfully completed seven autonomous outdoor flight tests of a lander prototype, dubbed Mighty Eagle. On Oct. 14, Mighty Eagl...

  20. Indoor/outdoor ozone concentrations at a contemporary art gallery

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, T.D.; Ramer, B.; Kaspyzok, G.; Delany, A.C.

    1984-02-01

    Ozone concentrations were measured both inside and outside the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, near a small city in rural eastern England, during a three-week period in summer. The inside concentration was typically 70 +/- 10% of the outside concentration during the period of expected maximum outside levels. During the period of observation the maximum outside ozone levels have been well in excess of 120 ppb. The relatively high indoor/outdoor ozone ratio is a function of the Centre's design, its internal geometry, and its ventilation system. Conventional art galleries and museums experience much lower indoor ozone exposure. The measured indoor ozone levels imply deleterious effects on the gallery exhibits and an enhanced ozone exposure may have to be considered in the design of modern galleries and museums. 8 references.

  1. Aeromycological profile of indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena; Delgado, José Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the differences between indoor and outdoor aeromicological composition. The aerobiological study was performed, from 15 January to 14 April 2008, using two volumetric spore traps, one placed indoors and another positioned outdoors on the roof of the Faculdade de Ciências building. A total of 23 000 spores were sampled outdoors and 15 500 spores were identified indoors. In both environments, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Aspergillus/Penicillium, Agaricus, Rusts, Agrocybe and Lepthosphaeria. Moreover, Alternaria, Botrytis, Coprinus, Fusarium and Ganoderma spores were also detected in the outdoor air. The outdoor maximum (858 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was registered on the 9 February whereas the indoor peak (614 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was reached two days later. Qualitative similarities were found between the indoor and outdoor aeromicological content however quantitatively spore concentrations differed, suggesting the existence of airflows between the two environments due to ventilation, inefficient isolation or passive transport of spores. The majority of the selected fungal types were night sporulators, the exceptions were Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium, with daily maximum values during the morning and the afternoon, respectively. Several of the identified spores have been proved as causal agents of respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to know the microbial composition of indoor air in order to take measures to improve air quality helping to reduce health problems related to respiratory allergic diseases in sensitized patients. PMID:20449225

  2. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  3. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs have been…

  4. Analysis of Personal and Home Characteristics Associated with the Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air in the RIOPA Study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patrick H; Brokamp, Cole; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Rao, M B

    2015-12-01

    The complex mixture of chemicals and elements that constitute particulate matter (PM*) varies by season and geographic location because source contributors differ over time and place. The composition of PM having an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is hypothesized to be responsible, in part, for its toxicity. Epidemiologic studies have identified specific components and sources of PM2.5 that are associated with adverse health outcomes. The majority of these studies use measures of outdoor concentrations obtained from one or a few central monitoring sites as a surrogate for measures of personal exposure. Personal PM2.5 (and its elemental composition), however, may be different from the PM2.5 measured at stationary outdoor sites. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the relationships between the concentrations of various elements in indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 samples, (2) to identify groups of individuals with similar exposures to mixtures of elements in personal PM2.5 and to examine personal and home characteristics of these groups, and (3) to evaluate whether concentrations of elements from outdoor PM2.5 samples are appropriate surrogates for personal exposure to PM2.5 and its elements and whether indoor PM2.5 concentrations and information about home characteristics improve the prediction of personal exposure. The objectives of the study were addressed using data collected as part of the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. The RIOPA study has previously measured the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and its elemental constituents during 48-hour concurrent indoor, outdoor (directly outside the home), and personal samplings in three urban areas (Los Angeles, California; Houston, Texas; and Elizabeth, New Jersey). The resulting data and information about personal and home characteristics (including air-conditioning use, nearby emission sources, time spent indoors, census-tract geography, air-exchange rates, and

  5. Seasonal variations in vitamin D status in indoor and outdoor female athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARUYAMA-NAGAO, ASAKO; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency is a concern, particularly among young females. The VD status shows seasonal variations, since it correlates with duration of sunlight exposure. VD insufficiency in indoor athletes is therefore suggested in winter. The aim of the present study was to determine seasonal variations in VD and bone status among indoor and outdoor female athletes. The prospective study was conducted in participants aged 20–22 years old. The participants comprised of 15 indoor and 15 outdoor athletes. The biochemical markers and bone parameters were measured in March, June, September and December. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentration showed a seasonal oscillation, with a nadir in March (indoor, 19±4.0 ng/ml; outdoor, 32±2.7 ng/ml) and a peak in September (indoor, 32±6.6 ng/ml; outdoor, 39±5.7 ng/ml). The amplitude of oscillation was greater in the indoor compared to the outdoor athletes. Seasonal variations in serum calcium exhibited a similar pattern, while the parathyroid hormone showed an inverse pattern to serum 25-OH-VD. The nadir in bone mass, measured as speed of sound, occurred in June after peaking in December among the indoor and outdoor athletes. The pattern followed 3 months after the changes in 25-OH-VD. Indoor sports athletes are more susceptible to VD insufficiency compared to outdoor sports athletes. Insufficiency is most likely to arise in winter, and could affect bone mineralization observed 3 months after. PMID:27347414

  6. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  7. Indoor and outdoor particulate matter and endotoxin concentrations in an intensely agricultural county

    PubMed Central

    Pavilonis, Brian T.; Anthony, T. Renee; O’Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Humann, Michael J.; Merchant, James A.; Moore, Genna; Thorne, Peter S.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Sanderson, Wayne T.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize rural populations’ indoor and outdoor exposure to PM10, PM2.5, and endotoxin and identify factors that influence these concentrations. Samples were collected at 197 rural households over five continuous days between 2007 and 2011. Geometric mean indoor PM10 (21.2 μg m−3) and PM2.5 (12.2 μg m−3) concentrations tended to be larger than outdoor PM10 (19.6 μg m−3) and PM2.5 (8.2 μg m−3) concentrations (PM10 p= 0.086; PM2.5 p <0.001). Conversely, GM outdoor endotoxin concentrations (1.93 EU m−3) were significantly larger than indoor (0.32 EU m−3) (p<0.001). Compared to measurements from previous urban studies, indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in the study area tended to be smaller while, ambient endotoxin concentrations measured outside rural households were 3-10 times larger. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, seasonality did not have a significant effect on mean ambient PM10 concentrations; however, endotoxin concentrations in the autumn were almost seven-times larger than winter. Excluding home cleanliness, the majority of agricultural and housing characteristics evaluated were found to be poorly associated with indoor and outdoor particulate and endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23321860

  8. Where they live, how they play: Neighborhood greenness and outdoor physical activity among preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emerging empirical evidence suggests exposure to "green" environments may encourage higher levels of physical activity among children. Few studies, however, have explored this association exclusively in pre-school aged children in the United States. We examined whether residing in neighborhoods with higher levels of greenness was associated with higher levels of outdoor physical activity among preschoolers. In addition, we also explored whether outdoor playing behaviors (e.g., active vs. quiet) were influenced by levels of neighborhood greenness independent of demographic and parental support factors. Results Higher levels of neighborhood greenness as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was associated with higher levels of outdoor playing time among preschool-aged children in our sample. Specifically, a one unit increase in neighborhood greenness increased a child's outdoor playing time by approximately 3 minutes. A dose-response relationship was observed between increasing levels of parental support for physical activity (e.g., time spent playing with children) and child outdoor physical activity (p < 0.01). Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, neighborhood greenness influences physical activity behavior. However, for preschoolers, parental involvement may be more critical for improving physical activity levels. PMID:22165919

  9. Outdoor Learning: Primary Pupils' Experiences and Teachers' Interaction in Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws upon research undertaken for the Outdoor Pedagogies project and explores the processes of teaching and learning at one outdoor residential education centre with children and staff from "Oliver" Primary School. Data were collected through ethnographic research and include participant observation, interviews with teachers and centre…

  10. Student Learning in Outdoor Education: A Case Study from the National Outdoor Leadership School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Karen; Furman, Nathan; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2008-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to what students learn in outdoor education settings, little has been paid to the process through which that learning occurs. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which students report learning one of six targeted objectives on courses offered by the National Outdoor Leadership School.…

  11. An Ethnography of the Outdoor Classroom--How Teachers Manage Risk in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stan, Ina; Humberstone, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the approaches to risk that some teachers adopt when they are involved in facilitating outdoor activities. The research was carried out at a residential outdoor centre as part of a PhD study and a follow-up pilot project. The participants were primary school pupils, their teachers and the centre staff. For the purpose of this…

  12. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

  13. Properties and Composition of Size Fractionated Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Particulate Matter in Retirement Homes of the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhami, M.; Polidori, A.; Delfino, R. J.; Schauer, J. J.; Sioutas, C.

    2007-12-01

    Size fractionated indoor, outdoor and personal particulate matter (PM) samples were collected at four retirement communities of the Los Angeles basin between June 2005 and February 2007 by using personal cascade impactor samplers (PCISs). Two different 6-weeks sampling campaigns were conducted at each site and 24-hr coarse, accumulation, and quasi-ultrafine (UF) mode particles were sampled 6 times per week. A total of 60 nonsmoking subjects age 65 and older affected by coronary artery disease (CAD) were monitored during the sampling period. Daily PM fractions were collected co-currently at indoor and outdoor stationary sites. Hourly indoor and outdoor PM2.5, OC, EC, particle number (PN), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) concentrations were also measured at these sites. Primarily results showed that personal levels were better correlated to indoor levels than the outdoor levels, as elderly subjects spent most of their time indoors. Indoor/outdoor correlations were higher for accumulation mode particles than for UF and coarse particles, suggesting that this size fraction penetrates indoors with great efficiency. Chemical speciation analysis are being implemented on weekly composites of size-resolved indoor and outdoor samples. The UF composites are being analyzed for organic species, metals and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) analyses of water extracts from UF samples are also being implemented to investigate the relationships between the ROS and the chemical composition of UF particles, and analyze its indoor and outdoor spatial and seasonal variations. Accumulation mode samples are being analyzed for metals and WSOC, while coarse mode particles are only being analyzed for metals. Factor analysis will be applied on the chemical speciated indoor and outdoor data to identify potential sources of PM in the study area, and to assess the extent of human exposure to indoor and outdoor PM.

  14. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  15. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  16. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  17. Radon in outdoor air in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Price, J G; Rigby, J G; Christensen, L; Hess, R; LaPointe, D D; Ramelli, A R; Desilets, M; Hopper, R D; Kluesner, T; Marshall, S

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. (1991). The statewide median of 15 Bq m-3 (0.4 pCi L-1) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m-3 (0.07-1.40 pCi L-1). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which > 20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations > 48 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both. PMID:8138410

  18. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  19. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed.

  20. Acid Rain Affecting the Electrical Properties of Outdoor Composite Dielectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Kumagai, Seiji; Yoshimura, Noboru

    1998-12-01

    Acid rain is precipitation with acidity, i.e., pH, below 5.6. There is an increasing interest in the degradation of the electrical properties of outdoor composite dielectric materials under severe contaminant conditions such as acid rain. In this study, the degradation effects of acid rain on the outdoor composite dielectrics are investigated by accelerated aging due to artificial acid rain. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the composition of artificial acid rain is chosen to agree with the actual composition of precipitation. The surface potential, breakdown voltage, tracking resistance, and surface discharge current of dielectric materials are studied. Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of electrical properties of composite dielectrics are discussed by investigating the degradation of the chemical and physical microstructures of material surface using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction spectrum (XDS), and the metalloscope. Experimental results show that the outdoor polymeric dielectrics suffer severely and degrade due to acid rain so that their surface electrical properties deteriorate after aging. The erosion, by acid rain, of the energized dielectric materials is larger than that of outdoor materials used for other purposes.

  1. Chapter three: methodology of exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Watson, John; D'Abreton, Peter; Scire, Joseph; Zhu, Tan; Klein, Werner; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    In this chapter, the concept of exposure assessment and its evolution is introduced, and evaluated by critically appraising the pertinent literature as it applies to exposures to Particulate Matter (PM). Exposure measurement or estimation methodologies and models are reviewed. Three exposure/measurement methodologies are assessed. Estimation methods focus on source evaluation and attribution, sources include those outdoors and indoors as well as in occupational and in-transit environments. Fate and transport models and their inputs are addressed to estimate concentrations outdoors and indoors; source attribution techniques help focus on the contributing sources. Activity pattern techniques are also reviewed and their use in exposure models to estimate inhalation exposure to PM is presented. Deterministic, regression and other stochastic models of exposure to PM are reviewed and evaluated. Strengths, limitations, assumptions and affirmations of the use of exposure assessment as an integral component of risk assessment and risk management are discussed in the conclusions and discussions section of this work. PMID:12492158

  2. The Relationship between Perceived Health and Physical Activity Indoors, Outdoors in Built Environments, and Outdoors in Nature

    PubMed Central

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and public health. Methods: National survey data (n = 2,070) from Finland was analysed using structural regression analyses. Perceived general health, emotional well-being, and sleep quality were regressed on the weekly frequency of physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and in nature. Socioeconomic factors and other plausible confounders were controlled for. Results: Emotional well-being showed the most consistent positive connection to physical activity in nature, whereas general health was positively associated with physical activity in both built and natural outdoor settings. Better sleep quality was weakly connected to frequent physical activity in nature, but the connection was outweighed by other factors. Conclusion: The results indicate that nature provides an added value to the known benefits of physical activity. Repeated exercise in nature is, in particular, connected to better emotional well-being. PMID:25044598

  3. INDOOR AEROSOLS AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of both indoor aerosol concentration measurements, and the considerations for assessment of exposure to aerosols in non-occupational settings. The fixed-location measurements of concentration at an outdoor location, while commuting inside an a...

  4. A Look at the Life of an Outdoor Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselheim, Alan J.

    1981-01-01

    The article describes some of the less romantic aspects of being an outdoor educator, such as dealing with severe weather, insects, monotonous portable food, culture shock, and student motivation, and minimizing the ecological impact of outdoor education. (SB)

  5. STUDY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EXPOSURE COMPONENT OF THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biologicals,...

  6. Indoor and Outdoor Levels and Sources of Submicron Particles (PM1) at Homes in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B; Wallace, Lance A; Wheeler, Amanda J; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Ève

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to submicron particles (PM1) is of interest due to their possible chronic and acute health effects. Seven consecutive 24-h PM1 samples were collected during winter and summer 2010 in a total of 74 nonsmoking homes in Edmonton, Canada. Median winter concentrations of PM1 were 2.2 μg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQR = 0.8-6.1 μg/m(3)) and 3.3 μg/m(3) (IQR = 1.5-6.9 μg/m(3)) for indoors and outdoors, respectively. In the summer, indoor (median 4.4 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.4-8.6 μg/m(3)) and outdoor (median 4.3 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.6-7.4 μg/m(3)) levels were similar. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify and apportion indoor and outdoor sources of elements in PM1 mass. Nine sources contributing to both indoor and outdoor PM1 concentrations were identified including secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), traffic, settled and mixed dust, coal combustion, road salt/road dust, and urban mixture. Three additional indoor sources were identified i.e., carpet dust, copper-rich, and silver-rich. Secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and ETS contributed more than 70% (indoors: 0.29 μg/m(3), outdoors: 0.39 μg/m(3)) of measured elemental mass in PM1. These findings can aid understanding of relationships between submicron particles and health outcomes for indoor/outdoor sources. PMID:26000896

  7. Small scale spatial gradients of outdoor and indoor benzene in proximity of an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Licen, Sabina; Tolloi, Arianna; Briguglio, Sara; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Adami, Gianpiero; Barbieri, Pierluigi

    2016-05-15

    Benzene is known as a human carcinogen, whose annual mean concentration exceeded the EU limit value (5 μg/m(3)) only in very few locations in Europe during 2012. Nevertheless 10% to 12% of the EU-28 urban population was still exposed to benzene concentrations above the WHO reference level of 1.7 μg/m(3). WHO recommended a wise choice of monitoring stations positioning in proximity of "hot spots" to define and assess the representativeness of each site paying attention to micro-scale conditions. In this context benzene and other VOCs of health concern (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) concentrations have been investigated, with weekly passive sampling for one year, both in outdoor and indoor air in inhabited buildings in close proximity (180 m far up to 1100 m) of an integrated steel plant in NE of Italy. Even though the outdoor mean annual benzene concentration was below the EU limit in every site, in the site closest to the works the benzene concentration was above 5 μg/m(3) in 14 weeks. These events were related to a benzene over toluene ratio above one, which is diagnostic for the presence of an industrial source, and to meteorological factors. These information pointed at the identification of the coke ovens of the plant as the dominant outdoor source of benzene. Benzene gradients with the increasing distance from coke ovens have been found for both outdoor and indoor air. Linear models linking outdoor to indoor benzene concentrations have been then identified, allowing to estimate indoor exposure from ambient air benzene data. In the considered period, a narrow area of about 250 m appeared impacted at a higher degree than the other sites both considering outdoor and indoor air. Passive BTEX sampling permits to collect information on both ambient air and daily life settings, allowing to assemble a valuable data support for further environmental cost-benefit analyses. PMID:26930323

  8. Indoor-outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations at four sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.R.; Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the major outdoor anthropogenic source of carbon monoxide (CO) is the 4,280,986 cars registered in the Kingdom last year. Of these vehicles, approximately 1,300,000 are registered in the Riyadh area. The major sources of indoor CO in Riyadh are gas cooking facilities, kerosene heaters, charcoal burners, hubble bubble pipes (water pipes), and tobacco smoking. The current Saudi Arabian Ambient Air Quality Standards (SAAQS) for CO are 10 mg/m{sup 3} (9 ppm) maximum for 8-hour average exposure, and 40 mg/m{sup 3} (35 ppm) for 1-hour average exposure. The allowable exceedance is twice per month. These standards are the same for the United States except no exceedance is allowed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO levels indoors and outdoors at four sites in Riyadh. Continuous sampling was conducted at four sites with Ecolyzer Series 200 Monitors, together with Rustrak Recorders Model 288.

  9. Differences in indoor versus outdoor concentrations of ultrafine particles, PM2.5, PMabsorbance and NO2 in Swiss homes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Eeftens, Marloes; Phuleria, Harish C; Ineichen, Alex; Corradi, Elisabetta; Davey, Mark; Fierz, Martin; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Schindler, Christian; Rochat, Thierry; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing concern as we spend the majority of time indoors and as new buildings are increasingly airtight for energy saving purposes. For a better understanding of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland we conducted repeated 1-2-week-long indoor and outdoor measurements of particle number concentrations (PNC), particulate matter (PM), light absorbance of PM2.5 (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Residents of all homes were enrolled in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Indoor levels were comparable in urban areas and generally low in rural homes. Average indoor levels were 7800 particles/cm(3) (interquartile range=7200); 8.7 μg/m(3) (6.5) PM2.5 and 10.2 μg/m(3) (11.2) NO2. All pollutants showed large variability of indoor/outdoor ratios between sites. We observed similar diurnal patterns for indoor and outdoor PNC. Nevertheless, the correlation of average indoor and outdoor PNC between sites as well as longitudinal indoor/outdoor correlations within sites were low. Our results show that a careful evaluation of home characteristics is needed when estimating indoor exposure to pollutants with outdoor origin. PMID:25670021

  10. Emotional Safety in Outdoor and Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Wendy

    This paper introduces the concept of emotional safety in outdoor programming. Information and protocols developed by the Canadian Outward Bound Wilderness School are included that outline procedures that staff follow in the event of an "assault" on any student, volunteer, or staff. For clarification, definitions are given for emotional, physical,…

  11. Outdoor Adventure Leadership at Laurentian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Graduating with a Bachelor of Physical and Health Education (BPHE) degree with a specialty in Outdoor Adventure Leadership (ADVL) is a unique reality in Canada offered by Sudbury's Laurentian University. Developed over 20 years ago, the ADVL program has been one of Laurentian's six landmark Human Kinetics programs. From a scholastic perspective…

  12. Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

  13. Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Di

    A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

  14. The Power of Outdoor Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Glenn M.; Buller, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Effective outdoor management development programs have certain features: emotional intensity, psychological safety, consequences, enhancement of self-confidence, use of metaphors, unpredictability, peak performance experiences, multiple skill/knowledge types, development of the whole person, and focus on transfer. They succeed because they sustain…

  15. Outdoor Education Curriculum Guide, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Lakewood, CO.

    As developed for a 6th grade outdoor education program, this curriculum guide is organized around a common core designed to teach conservation and appreciation of natural resources. Program initiation, methods and procedures, information on natural resources, suggested time schedules, learning activities, nature hikes, and field trips are…

  16. Outdoor Education Expands Small School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, James; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes how the Violet Hill, Arkansas K-12 school district developed a new curriculum through outdoor education. Describes how the district's alternative energy agricultural complex (including a windmill, solar greenhouse, and farm plots, and gardens) will be incorporated into the curriculum via math, business, science, agriculture, economics,…

  17. Student's Handbook: Environmental Education Outdoor School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

    The student handbook was developed for use with students who intend to particpate in the Environmental Education Outdoor School Program in Santa Barbara County, California. After the form for the student to complete with personal information, i.e., name, school, etc., the handbook begins with a letter to the students, welcoming them to the…

  18. Colorado Outdoor Education Center Teacher's Field Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Outdoor Education Center, Inc., Florissant.

    The Colorado Outdoor Education Center aims to educate the total person by offering programs which help each individual to gain a sense of the earth, of community, and of self. At High Trails the students are brought into direct contact with nature, utilizing small groups and emphasizing direct experiences. The integrated, multi-disciplinary…

  19. Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, John H.; And Others

    Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

  20. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  1. Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peta

    2007-01-01

    Officially founded in 1972 (but existing in another form before that), the Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association (SOEEA) is steadily approaching its 40th birthday and still going strong. A year ago (2006), however, this was not the case. At that time both the past-president and administrative assistant (a married couple)…

  2. Kid's Play in the Great Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clint L.; Caruso, Virginia M.

    1988-01-01

    A customized day camp for preschoolers was designed to provide children with a chance to grow as individuals by teaching outdoor skills through shared, hands-on experience. The two-day program has the children participating individually on Saturday and bringing a special "big person" on Sunday. Child-centered and child-motivated activities…

  3. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  4. Outdoor Workers and Tick-Borne Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... long pants tucked into boots or socks. Use insect repellents that provide protection for the amount of time ... Fact Sheet for outdoor workers - En Español CDC Insect Repellent Use and Safety Other Resources OSHA Logging eTool: ...

  5. The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Kent

    Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

  6. Recreation and Outdoor Life Directory. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Paul, Ed.; Wasserman, Steven R., Ed.

    More than 4,800 recreational organizations, agencies, associations, publications, institutions, governmental efforts, and other programs, services, and facilities are included in this directory on recreation and outdoor life. The basic slant is not on sports and games, but rather upon opportunities and features of the American scene dealing with…

  7. Reflections on Connecting through Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen; Brinkman, Danielle; Wabano, Mary Jo; Young, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Connecting through outdoor adventure is a process that may or may not seem obvious. The word "connecting" resonates with a powerful and extensive implied meaning that the authors feel compelled to share. A recent collaborative research project between leaders from the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve and researchers from Laurentian University…

  8. Outdoor Education: Opening and Closing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter, Comp.

    Opening activites (to create an atmosphere of cooperation and a desire to work, explore, and learn together) and closing activities (to summarize what has happened or been learned) for outdoor education programs are described. All activities are intended to incite enthusiasm to learn and make the learning activity a desired, joyful experience.…

  9. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions. PMID:10931793

  10. Key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun; Wu, Xueling

    2008-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a growing research area in virtual reality and generates a composite view for the user. It is combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. About 80 percent information in the real world is related with spatial location. The combination of Geographical information system (GIS) and AR technologies would promote the development of outdoor AR systems, and also would explore a new research direction for GIS. The key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS, including basic tracking methods, display devices, typical applications and registration processes, are discussed. In indoor augmented reality's closed environments the tracking of position and head orientation as well as the presentation of information is much more unproblematic than the same task in an outdoor environment. The main application task of outdoor augmented reality GIS is the presentation of information to a user while moving through an unknown region. The system helps to detect automatically objects in sight of a person who need its information. It compares the conventional solutions of 3D registration with, while it discusses their algorithm procedure to basic parameters to give out their advantages and disadvantages at different condition. While affine transformation approach uses the idea of computer graphics and vision technology for reference. Its accuracy is mainly based on the precision and speed of scene feature point extracted from natural or artificial feature.

  11. A Partnership in Outdoor Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.

    1977-01-01

    A Maryland school district and the Smithsonian Institution have become partners in outdoor science education. Working together, they have developed a series of activities for students in grades 1-8 that are an integrated part of a total unified science curriculum, meeting the need of teachers and students alike. (MA)

  12. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or warm... temperature cannot be maintained within the temperature range to meet their needs. (b) Shelter. Natural...

  13. Staging History Outdoors: Audiences: The Secret Ingredient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Mark

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development of outdoor historical drama from 1937 through the present. Possible directions for future growth are noted. Available from: Theatre Crafts, 33 East Minor Street, Emmaus, Pa. 18049. Subscription Rates: $8.00 per year, $1.50 single copy, $1.50 additional Foreign. (MH)

  14. Private Outdoor Recreation Enterprises in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hugh A.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to determine to what extent recreation enterprises in rural Appalachia can help meet the growing urban demands for outdoor recreation and provide profitable use of rural resources and employment for rural people. The analysis, drawn from a 1966 nationwide survey, included 35 campgrounds, 18 fishing areas, 14 vacation farms,…

  15. Transforming the Outdoor Environment. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagnini, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one Montessori school transformed its outdoor environment. Details six segments of the new environment: hill, labyrinth, swings, world map, balance beam, and woods. Notes that the changes have resulted in a place of true discovery of physical strength, balance, patience, and sharing, as well as a place to discover the worlds of…

  16. Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

    An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

  17. OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

  18. Program, Facilities, and Leadership for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    1960-01-01

    Since outdoor education programs cut across many curricular areas, the administrators of these programs encounter problems different from those found in specific subject matter areas. As aids in overcoming these problems, suggestions are given for program procedures; procurement of facilities, equipment, and supplies; and leadership training.…

  19. Building Social Capital through Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…

  20. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  1. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  2. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  3. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  4. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  5. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the environment,…

  6. Changing Pace: Outdoor Games for Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consalvo, Carmine M.

    This book aims to assist facilitators and trainers of human resource development in the use of outdoor games as a vehicle for learning. The games address such work-related areas as communication, decision making, problem solving, teamwork, leadership, and goal setting. The introduction offers a commentary on how and why the use of experiential…

  7. Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Actions taken in the area of outdoor recreation on Federal, State, local, and private levels are reported in the document. Financing actions are listed according to states, government agencies, and names of private financers. The organization and administration section includes new agencies, personnel, reorganizations, and significant resolutions…

  8. Schools Adapting Curriculum to the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Daily lessons at the Learning Gate Community School often tap the wonders of nature on the 27-acre campus, with its open fields and overgrown orange groves, and a treehouse overlooking an idyllic pond. Educators at Learning Gate say the outdoor classrooms and lessons are a balm for many of the ills that can hinder students' physical and mental…

  9. Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

  10. Resident Outdoor Education: An Experimental Venture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South-Western City School District, Grove City, OH.

    The document discusses a 5-day outdoor education program held in the spring of 1968 for 31 fifth graders from Prairie Lincoln Elementary School, Grove City, Ohio; site of the self-supporting resident experience ($23 estimated cost per student) was The Columbus Presbytery Camp, Lancaster, Ohio. As reported, the primary purpose of the outdoor…

  11. A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

  12. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  13. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  14. Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

    Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

  15. Cooperative Programs in Residential Outdoor Environmental Education: Teacher's Materials Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

    Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief history of outdoor…

  16. Outdoor Play and Learning for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Suzanne M.

    Infants and toddlers like to crawl, climb, run, and explore in wide open, outdoor spaces. This publication provides ideas for day care providers on using outdoor play to facilitate learning in infants and toddlers. Section 1 discusses the benefits of daily outdoor play, including learning to interact with others, practicing language skills,…

  17. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  18. Outdoor Education and the Development of Civic Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Judith A.

    This digest suggests how outdoor education and experiential learning can develop in students a sense of community participation and set them on a path of strong participation and civic responsibility. Following definitions of outdoor education and experiential learning, various outdoor and experiential approaches are described. Adventure education…

  19. Creating and Enriching Quality and Safe Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Can teachers of young children create stimulating and enriching outdoor environments that are also safe? This article highlights early childhood outdoor safety standards and presents a framework for creating quality and SAFE™ outdoor environments in early childhood programs that support children's interest and best practice. The outdoor…

  20. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  1. Creating Humane Climates Outdoors: A People Skills Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    Designed to provide practical assistance in implementing outdoor learning experiences for youth and adults, this book helps professionals plan their leadership development programs and create more humane climates in a variety of outdoor settings. The book treats the three topics of self-knowledge, human communities, and outdoor-environmental…

  2. Potential for Excellence: Interdisciplinary Learning Outdoors as a Moral Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Pete; Carr, David; Meldrum, George

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the place and status of outdoor learning within formal schooling. In light of recent British outdoor educational trends, it considers the general educational significance of outdoor learning in the context of the recent Scottish "Curriculum for Excellence". The article begins with an overview of some key educational…

  3. Climbing Mount Everest: Combining Career and Family in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allin, Linda

    2004-01-01

    For women outdoor educators, combining an outdoor career with family relationships appears contradictory. Long and/or irregular hours, residentials, and increasing work commitments are, for example, congruent with traditional notions of a career in the outdoors, yet they clash with social constructions of women's primary identities as partners,…

  4. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  5. The Perceived Life Impact of a University Outdoor Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesworth, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the outdoors provides lasting educational experiences. Most students retain information best when doing an activity, and the outdoors allows for these opportunities. Outdoor education (OE) is a large, multi-disciplinary field cultivated from many roots. Since OE offers such vivid learning opportunities, it is an important area for…

  6. Outdoor Education in Senior Schooling: Clarifying the Body of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…

  7. America's Outdoor Recreation Areas--Playgrounds for the Affluent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, John D.

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the societal benefits of outdoor recreation and to determine the relationship of social stratification to utilization of outdoor recreation facilities. Conclusions are that many of America's outdoor recreation sites are located at considerable distances from population concentrations and require substantial…

  8. The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisson, Christian

    Academic training programs in the field of outdoor education and recreation have increased considerably in the past few decades, but their true costs are often hidden. A survey of 15 outdoor college programs in the United States and Canada examined special fees associated with outdoor courses. The cost of necessary personal equipment and clothing…

  9. Stop Making Sense: The Outdoors as Art. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Applied outdoor experiences may be seen as theater and, as such, can allow a more flexible, integrative approach to outdoor learning. Both the arts (particularly theater) and outdoor experiential learning contain nine common elements, including elements of working with groups, and personal and transpersonal components of experience. Three…

  10. Outdoor Education and Experiential Learning in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter, Ed.; Humberstone, Barbara, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers that describe a spectrum of experiential and outdoor education opportunities in the United Kingdom. The first section focuses on provision of outdoor education in schools, colleges, and outdoor education centers, drawing on formal curricula, including the British national curriculum. The second section examines outdoor…

  11. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  12. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor and outdoor air in a community in Guangzhou, a megacity of southern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nan; Wang, Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yu, Mei; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-05-01

    Indoor environments contribute a significant portion of human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) because of their extensive use in various household products. This study investigates the occurrence of a number of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air in a megacity in southern China, in which little information on indoor BFRs contamination is available. The estimated total PBDE concentrations ranged from 1.43 to 57 pg/m(3) indoors and from 1.21 to 1522 pg/m(3) outdoors. The indoor concentrations of lower brominated PBDEs that are mainly derived from the technical penta- and octa-BDE mixtures were higher than or comparable to the outdoors, while the indoor levels of DecaBDEs and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were apparently lower than the outdoors. The seasonal variations of BFR concentrations indicated that evaporation from old indoor products is the primary source of Penta- and OctaBDEs in the air, whereas most DecaBDEs and DBDPE concentrations showing weak temperature-dependence are largely released from industrial activities. The PBDE congener profiles in the air were generally similar, which were dominated by BDE209, 28, and 47; whereas the appreciable indoor-outdoor differences in the compositions are possibly due to emission sources, photochemical degradation, or congener-specific transport of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air. Significant correlations between the indoor and outdoor BFRs were observed suggesting the exchange of BFRs between the two compartments, which are more noticeable for PentaBDEs and DecaBDEs with strong indoor and outdoor emission sources, respectively. This study provides significant insights into the sources of BFRs in urban air in China. PMID:26952274

  13. 40 CFR 158.1020 - Applicator exposure data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Test substance Test Note No. 875.1100 Dermal outdoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 3 875.1200 Dermal indoor... the Agency. 2. Biological monitoring data may be submitted in addition to, or in lieu of, dermal...

  14. 40 CFR 158.1020 - Applicator exposure data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Test substance Test Note No. 875.1100 Dermal outdoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 3 875.1200 Dermal indoor... the Agency. 2. Biological monitoring data may be submitted in addition to, or in lieu of, dermal...

  15. 40 CFR 158.1020 - Applicator exposure data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Test substance Test Note No. 875.1100 Dermal outdoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 3 875.1200 Dermal indoor... the Agency. 2. Biological monitoring data may be submitted in addition to, or in lieu of, dermal...

  16. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  17. VOCs in industrial, urban and suburban neighborhoods, Part 1: Indoor and outdoor concentrations, variation, and risk drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher

    Information regarding indoor and ambient concentrations and exposures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is limited in terms of the number and types of compounds measured, the spatial and temporal variation of concentrations, and the significance of indoor and outdoor emission sources. This study characterizes a wide range of VOCs across three communities that represent a gradient of population density and industrial activity. Monitoring was conducted in two seasons inside and outside of 159 residences in industrial, urban and suburban cities located in southeast Michigan, USA. Passive samplers were deployed at each location, and analyzed for 98 compounds. Outdoors, 46 different VOCs were detected. Benzene, toluene, p, m-xylene and carbon tetrachloride had the highest concentrations (medians from 1 to 2 μg m -3). Concentrations were elevated in winter in the suburban community, and levels were the highest in the industrial community. Indoors, 53 VOCs were detected, and benzene, toluene, p, m-xylene, n-heptane, α-pinene and d-limonene had the highest concentrations (medians from 1 to 17 μg m -3). Seasonal changes were small or inconsistent. Median indoor levels among the three communities generally followed outdoor rankings. Indoor/outdoor ratios varied from 1 to 10 for most compounds, but up to 100 for several compounds, e.g., d-limonene. Over a quarter of residences had benzene, naphthalene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride at levels giving a chronic lifetime cancer risk above 10 -5 and sometimes much higher; outdoors, these compounds gave risks exceeding 10 -6. The study identifies a number of indoor emission sources associated with specific and sometimes very high VOC exposures, reports on several VOCs that have not been measured in previous indoor and outdoor studies, and shows the importance of both indoor and outdoor sources. Measured concentrations were at an intermediate level with respect to recent measurements elsewhere in the US, suggesting that

  18. EVALUATING HETEROGENEITY IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION USING LAND-USE REGRESSION AND CONSTRAINED FACTOR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators will explore how land-use regression and source-apportionment techniques can be used to characterize individual-level exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollution sources. Investigators will utilize health and air monitoring data from an ongoing prospecti...

  19. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  20. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  1. Indoor-outdoor relationships of airborne particles and nitrogen dioxide inside Parisian buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Romain; Mazoué, Sophie; Géhin, Évelyne; Ionescu, Anda

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated passengers' exposure to traffic air pollution inside the articulated buses of the line 91 in Paris during 10 working days in May, 2010. Twenty articulated buses were studied on 32 routes in order to determine the influence of the sampling position on the pollutant concentrations. This parameter is still poorly known for the rigid buses and is even less known for the articulated ones. However this parameter must be studied for articulated buses because the greater length may cause a pollutant concentration gradient in the cabin. Portable devices were used to measure pollutants in the presence of passengers from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., time periods corresponding to the peak traffic and travellers. PM2.5 mass concentration, particle number concentration between 0.3 and 20 μm and nitrogen dioxide concentration were simultaneously measured on three positions inside the buses (front, middle and rear) in order to study the spatial distribution of these compounds. These measurements inside the buses were compared to the outdoor concentrations at the same moment of the day provided by the Parisian air quality monitoring network; they were also compared to the results of a previous monitoring campaign performed in 2008. The results obtained during the 2010 campaign revealed that in-cabin NO2 mean concentrations were 1.5-3.5 times higher than the outside concentration levels; a maximum concentration of 234 ± 40 μg m-3 was found in the rear position (location of the engine and exhaust gas). Mean in-cabin PM2.5 mass concentrations varied from one week to another one, but they were globally the same at the three positions inside the instrumented buses. In order to determine the impact of outdoor levels, correlations have been calculated between the results measured inside the buses and those measured by the outdoor air monitoring stations. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.29 for NO2 data whereas the highest Pearson

  2. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  3. Transient Response of Cadmium Telluride Modules to Light Exposure: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; del Cueto, J.; Albin, D. S.; Petersen, C.; Tyler, L.; TamizhMani, G.

    2011-07-01

    Commercial cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules from three different manufacturers were monitored for performance changes during indoor and outdoor light-exposure. Short-term transients in Voc were recorded on some modules, with characteristic times of ~1.1 hours. Outdoor performance data shows a similar drop in Voc after early morning light exposure. Preliminary analysis of FF changes show light-induced changes on multiple time scales, including a long time scale.

  4. Particle exposure in a baroque church during Sunday Masses.

    PubMed

    Polednik, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Particle concentrations were measured in a Baroque church during five Sunday Masses. The highest particle number and mass concentrations were observed when both candles and the incense were burned. They were respectively 16.8 and 14.3 times higher than outdoors for submicron particles. The exposure to particles experienced by the churchgoers, especially priests and church workers who participated in several Masses on that day, was considerably higher than the exposure experienced at the same time outdoors. PMID:23972742

  5. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  6. Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Hering, Susanne V.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2007-06-25

    A field study was conducted in an unoccupied single story residence in Clovis, California to provide data to address issues important to assess the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin. Measurements of black and organic carbonaceous aerosols were performed using a variety of methods, resulting in both near real-time measurements as well as integrated filter based measurements. Comparisons of the different measurement methods show that it is crucial to account for gas phase adsorption artifacts when measuring organic carbon (OC). Measured concentrations affected by the emissions of organic compounds sorbed to indoor surfaces imply a higher degree of infiltration of outdoor organic carbon aerosols into the indoor environment for our unoccupied house. Analysis of the indoor and outdoor data for black carbon (BC) aerosols show that, on average, the indoor concentration of black carbon aerosols behaves in a similar manner to sulfate aerosols. In contrast, organic carbon aerosols are subject to chemical transformations indoors that, for our unoccupied home, resulted in lower indoor OC concentrations than would be expected by physical loss mechanisms alone. These results show that gas to particle partitioning of organic compounds, as well as gas to surface interactions within the residence, are an important process governing the indoor concentration to OC aerosols of outdoor origin.

  7. Metal levels in indoor and outdoor dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rajhi, M.A.; Seaward, M.R.D.; Al-Aamer, A.S.

    1996-08-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, and Zn of outdoor and indoor dusts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have been investigated in relation to particle sizes 0.04-0.08 mm using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Although the results showed relatively low contamination in general, the old industrial area had appreciably high levels of toxic metals and there relatively high Pb levels near motorways. Mean concentrations of outdoor dusts for Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 2.5 {+-} 0.3, 35.1 {+-}2.7, 93.9 {+-}41.9, 4.6 {+-} 0.3, 43.9 {+-} 5.6, 1762 {+-} 593, and 443 {+-} 223 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively, and mean concentrations of indoor dusts were 2.9 {+-} 1.1, 69.2{+-} 16.5, 271 {+-} 140, 6.2 {+-} 0.5, 52.9 {+-} 17.7, 639 {+-} 279, and 547 {+-} 197 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. The main source of these heavy metals, in both outdoor and indoor dusts, was from automobile emission. The relationship between indoor and outdoor dusts were investigated. In view of the high levels of some of these toxic metals, these can be considered a significant hand-to-mouth source of exposure, especially for children. 28 refs., 3 fig., 4 tab.

  8. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations☆

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures’ responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 °C, 13.8 °C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings PMID:22071034

  9. The relationship of student achievement to learning elementary science outdoors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Steve Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teaching elementary science outdoors and student achievement on science standards. The study also considered student attitudes toward learning outdoors in the schoolyard and their achievement on a science standard appropriate for teaching outdoors. The seminal work in the field (Louv, 2005) created the phrase "nature deficit disorder" to describe the condition of children that spend little time outdoors learning from and playing in nature. Five fourth grade classes took part in outdoor instruction on particular standards after taking an attitudinal survey on learning outdoors and a pretest on the science content. Both measures were repeated after outdoor instruction. The hypotheses of the study were that students receiving outdoor instruction demonstrate improved science achievement and that student attitudes towards learning science outdoors has a significant impact on student achievement related to a science standard. The results of the study indicate a gain in student achievement followed the outdoor science lessons, allowing the research to accept the hypothesis as valid. However, the study found that student attitude toward learning science outdoors was not a significant factor in predicting gains in student achievement.

  10. Outdoor air pollution in close proximity to a continuous point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Gabel, Etienne B.; Ott, Wayne R.; Switzer, Paul

    Data are lacking on human exposure to air pollutants occurring in ground-level outdoor environments within a few meters of point sources. To better understand outdoor exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars, and exposure to other types of outdoor point sources, we performed more than 100 controlled outdoor monitoring experiments on a backyard residential patio in which we released pure carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer gas for continuous time periods lasting 0.5-2 h. The CO was emitted from a single outlet at a fixed per-experiment rate of 120-400 cc min -1 (˜140-450 mg min -1). We measured CO concentrations every 15 s at up to 36 points around the source along orthogonal axes. The CO sensors were positioned at standing or sitting breathing heights of 2-5 ft (up to 1.5 ft above and below the source) and at horizontal distances of 0.25-2 m. We simultaneously measured real-time air speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature at single points on the patio. The ground-level air speeds on the patio were similar to those we measured during a survey of 26 outdoor patio locations in 5 nearby towns. The CO data exhibited a well-defined proximity effect similar to the indoor proximity effect reported in the literature. Average concentrations were approximately inversely proportional to distance. Average CO levels were approximately proportional to source strength, supporting generalization of our results to different source strengths. For example, we predict a cigarette smoker would cause average fine particle levels of approximately 70-110 μg m -3 at horizontal distances of 0.25-0.5 m. We also found that average CO concentrations rose significantly as average air speed decreased. We fit a multiplicative regression model to the empirical data that predicts outdoor concentrations as a function of source emission rate, source-receptor distance, air speed and wind direction. The model described the data reasonably well, accounting for ˜50% of the log

  11. *Combining regional - and local-scale air quality models with exposure models for use in environmental health studies - Title changed from Linking air quality and exposure models for use in environmental health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based human exposure models predict the distribution of personal exposures to pollutants of outdoor origin using a variety of inputs, including air pollution concentrations; human activity patterns, such as the amount of time spent outdoors versus indoors, commuting, w...

  12. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  13. Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, K. R.; Carmichael, F. J.; Goode, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the medical services provided at an outdoor rock music festival near Toronto and reviews similar services at other outdoor concerts as reported in the literature. Between 0.5% and 1.5% of concertgoers were reported to have used medical services, proportions that may be useful in planning for future festivals. Most of the medical problems encountered were minor, although life-threatening problems occasionally occurred. Alcohol and drug abuse were common but led to major medical problems in only small proportions of patients. Guidelines for planning are suggested that include recommendations about facilities, supplies and equipment, transportation and communications, staffing and procedures. The need for liaison with the concert promoters, the police, ambulance officials and local hospital personnel is noted, and the use of the nonmedical ancillary staff is encouraged. PMID:7074491

  14. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  15. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  16. Polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers for outdoor use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogl, O.

    1982-01-01

    Polymeric materials that are stable enough to use outdoors without changes in excess of 20 years are investigated. Ultraviolet stabilizers or plastic materials were synthesized, polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers, particularly of the 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)2H-benzotriazole family were prepared their polymerization, copolymerization and grafting onto other polymers were demonstrated, and ultraviolet stabilizing systems were devised. These materials were evaluated from the photophysical point of view.

  17. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

  18. Combining Regional- and Local-Scale Air Quality Models with Exposure Models for Use in Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based human exposure models predict the distribution of personal exposures to pollutants of outdoor origin using a variety of inputs, including: air pollution concentrations; human activity patterns, such as the amount of time spent outdoors vs. indoors, commuting, wal...

  19. Gender and race in beliefs about outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2002-08-01

    Universal need for, or reactions to, risk communications should not be assumed; potential differences across demographic groups in environmental risk beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors could affect risk levels or opportunities for risk reduction. This article reports relevant findings from a survey experiment involving 1,100 potential jurors in Philadelphia concerning public responses to outdoor air pollution and air quality information. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found significant differences in risk ratings for multiple hazards, and in generic risk beliefs, between white men (or a subset) and all others (white women, nonwhite men, and nonwhite women). This study examined whether white men had significantly different responses to air pollution and air pollution information. An opportunity sample of volunteers from those awaiting potential jury duty in city courts (matching census estimates for white versus nonwhite proportions, but more female than the city's adult population and more likely to have children) filled out questionnaires distributed quasi-randomly. On most measures there were no statistically significant differences among white men (N = 192), white women (N = 269), nonwhite men (N = 165), and nonwhite women (N = 272). Nonwhites overall (particularly women) reported more concern about and sensitivity to air pollution than whites, and were more concerned by (even overly sensitive to) air pollution information provided as part of the experiment. Nonwhites also were more likely (within-gender comparisons) to report being active outdoors for at least four hours a day, a measure of potential exposure to air pollution, and to report intentions to reduce such outdoor activity after reading air pollution information. Differences between men and women were less frequent than between whites and nonwhites; the most distinctive group was nonwhite women, followed by white men. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found a far larger

  20. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means. PMID:8049001

  1. The IDA Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, D. L.

    2004-05-01

    The International Dark-Sky Association has produced a model outdoor lighting ordinance, available for any community that wishes to adopt an ordinance to control outdoor lighting. The goal is to help protect dark skies and/or to minimize the adverse effects of poor outdoor night lighting. This is done in response to a high demand for such a model, one that can offer a uniform content to all communities, hence easier to adopt and easier to enforce. It will allow a national educational effort to be done to show the value of such ordinances in practice. There are currently many ordinances in existence, most of them not very effective. It is hard for designers, manufacturers, and others to cope with such a wide variety, and with non-standard terms and requirements. One of the key elements of such the model ordinance is the use of "lighting zones." The first version (2004.1) is now on the IDA web site, at www.darksky.org. Questions are welcome at any time, address such to ida@darksky.org. We urge all interest in prserving dark skies for astronomy to become active in the issues, including a push for adoptaton of such a model ordinance in their area. We know that viable ordinances do help greatly in preseving dark skies for astronomy, and the good ones now in existence prove this fact.

  2. The fraction of total hand surface area involved in young children's outdoor hand-to-object contacts

    SciTech Connect

    AuYeung, Willa; Canales, Robert A. Leckie, James O.

    2008-11-15

    Information on the fraction of total hand surface area touching a contaminated object is necessary in accurately estimating contaminant (e.g., pesticides, pathogens) loadings onto the hands during hand-to-object contacts. While several existing physical-stochastic human exposure models require such surface area data to estimate dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure, there are very limited data sets. This paper provides statistical distributions of fractional surface areas (FSAs) for children's outdoor hand contacts. These distributions were constructed by combining information collected from two distinct studies exploring children's activity patterns and quantifying hand contact surface area. Results show that for outdoor contacts with 'All Objects', a range of 0.13-0.27 captured median FSAs, while a range of 0.12-0.24 captured time-weighted FSAs. Overall, an FSA of 0.31 captured 80-100% of FSAs involved in each child's outdoor hand contacts, depending upon the object of interest. These values are much lower than the often conservative assumptions of up to 1 (i.e., the entire hand) that researchers currently make regarding FSAs involved in indoor and outdoor contacts [USEPA, 1997. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for residential exposure assessments. Contract no. 68-W6-0030. < (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf)>].

  3. Effects of Nanoparticles on the Environment and Outdoor Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sayed Mohammad; Momenpour, Mahdiye; Azarian, Maryam; Ahmadian, Mohammad; Souri, Faramarz; Taghavi, Sayed Ali; Sadeghain, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Today, most parts of different nanotechnologies are growing and developing without any special rules and regulations. This could result in undesirable changes in the environment and affect workers in indoor and outdoor workplaces. Carbon-based nanoparticles, such as fullerenes, nanotubes, the oxides of metals such as iron and titanium, and natural inorganic compounds, including asbestos and quartz, can have biological effects on the environment and human health. The risk assessment of such nanoparticles requires evaluation of their mobility, reactivity, environmental toxicity, and stability. With the increasing use of nanoparticles for commercial and industrial purposes, the debate becomes whether the numerous benefits of nanoparticles can overcome the economic costs, environmental impacts, and unknown risks resulting from their use. To date, few studies have been conducted on the toxic and environmental effects that result from direct and indirect exposure to nanoparticles, and there are no clear standards to determine their effects. Lack of technical information in this regard has provided an appropriate context for supporters and opponents of nanoparticles to present contradictory and ill-considered results. Such an uncertain atmosphere has caused increased concerns about the effects of nanoparticles. Therefore, adequate studies to determine the exact, real risks of the use of nanoparticles are required. The information resulting from these studies can be useful in minimizing the environmental hazards that could arise from the use of nanoparticles. Thus, this paper briefly explains the classification of environmental nanoparticles and how to deal with their formation, diffusion, environmental fate and impacts, and our exposure to them. PMID:26120406

  4. A Three Year Study on 14 VOCs at One Site in Rome: Levels, Seasonal Variations, Indoor/Outdoor Ratio and Temporal Trends

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Sergio; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds—were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown. PMID:21139860

  5. Relation between time spent outdoors and exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Hee; Wiggs, Janey L.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relation between time spent outdoors at various life periods and risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect. Design Retrospective cohort study in the United States. Methods Participants (49,033 women in the Nurses Health Study and 20,066 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study) were 60+ years old, free of glaucoma and cataract, reported eye exams and completed questions about time spent outdoors in direct sunlight at mid-day at 3 life periods: high school to age 24 years, age 25-35 years, and age 36-59 years (asked in 2006 in women and 2008 in men). Participants were followed biennially with mailed questionnaires from 1980 (women) / 1986 (men) to 2010. Incident cases (223 women and 38 men) were confirmed with medical records. Cohort-specific multivariable-adjusted rate ratios from Cox proportional hazards models were estimated and pooled with meta-analysis. Results Although no association was observed with greater time spent outdoors in the ages of 25-35 or ages 36-59 years, the pooled multivariable-adjusted rate ratios for ≥11 hours per week spent outdoors in high school to age 24 years compared with ≤5 hours per week was 2.00 (95% confidence interval=1.30, 3.08; p for linear trend=0.001). In women, this association was stronger in those who resided in the southern geographic tier in young adulthood (p for interaction = 0.07). Conclusions Greater time spent outdoors in young adulthood was associated with risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect, supporting an etiologic role of early exposures to climatic factors. PMID:24857689

  6. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  7. Outdoor Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases in Lebanon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Dakik, Habib; Elias, Elias; Abou Abbas, Linda; Levêque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious threat for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between outdoor pollutants and cardiovascular diseases among adults in Lebanon and to examine the possible moderator effect of cigarette smoking status on this association. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Cases were hospitalized patients diagnosed with CVD by a cardiologist while the control group subjects were free of any cardiac diseases. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, self-rated global health, pollution exposure, and other risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression revealed that living near busy highway (OR 5.04, 95% CI (4.44–12.85), P < 0.001) and close to local diesel generator (OR 4.76, 95% CI (2.07–10.91), P < 0.001) was significantly associated with CVD. The association between the CVD and exposure to outside pollutants differed by cigarette smoking status. A clear difference was noted between nonsmokers and current smokers OR 4.6, 95% CI (1.10–19.25) and OR 10.11, 95% CI (7.33–20.23), respectively. Forthcoming studies are needed to clarify the potential link between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Public health interventions must be implemented to reduce air pollution and to improve air quality. PMID:25653681

  8. Outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Dakik, Habib; Elias, Elias; Abou Abbas, Linda; Levêque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious threat for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between outdoor pollutants and cardiovascular diseases among adults in Lebanon and to examine the possible moderator effect of cigarette smoking status on this association. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Cases were hospitalized patients diagnosed with CVD by a cardiologist while the control group subjects were free of any cardiac diseases. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, self-rated global health, pollution exposure, and other risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression revealed that living near busy highway (OR 5.04, 95% CI (4.44-12.85), P < 0.001) and close to local diesel generator (OR 4.76, 95% CI (2.07-10.91), P < 0.001) was significantly associated with CVD. The association between the CVD and exposure to outside pollutants differed by cigarette smoking status. A clear difference was noted between nonsmokers and current smokers OR 4.6, 95% CI (1.10-19.25) and OR 10.11, 95% CI (7.33-20.23), respectively. Forthcoming studies are needed to clarify the potential link between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Public health interventions must be implemented to reduce air pollution and to improve air quality. PMID:25653681

  9. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  10. Initial Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of PCB-HASL in Typical Outdoor Environments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangkang; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chaofang; Zou, Shiwen; Yi, Pan; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    A long-term (1, 3, and 6 months) outdoor exposure test was performed for lead-free hot air solder leveling printed circuit boards (PCB-HASL) in typical environments in China and the corrosion behavior and mechanism of outdoor PCB-HASL were investigated. In a dry environment PCB-HASL corroded slightly, because of the protective effect of surface oxide films. Corrosion spread from places where dust particles were deposited or mold spores were adsorbed. Under the combined effects of humidity and contamination, large amounts of granular corrosion products with a loose structure were generated, greatly reducing the protective effect of the Sn layer. Furthermore, protection of the edges of the plates was poor, and corrosion products from these regions migrated rapidly on the FR-4 board. When a 12 V electrical bias was applied, Sn and Cu migrated simultaneously. In the electrochemical migration process the effect of humidity was much more critical than that of contamination.

  11. Advanced Exposure Metrics For Chemical Risk Analysis: Systems Biology and 'Omic-based Biomarkers for Exposure Reconstruction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct measurement of human exposure to environmental contaminants in real time (when the exposure is actually occurring) is rare and difficult to obtain. This frustrates both exposure assessments and investigations into the linkage between chemical exposure and human disease. ...

  12. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  13. Obstacle detection in range-image sequence for outdoor navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garduno, M.; Vachon, Bertrand

    1994-08-01

    We deal with the conception of a perception system that's goal is to assist a mobile robot teleoperator by providing pertinent information about eventual obstacles appearing in the robot work space. This range image based perception system is to be embedded on a vehicle able to move at speeds up to 40 km/h in an outdoor environment. A method taking speed constraints into account is proposed. In the first step of this method, a segmentation algorithm is applied to the first range image scanned by the motionless robot to determine areas of interest. From these areas, distinctive attributes are computed and recorded as symbolic representations of each obstacle region. In the second and following steps, obstacles are localized in images scanned during robot motion. The difference between actual object position in the range image and its predicted value is used by an extended Kalman filter to correct the estimated robot configuration. A dynamic image segmentation using emergency and security criteria is carried out and new obstacles can now be detected from the range image and expressed in the robot coordinates system.

  14. On approximate reasoning and minimal models for the development of robust outdoor vehicle navigation schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-11-01

    Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ``minimal model`` for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept.

  15. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  16. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  17. The Outdoor Classroom: School Camping as Education in NSW 1890-1960s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education in New South Wales outdoor experiences and outdoor education are a prominent part of the curriculum. This emphasis on the outdoors begins early. Outdoor activities are an important part of most primary schools whether they are public or private. Likewise at secondary level and at university outdoor education is still an…

  18. Modeling exposure to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    Exposure assessment, a component of risk assessment, links sources of pollution with health effects. Exposure models are scientific tools used to gain insights into the processes affecting exposure assessment. The purpose of this paper is to review the process and methodology of estimating inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) using various types of models. Three types of models are discussed in the paper. Indirect type of models are physical models that employ inventories of outdoor and indoor sources and their emission rates to identify major sources contributing to exposure to PM, and use fate and transport and indoor air quality models to estimate PM concentrations at receptor sites. PM concentrations and time spent by a subject at each receptor site are input variables to the conventional exposure model that estimates the desired exposure levels. Direct type models use measured exposure or exposure concentrations in conjunction with information obtained from questionnaires to formulate exposure regression models. Stochastic models use exposure measurements, estimates can also be used, to formulate exposure population distributions and investigate associated uncertainty and variability. Since models developed using databases from western countries are not necessarily applicable in developing countries, the difference in requirements among western and developing countries is highlighted in the paper. Employment of exposure modeling methods in developing countries requires development of local information. Such information includes local outdoor and indoor source inventories, local or regional meteorological conditions, adjustment of indoor models to reflect local building construction conditions, and use of questionnaires to obtain local time budget and activity patterns of the subject population. PMID:12492168

  19. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  20. Interventions to reduce individual exposure of elderly individuals and children to haze: a review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sini; Li, Lingling; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Given rapid economic developments and urbanization over the last few decades, China has experienced frequent haze episodes, which have adverse effects on public health. Children and elderly individuals are more susceptible than the general population to air pollution. In this study, we introduce interventions to reduce the exposure of elderly individuals and children to air pollution during hazy weather. These interventions include avoiding outdoor activities, wearing a dust mask, reducing burning biomass fuels, reducing frying and smoking at home, using an air filtration unit and taking supplemental antioxidants. However, the actual benefits of these measures remain unproven and are unlikely to be adequate. Sustained clean air policies remain the most important and efficient solution to reduce air pollution-related health effects. PMID:26904254