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Sample records for actual physical process

  1. "It Is a Case of Changing Your Thought Processes, the Way You Actually Teach": Implementing a Complex Professional Learning Agenda in Scottish Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike; Dewar, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that twenty-first century physical education needs to be reorientated and restructured to meet the lifelong learning needs of pupils from diverse socio-cultural, emotional, and developmental backgrounds. It follows that quality physical education (PE) Continuing Professional Development (CPD) opportunities for…

  2. Actuality of transcendental æsthetics for modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitot, Jean

    1. The more mathematics and physics unify themselves in the physico-mathematical modern theories, the more an objective epistemology becomes necessary. Only such a transcendental epistemology is able to thematize correctly the status of the mathematical determination of physical reality. 2. There exists a transcendental history of the synthetic a priori and of the construction of physical categories. 3. The transcendental approach allows to supersed Wittgenstein's and Carnap's antiplatonist thesis according to which pure mathematics are physically applicable only if they lack any descriptive, cognitive or objective, content and reduce to mere prescriptive and normative devices. In fact, pure mathematics are prescriptive-normative in physics because: (i) the categories of physical objectivity are prescriptive-normative, and (ii) their categorial content is mathematically “constructed” through a Transcendental Aesthetics. Only a transcendental approach make compatible, in the one hand, a grammatical conventionalism of Wittgensteinian or Carnapian type and, on the other hand, a platonist realism of Gödelian type. Mathematics are not a grammar of the world but a mathematical hermeneutics of the intuitive forms and of the categorial grammar of the world.

  3. The Survey and Analysis of Excellent Senior High School Physics Teachers' Professional Growth Actuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haibin; Liu, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    Excellent senior high school physics teachers are the backbone power in the new course reform of physics in China. The excellent senior high school physics teachers' professional growth actuality in Shandong is surveyed in this article by the self-made "Questionnaire of Excellent Senior High School Physics Teachers' Professional Growth",…

  4. Women in Physics: Self-Actualization and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyna, E. V.; Murashova, A. V.; Sokolova, Z. N.; Shmidt, N. M.; Vitman, R. F.

    2005-10-01

    The status of women physicists at the Ioffe Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is analyzed. In the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute (PTI), just 20% of the researchers are female. They work in all of the departments: in theoretical groups, 13% in technological laboratories. up to 30%. Women account for 18% among PhDs and about 11% among Doctors of Science. From 1991 to 2001 there was a trend of growth in the fraction of young women at PTI (from 7% up to 20%). For the last 3 years the percentage of women among postgraduate students has held at 20%. There seems to be the following social phenomenon in the sciences in Russia: against a background of the aging of scientists as a whole, the younger the scientists are, the more likely they are to be women. Women scientists of Ioffe Institute take a hand in organizing the conferences, the physics schools, and the Physics of the Solid State and Semiconductors journals. It is very important to note that careful and reliable results of pseudo-routine work of the PTI women are not always published. This fact exposes them to the ``publications gap.'' In spite of their high research levels, the PTI women physicists give talks at conferences and seminars much more seldom than their male colleagues. In the institute and the departments the male staff of the Academic Councils make decisions without taking gender issues into consideration. In addition, women account for only 3% of the laboratory heads. Now Russian young people are free from archaic gender stereotypes. We can say with certainty that the cultural and professional potential of women scientists is a considerable potential for the 21st century.

  5. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy.

  6. Interstellar Dust: Physical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dust is formed in stellar environments, and destroyed by sputtering, shattering and vaporization in shock waves due to cloud-cloud collisions and supernova blast waves. Dust is also destroyed during star formation. We review the dust formation and destruction balance. The calculated destruction time-scale is less than or equal to one billion years and the star dust injection time-scale is approx. 2.5 billion years. Hence, the fractions of elemental carbon and silicon locked up in stardust are less than 0.3 and less than 0.15, respectively. An efficient ISM dust formation route is therefore implied. In particular, in dense clouds dust grows; through the processes of coagulation and the accretion of gas phase molecules e.g. H20, CO, CH4. These icy materials may then be photoprocessed to refractory materials in more diffuse regions. The resulting carbonaceous grain mantle may actually be the glue that holds the coagulated grains together.

  7. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing... THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.180 How do I determine an actual processing allowance? (a) Determining a processing allowance if you...

  8. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application.

  9. Physics as Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-03-01

    I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics—including space-time and relativity—is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler. The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of ℏ, and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

  10. Motor imagery of locomotion with an additional load: actual load experience does not affect differences between physical and mental durations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Blischke, Klaus; Krüger, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Motor imagery relies strongly on motor representations. Currently, it is widely accepted that both the imagery and execution of actions share the same neural representations (Jeannerod, Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001). Comparing mental with actual movement durations opens a window through which to examine motor representations and how they relate to cognitive motor processes. The present experiment examined mental durations reported by participants standing upright who imagined walking either with or without an additional load while actually carrying or not carrying that same load. Results showed a robust effect of longer durations when imagining the additional load during mental walking, whereas physical walking with an additional load did not extend movement durations accordingly. However, experiencing an actual load during imagery did not influence mental durations substantially. This dissociation of load-related effects can be interpreted as being due to an interaction of motor processes and their cognitive representation along with a reduction in neural activity in vestibular and somatosensory areas during imagery of locomotion. It is argued that this effect might be specific to locomotion and not generalize to a broader range of movements.

  11. 30 CFR 206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine an actual processing allowance? 206.180 Section 206.180 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 206.180 How do I...

  12. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  13. Identifying profiles of actual and perceived motor competence among adolescents: associations with motivation, physical activity, and sports participation.

    PubMed

    De Meester, An; Maes, Jolien; Stodden, David; Cardon, Greet; Goodway, Jacqueline; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-11-01

    The present study identified adolescents' motor competence (MC)-based profiles (e.g., high actual and low perceived MC), and accordingly investigated differences in motivation for physical education (PE), physical activity (PA) levels, and sports participation between profiles by using regression analyses. Actual MC was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Adolescents (n = 215; 66.0% boys; mean age = 13.64 ± .58 years) completed validated questionnaires to assess perceived MC, motivation for PE, PA-levels, and sports participation. Actual and perceived MC were only moderately correlated and cluster analyses identified four groups. Two groups of overestimators (low - overestimation, average - overestimation) were identified (51%), who particularly displayed better motivation for PE when compared to their peers who accurately estimated themselves (low - accurate, average - accurate). Moreover, adolescents with low actual MC, but high perceived MC were significantly more active than adolescents with low actual MC who accurately estimated themselves. Results pointed in the same direction for organised sports participation. Underestimators were not found in the current sample, which is positive as underestimation might negatively influence adolescents' motivation to achieve and persist in PA and sports. In conclusion, results emphasise that developing perceived MC, especially among adolescents with low levels of actual MC, seems crucial to stimulate motivation for PE, and engagement in PA and sports.

  14. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  15. The Role of Non-Actuality Implicatures in Processing Elided Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    When an elided constituent and its antecedent do not match syntactically, the presence of a word implying the non-actuality of the state of affairs described in the antecedent seems to improve the example (This information should be released but Gorbachev didn’t. vs This information was released but Gorbachev didn’t.) We model this effect in terms of Non-Actuality Implicatures (NAIs) conveyed by non-epistemic modals like should and other words such as want to and be eager to that imply non-actuality. We report three studies. A rating and interpretation study showed that such implicatures are drawn and that they improve the acceptability of mismatch ellipsis examples. An interpretation study showed that adding a NAI trigger to ambiguous examples increases the likelihood of choosing an antecedent from the NAI clause. An eye movement study shows that a NAI trigger also speeds online reading of the ellipsis clause. By introducing alternatives (the desired state of affairs vs. the actual state of affairs), the NAI trigger introduces a potential Question Under Discussion (QUD). Processing an ellipsis clause is easier, the processor is more confident of its analysis, when the ellipsis clause comments on the QUD. PMID:22247589

  16. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M. ); Gao, Johnway ); Delegard, Calvin H. ); Bagaasen, Larry M. ); Wells, Beric E. )

    2003-08-25

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  17. Physical Processing of Cometary Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Stern, S. Alan

    1997-12-01

    Cometary nuclei preserve a cosmo-chemical record of conditions and processes in the primordial solar nebula, and possibly even the interstellar medium. However, that record is not perfectly preserved over the age of the solar system due to a variety of physical processes which act to modify cometary surfaces and interiors. Possible structural and/or internal processes include: collisional accretion, disruption, and reassembly during formation; internal heating by long and short-lived radionuclides; amorphous to crystalline phase transitions, and thermal stresses. Identified surface modification processes include: irradiation by galactic cosmic rays, solar protons, UV photons, and the Sun's T Tauri stage mass outflow; heating by passing stars and nearby supernovae; gardening by debris impacts; the accretion of interstellar dust and gas and accompanying erosion by hypervelocity dust impacts and sputtering; and solar heating with accompanying crust formation. These modification processes must be taken into account in both the planning and the interpretation of the results of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission. Sampling of nuclei should be done at as great a depth below the surface crust as technically feasible, and at vents or fissures leading to exposed volatiles at depth. Samples of the expected cometary crust and near-surface layers also need to be returned for analysis to achieve a better understanding of the effects of these physical processes. We stress that comets are still likely less modified dm any other solar system bodies, but the degree of modification can vary greatly from one comet to the next.

  18. Physical Processing of Cometary Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Stern, S. Alan

    1997-01-01

    Cometary nuclei preserve a cosmo-chemical record of conditions and processes in the primordial solar nebula, and possibly even the interstellar medium. However, that record is not perfectly preserved over the age of the solar system due to a variety of physical processes which act to modify cometary surfaces and interiors. Possible structural and/or internal processes include: collisional accretion, disruption, and reassembly during formation; internal heating by long and short-lived radionuclides; amorphous to crystalline phase transitions, and thermal stresses. Identified surface modification processes include: irradiation by galactic cosmic rays, solar protons, UV photons, and the Sun's T Tauri stage mass outflow; heating by passing stars and nearby supernovae; gardening by debris impacts; the accretion of interstellar dust and gas and accompanying erosion by hypervelocity dust impacts and sputtering; and solar heating with accompanying crust formation. These modification processes must be taken into account in both the planning and the interpretation of the results of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission. Sampling of nuclei should be done at as great a depth below the surface crust as technically feasible, and at vents or fissures leading to exposed volatiles at depth. Samples of the expected cometary crust and near-surface layers also need to be returned for analysis to achieve a better understanding of the effects of these physical processes. We stress that comets are still likely less modified dm any other solar system bodies, but the degree of modification can vary greatly from one comet to the next.

  19. Applicability of an electrochemical Fenton-type process to actual wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Kitamura, Takuya; Nakamura, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of an electrochemical Fenton-type process (EF-HOCl-ReFe) to the treatment of three actual wastewaters, namely wastewater from an automobile factory (automobile wastewater), metal scrap-cleansing wastewater, and municipal wastewater, is discussed in this research. The EF-HOCl-ReFe successfully removed the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from automobile wastewater pre-treated by a coagulation process without any inhibition. The apparent current efficiency reached 86%, 46% of which was ascribed to the electrochemical Fenton-type mechanism. The metal scrap-cleansing wastewater had a yellow colour and high concentrations of COD (6550 mg/L) and Cl(-) (1560 mM). The EF-HOCl-ReFe could achieve almost complete COD removal and decolourization after 48 h of treatment, although a temporary intensification of colour was observed before the decolourization. The EF-HOCl-ReFe was also effective in the removal of 1,4-dioxane from municipal wastewater pre-treated by activated sludge and coagulation processes, which were unable to remove 1,4-dioxane. The 1,4-dioxane removal efficiency after 30 min of treatment reached 68.5%. Thus, the EF-HOCl-ReFe was applicable to the treatment of these actual wastewaters.

  20. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  1. Physics as quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo

    2011-10-01

    The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm—It from Bit— prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerging from a quantum-information processing. The resulting theory is a discrete version of QFT with automatic relativistic invariance, and without fields, Hamiltonian, and quantization rules. In this paper I review some recent advances on these lines. In particular: i) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; ii) The derivation of the Dirac equation as free information flow, without imposing Lorentz covariance; iii) the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant; iv) An observable consequence of the theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will then conclude with two possible routes to Quantum Gravity.

  2. [Investigation of actual nutrition and some factors of physical status in rugby players].

    PubMed

    Abramova, M A; Azizbekian, G A; Zilova, I S; Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Physical status and nutrition and energy value of factual diets of 18 rugby players (15-30 years old) assessed during current medical observation were analyzed. Anthropometric data (height, body mass--BM, waist circumference/ hip circumference index, body mass index--BMI), body composition data and resting metabolic rate by bioimpedance method (analyzer ABC-01 "Medass") were determined. These indices were found to be normal except more high level of BMI due to high levels of lean and skeletal muscle mass, but not a result of obesity. Estimation of factual nutrition based on 1-day feeding (nutrition-screening questionnaire method) has demonstrate that it was not optimal both for energy and nutrition value for this group of physical activity. Energy value ranged from 1889 kcal to 3175 kcal (22.5-35.1 kcal/kg BM/day) with lower carbohydrate intake (46.9%) and higher fat intake (35.8%) were found. Nutrition value ranges: protein--67-144 g (0.71-1.38 kcal/kg BM/day), fat--75-140 g (0.88-1.51 kcal/kg BM/day), carbohydrate--173-420 g (2.17-4.66 kcal/kg BM/day) were observed. The findings suggest the need to pay more attention to in-depth study of dietary intake of athletes to maintain health and to create optimal conditions for a professional sports activities.

  3. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    SciTech Connect

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  4. Physical Fitness and the Stress Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensel, Walter M.; Lin, Nan

    2004-01-01

    In the current paper we focus on the role of physical fitness in the life stress process for both psychological and physical well-being. The major research question posed in the current study is: Does physical fitness deter distress in a model containing the major components of the life stress process? That is, do individuals who exercise show…

  5. Actual geomorphological processes on hillslope viticulture from Axarquía in the Montes de Málaga (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; María Senciales González, José; Seeger, Manuel; Damián Ruiz Sinoga, José; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Hillslope viticulture is one of the agricultural activities affecting the eco-geomorphological system. Specifically, in the vineyards of the Axarquía on the Montes de Málaga (Spain), where the popular Moscatel and Pedro Ximénez grapes are produced, several problems of degradation of the chemical and physical properties of the soils have been reported by several authors, but not real quantifications of sediment losses. Soils have developed mainly on Palaeozoic schists and slates with different degrees of metamorphism, but also include marbles, limestone, quartz and gneiss. On steep slopes (36-76%), surface rock fragment cover (45 to 75%) and occasional generation of rills and gullies characterize the principal geomorphological processes. Degradation processes are due to two causes: i) the concentrated heavy rainfall events during a few hours within no more than 30 days per year; ii) soil tillage of the vine-workers, removing vegetation cover under and around the vines. Anyhow, farmers take measures against soil erosion, such as building rills to canalize the surface flow (called 'sangrías') and small walls of stones ('albarradas') to reduce soil loss. Actual soil degradation as a consequence of intensive agricultural activities starting with Muslim ages (s. VIII-XV). The objective of this work is to show the geomorphological processes during summer, autumn and winter (2014-2015) on experimental plots along a hillslope in the south of Spain (Almáchar, Málaga). Six sediment traps (50 liters) with their respective collectors (60 liters) were installed in three different points along a hillslope exposed to south-west. After each rainfall, all sediments were collected and analyzed to calculate soil losses (g), surface flow (l) and the sediment concentration (g l-1). Furthermore, a meteorological station (rainfall, temperature, wind and air humidity) was installed close to the plot. Final results show elevated soil loss and surface flow rates with different

  6. The Role of Non-Actuality Implicatures in Processing Elided Constituents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    When an elided constituent and its antecedent do not match syntactically, the presence of a word implying the non-actuality of the state of affairs described in the antecedent seems to improve the example. ("This information should be released but Gorbachev didn't." vs. "This information was released but Gorbachev didn't.") We model this effect in…

  7. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  8. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  9. NUMERICAL MODELING OF FINE SEDIMENT PHYSICAL PROCESSES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    1985-01-01

    Fine sediment in channels, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters undergo several physical processes including flocculation, floc disruption, deposition, bed consolidation, and resuspension. This paper presents a conceptual model and reviews mathematical models of these physical processes. Several general fine sediment models that simulate some of these processes are reviewed. These general models do not directly simulate flocculation and floc disruption, but the conceptual model and existing functions are shown to adequately model these two processes for one set of laboratory data.

  10. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  11. Mental and physical quality of life in actual living liver donors versus potential living liver donors: a prospective, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Kroencke, Sylvia; Beckmann, Mingo; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz; Nashan, Björn; Senf, Wolfgang; Erim, Yesim

    2009-12-01

    In a quasi-experimental design, we investigated the quality of life (QOL) in actual liver donors (n = 43) and potential liver donors (n = 33) before and 3 months after liver transplantation. This is the first study in this field combining a prospective design with an adequate control group. Potential donors served as a control group because they also had a relative in need of a liver transplant and were as emotionally involved with the recipient as actual donors, but they were not subjected to the donor operation. Groups did not differ in age, gender, marital status, donor-recipient relationship, urgency of transplantation, or recipient group (adult versus child). Actual donors showed decreased physical QOL, whereas potential donors were not affected. However, for both groups, a decrease in anxiety was found. Furthermore, actual donors showed a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The recipients of these 2 groups did not differ with respect to postoperative complications. Furthermore, the groups did not report a different caregiver burden, but actual donors showed higher self-esteem. Because of the surgery, the worsening of physical symptoms in actual donors was expected. It is remarkable, however, that although actual donors still showed a limited physical QOL 3 months after the operation, in both groups, a similar reduction in anxiety could be observed, and actual donors even demonstrated a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The latter might be due to a psychological benefit that actual donors derived from the fact that they were able to help the recipients.

  12. The Physics of a Volcanic System: What is the Actual Role Played by Tectonic Setting in Controlling Volcanic Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon-Tapia, E.

    2005-12-01

    Modern text-books commonly explain volcanic activity as a direct consequence of plate tectonics, overlooking the different scales characteristic of both types of processes. By acknowledging such differences, however, it is possible to envisage a model of a volcanic system that is based in the same principles of hydrostatics established by Blaise Pascal over 300 yrs ago. Such principles allow us to estimate the local conditions required for the occurrence of volcanism at a given location highlighting the importance of the rock strength and the density difference between melt and its surroundings. This model shows that the minimum thickness of the zone of partial melting in the mantle (or seismically defined Low Velocity Zone) that is required to feed volcanic activity might range from 5 to over 100 km, but also that under certain circumstances a rock strength < 200 MPa may suffice to keep magma trapped at depth whereas in other cases a strength > 600 MPa will not suffice to stop magma ascent resulting in volcanic activity at the surface. Consequently, the model of volcanism developed here explains why is that a given LVZ may lead to volcanic activity in some places whereas a completely identical LVZ may not result in volcanic activity in a different location. Consequently, this model provides a general framework that allows us to better understand the actual role played by tectonic setting in controlling volcanism at a planetary scale.

  13. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment) that are an integral part of the processing plant. (i) Allowable operating expenses include... alternative without ONRR approval. (A) To compute depreciation, you may elect to use either a...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment) that are an integral part of the processing plant. (i) Allowable operating expenses include... alternative without ONRR approval. (A) To compute depreciation, you may elect to use either a...

  15. Actualities on molecular pathogenesis and repairing processes of cerebral damage in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Giuseppe; Praticò, Andrea D

    2010-09-16

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most important cause of cerebral damage and long-term neurological sequelae in the perinatal period both in term and preterm infant. Hypoxic-ischemic (H-I) injuries develop in two phases: the ischemic phase, dominated by necrotic processes, and the reperfusion phase, dominated by apoptotic processes extending beyond ischemic areas. Due to selective ischemic vulnerability, cerebral damage affects gray matter in term newborns and white matter in preterm newborns with the typical neuropathological aspects of laminar cortical necrosis in the former and periventricular leukomalacia in the latter. This article summarises the principal physiopathological and biochemical processes leading to necrosis and/or apoptosis of neuronal and glial cells and reports recent insights into some endogenous and exogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms aimed at repairing H-I cerebral damage.

  16. Actualities on molecular pathogenesis and repairing processes of cerebral damage in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most important cause of cerebral damage and long-term neurological sequelae in the perinatal period both in term and preterm infant. Hypoxic-ischemic (H-I) injuries develop in two phases: the ischemic phase, dominated by necrotic processes, and the reperfusion phase, dominated by apoptotic processes extending beyond ischemic areas. Due to selective ischemic vulnerability, cerebral damage affects gray matter in term newborns and white matter in preterm newborns with the typical neuropathological aspects of laminar cortical necrosis in the former and periventricular leukomalacia in the latter. This article summarises the principal physiopathological and biochemical processes leading to necrosis and/or apoptosis of neuronal and glial cells and reports recent insights into some endogenous and exogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms aimed at repairing H-I cerebral damage. PMID:20846380

  17. Treatment of actual effluents produced in the manufacturing of atrazine by a photo-electrolytic process.

    PubMed

    Aquino, José M; Miwa, Douglas W; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Motheo, Artur J

    2017-04-01

    The photo-assisted electrochemical degradation of a real effluent of the atrazine manufacturing process containing atrazine, simazine, hydroxy-triazine and propazine was carried out galvanostatically using a pilot-scale tubular flow reactor prototype containing DSA(®) and Ti as cathode. The effluent was mainly characterized by a high amount of NaCl, required in the synthesis route used, and it was used as taken in the factory. The variables for process optimization were the current density (3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 mA cm(-2)) and flow rate (300 and 3,000 L h(-1)). These later values produces laminar and turbulent flow regimes, with Reynolds numbers of 1,100 and 11,000, respectively. None of the four organics contained in the waste is refractory to the photo-electrochemical treatment and they are depleted with the photo-electrolytic technology using large current densities and appropriate electric charge passed. Both direct electrochemical process and mediated anodic oxidation occur during the treatment. First process occurs at turbulent flow condition and low current densities, while the chemical oxidation process happens at laminar flow condition and high current densities. Atrazine and propazine are efficiently removed at laminar flow conditions, with an almost total depletion for the largest current densities. On the contrary, simazine is efficiently removed in turbulent flow conditions and intermediate current density, with removals higher than 90% for 20 kWh m(-3). These results have great significance because they demonstrate the applicability of the electrochemical technology in the treatment of real industrial wastes with a cell specially designed to attain high efficiency in the removal of pollutants.

  18. Treatment of Actual Chemical Wastewater by a Heterogeneous Fenton Process Using Natural Pyrite.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Li, Yan; Li, Aimin

    2015-10-28

    Wastewater from chemical plants has remarkable antibiotic effects on the microorganisms in traditional biological treatment processes. An enhanced Fenton system catalyzed by natural pyrite was developed to degrade this kind of wastewater. Approximately 30% chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed within 120 min when 50 mmol/L H₂O₂ and 10 g/L natural pyrite were used at initial pH from 1.8 to 7. A BOD₅/COD enhancement efficiency of 210% and an acute biotoxicity removal efficiency of 84% were achieved. The COD removal efficiency was less sensitive to initial pH than was the classic Fenton process. Excessive amounts of pyrite and H₂O₂ did not negatively affect the pyrite Fenton system. The amount of aniline generated indicated that nitrobenzene reduction by pyrite was promoted using a low initial concentration of H₂O₂ (<5 mmol/L). Fluorescence excitation emission matrix analyses illustrated that H₂O₂ facilitated the reduction by natural pyrite of organic molecules containing an electron-withdrawing group to electron-donating group. Thus, the Fenton-like process catalyzed by pyrite can remediate wastewater containing organic pollutants under mild reaction conditions and provide an alternative environmentally friendly method by which to reuse natural pyrite.

  19. Treatment of Actual Chemical Wastewater by a Heterogeneous Fenton Process Using Natural Pyrite

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Li, Yan; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater from chemical plants has remarkable antibiotic effects on the microorganisms in traditional biological treatment processes. An enhanced Fenton system catalyzed by natural pyrite was developed to degrade this kind of wastewater. Approximately 30% chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed within 120 min when 50 mmol/L H2O2 and 10 g/L natural pyrite were used at initial pH from 1.8 to 7. A BOD5/COD enhancement efficiency of 210% and an acute biotoxicity removal efficiency of 84% were achieved. The COD removal efficiency was less sensitive to initial pH than was the classic Fenton process. Excessive amounts of pyrite and H2O2 did not negatively affect the pyrite Fenton system. The amount of aniline generated indicated that nitrobenzene reduction by pyrite was promoted using a low initial concentration of H2O2 (<5 mmol/L). Fluorescence excitation emission matrix analyses illustrated that H2O2 facilitated the reduction by natural pyrite of organic molecules containing an electron-withdrawing group to electron-donating group. Thus, the Fenton-like process catalyzed by pyrite can remediate wastewater containing organic pollutants under mild reaction conditions and provide an alternative environmentally friendly method by which to reuse natural pyrite. PMID:26516893

  20. Associations among Elementary School Children’s Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Materials and Methods Children’s (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. Results The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. Conclusions A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus

  1. Changes in the Microbial Composition of Microbrewed Beer during the Process in the Actual Manufacturing Line.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Jeon, S H; Kim, N H; Kim, H W; Lee, N Y; Cho, T J; Jung, Y M; Lee, S H; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated changes in the microbial composition of microbrewed beer during the manufacturing processes and identified potential microbial hazards, effective critical quality control points, and potential contamination routes. Comprehensive quantitative (aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, fungi, acetic acid bacteria, coliforms, and Bacillus cereus) and qualitative (Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens) microbiological analyses were performed using samples of raw materials (malt and manufacturing water), semiprocessed products (saccharified wort, boiled wort, and samples taken during the fermentation and maturation process), and the final product obtained from three plants. The initial aerobic plate count and lactic acid bacteria counts in malt were 5.2 and 4.3 log CFU/g, respectively. These counts were reduced to undetectable levels by boiling but were present at 2.9 and 0.9 log CFU/ml in the final product. Fungi were initially present at 3.6 log CFU/g, although again, the microbes were eliminated by boiling; however, the level in the final product was 4.6 log CFU/ml. No E. coli or foodborne pathogens (except B. cereus) were detected. B. cereus was detected at all stages, although it was not present in the water or boiled wort (total detection rate ¼ 16.4%). Results suggest that boiling of the wort is an effective microbial control measure, but careful management of raw materials and implementation of effective control measures after boiling are needed to prevent contamination of the product after the boiling step. The results of this study may constitute useful and comprehensive information regarding the microbiological quality of microbrewed beer.

  2. A review of the actual knowledge of the processes governing growth and development of long bones.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Ugo Ernesto; Beluffi, Giampiero; Benetti, Anna; Bondioni, Maria Pia; Zarattini, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Autoptic samples of human bones (from 8 weeks of gestation to 12 years of age) and a second group of serial, skeletal x-rays (required for pathologies not related to bone dysplasia in children from 4 months to 17 years of age) provided the material for the analysis of the physes normal growth mechanism presented in this review. Before the appearance of the ossification centers epiphyseal growth rests exclusively on chondrocytes proliferation (interstitial growth), without any detectable differentiated cellular organization. When endochondral ossification starts a defined spatial disposition of chondrocytes and a corresponding organization of the intercellular matrix is set up, so that it is possible to identify a growth vector corresponding to the columns of piled chondrocytes with direction from hypertrophic toward the proliferative cell layers. The complexity of the tubular bones growth process is well represented by the spatial arrangement of the growth vectors. In the late epiphyseal growth another mechanism is active in addition to endochondral ossification, namely, articular cartilage interstitial growth and subchondral remodelling. The knowledge of the normal mode of organization of the physis and its temporal sequence can help to better understand of the deviaton from the normal development of metaphyseal and epiphyseal dysplasias.

  3. Added value products for imaging remote sensing by processing actual GNSS reflectometry delay doppler maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavulli, Domenico; Frappart, Frédéric; Ramilien, Guillaume; Darrozes, José; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is an innovative and promising tool for remote sensing. It is based on the exploitation of GNSS signals reflected off Earth's surface as signals of opportunity to infer geophysical information of the reflecting surface. The main advantages of GNSS-R with respect dedicated sensors are: the unprecedented spatial-temporal coverage due to the availability of a great amount of transmitting satellite, e.g. GPS, Galileo, Glonass, etc…, long term GNSS mission life and cost effectiveness. In fact only a simple receiver is needed. In the last years several works demonstrated the meaningful of this technique in several Earth Observation applications. All these applications presented results obtained by using a receiver mounted on an aircraft or on a fixed platform. Moreover, space borne missions have been launched or are planned: UK-DMC, TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1), NASA CYGNSS, Geros ISS. Practically, GNSS-R can be seen as a bistatic radar system where the GNSS satellites continuously transmit the L-band all-weather night-and-day signals that are reflected off a surface, called Glistening Zone (GZ), and a receiver measures the scattered microwave signals in terms of Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) or delay waveforms. These two products have been widely studied in the literature to extract compact parameters for different remote sensing applications. However, products measured in the Delay Doppler (DD) domain are not able to provide any spatial information of the scattering scene. This could represent a drawback for applications related to imaging remote sensing, e.g. target detection, sea/land and sea/ice transition, oil spill detection, etc…. To overcome these limitations some deconvolution techniques have been proposed in the state of the art aiming at the reconstruction of a radar image of the observed scene by processing the measured DDMs. These techniques have been tested on DDMs related to simulated marine scenario

  4. A highly efficient polyampholyte hydrogel sorbent based fixed-bed process for heavy metal removal in actual industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyin; Luo, Jinming; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Ma, Jianhong; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-02-01

    High sorption capacity, high sorption rate, and fast separation and regeneration for qualified sorbents used in removing heavy metals from wastewater are urgently needed. In this study, a polyampholyte hydrogel was well designed and prepared via a simple radical polymerization procedure. Due to the remarkable mechanical strength, the three-dimensional polyampholyte hydrogel could be fast separated, easily regenerated and highly reused. The sorption capacities were as high as 216.1 mg/g for Pb(II) and 153.8 mg/g for Cd(II) owing to the existence of the large number of active groups. The adsorption could be conducted in a wide pH range of 3-6 and the equilibrium fast reached in 30 min due to its excellent water penetration for highly accessible to metal ions. The fixed-bed column sorption results indicated that the polyampholyte hydrogel was particularly effective in removing Pb(II) and Cd(II) from actual industrial effluent to meet the regulatory requirements. The treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using one fixed bed column were as high as 684 bed volumes (BV) (7736 mL) for Pb(II) and 200 BV (2262 mL) for Cd(II). Furthermore, the treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using tandem three columns reached 924 BV (31,351 mL) for Pb(II) and 250 BV (8483 mL) for Cd(II), producing only 4 BV (136 mL) eluent. Compared with the traditional high density slurry (HDS) process with large amount of sludge, the proposed process would be expected to produce only a small amount of sludge. When the treatment volume was controlled below 209.3 BV (7103 mL), all metal ions in the actual industrial effluent could be effectively removed (<0.01 mg/L). This wok develops a highly practical process based on polyampholyte hydrogel sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from practical wastewater.

  5. Stable Measures and Processes in Statistical Physics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS 0 by Aleksander Weron and Karina Weron Tecnicl Rpor #8Th November 1984) 0 0 85 01 16 099 0 L-SYCLASS1IEA.EDTISAG SfCUAI;V...Stochastic Processes" Department of Statistics J______ University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC 27514 f n -- and , -" ::i 7Codes ot : ’r ; Karina Weron...2 p.-t ,i7i;7, ~Department of Physics and Astronomy Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Abstract. It is shown how a-stable distributions

  6. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOEpatents

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  7. Forum: What Has Actually Changed in Physics Departments in the Situation for Women, Graduate Students and Other People?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Ivie, Rachel; Campbell, David; Murnane, Margaret; Kirby, Kate; Catlla, Anne

    2006-03-01

    The decade of the 90's was a period of intense scrutiny of climate issues in physics departments, e.g. the status of women, the job situation for new Ph.D.'s and postdocs, and the preparation of physicists for careers inside and outside of physics. There were many conference sessions on these topics, and both APS members and leadership instigated important efforts to focus on specific areas. These efforts included the program of visiting committees to departments to examine the situation for women by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, the AIP's various studies of a statistical nature, and the creation by the APS of a Committee on Careers and the Forum on Graduate Student Affairs, as well as the recent APS-AAPT task force on graduate education. This forum patterned after similar sessions 10 years ago - will examine how physics departments have changed as a result of such efforts. It will begin with short (12-minute) talks by a panel of experts to describe what has happened in key areas. The greater part of the session will be a period of observations, questions, and discussion from the audience and the panel together. The purpose is to have an interchange on these interrelated topics from which we can all learn. THE TOPICS TO BE INTRODUCED IN THE SHORT TALKS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SESSION ARE: 1) changes in graduate enrollment, composition, and subsequent jobs (Patrick Mulvey); 2) women in physics and astronomy departments 2005 (Rachel Ivie); 3) changes in graduate curricula and environment (David Campbell); 4) CSWP site visits to physics departments what’s been accomplished and learned (Margaret Murnane); 5) survey of ethical issues in physics departments and the physics profession: results and reactions (Kate Kirby); and (6) physics departments from the point of view of younger physicists (Anne Catlla). The bulk of the session will be a public forum, on these and related issues, among the audience and the panel.

  8. Physical processes in spin polarized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Cowley, S.

    1984-05-01

    If the plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor is polarized, the nuclear reactions are modified in such a way as to enhance the reactor performance. We calculate in detail the modification of these nuclear reactions by different modes of polarization of the nuclear fuel. We also consider in detail the various physical processes that can lead to depolarization and show that they are by and large slow enough that a high degree of polarization can be maintained.

  9. Thermodynamically reversible processes in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, John D.

    2017-02-01

    Equilibrium states are used as limit states to define thermodynamically reversible processes. When these processes are understood in terms of statistical physics, these limit states can change with time due to thermal fluctuations. For macroscopic systems, the changes are insignificant on ordinary time scales and what little change there is can be suppressed by macroscopically negligible, entropy-creating dissipation. For systems of molecular sizes, the changes are large on short time scales. They can only sometimes be suppressed with significant entropy-creating dissipation, and this entropy creation is unavoidable if any process is to proceed to completion. As a result, at molecular scales, thermodynamically reversible processes are impossible in principle. Unlike the macroscopic case, they cannot be realized even approximately when we account for all sources of dissipation, and argumentation invoking them on molecular scales can lead to spurious conclusions.

  10. Atomic physics processes in radial transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.

    1983-02-01

    These lectures were intended as preparation for detailed discussions of the role of atomic and molecular physics in confinement research at the 1982 NATO Advanced Study Institute. They begin with a description of the major approaches to magnetic confinement: tandem (ambipolar) mirrors with their associated auxiliary barriers, tokamaks, and stellarators. The leading alternatives, the ELMO Bumpy Torus and the reversed field pinch, are also treated. The evolution equations for particle, energy, and (where relevant) field diffusion are presented and discussed. This is the context for atomic and molecular processes relevant to confinement.

  11. Physics of a random biological process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canessa, E.; Calmetta, A.

    1994-07-01

    We analyze the successive fluctuations of the daytime and nighttime sleep pattern of a newborn baby by using tools of far-from-equilibrium statistical physics. We find that this class of natural random biological process displays a remarkable long-range power-law correlation that extends for, at least, the first six months of life. Such a scaling behavior might help to characterize the underlying dynamics of the (early) growth and development of humans through analyzing the time series generated when asleep.

  12. Urgency of evolution-process congruent thinking in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2015-09-01

    evolution-given enquiring minds without being afraid by the prevailing culture of "publish-or-perish", requiring them to stay within the bounds of the prevailing theories as the final ones. Current physics thinking has been successfully driven by Measurable Data Modeling Epistemology (MDM-E); which is basically curve-fitting without demanding to understand the actual physical processes nature is carrying out. I am proposing to add an iterative repertoire, Interaction Process mapping Epistemology (IPM-E) over and above successful MDM-E. This will facilitate the physicists to become conceptual reverse engineers of nature. The gap between physicists and engineers will start melting down and our collective sustainability will be re-assured as successful engineers of nature.

  13. Biological treatment of actual petrochemical wastewater using anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process and the microbial diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pengyuan; Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-12-01

    A novel process integrating anaerobic hydrolysis-acidification (HA) and anoxic/oxic (A/O) reactors was developed to treat the actual petrochemical wastewater, which was operated for more than 8 months, the removal efficiency of COD and NH4(+)-N was monitored, and the microbial community was analyzed. The results showed that the effluent concentrations were maintained at around 99 and 1.3 mg/L, with the removal efficiency of 70.6 and 95.4 %, respectively at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h. The major pollutants in the influent were identified as hydrocarbons, aldehydes, heterocyclic matters, amines, alcohols, phenols, ketones, etc. by GC-MS analysis, while only heterocyclic compounds, ketones, and esters were detected in the effluent after HA-A/O treatment. Bacteria belonging to phyla Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were highly enriched in the system. The predominant genera in HA, anoxic, and oxic tanks were Anaerolineaceae uncultured and Desulfobacter, Blastocatella and Anaerolineaceae uncultured, Saprospiraceae uncultured and Nitrosomonadaceae uncultured, respectively. The sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfobacter, Desulfofustis and Desulfomicrobium were detected only in HA reactor. The ammonium-oxidizing bacteria Nitrosomonadaceae and Nitrosomonas and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira were highly enriched in A/O reactor, which is consistent with the good nitrification performance.

  14. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions.

  15. Bringing life to soil physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    When Oklahoma's native prairie grass roots were replaced by corn, the greatest environmental (and social) disaster ever to hit America ensued. The soils lost structure, physical binding by roots was annihilated and when drought came the Great Dust Bowl commenced. This form of environmental disaster has repeated over history and although not always apparent, similar processes drive the degradation of seemingly productive farmland and forests. But just as negative impacts on biology are deleterious to soil physical properties, positive impacts could reverse these trends. In finding solutions to soil sustainability and food security, we should be able to exploit biological processes to improve soil physical properties. This talk will focus on a quantitative understanding of how biology changes soil physical behaviour. Like the Great Dust Bowl, it starts with reinforcement mechanisms by plant roots. We found that binding of soil by cereal (barley) roots within 5 weeks of planting can more than double soil shear strength, with greater plant density causing greater reinforcement. With time, however, the relative impact of root reinforcement diminishes due to root turnover and aging of the seedbed. From mechanical tests of individual roots, reasonable predictions of reinforcement by tree roots are possible with fibre bundle models. With herbaceous plants like cereals, however, the same parameters (root strength, stiffness, size and distribution) result in a poor prediction. We found that root type, root age and abiotic factors such as compaction and waterlogging affect mechanical behaviour, further complicating the understanding and prediction of root reinforcement. For soil physical stability, the interface between root and soil is an extremely important zone in terms of resistance of roots to pull-out and rhizosphere formation. Compounds analogous to root exudates have been found with rheological tests to initially decrease the shear stress where wet soils flow, but

  16. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs.

  17. Physical disintegration of biochar: An overlooked process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data collected from both artificially and field (naturally) weathered biochar suggest that a potentially significant pathway of biochar disappearance is through physical breakdown of the biochar structure. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we characterized this physical weathering which inc...

  18. Physics as an Enterprise of Process Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2005-01-01

    Physics, as a discipline, attempts to discern the mysteries of physical universe and it is also an inspiration for technological innovations which contribute to the good or demise of human civilization. While it continues to have tremendous impact on the technological front, one wonders if physics, as an enterprise engaged in providing a coherent…

  19. The Stress Process in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2007-01-01

    Negative stress in physical education can reduce a student's enjoyment of physical activity and destroy the individual's desire to be a lifelong mover. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of stress in physical education. Stress is defined as a substantial imbalance between the demand of a situation and the individual's capability…

  20. Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banine, V. Y.; Koshelev, K. N.; Swinkels, G. H. P. M.

    2011-06-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil very high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which requires the following new developments. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high-temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for deep ultraviolet (DUV), should be reflective for EUV. The source specifications as derived from the customer requirements on wafer throughput mean that the output EUV source power has to be hundreds of watts. This in its turn means that tens to hundreds of kilowatts of dissipated power has to be managed in a relatively small volume. In order to keep lithography costs as low as possible, the lifetime of the components should be as long as possible and at least of the order of thousands of hours. This poses a challenge for the sources, namely how to design and manufacture components robust enough to withstand the intense environment of high heat dissipation, flows of several keV ions as well as the atomic and particular debris within the source vessel. As with all lithography tools, the imaging requirements demand a narrow illumination bandwidth. Absorption of materials at EUV wavelengths is extreme with extinguishing lengths of the order of tens of nanometres, so the balance between high transmission and spectral purity requires careful engineering. All together, EUV lithography sources present technological challenges in various fields of physics such as plasma, optics and material science. These challenges are being tackled by the source manufacturers and investigated extensively in the research facilities around the world. An overview of the published results on the topic as well as the analyses of the physical processes behind the proposed solutions will be presented in this paper.

  1. Pre-earthquake signals: Underlying physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Friedemann

    2011-06-01

    Prior to large earthquakes the Earth sends out transient signals, sometimes strong, more often subtle and fleeting. These signals may consist of local magnetic field variations, electromagnetic emissions over a wide range of frequencies, a variety of atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena. Great uncertainty exists as to the nature of the processes that could produce such signals, both inside the Earth's crust and at the surface. The absence of a comprehensive physical mechanism has led to a patchwork of explanations, which are not internally consistent. The recognition that most crustal rocks contain dormant electronic charge carriers in the form of peroxy defects, OSi/⧹SiO, holds the key to a deeper understanding of these pre-earthquake signals from a solid state physics perspective. When rocks are stressed, peroxy links break, releasing electronic charge carriers, h ·, known as positive holes. The positive holes are highly mobile and can flow out of the stressed subvolume. The situation is similar to that in a battery. The h · outflow is possible when the battery circuit closes. The h · outflow constitutes an electric current, which generates magnetic field variations and low frequency EM emissions. When the positive holes arrive at the Earth's surface, they lead to ionization of air at the ground-air interface. Under certain conditions corona discharges occur, which cause RF emission. The upward expansion of ionized air may be the reason for perturbations in the ionosphere. Recombination of h · charge carriers at the surface leads to a spectroscopically distinct, non-thermal IR emission.

  2. Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Link between Identity Processing Styles and the Actual Work of Identity in the Career Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated and compared the associations between identity processing styles and the actual work of identity formation in the career domain in two national contexts, the US and Turkey. Identity styles represent individuals' orientations to identity work, and were measured by the Identity Processing Styles Q-Sort (IPSQ). The…

  3. Statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitri V.; Mandel, Igor

    2007-04-01

    The processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific subbranch-“mediaphysics”-are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a “person's mind” and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (influential propagation of opinions, “word of mouth”, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin-based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrödinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

  4. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  5. Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; Gallucci, V. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes the application of irreversible thermodynamics to biology. It begins with…

  6. The Plasma Physics of Processing Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-28

    Karachevtsev, Ref. 6, Chapter 12 82 52. H. Furth, J Killeen, and M Rosenbluth, Physics Fluids, 6, 459, (1963) 53. W. Manheimer and C. Lashmore - Davies, MHD and Microinstabilities in Confined Plasmas, Adam Hilger, (1989) 83

  7. Autonomous regulation mode moderates the effect of actual physical activity on affective states: an ambulant assessment approach to the role of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Brand, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Studies have shown that physical activity influences affective states. However, studies have seldom depicted these associations in ongoing real-life situations, and there is no investigation showing that motivational states (i.e., more or less autonomously regulated) would moderate these effects in situ. To investigate the interaction of autonomous regulation and actual physical activity (aPA) with affective states, we use an ambulatory assessment approach. The participants were 44 university students (mean age: 26.2 ± 3.2 years). We assessed aPA through 24-hr accelerometry and affective states and autonomous regulation via electronic diaries. Palmtop devices prompted subjects every 45 min during a 14-hr daytime period. We performed hierarchical multilevel analyses. Both aPA and autonomous regulation significantly influenced affective states. The interaction was significant for two affects. The higher the volume of aPA and thereby the more autonomously regulated the preceding bout of aPA was, the more our participants felt energized (r = .16) but agitated (r = -.18).

  8. The Process of Physical Fitness Standards Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    subjects, some very interesting dimensions of the effects of exercise on anxiety were documented and are summarized below- - Trainingprograms...a specific cause-and- effect relationship is difficult to estab- lish. The research certainly indicates that physical activity may help the disorder ...technically managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and operated by

  9. Electrical Storm Simulation to Improve the Learning Physics Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…

  10. Polypropylene Crystallization as Physical Gelation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogodina, N. V.; Winter, H. H.

    1998-03-01

    Early stages of crystallization of polymers may be viewed as physical gelation. This will be shown with 4 commercial isotactic polypropylenes which have been studied by dynamic mechanical experiments at low degrees of supercooling below their melting temperature. The physical gel point is manifested in the power law behavior of the shear relaxation modulus G(t)=St^-n for λo < t < λ_pg where S is the gel stiffness, n is the relaxation exponent, λo and λ_pg are the shortest and the longest relaxation times correspondingly. With an increase of supercooling the relaxation exponent decreases, gel stiffness increases, the gel time at which the material passes the gel point decreases exponentially. Relative crystallinity is governed by the ratio of gelation and crystallization rates. The degree of crystallinity at the gel point is very low (about 5% or less), that confirms the first result of Schwittay et.al., Faraday Discussions, 101, 93, (1995). This very low degree of crystallinity suggests that only few junctions are necessary to form a network that spans the entire sample. The network in this case is "loose" and the critical gel is soft.

  11. Foundations of Physical Theory, I: Force and Energy. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Nolan E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is one of two units on the foundations of physical theory and the…

  12. Emission of volatile organic compounds from domestic coal stove with the actual alternation of flaming and smoldering combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Chenglong; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the chimney of a prevailing domestic stove fuelled with raw bituminous coal were measured under flaming and smoldering combustion processes in a farmer's house. The results indicated that the concentrations of VOCs quickly increased after the coal loading and achieved their peak values in a few minutes. The peak concentrations of the VOCs under the smoldering combustion process were significantly higher than those under the flaming combustion process. Alkanes accounted for the largest proportion (43.05%) under the smoldering combustion, followed by aromatics (28.86%), alkenes (21.91%), carbonyls (5.81%) and acetylene (0.37%). The emission factors of the total VOCs under the smoldering combustion processes (5402.9 ± 2031.8 mg kg(-1)) were nearly one order of magnitude greater than those under the flaming combustion processes (559.2 ± 385.9 mg kg(-1)). Based on the VOCs emission factors obtained in this study and the regional domestic coal consumption, the total VOCs emissions from domestic coal stoves was roughly estimated to be 1.25 × 10(8) kg a(-1) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  13. Human sperm rheotaxis: a passive physical process

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuoran; Liu, Jun; Meriano, Jim; Ru, Changhai; Xie, Shaorong; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing question in natural reproduction is how mammalian sperm navigate inside female reproductive tract and finally reach the egg cell, or oocyte. Recently, fluid flow was proposed as a long–range guidance cue for sperm navigation. Coitus induces fluid flow from oviduct to uterus, and sperm align themselves against the flow direction and swim upstream, a phenomenon termed rheotaxis. Whether sperm rheotaxis is a passive process dominated by fluid mechanics, or sperm actively sense and adapt to fluid flow remains controversial. Here we report the first quantitative study of sperm flagellar motion during human sperm rheotaxis and provide direct evidence indicating that sperm rheotaxis is a passive process. Experimental results show that there is no significant difference in flagellar beating amplitude and asymmetry between rheotaxis-turning sperm and those sperm swimming freely in the absence of fluid flow. Additionally, fluorescence image tracking shows no Ca2+ influx during sperm rheotaxis turning, further suggesting there is no active signal transduction during human sperm rheotaxis. PMID:27005727

  14. Human sperm rheotaxis: a passive physical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuoran; Liu, Jun; Meriano, Jim; Ru, Changhai; Xie, Shaorong; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-03-01

    A long-standing question in natural reproduction is how mammalian sperm navigate inside female reproductive tract and finally reach the egg cell, or oocyte. Recently, fluid flow was proposed as a long–range guidance cue for sperm navigation. Coitus induces fluid flow from oviduct to uterus, and sperm align themselves against the flow direction and swim upstream, a phenomenon termed rheotaxis. Whether sperm rheotaxis is a passive process dominated by fluid mechanics, or sperm actively sense and adapt to fluid flow remains controversial. Here we report the first quantitative study of sperm flagellar motion during human sperm rheotaxis and provide direct evidence indicating that sperm rheotaxis is a passive process. Experimental results show that there is no significant difference in flagellar beating amplitude and asymmetry between rheotaxis-turning sperm and those sperm swimming freely in the absence of fluid flow. Additionally, fluorescence image tracking shows no Ca2+ influx during sperm rheotaxis turning, further suggesting there is no active signal transduction during human sperm rheotaxis.

  15. Turbulence and Fluid Flow: Perspectives. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, James R.

    This module is part of a series on Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems. The materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process.…

  16. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    PubMed

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps.

  17. Prediction of UV spectra and UV-radiation damage in actual plasma etching processes using on-wafer monitoring technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Fukuda, Seiichi; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    UV radiation during plasma processing affects the surface of materials. Nevertheless, the interaction of UV photons with surface is not clearly understood because of the difficulty in monitoring photons during plasma processing. For this purpose, we have previously proposed an on-wafer monitoring technique for UV photons. For this study, using the combination of this on-wafer monitoring technique and a neural network, we established a relationship between the data obtained from the on-wafer monitoring technique and UV spectra. Also, we obtained absolute intensities of UV radiation by calibrating arbitrary units of UV intensity with a 126 nm excimer lamp. As a result, UV spectra and their absolute intensities could be predicted with the on-wafer monitoring. Furthermore, we developed a prediction system with the on-wafer monitoring technique to simulate UV-radiation damage in dielectric films during plasma etching. UV-induced damage in SiOC films was predicted in this study. Our prediction results of damage in SiOC films shows that UV spectra and their absolute intensities are the key cause of damage in SiOC films. In addition, UV-radiation damage in SiOC films strongly depends on the geometry of the etching structure. The on-wafer monitoring technique should be useful in understanding the interaction of UV radiation with surface and in optimizing plasma processing by controlling UV radiation.

  18. Actual principles of the simulation of state-of-the-art technologies of laser processing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Oleg B.

    2010-07-01

    Here we present the results of mathematical, numerical, and experimental simulation of the processes of interaction between the laser radiation and metals in the technologies of gas-laser cutting of thick-sheet materials and laser gas-powder cladding at the production of coatings and 3D objects by the DMD (Direct Material Deposition) method. The peculiarities of jet 3D flows of the working gases in narrow channels, geometrically identical to keyholes, are studied. It is demonstrated that during the stainless steel cutting, supersonic gas flows form local regions of separation flows which in turn result in the worse carry-away of the metal by the gas flow; these factors increase the roughness (striation) and worsen the surface quality. A vortex flow was found inside the cut at the subsonic jet flows typical for the oxygen gas-laser cutting of low-carbon steel; this flow causes slagging of the cut bottom edge. The processes running inside the laser cut at the fusible metals cutting with the low-power radiation were visualized under the laboratory conditions. Some new concepts of the processes running inside the keyhole have been gained; we also propose the explanations of the mechanisms of striation and other surface defects formation during the cutting of thick-sheet standard metals on the automate laser technological complex. A mathematical model of the volumetric laser-powder cladding is proposed. The submitted results concern the numerical simulation of multi-layer flows of shaping and carrier gases with the gas-jet transportation of powder particles into the laser spot on the substrate.

  19. Actual principles of the simulation of state-of-the-art technologies of laser processing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Oleg B.

    2011-02-01

    Here we present the results of mathematical, numerical, and experimental simulation of the processes of interaction between the laser radiation and metals in the technologies of gas-laser cutting of thick-sheet materials and laser gas-powder cladding at the production of coatings and 3D objects by the DMD (Direct Material Deposition) method. The peculiarities of jet 3D flows of the working gases in narrow channels, geometrically identical to keyholes, are studied. It is demonstrated that during the stainless steel cutting, supersonic gas flows form local regions of separation flows which in turn result in the worse carry-away of the metal by the gas flow; these factors increase the roughness (striation) and worsen the surface quality. A vortex flow was found inside the cut at the subsonic jet flows typical for the oxygen gas-laser cutting of low-carbon steel; this flow causes slagging of the cut bottom edge. The processes running inside the laser cut at the fusible metals cutting with the low-power radiation were visualized under the laboratory conditions. Some new concepts of the processes running inside the keyhole have been gained; we also propose the explanations of the mechanisms of striation and other surface defects formation during the cutting of thick-sheet standard metals on the automate laser technological complex. A mathematical model of the volumetric laser-powder cladding is proposed. The submitted results concern the numerical simulation of multi-layer flows of shaping and carrier gases with the gas-jet transportation of powder particles into the laser spot on the substrate.

  20. Weight-related actual and ideal self-states, discrepancies, and shame, guilt, and pride: examining associations within the process model of self-conscious emotions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Brunet, Jennifer; Ferguson, Leah; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between women's actual:ideal weight-related self-discrepancies and experiences of weight-related shame, guilt, and authentic pride using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and self-conscious emotion (Tracy & Robins, 2004) theories as guiding frameworks. Participants (N=398) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved polynomial regressions, followed by the computation and evaluation of response surface values. Actual and ideal weight self-states were related to shame (R2 = .35), guilt (R2 = .25), and authentic pride (R2 = .08). When the discrepancy between actual and ideal weights increased, shame and guilt also increased, while authentic pride decreased. Findings provide partial support for self-discrepancy theory and the process model of self-conscious emotions. Experiencing weight-related self-discrepancies may be important cognitive appraisals related to shame, guilt, and authentic pride. Further research is needed exploring the relations between self-discrepancies and a range of weight-related self-conscious emotions.

  1. Distributed System of Processing of Data of Physical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, A. A.; Moiseev, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Complication of physical experiments and increasing volumes of experimental data necessitate the application of supercomputer and distributed computing systems for data processing. Design and development of such systems, their mathematical modeling, and investigation of their characteristics and functional capabilities is an urgent scientific and practical problem. In the present work, the characteristics of operation of such distributed system of processing of data of physical experiments are investigated using the apparatus of theory of queuing networks.

  2. Physical Processes in the MAGO/MFT Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garanin, Sergey F; Reinovsky, Robert E.

    2015-03-23

    The Monograph is devoted to theoretical discussion of the physical effects, which are most significant for the alternative approach to the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF): the MAGO/MTF approach. The book includes the description of the approach, its difference from the major CTF systems—magnetic confinement and inertial confinement systems. General physical methods of the processes simulation in this approach are considered, including plasma transport phenomena and radiation, and the theory of transverse collisionless shock waves, the surface discharges theory, important for such kind of research. Different flows and magneto-hydrodynamic plasma instabilities occurring in the frames of this approach are also considered. In virtue of the general physical essence of the considered phenomena the presented results are applicable to a wide range of plasma physics and hydrodynamics processes. The book is intended for the plasma physics and hydrodynamics specialists, post-graduate students, and senior students-physicists.

  3. Ontology of physics for biology: representing physical dependencies as a basis for biological processes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In prior work, we presented the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) as a computational ontology for use in the annotation and representations of biophysical knowledge encoded in repositories of physics-based biosimulation models. We introduced OPB:Physical entity and OPB:Physical property classes that extend available spatiotemporal representations of physical entities and processes to explicitly represent the thermodynamics and dynamics of physiological processes. Our utilitarian, long-term aim is to develop computational tools for creating and querying formalized physiological knowledge for use by multiscale “physiome” projects such as the EU’s Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) and NIH’s Virtual Physiological Rat (VPR). Results Here we describe the OPB:Physical dependency taxonomy of classes that represent of the laws of classical physics that are the “rules” by which physical properties of physical entities change during occurrences of physical processes. For example, the fluid analog of Ohm’s law (as for electric currents) is used to describe how a blood flow rate depends on a blood pressure gradient. Hooke’s law (as in elastic deformations of springs) is used to describe how an increase in vascular volume increases blood pressure. We classify such dependencies according to the flow, transformation, and storage of thermodynamic energy that occurs during processes governed by the dependencies. Conclusions We have developed the OPB and annotation methods to represent the meaning—the biophysical semantics—of the mathematical statements of physiological analysis and the biophysical content of models and datasets. Here we describe and discuss our approach to an ontological representation of physical laws (as dependencies) and properties as encoded for the mathematical analysis of biophysical processes. PMID:24295137

  4. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  5. Process Evaluation Results from the HEALTHY Physical Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student…

  6. Physical processes within the nocturnal stratus-topped boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Moeng, C.H.; Shen, S. ); Randall, D.A. )

    1992-12-15

    Within the stratus-topped boundary layer many physical processes are involved: longwave radiation cooling, entrainment, latent heating, surface heating, solar heating, drizzling, etc. How all processes combine to maintain the turbulence within the stratus-topped boundary layer remains an unsolved problem. The large-eddy simulation technique is used to examine the first four physical processes mentioned. First, the contribution of each physical process to the thermodynamic differences between the updraft and downdraft branches of turbulent circulations is examined through a conditional sampling. Second, these mean thermodynamic differences are shown to express well the vertical distributions of heat and moisture fluxes within stratus-topped boundary layers. These provide a method to validate the process-partitioning technique. (This technique assumes that the net flux profile can be partitioned into different component-flux profiles according to physical processes and that each partitioned component flux is linear in height.) In this paper, the heat and moisture fluxes are process partitioned, and each component flux is found to contribute to the net flux in a way that is consistent with its corresponding process contribution to the mean thermodynamic differences between updrafts and downdrafts. Also, the net flux obtained by summing all component fluxes agrees well with that obtained directly from the large-eddy simulations.

  7. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...

  8. Optimization of NLC machine parameters for specific physics processes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Kathleen A

    1999-10-11

    We examine the optimization of NLC parameters at 500, 1000, and 1500 GeV c.m. energy for specific classes of physics processes, in particular, top and stop pair production, and W-W scattering processes. Our focus is on optimizing the luminosity spectrum, while maintaining or improving machine operability.

  9. The diagnostic process: examples in orthopedic physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Delitto, A; Snyder-Mackler, L

    1995-03-01

    Diagnosis by the physical therapist has received increased attention in the physical therapy literature. The contributions thus far are in agreement that although physical therapists do not identify disease in the sense of pathology, they certainly can identify clusters of signs, symptoms, symptom-related behavior, and other data from patient history and other testing. These clusters can be labeled as classifications or diagnoses by physical therapists and can guide management of the patient. The purpose of this article is to discuss what has yet to be included in articles about diagnosis: the diagnostic process. We first acknowledge the complexity of the diagnostic process, reviewing the study of clinical diagnosis mostly from the field of medicine, including statistical as well as process-tracing approaches. We next discuss steps we believe are important to consider in order to interface the diagnostic process into entry-level training curricula, urging teachers and mentors of future physical therapists to rethink our emphasis on the problem-oriented medical record's "SOAP" type of approach as a clinical decision-making format. We next discuss error and clinical judgment and strategies to constructively deal with error in the clinical environment. We urge physical therapists to strive to reach a point at which we can (1) identify and classify patients in such a manner that allows for more efficient treatment management and (2) demonstrate such abilities in peer-reviewed publication form.

  10. Integrated Modeling and Analysis of Physical Oceanographic and Acoustic Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Oceanographic and Acoustic Processes Timothy F. Duda Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department, MS 11 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods... Hole , MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-2495 fax: (508) 457-2194 email: tduda@whoi.edu James F. Lynch Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering...Department, MS 11 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole , MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-2230 fax: (508) 457-2194 email: jlynch@whoi.edu Ying

  11. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  12. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources).

  13. Modeling Physical Processes at Galactic Scales and Above

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2014-12-16

    What should these lectures be? The subject is so broad that many books can be written about it. I decided to prepare these lectures as if I were teaching my own graduate student. Given my research interests, I selected what the student would need to know to be able to discuss science with me and to work on joint research projects. So, the story presented below is both personal and incomplete, but it does cover several subjects that are poorly represented in the existing textbooks (if at all). Some of topics I focus on below are closely connected, others are disjoint, some are just side detours on specific technical questions. There is an overlapping theme, however. Our goal is to follow the cosmic gas from large scales, low densities, (relatively) simple physics to progressively smaller scales, higher densities, closer relation to galaxies, and more complex and uncertain physics. We follow a "yellow brick road" from the gas well beyond any galaxy confines to the actual sites of star formation and stellar feedback. On the way we will stop at some places for a tour and run without looking back through some others. So, the road will be uneven. The organization of the material is as follows: physics of the intergalactic medium, from intergalactic medium to circumgalactic medium, interstellar medium: gas in galaxies, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  14. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  15. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  16. "It's Actually Very Normal That I'm Different". How Physically Disabled Youth Discursively Construct and Position Their Body/Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Amsterdam, Noortje; Knoppers, Annelies; Jongmans, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how physically disabled youth who participate in mainstream education discursively construct and position themselves in relation to dominant discourses about sport and physicality that mark their bodies as "abnormal" and "deviant". We employ a feminist poststructuralist perspective to analyze the…

  17. Grammatical Processing Using the Mechanisms of Physical Inference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-07

    empty-category principle, subjacency and the anaphoric binding principles that occur in some form in most mature formal theories of human syntax...that a single cognitive process (meronomic inhibition) can help syntactic inference conform to a grammatical constraint (on anaphoric binding ) and on...condition on binding , can be explained by a cognitive process used in physical reasoning. Several consequences for language development and the

  18. Gendering Processes in the Field of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Paivi; Lahelma, Elina

    2010-01-01

    In Finnish secondary schools, girls and boys are taught physical education (PE) in separate groups. A male teacher normally teaches the boys and a female teacher teaches the girls. Focusing on PE teachers' comments in two different ethnographic studies of seventh graders (13-14-year-olds), we examine the processes that reproduce or challenge the…

  19. The s process: Nuclear physics, stellar models, and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käppeler, F.; Gallino, R.; Bisterzo, S.; Aoki, Wako

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He-burning layers of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and during the He- and C-burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular, for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at an ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear and atomic physics, and stellar modeling is reviewed and the corresponding interplay is illustrated by the general abundance patterns of the elements beyond iron and by the effect of sensitive branching points along the s-process path. The strong variations of the s-process efficiency with metallicity bear also interesting consequences for galactic chemical evolution.

  20. Heat Transfer Processes for the Thermal Energy Balance of Organisms. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes heat transfer processes involved in the exchange of heat…

  1. Fluid Dynamics Applied to Streams. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Christina E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module deals specifically with concepts that are basic to fluid flow and…

  2. Transpiration and Leaf Temperature. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, David M.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report introduces two models of the thermal energy budget of a leaf. Typical values for…

  3. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  4. Biological Production in Lakes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Ecological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, R. A.; Carey, G. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Primary production in aquatic ecosystems is carried out by phytoplankton, microscopic plants…

  5. Light and Sound: Evolutionary Aspects. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Leonard D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is concerned with the exchange of energy between an organism and its environment in…

  6. Pressure and Buoyancy in Aquatic Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Christina E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module explores some of the characteristics of aquatic organisms which can be…

  7. Evaluating the Possibilities and Actualities of the Learning Process: How a School Pilot Wellbeing Programme Worked as an Organisational Learning Process Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane; Sice, Petia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the opportunities and challenges of the learning process in practice and explores the case of a local authority school Pilot Wellbeing Programme (PWP) intervention. The aim of the PWP was to create the best workplace conditions and circumstances for people to flourish and mature, both individually and…

  8. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  9. Demonstration of the UNEX Process for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Actual INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Todd, Terry Allen; Romanovskiy, V.; Smirnov, I.; Babain, V.; Zaitsev, B.; Esimantovskiy, V.

    1999-11-01

    A universal solvent extraction (UNEX) process for the simultaneous separation of cesium, strontium, and the actinides from actual radioactive acidic tank waste was demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste solution used in the countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was obtained from tank WM-185. The UNEX process uses a tertiary solvent containing 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, 0.5% polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph2Bu2CMPO) in a diluent consisting of phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13). The countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was performed in a shielded cell facility using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. Removal efficiencies of 99.4%, 99.995%, and 99.96% were obtained for 137Cs, 90Sr, and total alpha, respectively. This is sufficient to reduce the activities of 137Cs, 90Sr, and actinides in the WM-185 waste to below NRC Class A LLW requirements. Flooding and/or precipitate formation were not observed during testing. Significant amounts of the Zr (87%), Ba (>99%), Pb (98.8%), Fe (8%), Ca (10%), Mo (32%), and K (28%) were also removed from the feed with the universal solvent extraction flowsheet. 99Tc, Al, Hg, and Na were essentially inextractable (<1% extracted).

  10. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents.

  11. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed.

  12. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  13. Childhood Obesity, Gender, Actual-Ideal Body Image Discrepancies, and Physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong Children: Cultural Differences in the Value of Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…

  14. Integrated Modeling and Analysis of Physical Oceanographic and Acoustic Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    in the abyssal oceans , where typically SIW/Stopo > 1 for tall seamounts and ridges , the entire bottom topography contributes to the generation of...internal waves. In contrast, for (a) (b) 18 moderate ocean depths (say less than 4 km), where typically SIW/Stopo < 1 for seamounts and ridges , the...Oceanographic and Acoustic Processes Timothy F. Duda Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department, MS 11 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods

  15. The physical basis of explosion and blast injury processes.

    PubMed

    Proud, W G

    2013-03-01

    Energetic materials are widely used in civilian and military applications, such as quarrying and mining, flares, and in munitions. Recent conflicts have involved the widespread use of improvised explosive devices to attack military, civilians and infrastructure. This article gives a basic overview of explosive technology and the underlying physical processes that produce the injuries encountered. In particular aspects relevant to primary and secondary injuries are discussed.

  16. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  17. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes.

    PubMed

    Mashinsky, A L

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus (Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis (Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  18. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Achim; Spadaro, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  19. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, Achim Spadaro, Marcel

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  20. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  1. Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh

    2008-01-15

    The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

  2. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers.

  3. Physical processes in the growth of the continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.

    1988-01-01

    Major mechanisms of crustal addition are volcanism and plutonism at plate boundaries and within plate interiors. One approach to deciding if island arc magmatism dominated ancient crustal growth is to assess the rate at which the process has operated in the recent past. The localized addition rates were found to be comparable to present day global rates. One physical observable that was used to constrain models of crustal growth is sea level. A simple physical model was developed to explore the consequences of constant freeboard (the height of the continents above sea level). Global geoid and sea floor topography data were used to identify and study oceanic plateaus and swells that have either continental crustal roots or anomalously thick ocean crusts.

  4. Physical processes in the plasma mantle of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szego, K.; Shapiro, V. S.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Nagy, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a study, which analyzed data from 10 Pioneer Venus orbits in order to see whether similar wave particle interaction processes also exist in the corresponding region around Venus. The first conclusion is that the apparent physical processes in the mantle are indeed similar around Venus and Mars. The planetary thermal O(+) ions outside the ionopause interact with the shocked solar wind and excite electrostatic waves close to the lower hybrid frequency. These waves propagate inwards, heating first the electron and deeper down in the ionosphere the thermal ion population. The observed superthermal ions are believed to be the product of this wave particle interaction process. It is also concluded that the wave energy transferred to the thermal electrons is of the right magnitude (about 4 x 10 exp 9 eV/sq cm s) to provide the supplemental heat source necessary to reconcile observed and calculated electron temperatures in the ionosphere.

  5. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed.

  6. Compact effector optics for processing in limited physical access situations.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Andreas; Fox, Mahlen D T; French, Paul W; Hettrick, Simon; Hand, Duncan P; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Watkins, Kenneth G; Ireland, Clive L M; Jones, Julian D C

    2003-09-01

    A major advantage of fiber-optic beam delivery in laser materials processing is the ability to guide the laser power to the location where it is needed, leaving the laser itself remote and protected from the process. This is of special importance if the processing is to be performed in a hazardous environment. Particular problems are faced by the nuclear industry where weld repair and surface treatment work are required inside radioactive installations. By use of fiber beam delivery, only part of the delivery system and effector optics become contaminated, but the expensive laser system does not. However, in many cases the region where repair is required is not only radioactive but has only limited physical access, e.g., inside tubes or into corners, which prevents use of standard effector optics. We present a new design to deal with such constraints of a 2-mm outer diameter employing a hollow waveguide and gas shielding. This design is optically characterized and its performance assessed in welding and surface treatment applications. The potential of this compact effector optics in limited physical access situations is clearly demonstrated.

  7. The physics of spreading processes in multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Domenico, Manlio; Granell, Clara; Porter, Mason A.; Arenas, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Despite the success of traditional network analysis, standard networks provide a limited representation of complex systems, which often include different types of relationships (or `multiplexity’) between their components. Such structural complexity has a significant effect on both dynamics and function. Throwing away or aggregating available structural information can generate misleading results and be a major obstacle towards attempts to understand complex systems. The recent multilayer approach for modelling networked systems explicitly allows the incorporation of multiplexity and other features of realistic systems. It allows one to couple different structural relationships by encoding them in a convenient mathematical object. It also allows one to couple different dynamical processes on top of such interconnected structures. The resulting framework plays a crucial role in helping to achieve a thorough, accurate understanding of complex systems. The study of multilayer networks has also revealed new physical phenomena that remain hidden when using ordinary graphs, the traditional network representation. Here we survey progress towards attaining a deeper understanding of spreading processes on multilayer networks, and we highlight some of the physical phenomena related to spreading processes that emerge from multilayer structure.

  8. Spring Deposits on Mars: Physical Processes from Terrestrial Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.

    2003-01-01

    An important first step in the current Mars exploration strategy is the detection of sites where there is evidence for past or present near-surface water on Mars. This study evaluates the large-scale morphology of spring deposits and the physical processes of their formation, growth, and evolution in terms that relate to (1) their identification in image data, (2) their formation, evolution, and preservation in the environment of Mars, and (3) their potential as sites of long-term or late stage shallow groundwater emergence at the surface of Mars.

  9. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    PubMed

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between wheat kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  10. Physics students' approaches to learning and cognitive processes in solving physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Josee

    This study examined traditional instruction and problem-based learning (PBL) approaches to teaching and the extent to which they foster the development of desirable cognitive processes, including metacognition, critical thinking, physical intuition, and problem solving among undergraduate physics students. The study also examined students' approaches to learning and their perceived role as physics students. The research took place in the context of advanced courses of electromagnetism at a Canadian research university. The cognitive science, expertise, physics and science education, instructional psychology, and discourse processes literature provided the framework and background to conceptualize and structure this study. A within-stage mixed-model design was used and a number of instruments, including a survey, observation grids, and problem sets were developed specifically for this study. A special one-week long problem-based learning (PBL) intervention was also designed. Interviews with the instructors participating in the study provided complementary data. Findings include evidence that students in general engage in metacognitive processes in the organization of their personal study time. However, this potential, including the development of other cognitive processes, might not be stimulated as much as it could in the traditional lecture instructional context. The PBL approach was deemed as more empowering for the students. An unexpected finding came from the realisation that a simple exposure to a structured exercise of problem-solving (pre-test) was sufficient to produce superior planning and solving strategies on a second exposure (post-test) even for the students who had not been exposed to any special treatment. Maturation was ruled out as a potential threat to the validity of this finding. Another promising finding appears to be that the problem-based learning (PBL) intervention tends to foster the development of cognitive competencies, particularly

  11. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF REMOTELY-SENSED TIR EMISSION: linking anomalies to physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; van der Meijde, M.; Hecker, C.; van der Werff, H.; Ettema, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the last 15 years, remote sensing has been evaluated for detecting thermal anomalies as precursor to earthquakes. Important issues that need yet to be tackled include definition of: (a) thermal anomaly, taking into account weather conditions, observation settings and ';natural' variability caused by background sources (b) the length of observations required for this purpose; and (c) the location of detected anomalies, which should be physically related to the tectonic activity. To determine whether thermal anomalies are statistical noise, mere meteorological conditions, or actual earthquake-related phenomena, we apply a novel approach. We use brightness temperature (top-of-atmosphere) data from thermal infrared imagery acquired at a hypertemporal (sub-hourly) interval, from geostationary weather satellites over multiple years. The length of the time series allows for analysis of meteorological effects (diurnal, seasonal or annual trends) and background variability, through the application of a combined spatial and temporal filter to distinguish extreme occurrences from trends. The definition of potential anomalies is based on statistical techniques, taking into account published (geo)physical characteristics of earthquake related thermal anomalies. We use synthetic data to test the performance of the proposed detection method and track potential factors affecting the results. Subsequently, we apply the method on original data from Iran and Turkey, in quiescent and earthquake-struck periods alike. We present our findings with main focus to assess resulting anomalies in relation to physical processes thereby considering: (a) meteorological effects, (b) the geographical, geological and environmental settings, and (c) physically realistic distances and potential physical relations with the activity of causative faults.

  12. Solar physics applications of computer graphics and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Computer graphics devices coupled with computers and carefully developed software provide new opportunities to achieve insight into the geometry and time evolution of scalar, vector, and tensor fields and to extract more information quickly and cheaply from the same image data. Two or more different fields which overlay in space can be calculated from the data (and the physics), then displayed from any perspective, and compared visually. The maximum regions of one field can be compared with the gradients of another. Time changing fields can also be compared. Images can be added, subtracted, transformed, noise filtered, frequency filtered, contrast enhanced, color coded, enlarged, compressed, parameterized, and histogrammed, in whole or section by section. Today it is possible to process multiple digital images to reveal spatial and temporal correlations and cross correlations. Data from different observatories taken at different times can be processed, interpolated, and transformed to a common coordinate system.

  13. Rapid rotation and mixing in active OB stars - Physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Jean-Paul

    2011-07-01

    In the standard description of stellar interiors, O and B stars possess a thoroughly mixed convective core surrounded by a stable radiative envelope in which no mixing occurs. But as is well known, this model disagrees strongly with the spectroscopic diagnostic of these stars, which reveals the presence at their surface of chemical elements that have been synthesized in the core. Hence the radiation zone must be the seat of some mild mixing mechanisms. The most likely to operate there are linked with the rotation: these are the shear instabilites triggered by the differential rotation, and the meridional circulation caused by the changes in the rotation profile accompanying the non-homologous evolution of the star. In addition to these hydrodynamical processes, magnetic stresses may play an important role in active stars, which host a magnetic field. These physical processes will be critically examined, together with some others that have been suggested.

  14. Consistency check of photon beam physical data after recommissioning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadman, B.; Chawapun, N.; Ua-apisitwong, S.; Asakit, T.; Chumpu, N.; Rueansri, J.

    2016-03-01

    In radiotherapy, medical linear accelerator (Linac) is the key system used for radiation treatments delivery. Although, recommissioning was recommended after major modification of the machine by AAPM TG53, but it might not be practical in radiotherapy center with heavy workloads. The main purpose of this study was to compare photon beam physical data between initial commissioning and recommissioning of 6 MV Elekta Precise linac. The parameters for comparing were the percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam profiles. The clinical commissioning test cases followed IAEA-TECDOC-1583 were planned on REF 91230 IMRT Dose Verification Phantom by Philips’ Pinnacle treatment planning system. The Delta4PT was used for dose distribution verification with 90% passing criteria of the gamma index (3%/3mm). Our results revealed that the PDDs and beam profiles agreed within a tolerance limit recommended by TRS430. Most of the point doses and dose distribution verification passed the acceptance criteria. This study showed the consistency of photon beam physical data after recommissioning process. There was a good agreement between initial commissioning and recommissioning within a tolerance limit, demonstrated that the full recommissioning process might not be required. However, in the complex treatment planning geometry, the initial data should be applied with great caution.

  15. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    V Gyurjyan, D Abbott, J Carbonneau, G Gilfoyle, D Heddle, G Heyes, S Paul, C Timmer, D Weygand, E Wolin

    2011-12-01

    In traditional physics data processing (PDP) systems, data location is static and is accessed by analysis applications. In comparison, CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is an environment where data processing algorithms filter continuously flowing data. In CLARA's domain of loosely coupled services, data is not stored, but rather flows from one service to another, mutating constantly along the way. Agents, performing event processing, can then subscribe to particular data/events at any stage of the data transformation, and make intricate decisions (e.g. particle ID) by correlating events from multiple, parallel data streams and/or services. This paper presents a PDP application development framework based on service oriented and event driven architectures. This system allows users to design (Java, C++, and Python languages are supported) and deploy data processing services, as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation, which allows complex service composition and integration without writing code. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design will be presented.

  16. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  17. Physical Processes Involved In Yellow Sea Solitary Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Lamb, K.; Hawkins, J.; Teixeira, M.

    The study area is located south of the Shandong peninsula. In this area, soliton gener- ation and propagation studies are per formed with the Lamb(1994) model. The model is nonhydrostatic and is formulated in 2 1/2 dimensions for terrain following c oordi- nates. In the area, 20 to 30 m topographic variations over distances of 10 to 20 km are found to occur in the digit al atlas of Choi (1999). The area is shallow with maximum depths ranging from 40 m to 70 m. Along the southern boundary of the region the semi-diurnal tidal strength magnitude varies from .6 m/sec to 1.2 m/sec, Fang(1994). We show that, for sum mer conditions, the existing physical processes associated with the semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations , in the shelfbreak region, lead to the formation of internal bores in the model simulations. Through acting phys- ical proce sses, the internal bores propagate on and off the shelf. A disintegration process of internal bores into solitary waves occ urs through frequency and ampli- tude dispersion. SAR observations of the area show images containing six events con- sisting of internal bores and solitary waves that travel in a well-defined direction for two and a half days. The origin of the trains appeared to be at a point along a steep topo graphic drop. The SAR observations are used for guiding and tuning the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths that are within a factor of 2 of the SAR data. The modeled amp litudes are within a factor of 2 of amplitudes obtained with a two-layer model and the SAR data The signature on the acoustical field of ongoing physical processes through the interaction of the resultant oceanic struct ure with the acoustical field is pursued. Internal bore and solitary wave structures interact with the acoustic field. A re distribution of acoustical energy to higher acoustical modes occurs at some fre- quencies. Mode decomposition of the

  18. Experimental Studies of Nuclear Physics Input for γ -Process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Philipp; Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Netterdon, Lars; Zilges, Andreas

    The predictions of reaction rates for the γ process in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model crucially depend on nuclear physics input-parameters as optical-model potentials (OMP) or γ -ray strength functions. Precise cross-section measurements at astrophysically relevant energies help to constrain adopted models and, therefore, to reduce the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted reaction rates. During the last years, several cross-sections of charged-particle induced reactions on heavy nuclei have been measured at the University of Cologne. Either by means of the in-beam method at the HORUS γ -ray spectrometer or the activation technique using the Cologne Clover Counting Setup, total and partial cross-sections could be used to further constrain different models for nuclear physics input-parameters. It could be shown that modifications on the α -OMP in the case of the 112Sn(α , γ ) reaction also improve the description of the recently measured cross sections of the 108Cd(α , γ ) and 108Cd(α , n) reaction and other reactions as well. Partial cross-sections of the 92Mo(p, γ ) reaction were used to improve the γ -strength function model in 93Tc in the same way as it was done for the 89Y(p, γ ) reaction.

  19. Corrosion processes of physical vapor deposition-coated metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Protecting metallic implants from the harsh environment of physiological fluids is essential to guaranteeing successful long-term use in a patient's body. Chemical degradation may lead to the failure of an implant device in two different ways. First, metal ions may cause inflammatory reactions in the tissues surrounding the implant and, in extreme cases, these reactions may inflict acute pain on the patient and lead to loosening of the device. Therefore, increasing wear strength is beneficial to the performance of the metallic implant. Second, localized corrosion processes contribute to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, and corrosion fatigue is the main reason for the mechanical failure of metallic implants. Common biomedical alloys such as stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, and titanium alloys are prone to at least one of these problems. Vapor-deposited hard coatings act directly to improve corrosion, wear, and fatigue resistances of metallic materials. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection is strongly related to the structure of the physical vapor deposition layer. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the correlation between the structure of physical vapor deposition layers and the corrosion properties of metallic implants.

  20. Convection in the Physical Vapor Transport Process. 1; Thermal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of convection on diffusive-convective physical vapor transport process are examined computationally. We analyze conditions ranging from typical laboratory conditions to conditions achievable only in a low gravity environment. This corresponds to thermal Rayleigh numbers Ra(sub tau) ranging from 1.80 x 10 to 1.92 x 10(exp 6). Our results indicate that the effect of the sublimation and condensation fluxes at the boundaries is to increase the threshold of instability. For typical ground based conditions, time dependent oscillatory convection can occur. This results in unsteady transport, and non-uniform temperature and concentration gradients at the crystal interface. Spectral analysis of the flow field shows parametric regions exhibiting both an oscillatory approach to steady state and a chaotic transient to a periodic state. Low gravity conditions stabilize the flow field. Convective effects are effectively reduced, thus resulting in uniform temperature and concentration gradients at the interface, a desirable condition for crystal growth.

  1. Convection in the Physical Vapor Transport Process-I: Thermal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of convection on diffusive-convective physical vapor transport process are examined computationally. We analyze conditions ranging from typical laboratory conditions to conditions achievable only in a low gravity environment. This corresponds to thermal Rayleigh numbers Ra, ranging from 1.80 x 10 to 1.92 x 10(exp 6). Our results indicate that the effect of the sublimation and condensation fluxes at the boundaries is to increase the threshold of instability. For typical ground based conditions, time dependent oscillatory convection can occur. This results in unsteady transport, and non- uniform temperature and concentration gradients at the crystal interface. Spectral analysis of the flow field shows parametric regions exhibiting both an oscillatory approach to steady state and a chaotic transient to a periodic state. Low gravity conditions stabilize the flow field. Convective effects are effectively reduced, thus resulting in uniform temperature and concentration gradients at the interface, a desirable condition for crystal growth.

  2. Physical processes in prediction of explosive maritime cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, C.-S.; Elsberry, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive maritime cyclogenetic events are usually aligned with the warm currents off the east coasts of Japan and the U.S. One such event occurred during FGGE in an area which featured good instrumented ship and aircraft coverage. The UCLA 4th order GMC was employed to generate predictions of the event for comparisons with the real-world data. FGGE III-b data were used to initialize the model calculations. Attention was directed to the physical processes causing the onset of the cyclogenesis, particularly the heat budgets of the fluxes involved. The diabatic heating was observed to be equivalent to the horizontal temperature advection. The main source of energy around the cyclone center was identified as the conversion of energy from static energy to kinetic energy. Further analyses of similar events are required if the present results are to be validated.

  3. Physical processes associated with current collection by plasma contactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent flight data confirms laboratory observations that the release of neutral gas increases plasma sheath currents. Plasma contactors are devices which release a partially ionized gas in order to enhance the current flow between a spacecraft and the space plasma. Ionization of the expellant gas and the formation of a double layer between the anode plasma and the space plasma are the dominant physical processes. A theory is presented of the interaction between the contactor plasma and the background plasma. The conditions for formation of a double layer between the two plasmas are derived. Double layer formation is shown to be a consequence of the nonlinear response of the plasmas to changes in potential. Numerical calculations based upon this model are compared with laboratory measurements of current collection by hollow cathode-based plasma contactors.

  4. Role of the subgrid-scale physical processes in supermodelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, J.

    2011-12-01

    The basic ides of supermodelling is in overcoming deficits of existing models by combining them together to improve our ability of climate simulations and prediction. However, in order to exploit this method better, we have to pay special attention to the common defects of the current climate models. Representation of subgrid-scale physical processes is such a particular example. . The present talk presents the author's point of view on representation of subgrid-scale processes in the above general question in mind. The focus of the talk will be on interplay between traditional parameterizations and recently proposed superparameterization (also often called "multiscale modelling"), but it also covers the issues of downscaling as well as possibilities of introducing mesh-refinement approaches into the context of subgrid-scale modelling. The author's main perspective is that the subgrid-scale parameterization should not be considered as a distinguished approach in contrast to explicit (more direct) modelling, such as superparameterization, but a hierarchy of modelling approaches should be constructed by taking various intermediate approaches. The mass-flux convection parameterization is taken as an example in order to make this point. It will be shown that at the most basic level, the mass-flux parameterization is equivalent to a finite-volume numerical approach, though various additional approximations and hypotheses must be introduced in order to arrive at a classical mass-flux parameterization. At the mathematical level, the multiresolution analysis based on wavelet provides a basic source of inspirations for developing this general perspective. From this perspective, the issue of parameterization is considered as "compression" of a full explicit model in the same sense as the wavelet can be used for the image compression. This perspective also leads to a concept of compression of physics. Compression of cloud microphysics would be the most urgent issue

  5. Physical Education for Children: A Focus on the Teaching Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Bette J.; And Others

    This book is written for the physical education teacher at the elementary school level. In its ten chapters the following topics are covered: (1) an historical and philosophical examination of physical education in the American schools; (2) changes and new goals in the field of physical education; (3) concepts of learning and development in the…

  6. Fractionation of the noble metals by physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhaus, Chris; Bockrath, Conny; Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora; Laurenz, Vera; Berndt, Jasper

    2006-12-01

    During partial melting in the earth’s mantle, the noble metals become fractionated. Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh tend to remain in the mantle residue whereas Pt, Pd, and Re behave mildly incompatible and are sequestered to the silicate melt. There is consensus that sulfide plays a role in the fractionation process; the major noble metal repository in the mantle is sulfide, and most primitive mantle melts are sulfide-saturated when they leave their mantle sources. However, with sulfide-silicate partitioning, the fractionation cannot be modeled properly. All sulfide-silicate partition coefficients are so extremely high that a silicate melt segregating from a mantle source with residual sulfide should be largely platinum-group elements free. We offer a physical alternative to sulfide-silicate chemical partitioning and provide a mechanism of generating a noble metal-rich melt from a sulfide-saturated source: Because sulfide is at least partially molten at asthenospheric temperature, it will behave physically incompatible during melt segregation, and a silicate melt segregating from a mantle residue will entrain molten residual sulfide in suspension and incorporate it in the basaltic pool melt. The noble metal abundances of a basalt then become independent of sulfide-silicate chemical partitioning. They reflect the noble metal abundances in the drained sulfide fraction as well as the total amount of sulfide entrained. Contrary to convention, we suggest that a fertile, sulfide-rich mantle source has more potential to generate a noble metal-enriched basaltic melt than a refractory mantle source depleted by previous partial melting events.

  7. Physical Properties and Processing of Asteroid Regoliths and Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pascal Clayton-Clyde

    1997-11-01

    Four aspects of the physical properties and processing of asteroid regoliths and interiors are examined: (1) impact cratering, (2) thermal cycling, (3) electrostatic processing, and (4) asteroid densities. These aspects contribute to understanding the production, emplacement, redistribution, segregation, disruption, loss, and overall state of regoliths on asteroids. Impact cratering (Chapter 2) is considered through a study of the scaling characteristics and distribution of the large blocks revealed on 243 Ida in Galileo images. The blocks are interpreted as coarse impact ejecta fragments, most of them remaining within or in the vicinity of the large impact structures from which they were excavated. Alternative origins and the probable age of the blocks are discussed. Extrapolation of ejecta scaling laws applicable to Ida lead to predicting maximum ejecta blocks sizes on other asteroids. Thermal cycling, the periodic stressing and straining of asteroid regolith materials due to insolation-induced diurnal and orbital temperature variations, is investigated as another process whereby asteroid regoliths might be disrupted (thermal weathering and disaggregation; thermal quakes), and transported (thermal creep) (Chapter 3). Thermal cycling is found to be of minor significance in the evolution of asteroid regoliths. Electrostatic processing, the levitation, transport, and/or ejection of charged dust under electrostatic fields produced on resistive surfaces by insolation-induced photoelectron emission, is proposed as a contributing mechanism whereby asteroid regoliths may be sorted, redistributed, and winnowed of their finest particle size fraction (Chapter 4). The process may help explain differences in regolith texture between asteroids and the Moon, and among various types of asteroids. Finally, asteroid and meteorite density data are reviewed and interpreted to constrain the internal structure of asteroids (Chapter 5). A relation between meteorite and asteroid

  8. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the beach, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and beach dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed beach response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating beach erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term beach evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods

  9. Convection in the Physical Vapor Transport Process. Part 2; Thermosolutal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the effect of an inert gas on the diffusive-convective physical vapor transport process. We investigate the case when the temperature gradient is stabilizing and the concentration gradient is destabilizing for a wide parametric range. When an inert gas is present, the thermal and solutal convection oppose each other. The solutal field is destabilizing while the thermal field and the advective-diffusive flux stabilize the flow field. When the pressure of the inert component is increased, the stabilizing effect of the advective-diffusive flux is decreased. The intensity of convection as well as the oscillatory transient time increases. Below, the critical Rayleigh number, the nonlinear dynamics of the flow field show an oscillatory approach to steady state. For parametric values in the neighborhood of the critical Rayleigh number, the flow field undergoes a chaotic transient which settles to a periodic state. The asymptotic state of the flow field shows that growth and amalgamation of cells yields an overturning motion which results in an asymmetric cellular structure. The low gravity environment yields the stabilizing advective-diffusive flow which results in uniform temperature and concentration gradients near the crystal interface.

  10. Chronic stroke survivors achieve comparable outcomes following virtual task specific repetitive training guided by a wearable robotic orthosis (UL-EXO7) and actual task specific repetitive training guided by a physical therapist.

    PubMed

    Byl, Nancy N; Abrams, Gary M; Pitsch, Erica; Fedulow, Irina; Kim, Hyunchul; Simkins, Matt; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Survivors post stroke commonly have upper limb impairments. Patients can drive neural reorganization, brain recovery and return of function with task specific repetitive training (TSRT). Fifteen community independent stroke survivors (25-75 years, >6 months post stroke, Upper Limb Fugl Meyer [ULFM] scores 16-39) participated in this randomized feasibility study to compare outcomes of upper limb TSRT guided by a robotic orthosis (bilateral or unilateral) or a physical therapist. After 6 weeks of training (18 h), across all subjects, there were significant improvements in depression, flexibility, strength, tone, pain and voluntary movement (ULFM) (p < 0.05; effect sizes 0.49-3.53). Each training group significantly improved ULFM scores and range of motion without significant group differences. Virtual or actual TSRT performed with a robotic orthosis or a physical therapist significantly reduced arm impairments around the shoulder and elbow without significant gains in fine motor hand control, activities of daily living or independence.

  11. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  12. Chemical and physical interactions of an in situ oil-shale process water with a surface soil

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, J.A.; Stuber, H.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical interactions of an in situ oil-shale process (retort) water with a surface soil were investigated by soil and effluent analyses of three soil-column experiments whereby soil was leached with: (1) Distilled water, (2) a synthetic retort water containing only inorganic solutes, and (3) an actual retort water produced by in situ processing of oil shale. Major findings of this study include an ion exchange-precipitation reaction, in which exchangeable calcium in the soil is displaced by ammonium from retort water and precipitated as carbonate by inorganic carbon in retort water. This precipitation process affects soil permeability. Ammonium was strongly adsorbed from retort water by the soil, and was not removed by subsequent distilled-water leaching and drying. 26 refs.

  13. Physical conditions and chemical processes during single-bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannigan, David J.

    In order to gain insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes associated with single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), nonvolatile liquids such as concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO 4) were explored. The SBSL radiant powers from H2SO 4 aqueous solutions were found to be over 103 times larger than those typically observed for SBSL from water. In addition, the emission spectra contain extensive bands and lines from molecules, atoms, and ions. The population of high-energy states of atoms (20 eV) and ions (37 eV) provides definitive experimental evidence of the formation of a plasma. By using various techniques (e.g., small molecules and atoms as intra-cavity probes, standard methods of plasma diagnostics, and spectrometric methods of pyrometry), it was possible to quantify the heavy particle temperatures (15,000 K), heavy particle densities (1021 cm-3) and pressures (4,000 bar), and plasma electron densities (1018 cm -3) generated during SBSL from H2SO4. It was also found that SBSL from H2SO4 containing mixtures of noble gas and air was quenched up to a critical acoustic pressure, above which the radiant powers increased by 104. From the spectral profiles it was determined that the air limited heating and plasma formation by endothermic chemical reactions and energy-transfer reactions. Simultaneous stroboscopic and spectroscopic studies of SBSL in H2SO4 containing alkali-metal sulfates showed that dramatic changes in the bubble dynamics correlated with the onset of emission from nonvolatile species such as Na and K atoms. These effects were attributed to the development of interfacial instabilities with increasing translational velocity of the bubble.

  14. [Nursing observation chart: between the objectives targeted by this model and actual practice, where should we place the reflective process of the nurse? Results of the study. Future prospects of teaching tools].

    PubMed

    Ripoche, Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    The research presented below examines the focus charting model in French nursing practice. Between the objectives targeted by this model and actual practice, where to place the reflective process of the nurse? To answer this question, the methodology used is the comprehensive approach. It is characterized by the production of semi-structured interviews of nurses using the model studied, but also by the in situ observation of practices. The results show that nurses engaged a reflexive process in the use of the focus charting model. This reflexive process is "in" the action rather than "on" or "for" the action. Nurse's position vis a vis at their disposal is investigated.

  15. Physical Modeling of Hydrologic Processes in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassan, A.; Sharif, H.; Xie, H.; Terrance, J.; Mcclelland, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood magnitude and recurrence modeling and analysis play an important role in water resources planning, management, and permitting. In both urban and rural situations, flood analysis is important to flood plain mapping and the development of best management practices for both environmental and engineering concerns. The majority of annual precipitation in South Texas results from extreme, large storm events, which produce flash floods (the number one cause of weather-related deaths in Texas). Surface geology such as such as Edward out crop faulting zone at Balcones escarpment has different properties than the classified soil; affect the soil parameters such as infiltration or hydraulic conductivity. This result in a very high infiltration and channel loss as a recharge component to the Edward aquifer from the surface runoff and rivers that are crossing the recharge zone, such as Nueces, San Antonio, Guadalupe and Colorado Rivers. Water quality is another issue in hydrological modeling, specifically in south central Texas. Water quality assessment is another issue on hydrological modeling in south central Texas. SWAT Soil and water assessment tool model is used for water quality assessment in San Antonio River basin since the rainfall runoff simulation is a necessity to derive the surface water quality process especially in the streams. With the advances in the Geographical information system (GIS) and instant precipitation products such as next generation radar (NEXRAD) and data acquisition for these products, the accuracy of the hydrological models has improved. Different hydrological models were used to evaluate the surface water and other hydrological cycle components in different watersheds in south central Texas through different events and their different causes and effects in these watersheds. Some of them are semi distributed and lumped models such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and physically based

  16. Physical Education Resources, Class Management, and Student Physical Activity Levels: A Structure-Process-Outcome Approach to Evaluating Physical Education Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Fitzpatrick, Leslie-Anne; Sanchez, Betty M.; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to empirically evaluate specific human, curricular, and material resources that maximize student opportunities for physical activity during physical education (PE) class time. A structure-process-outcome model was proposed to identify the resources that influence the frequency of PE and intensity of physical…

  17. Examination of the physical processes associated with the keyhole region of variable polarity plasma arc welds in aluminum alloy 2219

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The morphology and properties of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld composite zone are intimately related to the physical processes associated with the keyhole. This study examined the effects of oxide, halide, and sulfate additions to the weld plate on the keyhole and the weld pool. Changes in both the arc plasma character and the bead morphology were correlated to the chemical environment of the weld. Pool behavior was observed by adding flow markers to actual VPPA welds. A low temperature analog to the welding process was developed. The results of the study indicate that oxygen, even at low partial pressures, can disrupt the stable keyhole and weld pool. The results also indicate that the Marangoni surface tension driven flows dominate the weld pool over the range of welding currents studied.

  18. Physical processes of quartz amorphization due to friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.; Miura, T.; Arakawa, I.; Shimizu, I.

    2011-12-01

    Solid state amorphization of minerals occurs in indentations, in shock experiments, and in high pressure metamorphic quartz rock. A production of amorphous material is also reported in experimentally created silicate gouges (Yund et al., 1990), and in San Andreas Fault core samples (Janssen et al., 2010). Rotary-shear friction experiments of quartz rocks imply dynamic weakening at seismic rates (Di Toro et al., 2004). These experiments have suggested that weakening is caused by formation and thixotropic behavior of a silica gel layer which comprises of very fine particles of hydrated amorphous silica on fault gouges (Goldsby & Tullis, 2002; Hayashi & Tsutsumi, 2010). Therefore, physical processes of amorphization are important to better understand weakening of quartz bearing rocks. In this study, we conducted a pin-on-disk friction experiment to investigate details of quartz amorphization (Muto et al, 2007). Disks were made of single crystals of synthetic and Brazilian quartz. The normal load F and sliding velocity V were ranged from 0.01 N to 1 N and from 0.01 m/s to 2.6 m/s, respectively. The friction was conducted using quartz and diamond pins (curvature radii of 0.2 ~ 3 mm) to large displacements (> 1000 m) under controlled atmosphere. We analyzed experiment samples by Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR. Raman spectroscopy (excitation wavelength 532.1 nm) provides lattice vibration modes, and was used to investigate the degree of amorphization of samples. Raman spectra of friction tracks on the disk show clear bands at wavenumbers of 126, 204, 356, 394, and 464 cm-1, characteristic of intact α-quartz. Remarkably, in experiments using diamond pins (F = 0.8 N, normal stress σr calculated by contact area = 293 ~ 440 MPa, V = 0.12 ~ 0.23 m/s), the bands at 204 and 464 cm-1 gradually broaden to reveal shoulders on the higher-wavenumber sides of these peaks. Especially, two distinguished peaks at 490 and 515 cm-1 and a weak broad peak at 606 cm-1 appear sporadically on

  19. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  20. Heat Balance of a Sheep in the Sun. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, W. H.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Specifically, this module develops a method for calculating the exchange of heat between an…

  1. Animal Thermoregulation and the Operative Environmental (Equivalent) Temperature. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Thermoregulation is defined as the ability of an organism to modify its body temperature. This…

  2. A Library Manager's Guide to the Physical Processing of Nonprint Materials. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Karen C.; Smyth, Shelia A.

    The librarian is presented with a foundation for decision making as it relates to the physical processing of nonprint materials, and with a demonstration of how these decisions move from theoretical to practical physical processing issues. Such issues include packaging and repackaging; treating accompanying materials; labeling; preparing…

  3. Perceptual and processing differences between physical and dichorhinic odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Schütze, M; Negoias, S; Olsson, M J; Hummel, T

    2014-01-31

    Perceptual integration of sensory input from our two nostrils has received little attention in comparison to lateralized inputs for vision and hearing. Here, we investigated whether a binary odor mixture of eugenol and l-carvone (smells of cloves and caraway) would be perceived differently if presented as a mixture in one nostril (physical mixture), vs. the same two odorants in separate nostrils (dichorhinic mixture). In parallel, we investigated whether the different types of presentation resulted in differences in olfactory event-related potentials (OERP). Psychophysical ratings showed that the dichorhinic mixtures were perceived as more intense than the physical mixtures. A tendency for shift in perceived quality was also observed. In line with these perceptual changes, the OERP showed a shift in latencies and amplitudes for early (more "sensory") peaks P1 and N1 whereas no significant differences were observed for the later (more "cognitive") peak P2. The results altogether suggest that the peripheral level is a site of interaction between odorants. Both psychophysical ratings and, for the first time, electrophysiological measurements converge on this conclusion.

  4. Coupled model of physical and biological processes affecting maize pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R.; Westgate, M.; Riese, J.; Falk, M.; Takle, E.

    2003-04-01

    Controversy over the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has led to increased interest in evaluating and controlling the potential for inadvertent outcrossing in open-pollinated crops such as maize. In response to this problem we have developed a Lagrangian model of pollen dispersion as a component of a coupled end-to-end (anther to ear) physical-biological model of maize pollination. The Lagrangian method is adopted because of its generality and flexibility: first, the method readily accommodates flow fields of arbitrary complexity; second, each element of the material being transported can be identified by its source, time of release, or other properties of interest. The latter allows pollen viability to be estimated as a function of such factors as travel time, temperature, and relative humidity, so that the physical effects of airflow and turbulence on pollen dispersion can be considered together with the biological aspects of pollen release and viability. Predicted dispersion of pollen compares well both to observations and to results from a simpler Gaussian plume model. Ability of the Lagrangian model to handle complex air flows is demonstrated by application to pollen dispersion in the vicinity of an agricultural shelter belt. We also show results indicating that pollen viability can be quantified by an "aging function" that accounts for temperature, humidity, and time of exposure.

  5. Flagella, flexibility and flow: Physical processes in microbial ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumley, D. R.; Rusconi, R.; Son, K.; Stocker, R.

    2015-12-01

    How microorganisms interact with their environment and with their conspecifics depends strongly on their mechanical properties, on the hydrodynamic signatures they generate while swimming and on fluid flows in their environment. The rich fluid-structure interaction between flagella - the appendages microorganisms use for propulsion - and the surrounding flow, has broad reaching effects for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms. Here, we discuss selected recent advances in our understanding of the physical ecology of microorganisms, which have hinged on the ability to directly interrogate the movement of individual cells and their swimming appendages, in precisely controlled fluid environments, and to image them at appropriately fast timescales. We review how a flagellar buckling instability can unexpectedly serve a fundamental function in the motility of bacteria, we elucidate the role of hydrodynamics and flexibility in the emergent properties of groups of eukaryotic flagella, and we show how fluid flows characteristic of microbial habitats can strongly bias the migration and spatial distribution of bacteria. The topics covered here are illustrative of the potential inherent in the adoption of experimental methods and conceptual frameworks from physics in understanding the lives of microorganisms.

  6. Nuclear Physics Issues of r-Process Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, K.-L.

    2006-03-13

    Nucleosynthesis theory predicts that about half of the chemical elements above iron are formed in explosive stellar scenarios by the r-process, i.e. a combination of rapid neutron captures, inverse photodisintegrations, and slower {beta}-decays, {beta}-delayed processes, as well as fission and possibly interactions with neutrinos. A correct modelling of this process, therefore, requires the knowledge of nuclear properties very far from stability and a detailed description of the astrophysical environments. With respect to nuclear data, after an initial period of measuring classical 'waiting-point' nuclei with magic neutron numbers, recent investigations have paid special attention to shape transitions and the erosion of classical shell gaps with possible occurrence of new magic numbers. The status of experimental and theoretical nuclear data on masses and {beta}-decay properties will be briefly reviewed, and consequences on the overall r-process matter flow up to the cosmochronometers 232Th and 238U will be discussed.

  7. Constraining the North Pacific carbon sink: biological and physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J.; Lozier, M.

    2010-12-01

    The transition zone region of the North Pacific is a notably large sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide on a mean annual basis, though seasonally the region varies between strong wintertime uptake and weak summertime outgassing. Because the direction of air-sea carbon flux is effectively set by the sea surface pCO2, we seek to identify and quantify those processes most responsible for its variability in this region. While changes in temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, and alkalinity are all factors that impact sea surface pCO2 on a seasonal basis, on a mean annual basis the region must be maintained as a sink by processes that remove carbon from surface waters: biological drawdown as well as the result of advection/mixing. In this work we constrain the quantitative contribution of each of these processes throughout an annual cycle. The least constrained of these processes is the biological pump, which we estimate in two independent ways: bottom-up, using satellite data-based primary productivity models coupled with export estimates from literature; and top-down, by determining what the biological pump would need to be to maintain the observed sea surface pCO2 values in the region, given our estimates of all the other regulatory processes.

  8. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  9. Aerosol physical properties and their impact on climate change processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Piskozub, Jacek; Drozdowska, Violetta; Gutowska, Dorota; Rozwadowska, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing aerosols involves the specification of not only their spatial and temporal distributions but their multi-component composition, particle size distribution and physical properties as well. Due to their light attenuation and scattering properties, aerosols influence radiance measured by satellite for ocean color remote sensing. Studies of marine aerosol production and transport are important for many earth sciences such as cloud physics, atmospheric optics, environmental pollution studies, and interaction between ocean and atmosphere. It was one of the reasons for the growth in the number of research programs dealing with marine aerosols. Sea salt aerosols are among the most abundant components of the atmospheric aerosol, and thus it exerts a strong influence on radiation, cloud formation, meteorology and chemistry of the marine atmosphere. An accurate understanding and description of these mechanisms is crucial to modeling climate and climate change. This work provides information on combined aerosol studies made with lidars and sun photometers onboard the ship and in different coastal areas. We concentrate on aerosol optical thickness and its variations with aerosol advections into the study area. We pay special attention to the problem of proper data collection and analyses techniques. We showed that in order to detect the dynamics of potential aerosol composition changes it is necessary to use data from different stations where measurements are made using the same techniques. The combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides comprehensive picture of aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01

  10. Inelastic processes in atomic, molecular and chemical physics (in honour of Andrey K. Belyaev)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, Paul S.; Tscherbul, Timur V.

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue is dedicated to Professor Andrey K. Belyaev, on the occasion of his 60th birthday and in celebration of his productive career in theoretical atomic, molecular, and chemical physics. It brings together 12 research studies of Inelastic Processes in Atomic, Molecular and Chemical Physics, a research area where Andrey himself made significant contributions. Inelastic processes are central to many different areas of physics, including atmospheric physics, astrophysics, and plasma physics to name a few, as well as in related technological applications such as lasers and fusion reactors. Quantitative understanding of the mechanisms of inelastic processes in atoms and molecules is therefore a problem of fundamental importance in physics, astrophysics, and chemistry. It is precisely this challenging problem that Andrey's research addresses using a broad arsenal of theoretical tools and techniques.

  11. Processes in karst systems, physics, chemistry, and geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dreybrodt, W.

    1988-01-01

    Dreybrodt deals quantitatively with many of the chemical and hydrological processes involved in the formation of karst systems. The book is divided into 3 major parts. The first part develops the basic chemical and fluid-flow principles needed in modeling karst systems. The second part investigates the experimental kinetics of calcite dissolution and precipitation and applies the resulting kinetic laws to the modeling of these processes in systems both open and closed to carbon dioxide. The last part of the book includes a qualitative examination of karst systems, quantitative modeling of the development of karst features, and an examination and modeling of the growth of spelotherms in caves.

  12. Simulation of Forming Process as an Educational Tool Using Physical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, A. B.; Muda, M. R.; Samad, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Metal forming process simulation requires a very high cost including the cost for dies, machine and material and tight process control since the process involve very huge pressure. A physical modeling technique is developed and initiates a new era of educational tool of simulating the process effectively. Several publications and findings have…

  13. Speaking and Speaking Education as Physical Process in Turkish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurudayioglu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…

  14. Integrated Modeling and Analysis of Physical Oceanographic and Acoustic Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    gravity waves and other submesoscale features are of specific interest. There are many open questions regarding the processes of internal-wave...modeling suite that includes submesoscale features as well as data assimilation is expected to be a valuable asset to apply in numerous ocean regions

  15. Processing and physical properties of chia-oat hydrocolloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia-oat dry blended composites and their processed hydrocolloids containing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids from chia along with soluble ß-glucan from three oat products were developed and studied. Chia’s omega-3 fatty acids and soluble ß-glucan from oat products are recognized for preventing heart...

  16. Physical processes affecting the sedimentary environments of Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Knebel, H. J.; List, J.H.; Farris, A.S.; ,

    1997-01-01

    A modeling study was undertaken to simulate the bottom tidal-, wave-, and wind-driven currents in Long Island Sound in order to provide a general physical oceanographic framework for understanding the characteristics and distribution of seafloor sedimentary environments. Tidal currents are important in the funnel-shaped eastern part of the Sound, where a strong gradient of tidal-current speed was found. This current gradient parallels the general westward progression of sedimentary environments from erosion or non-deposition, through bedload transport and sediment sorting, to fine-grained deposition. Wave-driven currents, meanwhile, appear to be important along the shallow margins of the basin, explaining the occurrence of relatively coarse sediments in regions where tidal currents alone are not strong enough to move sediment. Finally, westerly wind events are shown to locally enhance bottom currents along the axial depression of the sound, providing a possible explanation for the relatively coarse sediments found in the depression despite tide- and wave-induced currents below the threshold of sediment movement. The strong correlation between the near-bottom current intensity based on the model results and the sediment response as indicated by the distribution of sedimentary environments provides a framework for predicting the long-term effects of anthropogenic activities.

  17. A physical interpretation for the natural photosynthetic process

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert; Rich, Peter R.

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency of the process of photosynthesis is shown to depend on the molecular conversion of power. This requires establishment of a discipline that is now implicit in current thought and that offers a definition of relationship between equilibrium state and power. The quantum aspect for the microscopic process is different from the macroscopic system idealized as the heat engine and is required for the interpretation of molecular machinery. By using three postulates the ideal maximal efficiency for the molecular energy conversion is calculated from the data, which are assembled in the form of the “Z scheme” for photosynthesis. The observed and the calculated efficiencies for a green plant are substantially in agreement. PMID:16593282

  18. Cosmochemical implications of the physical processing of cometary nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    McSween, H.Y. Jr. ); Weissman, P.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Comets are not necessarily pristine nebular and interstellar material, despite a common perception to that effect. Alteration processes may occur during comet formation in the outer planet region, during their dispersal to or residence within the Oort cloud, and after their return to the planetary region. Processes that may have significantly modified cometary nuclei include heating, impacts, and irradiation. Possible consequences include phase changes in ices, hydration reactions in silicates, synthesis of organic compounds, collisional disruption and re-accretion, shock and irradiation effects in minerals and ices, cosmogenic nuclide formation, redistribution or loss of volatiles, and formation of a refractory veneer. A model of cometary nuclei that emerges from these considerations provides a framework for understanding observations of comets and future samples.

  19. Physical-Chemical Studies of Solutions Processing of Nematic Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-08

    be used in the preparation of molecular composites . The system has h-en studied prevIousiv, principally with respect to its use in the formation of...filmq [6]. A single phase of the three component solutions is an essential requirement in the preparation of A molecular composite . Accordingly, ternary...discussed in the preceding section [51. Such aggregation could have a deleterious effect on the mechanical properties a molecular composite processed fr

  20. Terrestrial physical and chemical processes for liquid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    McCarty, P L

    1991-10-01

    Experiences gained from full-scale evaluation of advanced treatment processes used for reclaiming wastewaters should help in the evaluation of potential treatment systems for treatment and reuse of water in space. Water Factory 21 is a 0.66 m3 s-1 (15 million gallons per day) water reclamation plant in California that has been in operation since 1976. The plant receives biologically treated wastewater. Lime treatment is effective for removal of heavy metals. Volatile organic constitutes are efficiently removed by air stripping. Non-volatile organic constituents are removed by activated carbon adsorption and reverse osmosis (RO). RO is a highly effective polishing step, and removes most of the remaining materials including inorganic salts, heavy metals, and organics. RO removed 85% of the total organic carbon, down to about 1 mg l-1, which is lower than in many treated drinking waters. The series of treatment processes used insured virus and pathogen removal, with lime treatment and chlorination together proving highly effective. Sufficient data has been collected to provide statistically reliable confidence limits to be set on the performance of each unit process.

  1. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  2. Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.

  3. Process simulation in the pharmaceutical industry: a review of some basic physical models.

    PubMed

    Kremer, D M; Hancock, B C

    2006-03-01

    This study reviews process modeling efforts which have been developed to elucidate the fundamental physical process underlying the manufacture and delivery of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Within the pharmaceutical industry, process models have been applied to a diverse array of physical processes at length and time scales that vary by orders of magnitude. As such, both large-scale continuum and particle-scale discrete approaches will be discussed in this study. Challenges associated with the practical application of process models within the pharmaceutical industry will be discussed, and opportunities for future research will be identified.

  4. Programmer's Guide for FFORM. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lougenia; Gales, Larry

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. FFORM is a portable format-free input subroutine package written in ANSI Fortran IV…

  5. Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

  6. The First Law of Thermodynamics for Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module and a comparison module are concerned with elementary concepts of thermodynamics as…

  7. Calculus-Integration. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Richard C.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. The module is directed toward intermediate undergraduate students of the ecological sciences…

  8. Calculus - Differentiation. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Richard C.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is used to introduce the biology student to differential calculus, a…

  9. A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laura Hall

    1988-01-01

    Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

  10. Process monitoring using automatic physical measurement based on electrical and physical variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shauly, Eitan N.; Levi, Shimon; Schwarzband, Ishai; Adan, Ofer; Latinsky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    A fully automated silicon-based methodology for systematic analysis of electrical features is shown. The system was developed for process monitoring and electrical variability reduction. A mapping step was created by dedicated structures such as static-random-access-memory (SRAM) array or standard cell library, or by using a simple design rule checking run-set. The resulting database was then used as an input for choosing locations for critical dimension scanning electron microscope images and for specific layout parameter extraction then was input to SPICE compact modeling simulation. Based on the experimental data, we identified two items that must be checked and monitored using the method described here: transistor's sensitivity to the distance between the poly end cap and edge of active area (AA) due to AA rounding, and SRAM leakage due to a too close N-well to P-well. Based on this example, for process monitoring and variability analyses, we extensively used this method to analyze transistor gates having different shapes. In addition, analysis for a large area of high density standard cell library was done. Another set of monitoring focused on a high density SRAM array is also presented. These examples provided information on the poly and AA layers, using transistor parameters such as leakage current and drive current. We successfully define "robust" and "less-robust" transistor configurations included in the library and identified unsymmetrical transistors in the SRAM bit-cells. These data were compared to data extracted from the same devices at the end of the line. Another set of analyses was done to samples after Cu M1 etch. Process monitoring information on M1 enclosed contact was extracted based on contact resistance as a feedback. Guidelines for the optimal M1 space for different layout configurations were also extracted. All these data showed the successful in-field implementation of our methodology as a useful process monitoring method.

  11. Physical Processes in the Vicinity of a Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan

    2010-08-01

    cluster in the innermost 0.16 pc of the Galaxy as measured by the number density profile of late-type giants. Using laser guide star adaptive optics in conjunction with the integral field spectrograph, OSIRIS, at the Keck II telescope, we are able to differentiate between the older, late-type (˜ 1 Gyr) stars, which are presumed to be dynamically relaxed, and the unrelaxed young (˜ 6 Myr) population. This distinction is crucial for testing models of stellar cusp formation in the vicinity of a black hole, as the models assume that the cusp stars are in dynamical equilibrium in the black hole potential. In the survey region, we classified 77 stars as early-type 79 stars as late-type. We find that contamination from young stars is significant, with more than twice as many young stars as old stars in our sensitivity range (K' < 15.5) within the central arcsecond. Based on the late-type stars alone, the surface stellar number density profile, Σ(R) ∝ R(-Γ) , is flat, with Γ = -0.26±0.24. Monte Carlo simulations of the possible de-projected volume density profile, n(r) ∝ r^{-γ}, show that γ is less than 1.0 at the 99.7 % confidence level. These results are consistent with the nuclear star cluster having no cusp, with a core profile that is significantly flatter than predicted by most cusp formation theories, and even allows for the presence of a central hole in the stellar distribution. Of the possible dynamical interactions that can lead to the depletion of the red giants observable in this survey - stellar collisions, mass segregation from stellar remnants, or a recent merger event - mass segregation is the only one that can be ruled out as the dominant depletion mechanism. The degeneracy in the true distribution of stars cannot be broken with number counts alone, but we show how the addition of kinematic measurements can remov! e the degeneracy. Resolving the physical origin of the lack of a stellar cusp will have important implications for black hole growth models

  12. Mathematical modeling of physical processes in inorganic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first part deals with the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in contactors using the Purex Process. Most of the computer codes simulating the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generate the steady-state properties by calculating the transient behavior of the contactors. In this study, the author simulates the steady-state concentration profiles directly without first generating the transient behavior. Two computer codes are developed, PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) and PUNE (Plutonium-Uranium-Non-Equilibrium). The first one simulates the steady-state concentration profiles under conditions of equilibrium mass transfer. The second one accounts for deviations from mass transfer equilibrium. The second part of this dissertation shows how to use the classical trajectory method to study the equilibrium and saddle-point geometries of MX{sub n} (n = 2-7) molecules. Two nuclear potential functions that have the property of invariance to the operations of the permutation group of nuclei in molecules of the general formula MX{sub n} are described. Such potential functions allow equivalent isomers to have equal energies so that various statistical mechanical properties can be simply determined. The first function contains two center interactions between pairs of peripheral atoms and its defined by V(r) = 1/2{Sigma}{sub {alpha}}k{triangle}r{sub {alpha}{mu}}{sup 2} + {Sigma}{sub {alpha}< {beta}} QR{sub {alpha}{beta}}{sup {minus}n} (n = 1,2...). The second function contains two and three center interactions and is defined by V({Theta}) = 1/2{Sigma}{sub {alpha}}K{triangle}{sub {alpha}{mu}}{sup 2} + 1/2{Sigma}{sub {alpha}<{beta}}Qr{sub 0}{sup 2} ({Theta}{sub {alpha}{mu}{beta}} - {pi}){sup 2}.

  13. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

  14. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  15. Black rings and the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2005-10-01

    We consider the problem of the physical process version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with additional (p+1)-form field strength and dilaton fields. The first order variations of mass, angular momentum and local charge for black ring are derived. From them we prove the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamic for stationary black rings.

  16. Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Prakash, C.; Przekwas, A. J.; Kannapel, M.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues concerning the physical chemical processes of the Space Shuttle Main Engine are discussed. The objectives being to supply the general purpose CFD code PHOENICS and the associated interactive graphics package - GRAFFIC; to demonstrate code usage on SSME related problems; to perform computations and analyses of problems relevant to current and future SSME's; and to participate in the development of new physical models of various processes present in SSME components. These objectives are discussed in detail.

  17. Discriminating between the physical processes that drive spheroid size evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Bundy, Kevin; Hernquist, Lars; Wuyts, Stijn; Cox, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Observations have shown that massive galaxies at high redshift have much smaller effective radii than galaxies of similar mass today; however, recent work has shown that they have similar central densities. The primary growth of size, therefore, relates to the apparent relative abundance of low-density material at low redshifts. But various models have been proposed to accomplish this, and the exact contribution of these mechanisms, relative to others that would, for example, lower the density of the system uniformly, or relate to possible observational misestimates of the stellar mass distribution, remain uncertain, as does the degree to which this evolution is driven by processes of initial spheroid formation versus subsequent `dry' assembly of spheroids. These different possibilities also yield dramatically different constraints on any possible evolution in the MBH-σ relation. Here, we compile observations of spheroid properties as a function of redshift and use them to test the different proposed models, each of which we have calibrated and studied in a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. We show that the evolution in progenitor disc gas fractions with redshift gives rise to the initial formation of smaller spheroids at high redshift. We then consider how these early-forming systems must evolve to be consistent with the larger sizes of old spheroids today. We consider (1) equal-density `dry' mergers, (2) later major or minor `dry' mergers with less dense galaxies, (3) adiabatic expansion, after significant gas mass loss, (4) gradients in stellar mass-to-light ratios from young nuclear stellar populations (yielding smaller Re at early times, which vanish as the system fades), (5) biases in the stellar mass estimation of high-redshift (young) systems (from e.g. uncertain asymptotic giant branch starlight contributions) and (6) observational effects (possible biases in fitting or missed light from surface brightness dimming, or the effects of

  18. Introduction of a pyramid guiding process for general musculoskeletal physical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timothy W

    2006-06-08

    Successful instruction of a complicated subject as Physical Rehabilitation demands organization. To understand principles and processes of such a field demands a hierarchy of steps to achieve the intended outcome. This paper is intended to be an introduction to a proposed pyramid scheme of general physical rehabilitation principles. The purpose of the pyramid scheme is to allow for a greater understanding for the student and patient. As the respected Food Guide Pyramid accomplishes, the student will further appreciate and apply supported physical rehabilitation principles and the patient will understand that there is a progressive method to their functional healing process.

  19. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  20. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment.

  1. Linking observations at active volcanoes to physical processes through conduit flow modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark; Neuberg, Jurgen

    2010-05-01

    of the Low frequency events observed on Montserrat is their tightly confined source region. The high degree of similarity of the waveforms from such events indicates a stationary common source within a finite volume of 150m x 150m x 150m (Neuberg et al., 2006). By modelling the physical processes that occur at depth within the volcano it has been possible to identify a potential source region of these events caused by the shape of the conduit, that has a fixed position and will have the potential cause repeatable events whenever magma is moving within the system. Making links of this type is essential to form a better understanding of what the observations made by monitoring systems actually relate to in terms of the volcanoes activity. Tuffen, H., Dingwell, D.B., and Pinkerton, H. 2003. Repeated fracture and healing of silicic magma generate flow banding and earthquakes? Geology, 31(12), 1089-1092. Collier, L. and Neuberg, J. 2006. Incorporating seismic observations into 2D conduit flow modelling. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 152, 331-346. Neuberg, J., Tuffen, H., Collier, L., Green, D., Powell, T., and Dingwell, P. 2006. The trigger mechanisms of low-frequency swarms on Montserrat. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 153, 37-50.

  2. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  3. Feel Good--Be Good: Subject Content and Governing Processes in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohman, Marie; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background: In this paper a study of both subject "content" and governing "processes" in Swedish physical education is presented. The reason why an analysis of both content and processes is of special interest is that it makes it possible to understand the encounter between the institutional level and the practice of education.…

  4. New Physics search in the processes of the electroweak top quark production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, Alexey; Boos, Edward; Bunichev, Vycheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Myagkov, Igor; Perfilov, Maxim; Vorotnikov, Georgy

    2016-10-01

    The processes involving single top quark production have an electroweak nature with unique properties. They are very interesting from both theoretical and experimental points of view. The article contains a brief overview of possible "New Physics" manifestations in the single top quark production processes.

  5. Executive Functions in Learning Processes: Do They Benefit from Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenberg, Jonathan; Berse, Timo; Dutke, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    As executive functions play an essential role in learning processes, approaches capable of enhancing executive functioning are of particular interest to educational psychology. Recently, the hypothesis has been advanced that executive functioning may benefit from changes in neurobiological processes induced by physical activity. The present…

  6. Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Bushma, V. O.

    2010-12-15

    Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

  7. Physical processes and modeling of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings-switched electrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of simulation of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings in modulating the electrical parameters. Mathematical models are based on physical models of gas-dynamic mechanisms more dynamic and thermal processes of the plasma jet. As an example the modeling of dynamic processes of heterogeneous plasma jet, modulated current pulses indirect arc plasma torch.

  8. Revision Vodcast Influence on Assessment Scores and Study Processes in Secondary Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marencik, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental switching replications design with matched participants was employed to determine the influence of revision vodcasts, or video podcasts, on students' assessment scores and study processes in secondary physics. This study satisfied a need for quantitative results in the area of vodcast influence on students' learning processes.…

  9. The Inclusion of Science Process Skills in Yemeni Secondary School Physics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Majed S.; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and contrast the science process skills (SPS) included in the 10th-12th grade physics textbooks content utilized in Yemeni schools. The study revealed weaknesses and strengths in the textbooks' content. For instance, a number of science process skills (SPS), such as measuring, predicting and hypothesizing, have…

  10. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  11. Physical oceanographic processes influence bio-optical properties in the Tasman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Davies, Peter L.; Brando, Vittorio E.; Anstee, Janet M.; Baird, Mark E.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing observations show optical signatures to conform to the physical oceanographic patterns in the Tasman Sea. To test the link between physical oceanographic processes and bio-optical properties we investigated an in situ bio-optical dataset collected in the Tasman Sea. Analysis of in situ observations showed the presence of four different water masses in the Tasman Sea, formed by the relatively warm and saline East Australia Current (EAC) water, a mesoscale cold core eddy on the continental slope, cooler Tasman Sea water on the shelf and river plume water. The distribution of suspended substances and their inherent optical properties in these water masses were distinctly different. Light absorption and attenuation budgets indicate varying optical complexity between the water masses. Specific inherent optical properties of suspended particulate and dissolved substances in each group were different as they were influenced by physical and biogeochemical processes specific to that water mass. Remote sensing reflectance signature varied in response to changing bio-optical properties between the water masses; thus providing the link between physical oceanographic processes, bio-optical properties and the optical signature. Findings presented here extend our knowledge of the Tasman Sea, its optical environment and the role of physical oceanographic processes in influencing the inherent optical properties and remote sensing signature in this complex oceanographic region.

  12. Revision Vodcast Influence on Assessment Scores and Study Processes in Secondary Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marencik, Joseph J.

    A quasi-experimental switching replications design with matched participants was employed to determine the influence of revision vodcasts, or video podcasts, on students' assessment scores and study processes in secondary physics. This study satisfied a need for quantitative results in the area of vodcast influence on students' learning processes. Thirty-eight physics students in an urban Ohio public high school participated in the study. The students in one Physics class were paired with students in another Physics class through the matching characteristics of current student cumulative test score mean and baseline study process as measured by the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ). Students in both classes were given identical pedagogic treatment and access to traditional revision tools except for the supplemental revision vodcasts given to the experimental group. After students in the experimental group viewed the revision vodcast for a particular topic, the assessment scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to the assessment scores of the control group through the direct-difference, D, test to determine any difference between the assessment score means of each group. The SPQ was given at the beginning of the experiment and after each physics assessment. The direct-difference method was again used to determine any difference between the SPQ deep approach scores of each group. The SPQ was also used to determine any correlative effects between study process and revision vodcast use on students' assessment scores through descriptive statistics and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Analysis indicated that revision vodcast use significantly increased students' assessment scores (p<.05), but did not significantly influence students' deep approach to studying ( p>.05). There were no significant correlative effects of revision vodcast use and study processes on students' assessment scores (p>.05). This study offers educators the empirical

  13. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  14. Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

  15. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  16. A combined physical/microbial process for the beneficiation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Stevens, C.J.; Noah, K.S.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    A large-laboratory scale physical/microbial process was demonstrated for the removal of pyritic sulfur from coal. The process took place in an aerated-trough slurry reactor with a total slurry volume of 150 L. The reactor was divided into six sections, each of which acted as a physical separator and a bioreactor. The process objective was to physically remove the larger pyritic inclusions and to biodegrade the small inclusions (micropyrite). The process was continuously operated for 120 days, treating approximately 1 ton of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal. Ninety percent pyrite removal was achieved at a 20% slurry concentration and a reactor residence time of 5 days. Additional research should be performed to find the optimum values for reactor residence time, slurry concentration, and process hydraulic residence time (or recycle ratio). Finding these optimum values will enable a process to be developed that will maximize the amount of coal that can be processed per unit reactor volume per unit time with the desired level of pyritic sulfur removal.

  17. Impact E-Learning Platform Moodle on the Physic's Learning Process in the High School's Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Montealban, Jonas; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gregorio; Gomez-Lozoya, Enrique Armando

    2011-03-01

    As a didactic proposal, moodle e-learning platform was implemented in one of two Physics High School's group at UACH, in order to show how the use of new technologies can improve the learning progress linked to physics concepts. As a result, the first group worked at the same time with inside class activities as well as outside resources from the moodle e-platform. The second group only worked with inside class activities. This teaching application was developed in six sections. Section I defines the educational framework. Section II identifies the key physic's concepts to be studied in each proposed activity. Section III describes the didactic model. Section IV displays the compared results between similarities and differences in both groups. Section VI shows the gathered information in order to be discussed as a topic related on how new technologies improve the Physic's learning process in the high school' students.

  18. An explanatory model of physics faculty conceptions about the problem-solving process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hsia-Po Vincent

    One commonly stated instructor goal for an introductory calculus-based physics course is to improve students' problem-solving skills. There is, however, a growing body of research evidence to suggest that this goal is not frequently accomplished in a typical college or university physics course. In response to this evidence, researchers and curriculum developers have developed a wide variety of curricular materials and instructional strategies that have been shown to be more effective in improving student problem solving performance. In spite of the availability of these materials and strategies, relatively few physics instructors have chosen to use them. One likely reason is that these materials and strategies are not consistent with the ways that physics instructors think about the teaching and learning of problem solving. This has led the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota to undertake a multistage research program to understand physics instructors' conceptions about the teaching and learning of problem solving. In the first stage, semi-structured interviews with higher education physics instructors in Minnesota were conducted. Based on an in-depth analysis of interview transcripts with six research university physics instructors, an initial explanatory model was developed that described the range and nature of conceptions for these instructors. Part of this initial model identified these instructors' conceptions of the problem-solving process. Around the same time, interviews were also conducted with 24 additional instructors from other types of higher education institutions in Minnesota. The current study is the second stage of that research program. The goal of this study is to modify and refine the part of the initial explanatory model dealing with instructor conceptions about the problem-solving process using the 24 additional interviews. With the expanded sample, this current study seeks to converge on a more viable explanatory

  19. Processing-structure-property relationships in electron beam physical vapor deposited yttria stabilized zirconia coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D. Srinivasa; Valleti, Krishna; Joshi, S. V.; Janardhan, G. Ranga

    2011-05-15

    The physical and mechanical properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings deposited by the electron beam physical vapor deposition technique have been investigated by varying the key process variables such as vapor incidence angle and sample rotation speed. The tetragonal zirconia coatings formed under varying process conditions employed were found to have widely different surface and cross-sectional morphologies. The porosity, phase composition, planar orientation, hardness, adhesion, and surface residual stresses in the coated specimens were comprehensively evaluated to develop a correlation with the process variables. Under transverse scratch test conditions, the YSZ coatings exhibited two different crack formation modes, depending on the magnitude of residual stress. The influence of processing conditions on the coating deposition rate, column orientation angle, and adhesion strength has been established. Key relationships between porosity, hardness, and adhesion are also presented.

  20. Predicting Success: A Study of Admission Processes and Passing the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaab, Kathryn R.

    2013-01-01

    In order to practice physical therapy, physical therapist assistants (PTAs) must graduate from an accredited academic program and pass the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (PTA-NPTE). The primary objective of academic programs is to prepare students to successfully complete these two milestones to become…

  1. Development of an Interface for Using EGS4 Physics Processes in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, K.

    2004-01-21

    As simulation system, the variety of physics processes implemented is one of the most important functionalities. In that sense, Geant4 is one of the most powerful simulation toolkits. Its flexibility and expansibility brought by object-oriented approach make it possible for us to easily assimilate external simulation packages into the Geant4 system as modules of physics processes. We developed an interface for using EGS4, which is another of the most well-known simulation package for electromagnetic physics, in Geant4. By means of this interface, EGS4 users can share Geant4 powerful resources, such as geometry, tracking, etc. It is also important that it can provide a common environment for comparison tests between EGS4 and Geant4. In this paper, we describe our design and implementation of the interface.

  2. Basic physical and chemical processes in space radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamaratos, E.; Wilson, J. W.; Chang, C. K.; Xu, Y. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of space ionizing radiation on polymers is investigated in terms of operative physical and chemical processes. A useful model of charged particle impact with a polymer was designed. Principle paths of molecular relaxation were identified and energy handling processes were considered. The focus of the study was on energy absorption and the immediately following events. Further study of the radiation degradation of polymers is suggested.

  3. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Processes, Stress, Personal Control, and Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…

  4. EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

  5. Study of Some Numerical Phenomena Intervening in the Computer Simulations of Some Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, D. A.; Delsanto, P. P.; Iordache, V.

    2007-04-01

    The mechanisms of the computing schemes leading to the main numerical phenomena: instabilities, divergence or pseudo-convergence, distortions, as well as of the stability and convergence radii, and of the optimization possibilities of the computer simulations of some physical processes were studied by this work.

  6. CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MELT PROCESSED- AND SOLUTION-CROSS LINKED CORN ZEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn zein was cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GDA) and with glacial acetic acid (HAc) as catalyst with the objective to enhance the mechanical properties of poured films which were compared with the physical properties of compression molded tensile bars from melt processed zein with GDA. A reacti...

  7. Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Physical Processes in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Emblem, Kyrre E.; Andronesi, Ovidiu; Rosen, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating disease with a grim prognosis. Patient survival is typically less than 2 years and fewer than 10% of patients survive more than 5 years. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can have great utility in the diagnosis, grading and management of patients with GBM as many of the physical manifestations of the pathological processes in GBM can be visualized and quantified using MRI. Newer MRI techniques such as dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI provide functional information regarding the tumor hemodynamic status. Diffusion MRI can shed light on tumor cellularity and the disruption of white matter tracts in the proximity of tumors. MR spectroscopy can be used to study new tumor tissue markers such as IDH mutations. MRI is helping to noninvasively explore the link between the molecular basis of gliomas and the imaging characteristics of their physical processes. We will review several approaches to MR-based imaging and discuss the potential for these techniques to quantify the physical processes in glioblastoma including tumor cellularity and vascularity, metabolite expression, and patterns of tumor growth and recurrence. We will conclude with challenges and opportunities for further research in applying physical principles to better understand the biological process in this deadly disease. PMID:25183787

  8. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  9. Hybrid models for the simulation of microstructural evolution influenced by coupled, multiple physical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tikare, Veena; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Madison, Jonathan D.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Patterson, Burton R.; Homer, Eric R.

    2013-09-01

    Most materials microstructural evolution processes progress with multiple processes occurring simultaneously. In this work, we have concentrated on the processes that are active in nuclear materials, in particular, nuclear fuels. These processes are coarsening, nucleation, differential diffusion, phase transformation, radiation-induced defect formation and swelling, often with temperature gradients present. All these couple and contribute to evolution that is unique to nuclear fuels and materials. Hybrid model that combines elements from the Potts Monte Carlo, phase-field models and others have been developed to address these multiple physical processes. These models are described and applied to several processes in this report. An important feature of the models developed are that they are coded as applications within SPPARKS, a Sandiadeveloped framework for simulation at the mesoscale of microstructural evolution processes by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This makes these codes readily accessible and adaptable for future applications.

  10. The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private senior high school in Taoyuan Country, Taiwan, R.O.C. were sampled. All four classes contained 75 students who were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. The pre-test results indicated that the students' entry-level physics academic achievement, science process skills, and computer attitudes were equal for both groups. On the post-test, the experimental group achieved significantly higher mean scores in physics academic achievement and science process skills. There was no significant difference in computer attitudes between the groups. We concluded that the IVPL had potential to help tenth graders improve their physics academic achievement and science process skills.

  11. High School Roundtable Discussion on the Process and Implications of the Physics TEKS Revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Hugh

    2008-03-01

    On January 29 - February 2, 2008, several committees appointed by the Texas State Board of Education and consisting of high school and college teachers met in Austin to revise the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for all high school science courses, including physics, chemistry, integrated physics and chemistry (IPC), biology, astronomy, environmental systems, and aquatic science. Members of the Physics TEKS revision committee were Jill Marshall, Daniel Marble, Jeff Funkhouser, Cheryl Cowley, and Hugh Henderson. The committee members began the process by considering the revision suggestions made by members of TSAAPT during the past year. This session will clarify the TEKS revision process and communicate the changes to the Physics TEKS suggested by the committee, as well as provide a panel discussion on political and policy implications of TEKS revision, implications of TEKS revision for future teachers, and possible implications for physics education at the university level. All pre-college science teachers and college faculty are encouraged to attend and join the discussion. In collaboration with Chris Comer, Science Consultant; Jill Marshall, University of Texas; David Bixler, Angelo State University; and Toni Sauncy, Angelo State University.

  12. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-12-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms.

  13. Application of Innovative Methods to Optimize the Learning Process in Physics for Medical Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Genoveva; Tsankova, Emilya

    2010-01-01

    Unlike chemistry and biology courses in the high schools which occupy the attention and interest of students as they need to achieve maximum results of examinations for admission in higher medical schools, physics remains away from their interest. Striving for awakening the interest of medical students to classes in physics and diversification of the learning process requires the continuous search of new forms of organization of this process in order to fulfill the main task of education: optimal development of each student, creating conditions for creative work with the highest possible productivity. Using innovations in teaching physics, aimed at the purpose of training in non-traditional way, transforms the passive learning in an active creative process. This allows rapid identification and compensation of gaps in the knowledge, which in turn leads to a rationalization and a more complete and lasting control of educational content. The aim of the study is analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation of innovative educational methods to increase motivation and the quality of teaching physics to students of medicine. The discussion is based on the opinions expressed in surveys of students and results of various forms of feedback.

  14. Sensitivity of movement and intensity of severe cyclone AILA to the physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, S.; Gayatri Vani, D.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.; Rama, G. V.; Apparao, B. V.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate prediction of movement and intensity of tropical cyclone is still most challenging problem in numerical weather prediction. The positive progress in this field can be achieved by providing network of observations in the storm region and best representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model. In the present study later part was attempted to investigate the sensitivity of movement and intensity of the severe cyclonic storm AILA to different physical processes in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Three sets of experiments were conducted for convection, microphysics (MP) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes. Model-simulated fields like minimum central surface pressure, maximum surface wind, track and vector displacement error are considered to test the sensitivity. The results indicate that the movement of the system is more sensitive to the cumulus physics and the intensity of the cyclone is sensitive to both PBL and cumulus physics. The combination of Betts Miller Janjic (BMJ) for convection, Yonsei University (YSU) for PBL and Purdue Lin (LIN) for microphysics is found to perform better than other combination schemes. The horizontal and vertical features of the system along with its special features like complete northward movement of the system throughout the travel period and the consistent cyclonic storm intensity until 15 hrs after the landfall could be well simulated by the model.

  15. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  16. Physical processes and the maintenance of nutrient-rich euphotic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Gargett, A.E. )

    1991-12-01

    Oceanic euphotic zones characterized by high macronutrients but low primary productivity are found in the upwelling gyres of the world ocean. This paper reviews the physical processes which interact to maintain high nutrient concentrations in the near-surface ocean in such regions, illustrating the range of relevant forcing functions with regional examples. Predictions of the direction of change of the physical systems in these areas under increasing greenhouse gas concentrations can be based on the present generation of coupled ocean-atmosphere global circulation models, but these results have significant uncertainty.

  17. An analysis of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemsitry experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to analysis the quality of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemistry experiment of Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was descriptive qualitative. The samples of this research were 2nd semester student, class of 2015. Scientific data of learning process were collected by observation sheet and documentation of seven title experimental. The results showed that the achievement of scientific learning process on observing, questioning, experimenting and associating data were 73.98%; 81.79%; 80.74%; and 76.94% respectively, which categorized as medium. Furthermore, for aspect communicating had high category at 86.11% of level achievement.

  18. Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  20. The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private…

  1. Decoupling the influence of biological and physical processes on the dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiabi; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    is instructive and essential to decouple the effects of biological and physical processes on the dissolved oxygen condition, in order to understand their contribution to the interannual variability of hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay since the 1980s. A conceptual bottom DO budget model is applied, using the vertical exchange time scale (VET) to quantify the physical condition and net oxygen consumption rate to quantify biological activities. By combining observed DO data and modeled VET values along the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay, the monthly net bottom DO consumption rate was estimated for 1985-2012. The DO budget model results show that the interannual variations of physical conditions accounts for 88.8% of the interannual variations of observed DO. The high similarity between the VET spatial pattern and the observed DO suggests that physical processes play a key role in regulating the DO condition. Model results also show that long-term VET has a slight increase in summer, but no statistically significant trend is found. Correlations among southerly wind strength, North Atlantic Oscillation index, and VET demonstrate that the physical condition in the Chesapeake Bay is highly controlled by the large-scale climate variation. The relationship is most significant during the summer, when the southerly wind dominates throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The seasonal pattern of the averaged net bottom DO consumption rate (B'20) along the main stem coincides with that of the chlorophyll-a concentration. A significant correlation between nutrient loading and B'20 suggests that the biological processes in April-May are most sensitive to the nutrient loading.

  2. Influence of microbubble in physical cleaning of MF membrane process for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui-Jong; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Soo; Jang, Am

    2015-06-01

    Currently, there is a growing emphasis on wastewater reclamation and reuse all over the world due to restricted water resources. Among a variety of wastewater reuse technologies, the use of microfiltration membranes (MF) is one of the popular processes because it has the ability to successfully eliminate particulates and colloidal matters. However, successful fouling control is not easy because effluents from the activated sludge process still contain small particulates and colloidal matters such as extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP). On the other hand, microbubbles have advantageous properties compared to common bubbles, but there hasn't been reporting of the use of microbubbles in physical cleaning instead of aeration. Encouraging results were obtained herein through the application of microbubbles for physical cleaning. In evaluation of the cleaning efficiency, the efficiency of microbubbles was observed to be twice as high as that of aeration, except during the course of the initial 30 min. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the membrane tank after treatment with microbubbles was more than twice as high as that after aeration for physical cleaning. The membrane cleaned with microbubbles also had the smoothest surface, with a roughness of 42.5 nm. In addition, microbubbles were found to effectively remove EPS and make the structure of the gel layer loose. In particular, the microbubbles had the ability to remove proteins through the effect of pyrolytic decomposition. Therefore, in FT-IR spectra of the membrane surfaces taken before and after physical cleaning, while each treatment showed similar peak positions, the peak values of the membrane treated with microbubbles were the lowest. Through various analyses, it was confirmed that microbubbles can remove foulants on the gel layer in spite of their very low shear force. This means that microbubble cleaning has full potential for use as a physical cleaning

  3. PEET: a Matlab tool for estimating physical gate errors in quantum information processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Kosut, Robert; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-09-01

    A Physical Error Estimation Tool (PEET) is introduced in Matlab for predicting physical gate errors of quantum information processing (QIP) operations by constructing and then simulating gate sequences for a wide variety of user-defined, Hamiltonian-based physical systems. PEET is designed to accommodate the interdisciplinary needs of quantum computing design by assessing gate performance for users familiar with the underlying physics of QIP, as well as those interested in higher-level computing operations. The structure of PEET separates the bulk of the physical details of a system into Gate objects, while the construction of quantum computing gate operations are contained in GateSequence objects. Gate errors are estimated by Monte Carlo sampling of noisy gate operations. The main utility of PEET, though, is the implementation of QuantumControl methods that act to generate and then test gate sequence and pulse-shaping techniques for QIP performance. This work details the structure of PEET and gives instructive examples for its operation.

  4. Validity of Processes of Change in Physical Activity Among College Students in the TIGER Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew S.; Bray, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the factorial validity and measurement equivalence/invariance of scales used to measure processes of change derived from the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) applied to physical activity. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaire responses obtained from a diverse sample (N=1,429) of students enrolled in the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study at the University of Houston during academic years 2004–2005 through 2007–2008. Cohorts of students (N=1,163) completed the scales at the beginning and end of each Fall semester, permitting longitudinal analysis. Results Theoretically and statistically sound models were developed that support the factorial validity of nine of the ten hypothesized 1st-order factors. A structure of nine correlated 1st order factors or a hierarchical structure of those factors subordinate to two correlated 2nd-order factors were each defensible. Multi-group invariance of each model was confirmed across race/ethnicity groups (African American, Hispanic, non-Hispanic White), gender, age, BMI levels, employment status, physical activity level, and study adherence. Longitudinal invariance across the semester was also confirmed. Conclusion The scores from the scales provide valid assessments that can be used in observational studies of naturally occurring change or in interventions designed to test the usefulness of TTM processes as mediators of change in physical activity among college students. Item content and factor structure require further evaluation in other samples in order to advance TTM theory applied to physical activity. PMID:20734174

  5. Physical activity is associated with cognitive processing speed in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandroff, Brian M; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Pilutti, Lara A; Pula, John H; Benedict, Ralph H B; Motl, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The impairment of cognitive processing speed is common, disabling, and poorly managed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the association between objectively-measured physical activity and cognitive processing speed (CPS) in a large sample of persons with MS. Patients (N=212) underwent two valid neuropsychological tests of CPS, completed the Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), and wore an ActiGraph model GT3X accelerometer during the waking hours of a 7-day period for objectively measuring physical activity as steps/day. Physical activity was significantly associated with CPS (r=.39, p<.01), even when controlling for age, sex, and education (pr=.26, p<.01). This association was attenuated, but still significant after further controlling for T25FW performance (pr=.13, p=.03). Physical activity behavior is positively and independently, albeit weakly, associated with CPS in persons with MS, and may play an important role in managing this aspect of cognition as it does in other outcomes in MS.

  6. Helium processing for deuterium/helium burns in ITER's physics phase

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for vacuum pumping and fuel processing for deuterium/helium (D/{sup 3}He) burns in the physics operating phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were assessed. These burns are expected to have low fusion power (100 MW), short burn times ({le}30 s), limited operation (2000 shots), and a fractional burn {approximately}0.3%. For the physics phase, the fuel processing system will include several units to separate deuterium and helium (activated charcoal bed, SAES getter and a Pd/Ag diffuser), as well as an isotopic separation system to separate {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. The needed vacuum system's cryosorption surface area may be as large as 10 m{sup 2} if the burn time is {approximately}200 s, the fractional burn is <0.3%, or the fusion power is >100 MW. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Growth kinetics of physical vapor transport processes: Crystal growth of the optoelectronic material mercurous chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Duval, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Physical vapor transport processes were studied for the purpose of identifying the magnitude of convective effects on the crystal growth process. The effects of convection on crystal quality were were studied by varying the aspect ratio and those thermal conditions which ultimately affect thermal convection during physical vapor transport. An important outcome of the present study was the observation that the convection growth rate increased up to a certain value and then dropped to a constant value for high aspect ratios. This indicated that a very complex transport had occurred which could not be explained by linear stability theory. Better quality crystals grown at a low Rayleigh number confirmed that improved properties are possible in convectionless environments.

  9. A pox on the mind: Disjunction of attention and memory in the processing of physical disfigurement

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Joshua M.; Becker, D. Vaughn; Mortensen, Chad R.; Sasaki, Takao; Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    The unfavorable treatment of people with physical disfigurements is well-documented, yet little is known about basic perceptual and cognitive responses to disfigurement. Here, we identify a specialized pattern of cognitive processing consistent with the hypothesis that disfigurements act as heuristic cues to contagious disease. Disfigurements are often invariant across time and difficult to conceal, and thus observers can detect the presence of such cues without necessarily remembering the particular individuals bearing these cues. Indeed, despite the fact that disfigured faces were especially likely to hold disease-sensitive perceivers’ attention (Study 1), disfigured individuals were often confused with one another and thus not well remembered later (Study 2), revealing a disjunction of the typical relationship between elevated attention and elevated memory. We discuss the implications of our results for stigmatization of people with and without physical abnormalities and suggest the possibility that cognitive mechanisms for processing social information may be functionally tuned to the variant nature of important cues. PMID:19578547

  10. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  11. A Study of the Nature of Students' Models of Microscopic Processes in the Context of Modern Physics Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Beth Ann

    2003-01-01

    Interviews university students in modern physics about their understanding of three fundamental experiments. Explores their development of models of microscopic processes. Uses interactive demonstrations to probe student understanding of modern physics experiments in two high school physics classes. Analyzes the nature of students' models and the…

  12. Modern meta-heuristics based on nonlinear physics processes: A review of models and design procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2016-10-01

    Meta-heuristic algorithms are problem-solving methods which try to find good-enough solutions to very hard optimization problems, at a reasonable computation time, where classical approaches fail, or cannot even been applied. Many existing meta-heuristics approaches are nature-inspired techniques, which work by simulating or modeling different natural processes in a computer. Historically, many of the most successful meta-heuristic approaches have had a biological inspiration, such as evolutionary computation or swarm intelligence paradigms, but in the last few years new approaches based on nonlinear physics processes modeling have been proposed and applied with success. Non-linear physics processes, modeled as optimization algorithms, are able to produce completely new search procedures, with extremely effective exploration capabilities in many cases, which are able to outperform existing optimization approaches. In this paper we review the most important optimization algorithms based on nonlinear physics, how they have been constructed from specific modeling of a real phenomena, and also their novelty in terms of comparison with alternative existing algorithms for optimization. We first review important concepts on optimization problems, search spaces and problems' difficulty. Then, the usefulness of heuristics and meta-heuristics approaches to face hard optimization problems is introduced, and some of the main existing classical versions of these algorithms are reviewed. The mathematical framework of different nonlinear physics processes is then introduced as a preparatory step to review in detail the most important meta-heuristics based on them. A discussion on the novelty of these approaches, their main computational implementation and design issues, and the evaluation of a novel meta-heuristic based on Strange Attractors mutation will be carried out to complete the review of these techniques. We also describe some of the most important application areas, in

  13. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  14. Physics and Process Modeling (PPM) and Other Propulsion R and T. Volume 1; Materials Processing, Characterization, and Modeling; Lifting Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This CP contains the extended abstracts and presentation figures of 36 papers presented at the PPM and Other Propulsion R&T Conference. The focus of the research described in these presentations is on materials and structures technologies that are parts of the various projects within the NASA Aeronautics Propulsion Systems Research and Technology Base Program. These projects include Physics and Process Modeling; Smart, Green Engine; Fast, Quiet Engine; High Temperature Engine Materials Program; and Hybrid Hyperspeed Propulsion. Also presented were research results from the Rotorcraft Systems Program and work supported by the NASA Lewis Director's Discretionary Fund. Authors from NASA Lewis Research Center, industry, and universities conducted research in the following areas: material processing, material characterization, modeling, life, applied life models, design techniques, vibration control, mechanical components, and tribology. Key issues, research accomplishments, and future directions are summarized in this publication.

  15. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Harmse, Johannes L.; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C.; Bekker, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers’ health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  16. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Bekker, Johan L

    2016-02-06

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers' health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs.

  17. Radiological/Health physics program assessement at Rocky Flats, the process

    SciTech Connect

    Psomas, P.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Office, Safety and Health Group, Health Physics Team (HPT) is responsible for oversight of the Radiation Protection and Health Physics Program (RPHP) of the Integrating Management Contractor (IMC), Kaiser-Hill (K-H) operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). As of 1 January 1996 the Rocky Flats Plant employed 300 DOE and 4,300 contractor personnel (K-H and their subcontractors). WSI is a subcontractor and provides plant security. To accomplish the RPHP program oversight HPT personnel developed a systematic methodology for performing a functional RPHP Assessment. The initial process included development of a flow diagram identifying all programmatic elements and assessment criteria documents. Formulation of plans for conducting interviews and performance of assessments constituted the second major effort. The generation of assessment reports was the final step, based on the results of this process. This assessment will be a 6 person-year effort, over the next three years. This process is the most comprehensive assessment of any Radiation Protection and Health Physics (RPHP) Program ever performed at Rocky Flats. The results of these efforts will establish a baseline for future RPHP Program assessments at RFETS. This methodology has been well-received by contractor personnel and creates no Privacy Act violations or other misunderstandings.

  18. Selected KSC Applied Physics Lab Responses to Shuttle Processing Measurement Requests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The KSC Applied Physics Lab has been supporting Shuttle Ground Processing for over 20 years by solving problems brought to us by Shuttle personnel. Roughly half of the requests to our lab have been to find ways to make measurements, or to improve on an existing measurement process. This talk will briefly cover: 1) Centering the aft end of the External Tank between the Solid Rocket Boosters; 2) Positioning the GOX Vent Hood over the External Tank; 3) Remote Measurements of External Tank Damage; 4) Strain Measurement in the Orbiter Sling; and 5) Over-center Distance Measurement in an Over-center Mechanism.

  19. Physical Modeling of Contact Processes on the Cutting Tools Surfaces of STM When Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerov, V. A.; Uteshev, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes how to create an optimization model of the process of fine turning of superalloys and steel tools from STM on CNC machines, flexible manufacturing units (GPM), machining centers. Creation of the optimization model allows you to link (unite) contact processes simultaneously on the front and back surfaces of the tool from STM to manage contact processes and the dynamic strength of the cutting tool at the top of the STM. Established optimization model of management of the dynamic strength of the incisors of the STM in the process of fine turning is based on a previously developed thermomechanical (physical, heat) model, which allows the system thermomechanical approach to choosing brands STM (domestic and foreign) for cutting tools from STM designed for fine turning of heat resistant alloys and steels.

  20. Effects of physical processes on structure and transport of thin zooplankton layers in the coastal ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, M.A.; Cheriton, O.M.; Drake, P.J.; Holliday, D.V.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Donaghay, P.L.; Greenlaw, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Thin layers of plankton are recurrent features in a variety of coastal systems. These layers range in thickness from a few centimeters to a few meters. They can extend horizontally for kilometers and have been observed to persist for days. Densities of organisms found within thin layers are far greater than those above or below the layer, and as a result, thin layers may play an important role in the marine ecosystem. The paramount objective of this study was to understand the physical processes that govern the dynamics of thin layers of zooplankton in the coastal ocean. We deployed instruments to measure physical processes and zooplankton distribution in northern Monterey Bay; during an 11 d period of persistent upwelling-favorable winds, 7 thin zooplankton layers were observed. These zooplankton layers persisted throughout daylight hours, but were observed to dissipate during evening hours. These layers had an average vertical thickness of 1.01 m. No layers were found in regions where the Richardson number was <0.25. In general, when the Richardson number is <0.25 the water column is unstable, and incapable of supporting thin layers. Thin zooplankton layers were also located in regions of reduced flow. In addition, our observations show that the vertical depth distribution of thin zooplankton layers is modulated by high-frequency internal waves, with periods of 18 to 20 min. Results from this study clearly show an association between physical structure, physical processes and the presence of thin zooplankton layers in Monterey Bay. With this new understanding we may identify other coastal regions that have a high probability of supporting thin layers. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  1. Didactical Reconstruction of Processes in Knowledge Construction: Pre-Service Physics Teachers Learning the Law of Electromagnetic Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Terhi

    2012-01-01

    In physics teacher education, two central goals are first to learn the structures of physics knowledge, and second the processes of its construction. To know the structure is to know the framework of concepts and laws; to know the processes is to know where the knowledge comes from, how the framework is constructed, and how it can be justified.…

  2. Visual search for conjunctions of physical and numerical size shows that they are processed independently.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Kenith V; Puri, Amrita M; Faulkenberry, Thomas J; Dague, Taylor D

    2017-03-01

    The size congruity effect refers to the interaction between numerical magnitude and physical digit size in a symbolic comparison task. Though this effect is well established in the typical 2-item scenario, the mechanisms at the root of the interference remain unclear. Two competing explanations have emerged in the literature: an early interaction model and a late interaction model. In the present study, we used visual conjunction search to test competing predictions from these 2 models. Participants searched for targets that were defined by a conjunction of physical and numerical size. Some distractors shared the target's physical size, and the remaining distractors shared the target's numerical size. We held the total number of search items fixed and manipulated the ratio of the 2 distractor set sizes. The results from 3 experiments converge on the conclusion that numerical magnitude is not a guiding feature for visual search, and that physical and numerical magnitude are processed independently, which supports a late interaction model of the size congruity effect. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Investigation of environmental physical parameters and processes complementing the search for signatures of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Horneck, G.; Kochan, H.; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Ulamec, S.

    In general, the search for signatures of life on other planets follows different lines: one is to study life in extreme natural environments on the Earth, another one is to perform laboratory experiments under simulated natural conditions in order define the limits for formation and survival of life, and finally space missions to perform in situ measurements on planetary surfaces outside the Earth to look for indicators of extinct or extant life. For the case of the planet Mars, relevant surface conditions are roughly known from orbiter as well as lander missions. In an extrapolation of terrestrial conditions, laboratory studies are conducted on terrestrial biota from extreme environments under various simulated planetary surface conditions in order to investigate general biological survivability as a function of physical and chemical parameters (radiation, UV flux, atmosphere, temperature, humidity, soil properties including mineralogy and toxicity, etc.). This way, physical parameters and processes acting on planetary bodies and their interrelations are studied in parallel with the search for surviving biota. Several suitable test chambers for physical and for biological investigations of this type are available at DLR Cologne. Ultimately, the same physical quantities should be measured concurrently with biological measurements during future planetary landing missions searching for signatures of life. The general question, however, remains whether life on Earth shows any biochemical resemblance with hypothetical life on ancient or modern Mars.

  4. The effect of processing on the surface physical stability of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyi; Nollenberger, Kathrin; Albers, Jessica; Moffat, Jonathan; Craig, Duncan; Qi, Sheng

    2014-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of processing on the surface crystallization of amorphous molecular dispersions and gain insight into the mechanisms underpinning this effect. The model systems, amorphous molecular dispersions of felodipine-EUDRAGIT® E PO, were processed both using spin coating (an ultra-fast solvent evaporation based method) and hot melt extrusion (HME) (a melting based method). Amorphous solid dispersions with drug loadings of 10-90% (w/w) were obtained by both processing methods. Samples were stored under 75% RH/room temperatures for up to 10months. Surface crystallization was observed shortly after preparation for the HME samples with high drug loadings (50-90%). Surface crystallization was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and imaging techniques (SEM, AFM and localized thermal analysis). Spin coated molecular dispersions showed significantly higher surface physical stability than hot melt extruded samples. For both systems, the progress of the surface crystal growth followed zero order kinetics on aging. Drug enrichment at the surfaces of HME samples on aging was observed, which may contribute to surface crystallization of amorphous molecular dispersions. In conclusion it was found the amorphous molecular dispersions prepared by spin coating had a significantly higher surface physical stability than the corresponding HME samples, which may be attributed to the increased process-related apparent drug-polymer solubility and reduced molecular mobility due to the quenching effect caused by the rapid solvent evaporation in spin coating.

  5. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Danielle S; Greenfield, Daniel L; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Moore, Simon W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2010-04-22

    Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI) computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  6. Review of searches for rare processes and physics beyond the Standard Model at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, David M.; Turcato, Monica

    2016-06-01

    The electron-proton collisions collected by the H1 and ZEUS experiments at HERA comprise a unique particle physics data set, and a comprehensive range of measurements has been performed to provide new insight into the structure of the proton. The high centre of mass energy at HERA has also allowed rare processes to be studied, including the production of W and Z0 bosons and events with multiple leptons in the final state. The data have also opened up a new domain to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model including contact interactions, leptoquarks, excited fermions and a number of supersymmetric models. This review presents a summary of such results, where the analyses reported correspond to an integrated luminosity of up to 1 fb^{-1}, representing the complete data set recorded by the H1 and ZEUS experiments.

  7. Boundary conditions for the paleoenvironment: Chemical and Physical Processes in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    The present research includes searches for important new interstellar constituents; observations relevant to differentiating between different models for the chemical processes that are important in the interstellar environment; and coordinated studies of the chemistry, physics, and dynamics of molecular clouds which are the sites or possible future sites of star formation. Recent research has included the detection and study of four new interstellar molecules; searches which have placed upper limits on the abundance of several other potential constituents of interstellar clouds; quantitative studies of comparative molecular abundances in different types of interstellar clouds; investigation of reaction pathways for astrochemistry from a comparison of theory and the observed abundance of related species such as isomers and isotopic variants; studies of possible tracers of energenic events related to star formation, including silicon and sulfur containing molecules; and mapping of physical, chemical, and dynamical properties over extended regions of nearby cold molecular clouds.

  8. A physical explanation of the temperature dependence of physiological processes mediated by cilia and flagella

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The majority of biological rates are known to exhibit temperature dependence. Here I reveal a direct link between temperature and ecologically relevant rates such as swimming speeds in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes as well as fluid-pumping and filtration rates in many metazoans, and show that this relationship is driven by movement rates of cilia and flagella. I develop models of the temperature dependence of cilial and flagellar movement rates and evaluate these with an extensive compilation of data from the literature. The model captures the temperature dependence of viscosity and provides a mechanistic and biologically interpretable explanation for the temperature dependence of a range of ecologically relevant processes; it also reveals a clear dependence on both reaction rate-like processes and the physics of the environment. The incorporation of viscosity allows further insight into the effects of environmental temperature variation and of processes, such as disease, that affect the viscosity of blood or other body fluids. PMID:23959901

  9. Applications of Emerging Satellites for Ocean Bio-geo Chemical and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, R.; Ladner, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging satellites for hyper and multispectral sensing of the oceans spectral ocean color are enabling improved capability for monitoring real-time ocean conditions and processes. These sensors can define physical and biological processes occurring at space scales from lakes and estuaries to coastal and open waters and will resolve temporal scales at hourly, daily to seasonal variability. These emerging satellite products are critical for data assimilation into ocean physical and ecological modeling and providing future capability for ocean forecasting. Emerging polar orbiters to be discussed are: 1) VIIRS with new ocean color, SST and day night bands and 2) HICO - hyperspectral high resolution coastal imager. Additionally emerging geostationary sensors to be discussed are: 1) GOCI - Korean ocean color satellite and 2) GeoCape - planned ocean color sensor. New products and applications to exploit emerging sensors for ocean monitoring of water quality and physical conditions in based on importance of inter-satellite radiometric calibration to maintain consistency between sensors and products. These products will address the impact of increased anthropogenic activity along coasts and rivers. Methods and procedures to insure sensor calibration insures future products can be merged at different time and space scales. Emerging capabilities include: 1) improved surface heat flux for physical models 2) new near shore products in optically shallow water such as sea grass mapping, bathymetry and bio-optical water quality 3) tracking surface currents and ecological sources and sinks. 4) Improved spatial and temporal changes in bio-optical conditions to characterize changes in ecological water quality (dissolved organics, carbon flux, phytoplankton biomass, particle composition and size.) 5) Inland lakes and river monitoring.

  10. Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing from Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Qin, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Bauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The results of the technological breakthroughs in computing that have taken place over the last few decades makes it possible to achieve emergency management objectives that focus on saving human lives and decreasing economic effects. In particular, the integration of a wide variety of information sources, including observations from spatially-referenced physical sensors and new social media sources, enables better real-time seismic hazard analysis through distributed computing networks. The main goal of this work is to utilize innovative computational algorithms for better real-time seismic risk analysis by integrating different data sources and processing tools into streaming and cloud computing applications. The Geological Survey of Canada operates the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) with over 100 high-gain instruments and 60 low-gain or strong motion seismographs. The processing of the continuous data streams from each station of the CNSN provides the opportunity to detect possible earthquakes in near real-time. The information from physical sources is combined to calculate a location and magnitude for an earthquake. The automatically calculated results are not always sufficiently precise and prompt that can significantly reduce the response time to a felt or damaging earthquake. Social sensors, here represented as Twitter users, can provide information earlier to the general public and more rapidly to the emergency planning and disaster relief agencies. We introduce joint streaming data processing from social and physical sensors in real-time based on the idea that social media observations serve as proxies for physical sensors. By using the streams of data in the form of Twitter messages, each of which has an associated time and location, we can extract information related to a target event and perform enhanced analysis by combining it with physical sensor data. Results of this work suggest that the use of data from social media, in conjunction

  11. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    PubMed

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  12. Significance of chamber pressure to complex multi-phase physics in jet engine fuel injection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Rainer; Oefelein, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Injection processes in jet engines at chamber pressures in excess of the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid fuel are not well understood. Under some conditions, a distinct two-phase interface may not exist anymore which eliminates the presence of classical spray atomization phenomena. A comprehensive model for jet engine fuel injections is derived to quantify the conditions under which the interfacial dynamics transition to diffusion-dominated mixing processes without surface tension. At certain conditions, the model shows two-phase interfaces with substantially increased thicknesses and distinctively reduced mean free paths in comparison to ambient pressure conditions. Then, the underlying assumptions of a distinct two-phase interface do not apply anymore and the interface along with its surface tension is shown to deteriorate as it broadens substantially. As a consequence of this physical complexity, the conceptual view of spray atomization and evaporation as an appropriate model for jet engine injection processes is, contrary to conventional wisdom, questionable at certain operating conditions. Instead, a Large Eddy Simulation using a dense-fluid approximation is applied which takes the complex thermo-physics of real-fluid behavior into account.

  13. LIGHT SOURCE: Physical design of a 10 MeV LINAC for polymer radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guang-Yao; Pei, Yuan-Ji; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Jin, Kai; Li, Wei-Min

    2009-06-01

    In China, polymer radiation processing has become one of the most important processing industries. The radiation processing source may be an electron beam accelerator or a radioactive source. Physical design of an electron beam facility applied for radiation crosslinking is introduced in this paper because of it's much higher dose rate and efficiency. Main part of this facility is a 10 MeV travelling wave electron linac with constant impedance accelerating structure. A start to end simulation concerning the linac is reported in this paper. The codes Opera-3d, Poisson-superfish and Parmela are used to describe electromagnetic elements of the accelerator and track particle distribution from the cathode to the end of the linac. After beam dynamic optimization, wave phase velocities in the structure have been chosen to be 0.56, 0.9 and 0.999 respectively. Physical parameters about the main elements such as DC electron gun, iris-loaded periodic structure, solenoids, etc, are presented. Simulation results proves that it can satisfy the industrial requirement. The linac is under construction. Some components have been finished. Measurements proved that they are in a good agreement with the design values.

  14. Impact of soil parameter and physical process on reproducibility of hydrological processes by land surface model in semiarid grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Yorozu, K.; Asanuma, J.; Kondo, M.; Saito, K.

    2014-12-01

    The land surface model (LSM) takes part in the land-atmosphere interaction on the earth system model for the climate change research. In this study, we evaluated the impact of soil parameters and physical process on reproducibility of hydrological process by LSM Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and RunOff (MATSIRO; Takata et al, 2003, GPC) forced by the meteorological data observed at grassland in semiarid climate in China and Mongolia. The testing of MATSIRO was carried out offline mode over the semiarid grassland sites at Tongyu (44.42 deg. N, 122.87 deg. E, altitude: 184m) in China, Kherlen Bayan Ulaan (KBU; 47.21 deg. N, 108.74 deg. E, altitude: 1235m) and Arvaikheer (46.23 N, 102.82E, altitude: 1,813m) in Mongolia. Although all sites locate semiarid grassland, the climate condition is different among sites, which the annual air temperature and precipitation are 5.7 deg. C and 388mm (Tongyu), 1.2 deg.C and 180mm (KBU), and 0.4 deg. C and 245mm(Arvaikheer). We can evaluate the effect of climate condition on the model performance. Three kinds of experiments have been carried out, which was run with the default parameters (CTL), the observed parameters (OBS) for soil physics and hydrology, and vegetation, and refined MATSIRO with the effect of ice in thermal parameters and unfrozen water below the freezing with same parameters as OBS run (OBSr). The validation data has been provided by CEOP(http://www.ceop.net/) , RAISE(http://raise.suiri.tsukuba.ac.jp/), GAME-AAN (Miyazaki et al., 2004, JGR) for Tongyu, KBU, and Arvaikheer, respectively. The reproducibility of the net radiation, the soil temperature (Ts), and latent heat flux (LE) were well reproduced by OBS and OBSr run. The change of soil physical and hydraulic parameter affected the reproducibility of soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (SM) as well as energy flux component especially for the sensible heat flux (H) and soil heat flux (G). The reason for the great improvement on the

  15. Effect of electric pulse processing on physical and chemical properties of inorganic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakipova, S. E.; Nussupbekov, B. R.; Ospanova, D.; Khassenov, A.; Sakipova, Sh E.

    2015-04-01

    This article analyzes various aspects of the practical application of electric pulse technology of industrial raw materials processing as a result of a spark electric discharge in a liquid solution of the raw material under processing. The object of the study are samples of technogenic materials from a deposit in Central Kazakhstan, which are crushed and ground to particles with a preset degree of fragmentation. The electric pulse processing is performed by using different numbers of discharges. The effect of electric pulse processing with different electrical parameters is carried out on the basis of comparison of the properties and structure of metal-containing and industrial raw materials after machining and electric pulse processing. The X-ray spectral microanalysis was performed using a scanning microscope. The researchers obtained data on changes in the microstructure and elemental composition of inorganic material samples as a result of electric pulse processing. It was established that the technology of electric pulse crushing and grinding of inorganic materials makes it possible to obtain not only a final product with desired size of dispersed particles, but also to change their physical and chemical properties.

  16. Comparisons of chemical and physical properties of catfish oils prepared from different extracting processes.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, S; Yin, H; Prinyawiwatkul, W; King, J M

    2009-03-01

    Four different catfish oil extraction processes were used to extract oil from catfish viscera: process CF1 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, no heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF2 involved ground catfish viscera (no added water), heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF3 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF4 involved ground catfish viscera, enzymatic hydrolysis, and centrifugation. Chemical and physical properties of the resulting of catfish oils were evaluated. The CF4 process recovered significantly higher amounts of crude oil from catfish viscera than the other 3 extraction methods. The CF4 oil contained a higher percent of free fatty acid and peroxide values than CF1, CF2, and CF3 oils. Oleic acid in catfish oil was the predominant fatty acid accounting for about 50% of total fatty acids. Weight loss of oils increased with increasing temperatures between 250 and 500 degrees C. All the catfish oil samples melted around -32 degrees C regardless of the extraction methods. The flow behavior index of all the oil samples was less than 1, which indicated that the catfish oils exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The apparent viscosity at -5 and 0 degrees C was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. The average magnitude of activation energy for apparent viscosity of the oil was higher for CF2 than CF1, CF3, and CF4.

  17. Integration of Science on Biological and Physical Processes to Understand Ecological Diversity of Stream Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieman, B.; Dunham, J.

    2002-12-01

    The integration of biological and physical sciences has been important in efforts to understand and conserve aquatic species such as the stream fishes found in the Pacific Northwest. Traditionally that integration has focused at relatively fine scales and on what were perceived as more or less static conditions of stream habitats to explain the abundance and distribution of select species. Scientists and managers were intent on defining and creating optimal conditions to maximize the abundance of those species. There is growing recognition that habitats are dynamic and that populations of many species may be structured by biological and physical processes operating over much larger spatial and temporal scales. Natural disturbance, hydrology, and geomorphic constraints lead to variation in the distribution, size, and productivity of habitats for different species through time and space. That variation could influence the distribution and persistence of populations and the diversity that is expressed within and among those populations. It may even be critical to long-term evolutionary potential. Metapopulation theory, for example, suggests the geometry and interconnection of habitats will be key to the occurrence and persistence of many populations. Recent work with bull trout and Lahontan cutthroat trout support those predictions and demonstrate that the large-scale geometry of habitat networks is essentially defined by the variation in stream topology and temperature. Life history diversity and phenotypic plasticity are thought to be mechanisms that allow species populations to adapt to, fully exploit, and persist in variable and changing environments. The expression of that diversity may depend on historical patterns of disturbance and the interconnection and diversity of environments that are currently available. Conservation of aquatic biological diversity will depend on our understanding of the processes that generate that diversity. The application of new

  18. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  19. Physical Processes and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Pre and Post-Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. L.; Giltrap, D.; Kirschbaum, M.; Mcmillan, A. M.; Savage, K. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes may be moderated by physical and biological processes, particularly when soils freeze and then thaw. There is a need to understand how physical processes affect above- canopy fluxes of N2O. There is also a need to understand the magnitude and duration of N2O emission peaks for agricultural fields, particularly the nitrogen-fixing legumes, which can produce and consume N2O in the plant root symbiosome. There are multiple potential sources of N2O, including bacteria and fungi in soil and in root symbiosomes. Further, N2O can be released when trapped in ice or dissolved in solution. These physical and biological processes can contribute to N2O fluxes measured above the canopy. In 2012-2013, we evaluated canopy, surface and belowground N2O data for a field seeded to lucerne (Medicago sativa). We used high-frequency data to determine above-canopy N2O fluxes using an Aerodyne Quantum Cascade Laser integrated with an eddy covariance system, and compared these with low-frequency flux and concentration data collected at the surface and belowground. Belowground moisture, temperature and soil data were used to partition measured N2O and CH4 into gaseous and dissolved phases. Pre and post-freeze data indicated the proportion of post-freeze flux previously trapped in ice. Nitrous oxide fluxes following a thaw event were compared with the amount of N2O trapped during freezing to determine the proportion of the flux resulting from previously trapped gases versus de novo N2O production.

  20. The NASA-AMES Research Center Stratospheric Aerosol Model. 1. Physical Processes and Computational Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Kiang, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    A time-dependent one-dimensional model of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is presented. In constructing the model, a wide range of basic physical and chemical processes are incorporated in order to avoid predetermining or biasing the model predictions. The simulation, which extends from the surface to an altitude of 58 km, includes the troposphere as a source of gases and condensation nuclei and as a sink for aerosol droplets. The size distribution of aerosol particles is resolved into 25 categories with particle radii increasing geometrically from 0.01 to 2.56 microns such that particle volume doubles between categories.

  1. Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Keeton, L. W.; Tam, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    In order to aid the development of current and future SSME type engines, it is necessary to improve the understanding of basic issues related with physical-chemical processes of SSME internal flows. Accomplishments under each of the following specific objectives are described herein: (1) supplying a state-of-the-art CFD code and graphics package; (2) demonstrating code usage on SSME-related problems to NASA MSFC personnel; and (3) performance computations and analysis of problems relevant to current and future SSME's.

  2. Examination of the steps leading up to the physical developer process for developing fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey Daniel; Cantu, Antonio A; Antonopoulos, George; Surrency, Marc J

    2007-03-01

    This is a systematic study that examines several acid prewashes and water rinses on paper bearing latent prints before its treatment with a silver physical developer. Specimens or items processed with this method are usually pretreated with an acid wash to neutralize calcium carbonate from the paper before the treatment with a physical developer. Two different acids at varying concentrations were tested on fingerprints. Many different types of paper were examined in order to determine which acid prewash was the most beneficial. Various wash times as well as the addition of a water rinse step before the development were also examined. A pH study was included that monitored the acidity of the solution during the wash step. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify surface calcium levels for the paper samples throughout the experiment. Malic acid at a concentration of 2.5% proved to be an ideal acid for most papers, providing good fingerprint development with minimal background development. Water rinses were deemed unnecessary before physical development.

  3. Workshop on Research for Space Exploration: Physical Sciences and Process Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division of NASA to define contributions the microgravity research community can provide to advance the human exploration of space. Invited speakers and attendees participated in an exchange of ideas to identify issues of interest in physical sciences and process technologies. This workshop was part of a continuing effort to broaden the contribution of the microgravity research community toward achieving the goals of the space agency in human exploration, as identified in the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) strategic plan. The Microgravity program is one of NASA'a major links to academic and industrial basic research in the physical and engineering sciences. At present, it supports close to 400 principal investigators, who represent many of the nation's leading researchers in the physical and engineering sciences and biotechnology. The intent of the workshop provided a dialogue between NASA and this large, influential research community, mission planners and industry technical experts with the goal of defining enabling research for the Human Exploration and Development of Space activities to which the microgravity research community can contribute.

  4. Chronic family economic hardship, family processes and progression of mental and physical health symptoms in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-06-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health symptoms in adolescence. The present study investigates the influences of chronic family economic hardship on adolescents' multiple health problem symptoms (i.e., symptoms of anxiety, and depression and physical complaints) through parents' marital conflict, and supportive parenting; it also examines how there adolescents' health problems mutually influence one another throughout adolescence. We used Structural Equation Modeling to analyze data from a longitudinal sample of European American mothers, fathers, and target adolescents (N = 451, 53% female) to examine direct and indirect effects. Findings generally supported the hypothesized model. Chronic family economic hardship contributed to mental and physical health problems of adolescents. This influence largely was mediated through supportive parenting. Moreover, supportive parenting buffered marital conflict on depressive symptoms of adolescents. Also, there was a tendency for females to show more stable depressive symptoms than males. The study demonstrates key mediating pathways and additional moderating influences based on the family stress model and also highlights the importance of improving health resources for adolescents.

  5. Workshop on Research for Space Exploration: Physical Sciences and Process Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division of NASA to define contributions the microgravity research community can provide to advance the human exploration of space. Invited speakers and attendees participated in an exchange of ideas to identify issues of interest in physical sciences and process technologies. This workshop was part of a continuing effort to broaden the contribution of the microgravity research community toward achieving the goals of the space agency in human exploration, as identified in the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) strategic plan. The Microgravity program is one of NASA'a major links to academic and industrial basic research in the physical and engineering sciences. At present, it supports close to 400 principal investigators, who represent many of the nation's leading researchers in the physical and engineering sciences and biotechnology. The intent of the workshop provided a dialogue between NASA and this large, influential research community, mission planners and industry technical experts with the goal of defining enabling research for the Human Exploration and Development of Space activities to which the microgravity research community can contribute.

  6. Adsorption of paraquat on the physically activated bleaching earth waste from soybean oil processing plant.

    PubMed

    Tsai, W T; Chen, C H; Yang, J M

    2002-09-01

    A series of regeneration experiments with physical activation were carried out on bleaching earth waste from the soybean refining process in a rotary reactor. The influence of activation parameters on the spent clay by varying the holding time of 1 to approximately 4 hours and temperature of 700 to approximately 900 degrees C was determined. The variations of pore properties as well as the change of chemical characteristics in the resulting solids were also studied. Results showed that the resulting samples were type IV with hysteresis loops corresponding to type H3 from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, indicating slit-shaped mesoporous characteristics. However, the regenerated clays had smaller surface areas (70 to approximately 117 m2/g) than that (245 m2/g) of fresh bleaching earth. Under the physical activation conditions investigated, the holding time of 1 hour and temperature of 700 degrees C were found to be optimal conditions for producing mesoporous clay with physical activation. The adsorption of paraquat on regenerated sample was also evaluated. The isotherm showed that the regenerated sample still had a high affinity for this herbicide. Thus, the regeneration of this agro-industrial waste is one option for utilizing the clay resource, and it may be used for water treatment applications to remove organic contaminants.

  7. The Climate Space Concept: Analysis of the Steady State Heat Energy Budget of Animals. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Several modules in the thermodynamic series considered the application of the First Law to…

  8. Tailoring the physical properties of homopolymers and polymer nanocomposites via solid-state processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Cynthia

    Numerous approaches can be used to modify polymer properties. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that an innovative, continuous, industrially scalable process called solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) can be used to enhance polymer properties with and without the addition of nanofillers. The SSSP process employs a modified twin-screw extruder in which the barrel is cooled rather than heated, resulting in the polymer being processed at a temperature below its glass transition temperature, if the polymer is amorphous, or its melt transition temperature, if the polymer is semi-crystalline. The material processed via SSSP experiences high levels of shear and compressive stresses, resulting in many repeated fragmentation and fusion steps during pulverization, which can lead to mechanochemistry. This research provides the first in-depth study on the effect of SSSP processing on the molecular structure as well as physical properties of homopolymers. Rheological characterization has demonstrated an increase in the melt viscosity of pulverized poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), which can be ascribed to the in situ formation of lightly branched PET. Further evidence of branched PET is provided via a dramatic increase in the rate of crystallization of the pulverized samples. These results suggest that SSSP processing can enhance the reuse and recyclability of PET. While SSSP processing has dramatic effects on the structure of polyesters and consequently their properties, a mild effect is observed for polyolefins. This thesis also demonstrates via a combination of methods that the well-exfoliated state can be achieved via SSSP processing of various polymer nanocomposites, using as-received, unmodified fillers. For example, extensive comparisons are made concerning the thermal stability in air or nitrogen atmosphere of polypropylene (PP)/clay, PP/graphite, and PP/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites made by SSSP. These comparisons suggest that the mechanism by which CNTs

  9. Applications of gas chemistry in evaluating physical processes in the Southern Negros (Palinpinon) geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Seastres, J.S. Jr.; Ruaya, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Three major physical processes have occurred in the Palinpinon geothermal system due to exploitation from 1985 to 1991. They were identified using gas compositions and equilibria involving H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} to calculate temperature and vapor fraction in the reservoir. The first process is pressure drawdown in the southern part of the field, producing a local increase in the vapor fraction, with the liquid maintaining a high measured temperature, close to 300 C. The second process is vapor loss from an original liquid phase during its ascent through fractures. Wells affected by this process show high degrees of vapor loss (> 10%) when evaluated at the original high temperature of the liquid (290--300 C). But if vapor loss is modeled to occur at much lower temperatures (220--250 C), more realistic vapor losses (1--3%) are calculated. The last process involves mixing and cooling due to injection fluid returns to wells located in the northeastern part of the field. For some wells the fraction of injected brine in total temperatures can decline from 290 to 300 C to as low as 215--220 C, corresponding to periods when most of the produced fluids are derived from injected brine. Gas geothermometry gives a more reliable temperature estimate than quartz geothermometry for fluids with high fractions of injected brine, as the gas equilibria reflects the local reservoir temperature.

  10. Some Physics Processes in the Nitrogen-Filled Photoluminescence Cell - Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D

    2006-06-22

    As shown in Ref. [1], the photoluminescence cell is a viable candidate for monitoring the total energy in the Linac Coherent Light Source. In Ref. [1], most of the discussion was concentrated on the cell with argon as a working gas. In the present note I provide a discussion of some physics processes that may affect the performance of the photoluminescence cell with the nitrogen fill. In particular, I will consider the role of the space charge effects, ambipolar diffusion, and recombination processes. This group of phenomena determines the duration of the afterglow process that follows an initial short (<100 ns) burst of optical radiation. The presence of this afterglow can be of some significance for the detection system. Compared to my previous note with the same title UCRL-TR-222274, a more detailed discussion of space charge effects is provided, with an emphasis on the electrostatic confinement of the primary electrons. Also, some additional atomic data are included into sections describing recombination processes. The general template for this discussion follows a draft report [1] where the argon-filled cell was considered. But some processes in nitrogen are different and require separate consideration. In what follows, I am not attempting to produce ''exact'' results, but rather to provide a quick order-of-magnitude scoping study.

  11. Re-engineering the process of medical imaging physics and technology education and training.

    PubMed

    Sprawls, Perry

    2005-09-01

    The extensive availability of digital technology provides an opportunity for enhancing both the effectiveness and efficiency of virtually all functions in the process of medical imaging physics and technology education and training. This includes degree granting academic programs within institutions and a wide spectrum of continuing education lifelong learning activities. Full achievement of the advantages of technology-enhanced education (e-learning, etc.) requires an analysis of specific educational activities with respect to desired outcomes and learning objectives. This is followed by the development of strategies and resources that are based on established educational principles. The impact of contemporary technology comes from its ability to place learners into enriched learning environments. The full advantage of a re-engineered and implemented educational process involves changing attitudes and functions of learning facilitators (teachers) and resource allocation and sharing both within and among institutions.

  12. Boundary Conditions for the Paleoenvironment: Chemical and Physical Processes in the Pre-Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, William M.; Schloerb, F. Peter

    1997-01-01

    The basic theme of this program is the study of molecular complexity and evolution in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar system objects. Research has included the detection and study of a number of new interstellar molecules and investigation of reaction pathways for astrochemistry from a comparison of theory and observed molecular abundances. The latter includes studies of cold, dark clouds in which ion-molecule chemistry should predominate, searches for the effects of interchange of material between the gas and solid phases in interstellar clouds, unbiased spectral surveys of particular sources, and systematic investigation of the interlinked chemistry and physics of dense interstellar clouds. In addition, the study of comets has allowed a comparison between the chemistry of such minimally thermally processed objects and that of interstellar clouds, shedding light on the evolution of the biogenic elements during the process of solar system formation.

  13. Process evaluation of a school-based intervention to increase physical activity and reduce bullying.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Donna; Marquis, Monica; Young, Wendy; Holowaty, Philippa; Isaac, Winston

    2009-07-01

    Increases in schoolyard bullying and physical inactivity have become important issues to many stakeholders. Peers Running Organized Play Stations (PROPS) is a program designed to address these two issues in elementary schools. Using a "train the trainer" approach, PROPS was introduced to 41 schools. Results of a process evaluation indicate that the implementation rate was 39%. Resources were identified by some respondents as an implementation facilitator. A variety of barriers to implementation were identified: The PROPS program was not a component of anyone's job at the school level, teachers or parent volunteers are needed to run the program, and there is no funding to purchase equipment or storage bins for the equipment. In addition, support for PROPS is vulnerable to changing environments. This process evaluation points to some needed changes for long-term sustainability of the program while highlighting challenges associated with implementing a program in the elementary school setting.

  14. Recovery of metals and nonmetals from electronic waste by physical and chemical recycling processes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Muammer

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the existing and state of art knowledge for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling. Electrical and/or electronic devices which are unwanted, broken or discarded by their original users are known as e-waste. The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of e-waste problem, strategies of e-waste management and various physical, chemical and metallurgical e-waste recycling processes, their advantages and disadvantages towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with special attention towards extraction of both metallic values and nonmetallic substances. The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals Hg, Cd, Pb, etc., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. Due to the presence of these substances, e-waste is generally considered as hazardous waste and, if improperly managed, may pose significant human and environmental health risks. This review describes the potential hazards and economic opportunities of e-waste. Firstly, an overview of e-waste/printed circuit board (PCB) components is given. Current status and future perspectives of e-waste/PCB recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling methods, liberation and classification processes are also covered. Manual selective dismantling after desoldering and metal-nonmetal liberation at -150μm with two step crushing are seen to be the best techniques. After size reduction, mainly physical separation processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation, etc. have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and nonmetals, along with useful utilizations of the nonmetallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining. Suitable PCB recycling flowsheets for industrial applications are also given

  15. Interplay of Physical Mechanisms and Biofilm Processes: Review of Microfluidic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, A.; Karig, D.; Kumar, A.; Ardekani, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural and artificial environments often reside in self-organized, integrated communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured entities consisting of bacterial cells embedded in a matrix of self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix acts like a biological ‘glue’ enabling microbes to adhere to and colonize a wide range of surfaces. Once integrated into biofilms, bacterial cells can withstand various forms of stress such as antibiotics, hydrodynamic shear and other environmental challenges. Because of this, biofilms of pathogenic bacteria can be a significant health hazard often leading to recurrent infections. Biofilms can also lead to clogging and material degradation; on the other hand they are an integral part of various environmental processes such as carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycles. There are several determinants of biofilm morphology and dynamics, including the genotypic and phenotypic states of constituent cells and various environmental conditions. Here, we present an overview of the role of relevant physical processes in biofilm formation, including propulsion mechanisms, hydrodynamic effects, and transport of quorum sensing signals. We also provide a survey of microfluidic techniques utilized to unravel the associated physical mechanisms. Further, we discuss the future research areas for exploring new ways to extend the scope of the microfluidic approach in biofilm studies. PMID:25385289

  16. Toward a stress process model of children's exposure to physical family and community violence.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Theoretically informed models are required to further the comprehensive understanding of children's ETV. We draw on the stress process paradigm to forward an overall conceptual model of ETV (ETV) in childhood and adolescence. Around this conceptual model, we synthesize research in four dominant areas of the literature which are detailed but often disconnected including: (1) exposure to three forms of physical violence (e.g., child physical maltreatment, interparental violence, and community ETV); (2) the multilevel correlates and causes of ETV (e.g., neighborhood characteristics including concentrated disadvantage; family characteristics including socio-economic status and family stressors); (3) a range of consequences of ETV (e.g., internalizing and externalizing mental health problems, role transitions, and academic outcomes); and (4) multilevel and cross domain mediators and moderators of ETV influences (e.g., school and community factors, family social support, and individual coping resources). We highlight the range of interconnected processes through which violence exposures may influence children and suggest opportunities for prevention and intervention. We further identify needed future research on children's ETV including coping resources as well as research on cumulative contributions of violence exposure, violence exposure modifications, curvilinearity, and timing of exposure.

  17. Outcome measures in neurological physical therapy practice: part II. A patient-centered process.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jane E; Andrews, A Williams; Lanzino, Desiree; Perron, Aimee E; Peron, Aimee; Potter, Kirsten A

    2011-06-01

    Physical therapists working in neurological practice must make choices about which standardized outcome measures are most appropriate for each patient. Significant time constraints in the clinic limit the number of measures that one can reasonably administer. Therapists must choose measures that will provide results that guide the selection of appropriate interventions and are likely to show clinically meaningful change. Therefore, therapists must be able to compare the merits of available measures to identify those that are most relevant for each patient and setting. This article describes a process for selecting outcome measures and illustrates the use of that process with a patient who has had a stroke. The link between selecting objective outcome measures and tracking patient progress is emphasized. Comparisons are made between 2 motor function measures (the Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA] of Physical Performance vs the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement), and 2 balance measures (Berg Balance Scale vs the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale). The use of objective outcome measures allows therapists to quantify information that previously had been described in subjective terms. This allows the tracking of progress, and the comparison of effectiveness and costs across interventions, settings, providers, and patient characteristics.

  18. Detailed Modeling of Physical Processes in Electron Sources for Accelerator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubenko, Oksana; Afanasev, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    At present, electron sources are essential in a wide range of applications - from common technical use to exploring the nature of matter. Depending on the application requirements, different methods and materials are used to generate electrons. State-of-the-art accelerator applications set a number of often-conflicting requirements for electron sources (e.g., quantum efficiency vs. polarization, current density vs. lifetime, etc). Development of advanced electron sources includes modeling and design of cathodes, material growth, fabrication of cathodes, and cathode testing. The detailed simulation and modeling of physical processes is required in order to shed light on the exact mechanisms of electron emission and to develop new-generation electron sources with optimized efficiency. The purpose of the present work is to study physical processes in advanced electron sources and develop scientific tools, which could be used to predict electron emission from novel nano-structured materials. In particular, the area of interest includes bulk/superlattice gallium arsenide (bulk/SL GaAs) photo-emitters and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond ((N)UNCD) photo/field-emitters. Work supported by The George Washington University and Euclid TechLabs LLC.

  19. Can dual processing theory explain physics students' performance on the Force Concept Inventory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy

    2016-12-01

    According to dual processing theory there are two types, or modes, of thinking: system 1, which involves intuitive and nonreflective thinking, and system 2, which is more deliberate and requires conscious effort and thought. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a widely used and robust three item instrument that measures the tendency to override system 1 thinking and to engage in reflective, system 2 thinking. Each item on the CRT has an intuitive (but wrong) answer that must be rejected in order to answer the item correctly. We therefore hypothesized that performance on the CRT may give useful insights into the cognitive processes involved in learning physics, where success involves rejecting the common, intuitive ideas about the world (often called misconceptions) and instead carefully applying physical concepts. This paper presents initial results from an ongoing study examining the relationship between students' CRT scores and their performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), which tests students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics. We find that a higher CRT score predicts a higher FCI score for both precourse and postcourse tests. However, we also find that the FCI normalized gain is independent of CRT score. The implications of these results are discussed.

  20. A box model for representing estuarine physical processes in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Whitney, Michael M.; Bryan, Frank O.; Tseng, Yu-heng

    2017-04-01

    Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. In order to realistically represent riverine freshwater inputs in Earth system models, a physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM represents the estuary exchange circulation with a two-layer box structure. It takes as input the river volume flux from the land surface model and the subsurface salinity at the estuary mouth from the ocean model. It delivers the estuarine outflow salinity and net volume flux into and out of the estuary to the ocean model. An offline test of the EBM forced with observed conditions for the Columbia River system shows good agreement with observations of outflow salinity and high-resolution simulations of the exchange flow volume flux. To illustrate the practicality of use of the EBM in an Earth system model, the EBM is implemented for all coastal grid cells with river runoff in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Compared to the standard version of CESM, which treats runoff as an augmentation to precipitation, the EBM increases sea surface salinity and reduces stratification near river mouths. The EBM also leads to significant regional and remote changes in CESM ocean surface salinities.

  1. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    PubMed

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  2. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.

  3. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  4. Anniversary paper: image processing and manipulation through the pages of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Armato, Samuel G; van Ginneken, Bram

    2008-10-01

    The language of radiology has gradually evolved from "the film" (the foundation of radiology since Wilhelm Roentgen's 1895 discovery of x-rays) to "the image," an electronic manifestation of a radiologic examination that exists within the bits and bytes of a computer. Rather than simply storing and displaying radiologic images in a static manner, the computational power of the computer may be used to enhance a radiologist's ability to visually extract information from the image through image processing and image manipulation algorithms. Image processing tools provide a broad spectrum of opportunities for image enhancement. Gray-level manipulations such as histogram equalization, spatial alterations such as geometric distortion correction, preprocessing operations such as edge enhancement, and enhanced radiography techniques such as temporal subtraction provide powerful methods to improve the diagnostic quality of an image or to enhance structures of interest within an image. Furthermore, these image processing algorithms provide the building blocks of more advanced computer vision methods. The prominent role of medical physicists and the AAPM in the advancement of medical image processing methods, and in the establishment of the "image" as the fundamental entity in radiology and radiation oncology, has been captured in 35 volumes of Medical Physics.

  5. Improved understanding of physics processes in pedestal structure, leading to improved predictive capability for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groebner, R. J.; Chang, C. S.; Hughes, J. W.; Maingi, R.; Snyder, P. B.; Xu, X. Q.; Boedo, J. A.; Boyle, D. P.; Callen, J. D.; Canik, J. M.; Cziegler, I.; Davis, E. M.; Diallo, A.; Diamond, P. H.; Elder, J. D.; Eldon, D. P.; Ernst, D. R.; Fulton, D. P.; Landreman, M.; Leonard, A. W.; Lore, J. D.; Osborne, T. H.; Pankin, A. Y.; Parker, S. E.; Rhodes, T. L.; Smith, S. P.; Sontag, A. C.; Stacey, W. M.; Walk, J.; Wan, W.; Wang, E. H.-J.; Watkins, J. G.; White, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Yan, Z.; Belli, E. A.; Bray, B. D.; Candy, J.; Churchill, R. M.; Deterly, T. M.; Doyle, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Joseph, I.; Kinsey, J. E.; LaBombard, B.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lin, Z.; Lipschultz, B. L.; Liu, C.; Ma, Y.; McKee, G. R.; Ponce, D. M.; Rost, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Staebler, G. M.; Sugiyama, L. E.; Terry, J. L.; Umansky, M. V.; Waltz, R. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Zeng, L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-09-01

    Joint experiment/theory/modelling research has led to increased confidence in predictions of the pedestal height in ITER. This work was performed as part of a US Department of Energy Joint Research Target in FY11 to identify physics processes that control the H-mode pedestal structure. The study included experiments on C-Mod, DIII-D and NSTX as well as interpretation of experimental data with theory-based modelling codes. This work provides increased confidence in the ability of models for peeling-ballooning stability, bootstrap current, pedestal width and pedestal height scaling to make correct predictions, with some areas needing further work also being identified. A model for pedestal pressure height has made good predictions in existing machines for a range in pressure of a factor of 20. This provides a solid basis for predicting the maximum pedestal pressure height in ITER, which is found to be an extrapolation of a factor of 3 beyond the existing data set. Models were studied for a number of processes that are proposed to play a role in the pedestal ne and Te profiles. These processes include neoclassical transport, paleoclassical transport, electron temperature gradient turbulence and neutral fuelling. All of these processes may be important, with the importance being dependent on the plasma regime. Studies with several electromagnetic gyrokinetic codes show that the gradients in and on top of the pedestal can drive a number of instabilities.

  6. Experimental Fluidic Investigation of Degradation of Pico-liter Oil Droplets by Physical and Biological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2016-11-01

    This study used laboratory experiments to assess degradation of crude oil by physical and biological processes including dissolution and consumption. To perform this study, we have developed a bioassay that consists of a flow chamber with a bottom glass substrate printed with an array of pico-liter oil droplets using micro-Transfer Printing. The technique allows the printing of highly homogeneous pico-liter droplet array with different dimensions and shapes that can be maintained for weeks. Since the droplets are pinned and stationary on the bottom substrate, the key processes can be evaluated by measuring the change of shape and volume using Atomic Force Microscopy. Parallel microfluidic bioassays are established at the beginning, exposed to abiotic/biotic solutions, and scarified for characterization at given time intervals for each experiment. Two processes, dissolution and consumption, are investigated. In addition, the effects of dispersant on these processes are also studied. The results show that the amount of oil degraded by bacteria accounts for almost 50% of the total volume in comparison to 25% via dissolution. Although dispersant has a subtle effect on dissolution, the effect on rates of consumption and its asymptotic behavior are substantial. Experiments involving different bacterial strains, dispersant concentration, and flow shear rate are on-going.

  7. Two-time scale subordination in physical processes with long-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina

    2008-03-01

    We describe dynamical processes in continuous media with a long-term memory. Our consideration is based on a stochastic subordination idea and concerns two physical examples in detail. First we study a temporal evolution of the species concentration in a trapping reaction in which a diffusing reactant is surrounded by a sea of randomly moving traps. The analysis uses the random-variable formalism of anomalous diffusive processes. We find that the empirical trapping-reaction law, according to which the reactant concentration decreases in time as a product of an exponential and a stretched exponential function, can be explained by a two-time scale subordination of random processes. Another example is connected with a state equation for continuous media with memory. If the pressure and the density of a medium are subordinated in two different random processes, then the ordinary state equation becomes fractional with two-time scales. This allows one to arrive at the Bagley-Torvik type of state equation.

  8. I spy with my little eye: cognitive processing of framed physical activity messages.

    PubMed

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Castelhano, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative cognitive processing of gain-framed versus loss-framed physical activity messages following exposure to health risk information. Guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, the secondary purpose was to examine the relation between dwell time, message recall, and message-relevant thoughts, as well as perceived risk, personal relevance, and fear arousal. Baseline measures of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and health problems were administered to 77 undergraduate students. Participants read population-specific health risk information while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker, which measured dwell time on message content. Perceived risk was then reassessed. Next, participants read PA messages while the eye tracker measured dwell time on message content. Immediately following message exposure, recall, thought-listing, fear arousal, and personal relevance were measured. Dwell time on gain-framed messages was significantly greater than loss-framed messages. However, message recall and thought-listing did not differ by message frame. Dwell time was not significantly related to recall or thought-listing. Consistent with the Extended Parallel Process Model, fear arousal was significantly related to recall, thought-listing, and personal relevance. In conclusion, gain-framed messages may evoke greater dwell time than loss-famed messages. However, dwell time alone may be insufficient for evoking further cognitive processing.

  9. The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    active process operates near a Hopf bifurcation, the generic properties of which explain several key features of hearing. Moreover, when the gain of the active process rises sufficiently in ultraquiet circumstances, the system traverses the bifurcation and even a normal ear actually emits sound. The remarkable properties of hearing thus stem from the propagation of traveling waves on a nonlinear and excitable medium.

  10. The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-07-01

    active process operates near a Hopf bifurcation, the generic properties of which explain several key features of hearing. Moreover, when the gain of the active process rises sufficiently in ultraquiet circumstances, the system traverses the bifurcation and even a normal ear actually emits sound. The remarkable properties of hearing thus stem from the propagation of traveling waves on a nonlinear and excitable medium.

  11. Examining the Influences of Epistemic Beliefs and Knowledge Representations on Cognitive Processing and Conceptual Change When Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Gina M.; Muis, Krista R.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Ranellucci, John; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Wang, Xihui

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, we manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with…

  12. Design Standards for Instructional Computer Programs. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. The report describes design standards for the computer programs. They are designed to be…

  13. User's Guide for Subroutine FFORM. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry; Anderson, Lougenia

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. FFORM is a portable format-free input subroutine package which simplifies the input of values…

  14. Dimensional Methods: Dimensions, Units and the Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, R. Ian

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. The module is concerned with conventional techniques such as concepts of measurement,…

  15. User's Guide for Subroutine PLOT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PLOT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of three dimensional hidden…

  16. Programmer's Guide for Subroutine PLOT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PLOT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of three-dimensional hidden…

  17. User's Guide for Subroutine PRNT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PRNT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of printer plot displays. The displays…

  18. Programmer's Guide for Subroutine PRNT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PRNT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of printed plot displays. The displays…

  19. [Parameters of physical and mental development of children and adolescents residing near enterprise for radioactive waste processing and stationary storage].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Popova, O L; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Kuznetsova, A I; Prokazova, L P; Pronina, T K; Varfolomeeva, I G

    2005-01-01

    Operation of enterprise for radioactive waste processing and disposal does not influence negatively physical and mental development of children and adolescents residing in the area under observation. In some parameters, physical and mental development of children and adolescents residing in the area under observation surpasses that in reference area--that could be due to social and economic peculiarities.

  20. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative process for scoring... process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and..., standard 2 performing and standard 3 performing—in accordance with the ranking process described...

  1. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative process for scoring... process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and..., standard 2 performing and standard 3 performing—in accordance with the ranking process described...

  2. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative process for scoring... process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and..., standard 2 performing and standard 3 performing—in accordance with the ranking process described...

  3. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administrative process for scoring... process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and..., standard 2 performing and standard 3 performing—in accordance with the ranking process described...

  4. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative process for scoring... process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and..., standard 2 performing and standard 3 performing—in accordance with the ranking process described...

  5. Physical modelling of the rainfall infiltration processes and related landslide behaviour.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capparelli, Giovanna; Damiano, Emilia; Olivares, Lucio; Spolverino, Gennaro; Versace, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of natural processes, such as weather-induced landslide, an issue that is of great importance. Were held numerous research to understand the processes underlying the triggering of a landslide, and to improve the forecasting systems. A valid prediction model can allow the implementation of an equally valid announcement and warning system, thus reducing the risk caused by such phenomena. The hydraulic and hydrologic modeling of the process that takes place in an unstable slope subjected to rainfall, can be performed using two approaches: through mathematical models or physical models. Our research uses an integrated approach, making system data of experimental sites, with both the results and interpretations of physical models, both with simulations of mathematical models. The intent is to observe and interpret laboratory experiments to reproduce and simulate the phenomenon with mathematical models. The research aims to obtain interpretations of hydrological and hydraulic processes, which occur in the slopes as a result of rain, more and more accurate. For our research we use a scaled-down physical model and a mathematical model FEM. The physical model is a channel with transparent walls composed of two floors at a variable angle (ignition and propagation) 1 meter wide and 3 meters long each. The model is instrumented with sensors that control the hydraulic and geotechnical parameters within the slopes and devices that simulate natural events. The model is equipped with a monitoring system able to keep under observation the physical quantities of interest. In particular, the apparatus is equipped with tensiometers miniaturized, that can be installed in different positions and at different depths, for the measurement of suction within the slope, miniaturized pressure transducers on the bottom of the channel for the measurement of any pressure neutral positive , TDR system for the measurement of the volumetric water content, and displacement transducers

  6. The Evolving Physical Processes In Interacting Galaxies Traced By Their Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard

    Mergers and interactions have profound effects on the evolution of galaxies and on the various physical processes associated with star formation and the fueling of active nuclei (AGN). There remains, however, an incomplete understanding of how interactions affect such processes or how important they are in controlling the appearance of today's universe. We propose to study 180 interacting galaxies in 101 systems spanning early to late stage mergers for which newly archived NASA data enable detailed analyses of their ultraviolet-to-far infrared (UV-FIR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our goal is an improved understanding of how a wide range of key galaxy parameters vary across the interaction sequence. Our derived physical parameters will include the total optical- infrared luminosity, star formation rate, specific star formation rate, stellar mass, dust temperatures and dust masses, compactness, photo-dissociation region (PDR) fractions, and AGN contributions to the FIR SED. Our sample is taken from the Keel-Kennicutt catalog of merging galaxies (based only on apparent galaxy separations and hence free of morphological bias) and the Surace IRAS sample of bright mergers. Our sample contains virtually all bright mergers with UV-FIR data in the archives, including (but not limited to) data from missions GALEX, Swift, Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel. We will re-reduce, recalibrate, and extract the photometry in up to 23 wavelength bands from the UV to the FIR. Our analysis plan emphasizes three new SED modeling tools, one of which we have recently developed. Nearly all of the sources also have Spitzer IRS spectral data (primarily of the circumnuclear regions), and we will use the IRS data to supplement the SED conclusions via our own algorithm which also infers metallicity, interstellar medium (ISM) ambient pressure, and embedded young star fractions. Finally, we will compare each merger to the simulated photometry/ morphology of a suite of simulations based on

  7. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  8. Decoupling physical from biological processes to assess the impact of viruses on a mesoscale algal bloom.

    PubMed

    Lehahn, Yoav; Koren, Ilan; Schatz, Daniella; Frada, Miguel; Sheyn, Uri; Boss, Emmanuel; Efrati, Shai; Rudich, Yinon; Trainic, Miri; Sharoni, Shlomit; Laber, Christian; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Coolen, Marco J L; Martins, Ana Maria; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Bidle, Kay D; Vardi, Assaf

    2014-09-08

    Phytoplankton blooms are ephemeral events of exceptionally high primary productivity that regulate the flux of carbon across marine food webs [1-3]. Quantification of bloom turnover [4] is limited by a fundamental difficulty to decouple between physical and biological processes as observed by ocean color satellite data. This limitation hinders the quantification of bloom demise and its regulation by biological processes [5, 6], which has important consequences on the efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean [7-9]. Here, we address this challenge and quantify algal blooms' turnover using a combination of satellite and in situ data, which allows identification of a relatively stable oceanic patch that is subject to little mixing with its surroundings. Using a newly developed multisatellite Lagrangian diagnostic, we decouple the contributions of physical and biological processes, allowing quantification of a complete life cycle of a mesoscale (∼10-100 km) bloom of coccolithophores in the North Atlantic, from exponential growth to its rapid demise. We estimate the amount of organic carbon produced during the bloom to be in the order of 24,000 tons, of which two-thirds were turned over within 1 week. Complimentary in situ measurements of the same patch area revealed high levels of specific viruses infecting coccolithophore cells, therefore pointing at the importance of viral infection as a possible mortality agent. Application of the newly developed satellite-based approaches opens the way for large-scale quantification of the impact of diverse environmental stresses on the fate of phytoplankton blooms and derived carbon in the ocean.

  9. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  10. Physics Education Research in Croatia: Historical Roots and Actual Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marušic, M.; Sliško, J.

    2012-01-01

    Quality pedagogical tradition of Central European countries, in which the Croatian school system existed and evolved, helped in the establishment of the Department of Methodology of Teaching (in several disciplines) at the University of Zagreb and other Croatian universities (Split, Rijeka and Osijek). Unfortunately, it was not too long ago that…

  11. Identification of physical properties for the retrieval data quality objective process

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.M.; Beckette, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    This activity supports the retrieval data quality objective (DQO) process by identifying the material properties that are important to the design, development, and operation of retrieval equipment; the activity also provides justification for characterizing those properties. These properties, which control tank waste behavior during retrieval operations, are also critical to the development of valid physical simulants for designing retrieval equipment. The waste is to be retrieved in a series of four steps. First, a selected retrieval technology breaks up or dislodges the waste into subsequently smaller pieces. Then, the dislodged waste is conveyed out of the tank through the conveyance line. Next, the waste flows into a separator unit that separates the gaseous phase from the liquid and solid phases. Finally, a unit may be present to condition the slurried waste before transporting it to the treatment facility. This document describes the characterization needs for the proposed processes to accomplish waste retrieval. Baseline mobilization technologies include mixer pump technology, sluicing, and high-pressure water-jet cutting. Other processes that are discussed in this document include slurry formation, pneumatic conveyance, and slurry transport. Section 2.0 gives a background of the DQO process and the different retrieval technologies. Section 3.0 provides the mechanistic descriptions and material properties critical to the different technologies and processes. Supplemental information on specific technologies and processes is provided in the appendices. Appendix A contains a preliminary sluicing model, and Appendices B and C cover pneumatic transport and slurry transport, respectively, as prepared for this document. Appendix D contains sample calculations for various equations.

  12. Connections between physical, optical and biogeochemical processes in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Peng; Chai, Fei

    2014-03-01

    A new biogeochemical model has been developed and coupled to a three-dimensional physical model in the Pacific Ocean. With the explicitly represented dissolved organic pools, this new model is able to link key biogeochemical processes with optical processes. Model validation against satellite and in situ data indicates the model is robust in reproducing general biogeochemical and optical features. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has been suggested to play an important role in regulating underwater light field. With the coupled model, physical and biological regulations of CDOM in the euphotic zone are analyzed. Model results indicate seasonal variability of CDOM is mostly determined by biological processes, while the importance of physical regulation manifests in the annual mean terms. Without CDOM attenuating light, modeled depth-integrated primary production is about 10% higher than the control run when averaged over the entire basin, while this discrepancy is highly variable in space with magnitudes reaching higher than 100% in some locations. With CDOM dynamics integrated in physical-biological interactions, a new mechanism by which physical processes affect biological processes is suggested, namely, physical transport of CDOM changes water optical properties, which can further modify underwater light field and subsequently affect the distribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll. This mechanism tends to occur in the entire Pacific basin but with strong spatial variability, implying the importance of including optical processes in the coupled physical-biogeochemical model. If ammonium uptake is sufficient to permit utilization of DOM, that is, UB∗⩾-U{U}/{U}-{(1-r_b)}/{RB}, then bacteria uptake of DOM has the form of FB=(1-r_b){U}/{RB}, bacteria respiration, SB=r_b×U, remineralization by bacteria, EB=UC{UN}/{UC}-{(1-r_b)}/{RB}. If EB > 0, then UB = 0; otherwise, UB = -EB. If there is insufficient ammonium, that is, UB∗<-U{U}/{U}-{(1-r_b)}/{RB}, then

  13. Charge injection in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors: physics, models and characterization methods.

    PubMed

    Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2012-03-15

    A high-mobility organic semiconductor employed as the active material in a field-effect transistor does not guarantee per se that expectations of high performance are fulfilled. This is even truer if a downscaled, short channel is adopted. Only if contacts are able to provide the device with as much charge as it needs, with a negligible voltage drop across them, then high expectations can turn into high performances. It is a fact that this is not always the case in the field of organic electronics. In this review, we aim to offer a comprehensive overview on the subject of current injection in organic thin film transistors: physical principles concerning energy level (mis)alignment at interfaces, models describing charge injection, technologies for interface tuning, and techniques for characterizing devices. Finally, a survey of the most recent accomplishments in the field is given. Principles are described in general, but the technologies and survey emphasis is on solution processed transistors, because it is our opinion that scalable, roll-to-roll printing processing is one, if not the brightest, possible scenario for the future of organic electronics. With the exception of electrolyte-gated organic transistors, where impressively low width normalized resistances were reported (in the range of 10 Ω·cm), to date the lowest values reported for devices where the semiconductor is solution-processed and where the most common architectures are adopted, are ∼10 kΩ·cm for transistors with a field effect mobility in the 0.1-1 cm(2)/Vs range. Although these values represent the best case, they still pose a severe limitation for downscaling the channel lengths below a few micrometers, necessary for increasing the device switching speed. Moreover, techniques to lower contact resistances have been often developed on a case-by-case basis, depending on the materials, architecture and processing techniques. The lack of a standard strategy has hampered the progress of the

  14. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    .Ya. Gleibman, N.Sh. Blaunshtein. This research implied a collaboratiuon with IZMIRAN (Troitsk) and Radiophysical Institute in Gorki (actually Nizhnii Novgorod). A fourth part of research - Theoretical celestial mechanics- was concentrated at the State Politechnic Institute since the beginning of 70-th (actually Technical University of Moldova) at the department of Theoretical mechanics by a group of teaching staff (V.H. Karaganchou,A.V. Karaganchu, M.Tsopa, A.B. Sorokovich, N.I. Motorina, V. Russu, V.N. Frunza, G.G. Koman), pupils of professors from Moscow State University E.A. Grebenikov, V.G. Demin and E.P. Aksenov. The main areas of research: 3-Bodies problem and restricted 3-Bodies problem, theory of motion of artificial satellites, small planets (asteroids), rigid bodies mechanics (Gyroscopes). The author of this talk made research in Black Holes physics, teaching of Astrophysics at a Technical University and popularisation of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology since the beggining of 80-th.

  15. A daily process analysis of intentions and physical activity in college students.

    PubMed

    Conroy, David E; Elavsky, Steriani; Doerksen, Shawna E; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2013-10-01

    Social-cognitive theories, such as the theory of planned behavior, posit intentions as proximal influences on physical activity (PA). This paper extends those theories by examining within-person variation in intentions and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as a function of the unfolding constraints in people's daily lives (e.g., perceived time availability, fatigue, soreness, weather, overeating). College students (N = 63) completed a 14-day diary study over the Internet that rated daily motivation, contextual constraints, and MVPA. Key findings from multilevel analyses were that (1) between-person differences represented 46% and 33% of the variability in daily MVPA intentions and behavior, respectively; (2) attitudes, injunctive norms, self-efficacy, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted daily changes in intention strength; and (3) daily changes in intentions, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted day-to-day changes in MVPA. Embedding future motivation and PA research in the context of people's daily lives will advance understanding of individual PA change processes.

  16. Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth’s interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of “everyday things” (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learner’s mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earth’s interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this year’s poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.

  17. Enhancing the effectiveness of clearance for physical activity participation: background and overall process.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Warburton, Darren E R; Makarski, Julie; McKenzie, Donald C; Shephard, Roy J; Stone, James A; Charlesworth, S; Gledhill, Norman

    2011-07-01

    Recent feedback from physical activity (PA) participants, fitness professionals, and physicians has indicated that there are limitations to the utility and effectiveness of the existing PAR-Q and PARmed-X screening tools for PA participation. The aim of this study was to have authorities in exercise and chronic disease management to work with an expert panel to increase the effectiveness of clearance for PA participation using an evidence-based consensus approach and the well-established Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument. Systematic reviews were conducted to develop a new PA clearance protocol involving risk stratification and a decision-tree process. Evidence-based support was sought for enabling qualified exercise professionals to have a direct role in the PA participation clearance process. The PAR-Q+ was developed to use formalized probes to clarify problematic responses and to explore issues arising from currently diagnosed chronic disease or condition. The original PARmed-X tool is replaced with an interactive computer program (ePARmed-X+) to clear prospective PA participants for either unrestricted or supervised PA or to direct them to obtain medical clearance. Evidence-based validation was also provided for the direct role of highly qualified university-educated exercise professionals in the PA clearance process. The risks associated with exercise during pregnancy were also evaluated. The systematic review and consensus process, conforming to the AGREE Instrument, has provided a sound evidence base for enhanced effectiveness of the clearance process for PA participation of both asymptomatic populations and persons with chronic diseases or conditions.

  18. Physical Properties Models for Simulation of Processes to Treat INEEL Tank Farm Waste: Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-07-18

    A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.

  19. Imperfect physician assistant and physical therapist admissions processes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We compared and contrasted physician assistant and physical therapy profession admissions processes based on the similar number of accredited programs in the United States and the co-existence of many programs in the same school of health professions, because both professions conduct similar centralized application procedures administered by the same organization. Many studies are critical of the fallibility and inadequate scientific rigor of the high-stakes nature of health professions admissions decisions, yet typical admission processes remain very similar. Cognitive variables, most notably undergraduate grade point averages, have been shown to be the best predictors of academic achievement in the health professions. The variability of non-cognitive attributes assessed and the methods used to measure them have come under increasing scrutiny in the literature. The variance in health professions students’ performance in the classroom and on certifying examinations remains unexplained, and cognitive considerations vary considerably between and among programs that describe them. One uncertainty resulting from this review is whether or not desired candidate attributes highly sought after by individual programs are more student-centered or graduate-centered. Based on the findings from the literature, we suggest that student success in the classroom versus the clinic is based on a different set of variables. Given the range of positions and general lack of reliability and validity in studies of non-cognitive admissions attributes, we think that health professions admissions processes remain imperfect works in progress. PMID:24810020

  20. MCRUNJOB: A High energy physics workflow planner for grid production processing

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Gregory E.

    2004-08-26

    McRunjob is a powerful grid workflow manager used to manage the generation of large numbers of production processing jobs in High Energy Physics. In use at both the DZero and CMS experiments, McRunjob has been used to manage large Monte Carlo production processing since 1999 and is being extended to uses in regular production processing for analysis and reconstruction. Described at CHEP 2001, McRunjob converts core metadata into jobs submittable in a variety of environments. The powerful core metadata description language includes methods for converting the metadata into persistent forms, job descriptions, multi-step workflows, and data provenance information. The language features allow for structure in the metadata by including full expressions, namespaces, functional dependencies, site specific parameters in a grid environment, and ontological definitions. It also has simple control structures for parallelization of large jobs. McRunjob features a modular design which allows for easy expansion to new job description languages or new application level tasks.

  1. Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Goussis, Dimitris A.; Najm, Habib N.

    2006-01-01

    A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

  2. Physical Properties Models for Simulation of Processes to Treat INEEL Tank Farm Waste: Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2002-07-01

    A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.

  3. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  4. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791.

  5. PC-Based Process Distribution to Solve Iterative Monte Carlo Simulations in Physical Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, A.; Sánchez-Doblado, F.; Perucha, M.; Rincón, M.; Arrans, R.; Bernal, C.; Carrasco, E.

    A distribution model to simulate physical dosimetry measurements with Monte Carlo (MC) techniques has been developed. This approach is indicated to solve the simulations where there are continuous changes of measurement conditions (and hence of the input parameters) such as a TPR curve or the estimation of the resolution limit of an optical densitometer in the case of small field profiles. As a comparison, a high resolution scan for narrow beams with no iterative process is presented. The model has been installed on a network PCs without any resident software. The only requirement for these PCs has been a small and temporal Linux partition in the hard disks and to be connecting by the net with our server PC.

  6. Methods for improved forewarning of condition changes in monitoring physical processes

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.

    2013-04-09

    This invention teaches further improvements in methods for forewarning of critical events via phase-space dissimilarity analysis of data from biomedical equipment, mechanical devices, and other physical processes. One improvement involves objective determination of a forewarning threshold (U.sub.FW), together with a failure-onset threshold (U.sub.FAIL) corresponding to a normalized value of a composite measure (C) of dissimilarity; and providing a visual or audible indication to a human observer of failure forewarning and/or failure onset. Another improvement relates to symbolization of the data according the binary numbers representing the slope between adjacent data points. Another improvement relates to adding measures of dissimilarity based on state-to-state dynamical changes of the system. And still another improvement relates to using a Shannon entropy as the measure of condition change in lieu of a connected or unconnected phase space.

  7. Physical and Chemical Processes Opacity Project: an Overview and Some Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. El Proyecto de la Opacidad es un esfuerzo internacional dedicado a calcular con precisi6n la gran cantidad de datos at6micos que se necesitan para estimar opacidades en los envolventes estelares. Describimos el panorama general del proyecto incluyendo aspectos astrofisicos, flsico-at6micos y computacionales. El volumen y calidad de los datos que se estan generando se puede apreciar en los resultados preliminares que se presentan. ABSTRACT The Opacity Project is an international effort dedicated to the calculation of the vast, accurate, atomic data required to estimate stellar envelope opacities. We give an overview of the project including astrophysical, atomic-physical and computational aspects. The volume and quality of the data which are being generated can be appreciated in the preliminary results that are presented. }% words: ATOMIC PROCESSES - OPACITIES - STARS-INThRIORS

  8. Boehmite Actual Waste Dissolutions Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2008-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite, sodium aluminate and boehmite. Gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic. Boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Samples were taken from four Hanford tanks and homogenized in order to give a sample that is representative of REDOX (Reduction Oxidation process for Pu recovery) sludge solids. Bench scale testing was performed on the homogenized waste to study the dissolution of boehmite. Dissolution was studied at three different hydroxide concentrations, with each concentration being run at three different temperatures. Samples were taken periodically over the 170 hour runs in order to determine leaching kinetics. Results of the dissolution studies and implications for the proposed processing of these wastes will be discussed.

  9. BESIII Physics Data Storing and Processing on HBase and MapReduce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEI, Xiaofeng; Li, Qiang; Kan, Bowen; Sun, Gongxing; Sun, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    In the past years, we have successfully applied Hadoop to high-energy physics analysis. Although, it has not only improved the efficiency of data analysis, but also reduced the cost of cluster building so far, there are still some spaces to be optimized, like inflexible pre-selection, low-efficient random data reading and I/O bottleneck caused by Fuse that is used to access HDFS. In order to change this situation, this paper presents a new analysis platform for high-energy physics data storing and analysing. The data structure is changed from DST tree-like files to HBase according to the features of the data itself and analysis processes, since HBase is more suitable for processing random data reading than DST files and enable HDFS to be accessed directly. A few of optimization measures are taken for the purpose of getting a good performance. A customized protocol is defined for data serializing and desterilizing for the sake of decreasing the storage space in HBase. In order to make full use of locality of data storing in HBase, utilizing a new MapReduce model and a new split policy for HBase regions are proposed in the paper. In addition, a dynamic pluggable easy-to-use TAG (event metadata) based pre-selection subsystem is established. It can assist physicists even to filter out 999%o uninterested data, if the conditions are set properly. This means that a lot of I/O resources can be saved, the CPU usage can be improved and consuming time for data analysis can be reduced. Finally, several use cases are designed, the test results show that the new platform has an excellent performance with 3.4 times faster with pre-selection and 20% faster without preselection, and the new platform is stable and scalable as well.

  10. ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

  11. Venture actualization in nursing. An analysis of innovation.

    PubMed

    Neidlinger, S H; Bartleson, B J; Drews, N; Hukari, D

    1992-01-01

    From innovations shared by nurse executives and nurse intrapreneurs in acute care hospitals, The Venture Actualization in Nursing Model emerged. Derived from a nursing perspective, this model captures the steps of the nurse innovation process, linking the nurse executive and nurse intrapreneur role components to the process that leads to venture success.

  12. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  13. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  14. Online Use of Physically Based Plasticity Models for Steady State Cold Rolling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decroos, Koen; Seefeldt, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A procedure has been developed to incorporate computationally costly physically based crystal plasticity models to calculate texture and anisotropy for steady state forming processes online. When using these models, at every point in the deformed zone, an average and a nonlinear solution procedure for stresses and/or strains in all these grains is required. The online calculation cost is avoided by offline creating a database with texture and anisotropy data for all possible deformation modes of the process. The case studied is a cold rolling process, but can easily be extended to any type of forming process, when the deformation field is known in advance. Textures and anisotropy data are predicted using a viscoplastic self-consistent model, but the method is suitable for any kind of crystal plasticity model. Single crystal plastic parameters, such as the critical resolved shear stress, the single crystal hardening parameters, and the strain-rate sensitivity, have been calibrated based on mechanical tests by means of a direct search simplex algorithm. The online calculated deformation history is compared to the histories stored in the database and the best match is selected. The deformation history is divided in two zones, the one before the neutral point where forward shearing occurs and the one after the neutral point where backward shearing occurs. One online deformation generation and selection procedure requires 0.005 s of CPU time for a database with a division in deformation gradients fine enough to accurately cover all deformations. The method allows calculating yield surfaces at any point in space based on microstructural effects modeled by crystal plasticity, without incremental material updating and necessity to define a kinematic and isotropic hardening, which makes the method suitable for fast models to calculate rolling forces and torques online.

  15. Comparison of metabolic effects of white beans processed into two different physical forms.

    PubMed

    Golay, A; Coulston, A M; Hollenbeck, C B; Kaiser, L L; Würsch, P; Reaven, G M

    1986-01-01

    In the present study eight control subjects and eight patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) consumed single portions of processed beans equivalent to 50 g of carbohydrate. The beans were processed by different methods into two physical forms; one maintained the integrity of the bean cells (undamaged bean cells, UC) and the other ruptured the bean cells (damaged bean cells, DC). Incremental glucose response areas after ingestion of either UC or DC were not significantly different in control subjects, while incremental insulin response areas (49 +/- 7 vs. 26 +/- 4 microU X ml-1 X h-1, P less than .05) were significantly lower after eating UC-processed beans. In patients with NIDDM both incremental glucose (150 +/- 14 vs. 73 +/- 25 mg X dl-1 X h-1, P less than .001) and insulin (67 +/- 16 vs. 46 +/- 11 microU X ml-1 X h-1, P less than .05) response areas were significantly lower after UC administration. To test the effectiveness of the UC-processed bean when incorporated into mixed meals, nine patients with NIDDM consumed mixed meals containing either DC or UC on two separate mornings. The test meals represented a typical Mexican American use of pureed beans wrapped in a flour tortilla topped with melted cheese. Incremental glucose responses were significantly lower after the UC meal (171 +/- 42 mg X dl-1 X h-1, P less than .05) when compared with the DC meal (212 +/- 34 mg X dl-1 X h-1). Incremental insulin areas were also lower after the UC (91 +/- 19 microU X ml-1 X h-1) when compared with the DC meal (120 +/- 22 microU X ml-1 X h-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Process-oriented Simulation of Runoff Generation on Arable Fields Using a Physically Based Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, F.; Disse, M.

    2011-12-01

    In Germany, aside from technical flood protection and forecasting, modern flood protection strategies include distributed flood control measures. On arable fields these measures comprise of increasing infiltration ability due to different tillage practices such as conservational tillage or no-tillage. Tillage practices have a significant effect on the runoff generation process. Bare soils are prone to forming soil crusts during extreme rainfall events especially on Loessial soils that are abundant in Central European landscapes, and soil crusts promote surface runoff and erosion. Due to the impact of raindrops, the topsoil aggregates are broken and form a layer of a few millimeters to centimeters with very low hydraulic conductivity. One way to describe this process is by using a modified Horton infiltration equation. WaSiM-ETH is a physically based hydrological modeling system developed by SCHULLA (1997) to analyze the spatial and temporal distributed flow processes in complex catchments. In order to investigate the effect of soil crusts on runoff generation on arable fields, WaSiM-ETH was extended by adding a silting module which is able to simulate the process of soil crust formation. It has been shown that sprinkler experiments could be simulated more efficiently with the model extension than with the simulation of runoff generation according to the Mualem-van-Genuchten parameterization. This effect is extended to a lower mesoscale agricultural catchment for a number of different high intensity storm events. Finally, scenario setups show the potential of surface water retention for different tillage practices. Literature: SCHULLA, J. (1997): Hydrologische Modellierung von Flussgebieten zur Abschätzung der Folgen von Klimaänderungen, Dissertation, ETH Zürich, 161. S. (in German) http://www.unibw.de/ifw/WWR-en/forschung-en/einflussbewirtschaftung-en?set_language=en

  17. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Capturing feedbacks between physical and social processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Carr, Gemma; Kuil, Linda; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-06-01

    In flood risk assessment, there remains a lack of analytical frameworks capturing the dynamics emerging from two-way feedbacks between physical and social processes, such as adaptation and levee effect. The former, "adaptation effect", relates to the observation that the occurrence of more frequent flooding is often associated with decreasing vulnerability. The latter, "levee effect", relates to the observation that the non-occurrence of frequent flooding (possibly caused by flood protection structures, e.g. levees) is often associated to increasing vulnerability. As current analytical frameworks do not capture these dynamics, projections of future flood risk are not realistic. In this paper, we develop a new approach whereby the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies are explicitly accounted for. Moreover, we show an application of this approach by using a socio-hydrological model to simulate the behavior of two main prototypes of societies: green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of flood-prone areas; and technological societies, which deal with flooding also by building levees or dikes. This application shows that the proposed approach is able to capture and explain the aforementioned dynamics (i.e. adaptation and levee effect) and therefore contribute to a better understanding of changes in flood risk, within an iterative process of theory development and empirical research.

  18. The Scaffolded Mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Huang, Julie Y; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    It has long been a staple of psychological theory that early life experiences significantly shape the adult's understanding of and reactions to the social world. Here we consider how early concept development along with evolved motives operating early in life can come to exert a passive, unconscious influence on the human adult's higher-order goal pursuits, judgments, and actions. In particular, we focus on concepts and goal structures specialized for interacting with the physical environment (e.g., distance cues, temperature, cleanliness, and self-protection), which emerge early and automatically as a natural part of human development and evolution. It is proposed that via the process of scaffolding, these early sensorimotor experiences serve as the foundation for the later development of more abstract concepts and goals. Experiments using priming methodologies reveal the extent to which these early concepts serve as the analogical basis for more abstract psychological concepts, such that we come easily and naturally to speak of close relationships, warm personalities, moral purity, and psychological pain. Taken together, this research demonstrates the extent to which such foundational concepts are capable of influencing people's information processing, affective judgments, and goal pursuit, oftentimes outside of their intention or awareness.

  19. Investigation of the Physical Processes Governing Large-Scale Tracer Transport in the Stratosphere and Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes work conducted from January 1996 through April 1999 on a program of research to investigate the physical mechanisms that underlie the transport of trace constituents in the stratosphere-troposphere system. The primary scientific goal of the research has been to identify the processes which transport air masses within the lower stratosphere, particularly between the tropics and middle latitudes. This research was conducted in collaboration with the Subsonic Assessment (SASS) of the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Radiation Program (AEAP) and the Upper Atmospheric Research Program (UARP). The SASS program sought to understand the impact of the present and future fleets of conventional jet traffic on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while complementary airborne observations under UARP seek to understand the complex interactions of dynamical and chemical processes that affect the ozone layer. The present investigation contributed to the goals of each of these by diagnosing the history of air parcels intercepted by NASA research aircraft in UARP and AEAP campaigns. This was done by means of a blend of trajectory analyses and tracer correlation techniques.

  20. The Scaffolded Mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Huang, Julie Y.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    It has long been a staple of psychological theory that early life experiences significantly shape the adult's understanding of and reactions to the social world. Here we consider how early concept development along with evolved motives operating early in life can come to exert a passive, unconscious influence on the human adult's higher-order goal pursuits, judgments, and actions. In particular, we focus on concepts and goal structures specialized for interacting with the physical environment (e.g., distance cues, temperature, cleanliness, and self-protection), which emerge early and automatically as a natural part of human development and evolution. It is proposed that via the process of scaffolding, these early sensorimotor experiences serve as the foundation for the later development of more abstract concepts and goals. Experiments using priming methodologies reveal the extent to which these early concepts serve as the analogical basis for more abstract psychological concepts, such that we come easily and naturally to speak of close relationships, warm personalities, moral purity, and psychological pain. Taken together, this research demonstrates the extent to which such foundational concepts are capable of influencing people's information processing, affective judgments, and goal pursuit, oftentimes outside of their intention or awareness. PMID:20046813

  1. Physics of the Mind:. Opinion Dynamics and Decision Making Processes Based on a Binary Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmartsev, F. V.; Kürten, Karl E.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new theory of the human mind. The formation of human mind is considered as a collective process of the mutual interaction of people via exchange of opinions and formation of collective decisions. We investigate the associated dynamical processes of the decision making when people are put in different conditions including risk situations in natural catastrophes when the decision must be made very fast or at national elections. We also investigate conditions at which the fast formation of opinion is arising as a result of open discussions or public vote. Under a risk condition the system is very close to chaos and therefore the opinion formation is related to the order disorder transition. We study dramatic changes which may happen with societies which in physical terms may be considered as phase transitions from ordered to chaotic behavior. Our results are applicable to changes which are arising in various social networks as well as in opinion formation arising as a result of open discussions. One focus of this study is the determination of critical parameters, which influence a formation of stable mind, public opinion and where the society is placed "at the edge of chaos". We show that social networks have both, the necessary stability and the potential for evolutionary improvements or self-destruction. We also show that the time needed for a discussion to take a proper decision depends crucially on the nature of the interactions between the entities as well as on the topology of the social networks.

  2. Physics of the Mind:. Opinion Dynamics and Decision Making Processes Based on a Binary Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmartsev, F. V.; Kürten, Karl E.

    We propose a new theory of the human mind. The formation of human mind is considered as a collective process of the mutual interaction of people via exchange of opinions and formation of collective decisions. We investigate the associated dynamical processes of the decision making when people are put in different conditions including risk situations in natural catastrophes when the decision must be made very fast or at national elections. We also investigate conditions at which the fast formation of opinion is arising as a result of open discussions or public vote. Under a risk condition the system is very close to chaos and therefore the opinion formation is related to the order disorder transition. We study dramatic changes which may happen with societies which in physical terms may be considered as phase transitions from ordered to chaotic behavior. Our results are applicable to changes which are arising in various social networks as well as in opinion formation arising as a result of open discussions. One focus of this study is the determination of critical parameters, which influence a formation of stable mind, public opinion and where the society is placed “at the edge of chaos”. We show that social networks have both, the necessary stability and the potential for evolutionary improvements or self-destruction. We also show that the time needed for a discussion to take a proper decision depends crucially on the nature of the interactions between the entities as well as on the topology of the social networks.

  3. Physical methods for intracellular delivery: practical aspects from laboratory use to industrial-scale processing.

    PubMed

    Meacham, J Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2014-02-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems.

  4. Physical Methods for Intracellular Delivery: Practical Aspects from Laboratory Use to Industrial-Scale Processing

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, J. Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915

  5. Physical processes affecting circulation and hydrography in the Sable Gully of Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Shiliang; Sheng, Jinyu; Greenan, Blair J. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Sable Gully is the largest submarine canyon along the shelf break off the east coast of North America. The circulation and hydrography in the Gully have significant temporal and spatial variability. This paper presents a numerical study of the three-dimensional circulation and hydrography in the Gully using a multi-nested ocean circulation model. The model is forced by tides, wind stress and surface heat/freshwater fluxes. Model results are in fair agreement with the current and hydrographic observations made in the Gully in 2006 and 2007. A process study is conducted to examine the main physical processes affecting the circulation and hydrography, including tide-topography interaction, wind forcing, and the shelf-scale circulation over the eastern Canadian Shelf. The model results demonstrate that the circulation and hydrography above the canyon rim are influenced significantly by wind, particularly during storm events, while the subsurface flow over the shelf slope is affected by the shelf-scale circulation. There is also significant tide-topography interaction inside the Gully.

  6. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Boundary Conditions for the Paleoenvironment: Chemical and Physical Processes in Dense Interstellar Clouds: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, William M.

    1999-01-01

    The basic theme of this program was the study of molecular complexity and evolution for the biogenic elements and compounds in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar system objects. Research included the detection and study of new interstellar and cometary molecules and investigation of reaction pathways for astrochemistry from a comparison of theory and observed molecular abundances. The latter includes studies of cold, dark clouds in which ion-molecule chemistry should predominate, searches for the effects of interchange of material between the gas and solid phases in interstellar clouds, unbiased spectral surveys of particular sources, and systematic investigation of the interlinked chemistry and physics of dense interstellar clouds. In addition, the study of comets has allowed a comparison between the chemistry of such minimally thermally processed objects and that of interstellar clouds, shedding light on the evolution of the biogenic elements during the process of solar system formation. One PhD dissertation on this research was completed by a graduate student at the University of Massachusetts. An additional 4 graduate students at the University of Massachusetts and 5 graduate students from other institutions participated in research supported by this grant, with 6 of these thus far receiving PhD degrees from the University of Massachusetts or their home institutions. Four postdoctoral research associates at the University of Massachusetts also participated in research supported by this grant, receiving valuable training.

  8. Determination of physical processes influencing Chl a distribution using remotely sensed images.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, A M; Lihan, T; Saitoh, S

    2011-01-15

    In management of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis culture, it is important to understand the phytoplankton bloom development in the coastal region of the Okhotsk Sea. Variations in food available to this benthic bivalve are a primary environmental factor affecting growth in nature. This paper determined the seasonal variability of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) at the scallop farming region in the Okhotsk Sea from 1998 to 2004 using satellite imageries. Satellite images were processed using default NASA coefficients and community-standard algorithms as implemented by Sea DAS. Spatial and temporal variation of Chl a was determined by EOF analysis. The Chl a concentration showed high seasonal and interannual variability. Peak of Chl a concentration occurred in spring followed by autumn and summer. This was evident in the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The spatial pattern of the first mode of EOF analysis of Chl a revealed intensified Chl a at the shelf and offshore areas in spring and autumn (51.8% of variance). The second mode explained 14.2% of the variance indicating enhancement of spring (April-May) Chl a pattern in the frontal area along the coast. Meanwhile, the third mode captured 9.0% of the variability demonstrating high Chl a extending seaward from the shelf area during late autumn. These seasonal variability of Chl a resulted from the variability in occurrences of physical processes associated with retreat of sea ice in spring, advection of Soya Warm Current in summer and intrusion of East Sakhalin Current in autumn.

  9. Experimental Increases in Snow Alter Physical, Chemical and Feedback Processes in the High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M.; Welker, J.; Arens, S.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R.; Persson, K.

    2006-12-01

    Winter conditions are changing throughout the Arctic. There are observed increases in snowfall across portions of Greenland while the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet are thinning. However, these changes and the consequences of altered surface dynamics on High Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and their potential feedbacks are unclear. Increases in snow may cause warmer soils in winter, greater rates of winter C losses, increases in winter N mineralization, shorter growing seasons and reduced net C gain in summer due to either reduced gross photosynthesis or increases in ecosystem respiration. In this study, we have constructed replicated snow fences in polar desert and semi-desert (prostrate dwarf shrub) ecosystems in NW Greenland. Our measurements were taken at the deep (1.0 m snow depth) and intermediate (0.35 m snow depth) points along the drift to address these questions: a) how do increases in snow depth alter the surface and subsurface physical and chemical processes of these ecosystems?, and b) to what extent do increases in snow depth alter net CO2 exchange, gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration? After three years of treatment we have found that in winter, deep snow results in warmer soil temperatures and in the subsequent summer, areas with deep winter snow have colder soil temperatures. This effect is most pronounced immediately following snowmelt and temperatures slowly return to ambient conditions near the end of summer. Deeper snow results in higher soil water contents in early summer but by mid-July soil water contents are the same, regardless of previous winter snow conditions. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange rates are consistently negative (C source to the atmosphere) through most of the growing season and vary in their magnitude by snow depth and ecosystem type. Areas with the deepest snow during winter consistently have the largest losses of CO2 to the atmosphere. The middle snow depth treatment showed lower rates of respiration than

  10. Experimental Increases in Snow Alter Physical, Chemical and Feedback Processes in the High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M.; Welker, J.; Sullivan, P.; Sletten, R.; Arens, S.; Kristenson, H.

    2007-12-01

    Winter climate conditions are changing throughout the Arctic. In Greenland, there are observed increases in snowfall across portions of the island while the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet are thinning. However, these changes and the consequences of altered meteorological surface dynamics on High Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and their potential feedbacks are unclear. Increases in winter snow cover may cause warmer soils in winter, greater rates of winter C losses, increases in winter N mineralization, shorter growing seasons and reduced net C gain in summer due to either reduced gross photosynthesis or increases in ecosystem respiration. In our study, we have constructed replicated snow fences in prostrate dwarf shrub tundra (polar desert and semi- desert) ecosystems in NW Greenland. Our measurements were taken at the deep (1.0 m snow depth) and intermediate (0.35 m snow depth) points along the drift to address these questions: a) how do increases in snow depth alter the surface and subsurface physical and chemical processes of these ecosystems?, and b) to what extent do increases in snow depth alter net CO2 exchange, gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration? After three years of treatment we have found that in winter, deep snow results in warmer soil temperatures and in the subsequent summer, areas with deep winter snow have colder soil temperatures. This effect is most pronounced immediately following snowmelt and temperatures slowly return to ambient conditions near the end of summer. Deeper snow results in higher soil water contents in early summer, but by mid-July soil water contents have returned to ambient levels. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange rates are consistently negative (CO2 source to the atmosphere) through most of the growing season and vary in their magnitude by snow depth and ecosystem type. Areas with the deepest snow during winter consistently have the largest rates of CO2 loss to the atmosphere. The middle snow depth treatment

  11. Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 μm) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during

  12. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  13. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  14. The "Word Game": An Innovative Strategy for Assessing Implicit Processes in Parents at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, Julie L.; Irwin, Lauren M.; Wells, Brett M.; Shelton, Christopher R.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed.…

  15. Studying Students' Learning Processes Used during Physics Teaching Sequence about Gas with Networks of Ideas and Their Domain of Applicability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givry, Damien; Tiberghien, Andree

    2012-01-01

    In literature, several processes have been suggested to describe conceptual changes being undertaken. However, a few parts of studies analyse in great detail which students' learning processes are involved in physics classes during teaching, and how they are used. Following a socio-constructivist approach using tools coming from discourse…

  16. The Influence of Hands On Physics Experiments on Scientific Process Skills According to Prospective Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirça, Necati

    2013-01-01

    In this study, relationship between prospective science and technology teachers' experiences in conducting Hands on physics experiments and their physics lab I achievement was investigated. Survey model was utilized and the study was carried out in the 2012 spring semester. Seven Hands on physics experiments were conducted with 28 prospective…

  17. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth`s surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii.

  18. Process Evaluation of Workplace Interventions with Physical Exercise to Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zebis, Mette K.

    2014-01-01

    Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2 min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67–92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172

  19. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  20. Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Haverd, V.

    2013-12-01

    Transfer of energy and moisture in frozen soil, and hence the active layer depth, are strongly influenced by the soil freezing curve which specifies liquid moisture content as a function of temperature. However, the curve is typically not represented in global land surface models, with less physically-based approximations being used instead. In this work, we develop a physically accurate model of soil freeze-thaw processes, suitable for use in a global land surface scheme. We incorporated soil freeze-thaw processes into an existing detailed model for the transfer of heat, liquid water and water vapor in soils, including isotope diagnostics - Soil-Litter-Iso (SLI, Haverd & Cuntz 2010), which has been used successfully for water and carbon balances of the Australian continent (Haverd et al. 2013). A unique feature of SLI is that fluxes of energy and moisture are coupled using a single system of linear equations. The extension to include freeze-thaw processes and snow maintains this elegant coupling, requiring only coefficients in the linear equations to be modified. No impedance factor for hydraulic conductivity is needed because of the formulation by matric flux potential rather than pressure head. Iterations are avoided which results in the same computational speed as without freezing. The extended model is evaluated extensively in stand-alone mode (against theoretical predictions, lab experiments and field data) and as part of the CABLE global land surface scheme. SLI accurately solves the classical Stefan problem of a homogeneous medium undergoing a phase change. The model also accurately reproduces the freezing front, which is observed in laboratory experiments (Hansson et al. 2004). SLI was further tested against observations at a permafrost site in Tibet (Weismüller et al. 2011). It reproduces seasonal thawing and freezing of the active layer to within 3 K of the observed soil temperature and to within 10% of the observed volumetric liquid soil moisture

  1. Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Matthias; Haverd, Vanessa

    2014-05-01

    Transfer of energy and moisture in frozen soil, and hence the active layer depth, are strongly influenced by the soil freezing curve which specifies liquid moisture content as a function of temperature. However, the curve is typically not represented in global land surface models, with less physically-based approximations being used instead. In this work, we develop a physically accurate model of soil freeze-thaw processes, suitable for use in a global land surface scheme. We incorporated soil freeze-thaw processes into an existing detailed model for the transfer of heat, liquid water and water vapor in soils, including isotope diagnostics - Soil-Litter-Iso (SLI, Haverd & Cuntz 2010), which has been used successfully for water and carbon balances of the Australian continent (Haverd et al. 2013). A unique feature of SLI is that fluxes of energy and moisture are coupled using a single system of linear equations. The extension to include freeze-thaw processes and snow maintains this elegant coupling, requiring only coefficients in the linear equations to be modified. No impedance factor for hydraulic conductivity is needed because of the formulation by matric flux potential rather than pressure head. Iterations are avoided which results in the same computational speed as without freezing. The extended model is evaluated extensively in stand-alone mode (against theoretical predictions, lab experiments and field data) and as part of the CABLE global land surface scheme. SLI accurately solves the classical Stefan problem of a homogeneous medium undergoing a phase change. The model also accurately reproduces the freezing front, which is observed in laboratory experiments (Hansson et al. 2004). SLI was further tested against observations at a permafrost site in Tibet (Weismüller et al. 2011). It reproduces seasonal thawing and freezing of the active layer to within 3 K of the observed soil temperature and to within 10% of the observed volumetric liquid soil moisture

  2. A new perspective of the physical processes associated with the clear-sky greenhouse effect over high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zuohao; Ronald E., Stewart; Yau, M. K.

    2004-04-01

    The physical processes associated with the clear-sky greenhouse effect in the presence of water vapor are examined by including surface emissivity in the greenhouse effect formulation, and by introducing a new way to partition physical processes of the greenhouse effect. In this new framework, it is found that the clear-sky greenhouse effect is governed by three physical processes associated with (1) the temperature contrast between the surface and the atmosphere, (2) the interaction between the surface emissivity and the temperature contrast, and (3) the surface emissivity. The importance of the three physical processes is assessed by computing their vertical and spectral variations for the subarctic winter and summer standard atmosphere using the radiation model MODTRAN3 (Moderate Resolution Transmittance code Version 3). The results show that the process associated with the temperature contrast between the surface and the atmosphere dominates over the other two processes in magnitude. The magnitude of this process has substantial variations in the spectral region of 1250 to 1880 cm-1 and in the far infrared region. Due to the low-level temperature inversion over the subarctic winter, there exists a negative contribution to the greenhouse trapping. The seasonal variations are, however, dominated by the processes associated with the interaction between the surface emissivity and the temperature contrast as well as the surface emissivity itself. The magnitudes of these two physical processes contributing to the greenhouse trapping over the subarctic winter are about 7 to 10 times of those over the subarctic summer, whereas the magnitude of the processes associated with the temperature contrast in the subarctic summer is only about 2 times of that in the subarctic winter.

  3. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.G.

    1999-02-22

    This paper details the application of a standard physical security system design process to a US Border Port of Entry (PoE) for vehicle entry/exit. The physical security design methodology is described as well as the physical security similarities to facilities currently at a US Border PoE for vehicles. The physical security design process description includes the various elements that make up the methodologies well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry/exit of illegal contraband and personnel are described. The potential to enhance the functions of drug/contraband detection in the Pre-Primary Inspection area through the application of emerging technologies are also addressed.

  4. "Physically-based" numerical experiment to determine the dominant hillslope processes during floods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Eric; Esclaffer, Thomas; Dangla, Patrick; Payrastre, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    To study the dynamics of hillslope responses during flood event, a fully coupled "physically-based" model for the combined numerical simulation of surface runoff and underground flows has been developed. A particular attention has been given to the selection of appropriate numerical schemes for the modelling of both processes and of their coupling. Surprisingly, the most difficult question to solve, from a numerical point of view, was not related to the coupling of two processes with contrasted kinetics such as surface and underground flows, but to the high gradient infiltration fronts appearing in soils, source of numerical diffusion, instabilities and sometimes divergence. The model being elaborated, it has been successfully tested against results of high quality experiments conducted on a laboratory sandy slope in the early eighties, which is still considered as a reference hillslope experimental setting (Abdul & Guilham). The model appeared able to accurately simulate the pore pressure distributions observed in this 1.5 meter deep and wide laboratory hillslope, as well as its outflow hydrograph shapes and the measured respective contributions of direct runoff and groundwater to these outflow hydrographs. Based on this great success, the same model has been used to simulate the response of a theoretical 100-meter wide and 10% sloped hillslope, with a 2 meter deep pervious soil and impervious bedrock. Three rain events have been tested: a 100 millimeter rainfall event over 10 days, over 1 day or over one hour. The simulated responses are hydrologically not realistic and especially the fast component of the response, that is generally observed in the real-world and explains flood events, is almost absent of the simulated response. Thinking a little about the whole problem, the simulation results appears totally logical according to the proposed model. The simulated response, in fact a recession hydrograph, corresponds to a piston flow of a relatively uniformly

  5. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Le Maguer, M

    2000-01-01

    Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all

  6. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 2. Experimental Validation with Simple Mixtures and Actual Fermentation Broth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: In Part1 of this work, a process integrating vapor stripping, vapor compression, and a vapor permeation membrane separation step, Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was predicted to produce energy savings compared to traditional distillation systems for separat...

  7. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  8. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network—the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)—in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  9. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network-the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)-in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  10. The Physical Processes of Eruptive Flares Revealed By An Extremely-Long-Duration Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Zhenjun

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report the physical processes of eruptive flares inferred from an extremely- long-duration event occurred on June 21, 2011. The flare, peaked at C7.7 level, had a two-hour-long rise time in soft X-rays emission; this rise time is much longer than the typical rise time of solar flares that last for only about ten minutes. Combining the fact that the flare occurred near the disk center as seen by SDO, but near the limbs as seen by STEREO A and B, we are able to track the evolution of the eruption in 3-D as well as in a rare slow-motion manner. The time sequence of temperature maps, constructed from six corona-temperature passbands of AIA, clearly shows process of how the highly-twisted sigmoid structure prior to the eruption is transformed into a near-potential post-eruption loop arcade. The observed sigmoid is likely to be the structure of a twisted magnetic flux rope, which reached a height of about 60 Mm at the onset of the eruption. The onset is likely triggered by the torus instability (or loss of equilibrium) of the flux rope as indicated by the slow rise motion prior to the impulsive phase. We also find that the complex evolution of footprints of the eruption as seen from AIA transition region images is consistent with the magnetic evolution in the corona, which is the consequence of the combined effects of the expansion of the magnetic flux rope and the magnetic reconnection of surrounding magnetic fields.

  11. The Physical Processes of Eruptive Flares Revealed By An Extremely-Long-Duration Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we report the physical processes of eruptive flares inferred from an extremely- long-duration event occurred on June 21, 2011. The flare, peaked at C7.5 level, had a two-hour-long rise time in soft X-rays; this rise time is much longer than the usual rise time of solar flares that last for only about ten minutes. Combining the fact that the flare occurred near the disk center as seen by SDO, but near the limbs as seen by STEREO A and B, we are able to track the evolution of the eruption in 3-D as well as in a rare slow-motion manner. The time sequence of temperature maps, constructed from six corona-temperature passbands of AIA, clearly shows process of how the highly-twisted sigmoid structure prior to the eruption is transformed into a near-potential post-eruption loop arcade. The observed sigmoid is likely to be the structure of a twisted magnetic flux rope, which reached a height of about 60 Mm at the onset of the eruption. The onset is likely triggered by the instability (or loss of equilibrium) of the flux rope as indicated by the slow rise motion prior to the impulsive phase. We also find that the complex evolution of footprints of the eruption as seen from AIA transition region images is consistent with the magnetic evolution in the corona, which is the consequence of the combined effects of the expansion of the magnetic flux rope and the magnetic reconnection of surrounding magnetic fields. The 3-D magnetic structure inferred from NLFFF extrapolation will be compared with that inferred from observations. ​

  12. Physical processes driving high-speed currents in Lake Champlain bottom water

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, J.; Miller, J. ); Manley, T.O.; Manley, P.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    The authors have examined current velocity profiles obtained at two sites in Lake Champlain to delineate physical processes causing high-speed currents near the lake bottom. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP's) were deployed during the interval June--October, 1992 at mid-lake sites near Thompson's Point and Valcour Island. The instruments measured horizontal current velocity at 1 m intervals through the water column. The ADCP measurement range covered 74% of the water depth at the Valcour Island site and 49% at Thompson's Point site. The deepest measurement level at the Valcour Island site was 9 m above the lake floor. Two phenomena causing intense bottom currents at Valcour Island were identified in the data sets. One occurred during the relatively weak density stratification of the early summer period. It was caused by a downwelled thermocline at Valcour which was associated with impulses of northward-directed wind stress. On three occasions the wind stress was large enough to propel essentially all hypolimnion water south of Valcour Island. After these downwellings the lower layer returned as a steeply-faced internal surge with high-speed, turbulent flow at its leading edge. The second process forcing high-speed bottom currents was related to large-amplitude internal seiches that dominated Lake Champlain's main basin during September and October. Amplitudes of the seiches approached several tens of meters; their persistence suggests near-resonant wind forcing as a generating mechanism. Currents at the deepest measurement level exceeded 30 cm/s over duration's of 12 or more hours. Periods of the internal seiches were observed to vary with the intensity of stratification and with seasonal thermocline depth as predicted by first principles governing internal wave propagation.

  13. Quantum One Go Computation and the Physical Computation Level of Biological Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    By extending the representation of quantum algorithms to problem-solution interdependence, the unitary evolution part of the algorithm entangles the register containing the problem with the register containing the solution. Entanglement becomes correlation, or mutual causality, between the two measurement outcomes: the string of bits encoding the problem and that encoding the solution. In former work, we showed that this is equivalent to the algorithm knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution it will find in the future, which explains the quantum speed up. Mutual causality between bits of information is also equivalent to seeing quantum measurement as a many body interaction between the parts of a perfect classical machine whose normalized coordinates represent the qubit populations. This “hidden machine” represents the problem to be solved. The many body interaction (measurement) satisfies all the constraints of a nonlinear Boolean network “together and at the same time”—in one go—thus producing the solution. Quantum one go computation can formalize the physical computation level of the theories that place consciousness in quantum measurement. In fact, in visual perception, we see, thus recognize, thus process, a significant amount of information “together and at the same time”. Identifying the fundamental mechanism of consciousness with that of the quantum speed up gives quantum consciousness, with respect to classical consciousness, a potentially enormous evolutionary advantage.

  14. Uptake of Organic Vapors by Sulfate Aerosols: Physical and Chemical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L.T.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    While it is known that upper tropospheric sulfate particles contain a significant amount of organic matter, both the source of the organic fraction and its form in solution are unknown. These studies explore how the chemical characteristics of the molecules and surfaces in question affect heterogeneous interactions. The solubilities of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] and ethanol [CH3CH20H] in cold, aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have been measured by Knudsen cell studies. Henry's law solubility coefficients range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) M/atm for acetaldehyde, and from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) M/atm for ethanol under upper tropospheric conditions (210-240 K, 40-80 wt. % H2S04). The multiple solvation pathways (protonation, enolization, etc.) available to these compounds in acidic aqueous environments will be discussed. Preliminary results from the interaction of acetaldehyde with solutions of formaldehyde in sulfuric acid will be presented as well. The physical and chemical processes that affect organic uptake by aqueous aerosols will be explored, with the aim of evaluating organic species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  15. Transient Climate Change in the Hadley Centre Models: The Role of Physical Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. D.; Senior, C. A.; Mitchell, J. F. B.

    2001-06-01

    A comparison of the response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations of two versions of the Met Office's (Hadley Centre) coupled atmosphere-ocean model reveals differences that result in large local variations in the modeled impact of climate change. With the aim of understanding the important processes and feedbacks associated with climate change, and ultimately reducing uncertainty in predictions, a series of sensitivity experiments were performed using a coupled atmosphere-mixed layer ocean model. The primary differences in the atmospheric response of the coupled models studied are found to be due to changes made to the physical representation of the atmosphere rather than to the ocean. In particular, many of the different patterns of response can be explained through changes made to the boundary layer scheme combining in a nonlinear way with changes to the cloud scheme to alter the tropical temperature and precipitation response in the model. A new land surface exchange scheme largely accounts for the different Northern Hemisphere continental surface temperature response.

  16. Effect of process technology on the nutritional, functional, and physical quality of grapefruit powder.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, C; Igual, M; Camacho, M M; Martínez-Navarrete, N

    2017-01-01

    The health properties of fruit are widely known. Powdered fruit may be a practical format to be offered to the consumer. Nevertheless, the process used to obtain the powder must ensure the maximum retention of the bioactive compounds and the functional value of the fruit while retaining adequate physical properties. The aim of this study was to compare freeze-drying and spray drying as the drying technologies to obtain grapefruit powder. The obtained results allow freeze-drying to be proposed as a better technology than spray drying in order to obtain a product with a higher content of vitamin C and total carotenoids. Moreover, all of the edible part of the fruit is used in this case, so a greater quantity of healthy compounds is preserved and by-product generation is avoided. Adding about 6 g water, 4 g Arabic gum and 0.6 g bamboo fibre/100 g grapefruit pulp is recommended before freeze-drying.

  17. Convective Effects During the Physical Vapor Transport Process. II - Thermosolutal Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of an inert gas on the diffusive-convective physical vapor transport process is investigated for the case when the temperature gradient is stabilizing, and the concentration gradient destabilizing, for a wide parametric range. When an inert gas is present, the thermal and solutal convection oppose each other. The solutal field is destabilizing while the thermal field and the advective-diffusive flux stabilize the flow field. When the pressure of the inert component is increased, the stabilizing effect of the advective-diffusive flux is decreased; thus, convection becomes more vigorous. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow field here show a transition from quasi-periodic to chaotic state. When both stabilizing mechanisms are present, the flow field shows a transition to a steady state. Toward steady state, growth and amalgamation of rolls occur, which result in an overturning motion. This leads to a superposed flow consisting of one roll and a unidirectional flow. However, when the pressure is increased, the advective-diffusive stability mechanism is decreased. and oscillations of the flow field occur. The low gravity environment is effective at eliminating oscillatory behavior of the flow field and results in uniform temperature and concentration gradients.

  18. Snow hydrology of a headwater Arctic basin. 1. Physical measurements and process studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.; Hinzman, L.D.; Benson, C.S.; Liston, G.E. )

    1991-06-01

    The hydrologic cycle of an Arctic watershed is dominated by such physical elements as snow, ice, permafrost, seasonally frozen soils, wide fluctuations in surface energy balance, and phase change of snow and ice to water. Hydrologic data collected over a 5-year period (1985-1989) from an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska are presented. Processes related to snow accumulation, redistribution, ablation, evaporation and subsequent snowmelt-generated runoff are discussed. The total water content of the snowpack at the end of winter had comprised between 28 and 40% of the annual precipitation. Redistribution of snow on the ground by the wind is a major factor in increasing the snowmelt runoff. Much of the redistributed snow accumulates in the valley bottom along the stream and also along depressions on the hillslopes. These depressions are small surface drainage channels that are referred to as water tracks. Partitioning of the snowmelt into runoff, evaporation and increased soil water storage in the active layer was carried out on the plot and watershed scale. Over a 5-year period, the volume of snowmelt runoff varied from 50 to 66% of the average watershed snowpack, while evaporation varied from 20 to 34% and soil moisture storage increased between 10 and 19%. Much greater variation in these hydrologic components occurred at the plot scale.

  19. Processes and Instructions Encouraging Thai Students Consistently Pass the First Round of The National Physics Academics Olympiads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teevasuthornsakul, Chalongchai; Manosuttirit, Artnarong; Suwanno, Chirasak; Sutsaguan, Lanchakorn

    2010-07-01

    This research focused on the processes and physics instruction of 25 schools located in Bangkok and up-country in Thailand in order to explain why many of their students have passed the first round of the National Physics Academic Olympiads consistently. The high schools in Thailand can apply and support their students and develop their potential in physics. The development of physics professional is the cornerstone of a developing country and increase physics quality base on sciences development in the future in Thailand. The duration of collecting all data was from May 2007 to May 2009. The methodology for this research was the qualitative research method. The researchers interviewed managers, teachers and students at each school location or used semi-structured interview forms. The researchers used the Investigator Triangulation approach to check the qualitative data and the Cause and Effect Analysis approach to analyze situation factors. The results showed that in processes were include 1) enhanced the students with the Academic Olympiads to develop the capacities of students; 2) motivated the students with processes such as good instruction in physics and special privilege in continuing studies in university; and 3) tutorial systems and drill and practice systems support students into subsequent rounds. 4) Admiration activities accommodated the students continually and suitably. Most of the teaching styles used in their lectures, in both basic contents and practice, encouraged students to analyze entrance examination papers, little laboratory. While students say that" They just know that a physics laboratory is very important to study physics after they passed Olympic camp."

  20. The problems of solar-terrestrial coupling and new processes introduced to the physics of the ionosphere from the physics of atomic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, Sergei

    2010-05-01

    Further progress in research of solar-terrestrial coupling requires better understanding of solar variability influence on the ionosphere. The most powerful manifestations of solar variability are solar flares and geomagnetic storms. During a flare EUV/X-ray irradiations are completely absorbed in the ionosphere producing SID. During geomagnetic storms precipitations of electrons with energy of several keV (and to a lesser extent protons precipitations) from radiation belts and geomagnetosphere produce additional ionization and low latitude auroras. Considering the physics of ionosphere during the last several decades we have been taking into account three novel processes well known in the physics of atomic collisions. These are Auger effect [S. V. Avakyan, The consideration of Auger processes in the upper atmosphere of Earth. In Abstracts of paper presented at the Tenth scien. and techn. Conf. of young specialists of S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, 1974, 29-31.], multiple photoionization of upper, valence shell [S.V. Avakyan, The source of O++ ions in the upper atmosphere, 1979, Cosmic Res, 17, 942 - 943] and Rydberg excitation of all the components of upper atmosphere [S.V. Avakyan, The new factor in the physics of solar - terrestrial relations - Rydberg atomic and molecules states. Conf. on Physics of solar-terrestrial relationships, 1994, Almaty, 3 - 5]. In the present paper the results of bringing these new processes in the ionospheric physics are discussed and also its possible role in the physics of solar-terrestrial coupling is considered. Involving these processes to the model estimations allowed us for the first time to come to the following important conclusions: - Auger electrons play the determinant role at the formation of energy spectrum of photoelectrons and secondary auroral electrons at the range above 150 eV; - double photoionization of the outer shell of the oxygen atom (by a single photon) plays a dominant role in the formation of

  1. The influence of stoichiometry on electrical properties of silicon carbide grown by physical vapor transport process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    The purposes of this thesis were to investigate the influence of the vapor phase stoichiometry in the ambient on electrical properties of silicon carbide grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) process in order to provide a better understanding of the nature of the compensation mechanisms in semi-insulating SiC crystals. Standard PVT and hydrogen-assisted PVT processes have been used to grow SiC single crystals. Chemical elemental analysis, contactless resistivity mapping (COREMA), temperature dependent Hall measurements (TDH), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and minority diffusion length measurements were performed to characterize the properties of SiC wafers. The nitrogen contamination, the net carrier concentrations, and the concentrations of the major deep traps in the undoped and nitrogen-doped SiC crystals were found to substantially decrease during the standard PVT growth when moving from seed to tail of the crystal. Addition of hydrogen to the growth ambient changed all the properties in the same direction. As a consequence of the doping and deep traps variations, the electrical properties including resistivity, Fermi energy, and minority carrier lifetime continuously changed during the growth. The results of the hydrogen-assisted PVT growth and the virtual reactor growth modeling indicated that the electrical properties change as a function of stoichiometry in the vapor phase, and the carbon transport efficiency can be enhanced by the reactions of hydrogen with the SiC charge material and the graphite parts of the crucible. Thermodynamic calculation of the vapor phase stoichiometry and the studies of the properties of H2-assisted PVT-grown crystals have shown that hydrogen can be used as a key factor controlling the vapor phase stoichiometry in the PVT process; in this manner the purity, electrical uniformities and the yield of the semi-insulating wafers can be improved to a great extent. The electron mobility values were found unusually low in

  2. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Point of Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.G.

    1998-10-26

    This paper describes the design process of physical security as applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry (PoE). Included in this paper are descriptions of the elements that compose U.S. border security. The physical security design will describe the various elements that make up the process as well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry and exit of illegal contraband will be emphasized.

  3. Experimental determination of physical processes in space, leading to deviations of radio synchrotron radiation spectra from the power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men', A. V.

    2008-02-01

    We present universal formulas for spectral characteristics of cosmic radio sources of synchrotron radiation upon the presence of spectral density maxima at certain frequencies (spectra with negative curvature) taking into account most typical physical processes observed in space. On the basis of long-term observations of angular radiation structure of cosmic radio sources in the decameter wavelength range by the URAN radio interferometer system, we determine most probable physical processes resulting in spectra with extremum values for several quasars, radio galaxies, and their separate components. On the basis of these data, we estimate some parameters of cosmic medium, magnetic field, and angular sizes of compact radio sources and their components.

  4. Polymorphism in the µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) modulates neural processing of physical pain, social rejection and error processing.

    PubMed

    Bonenberger, M; Plener, P L; Groschwitz, R C; Grön, G; Abler, B

    2015-09-01

    Variations of the µ-opioid receptor gene OPRM1 have been shown to modulate pain perception with some evidence pointing towards a modulation of not only physical but also "psychological pain". In line with suggestions of a common neural network involved in the processing of physical pain and negative and distressing stimuli, like social rejection as a psychologically harmful event, we examined the influence of the A118G polymorphism on the neural processing of physical and non-physical pain. Using fMRI, we investigated a sample of 23 females with the more frequent AA genotype, and eight females with the relatively rare but more pain-sensitive AG genotype during electrical stimulation to the dorsum of the non-dominant hand. Non-physical pain was investigated using Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, to induce experiences of non-self-dependent social rejection. A Go/NoGo task with an increased risk of self-dependent erroneous performance was used as a control task to investigate the effects of negative feedback as a more cognitive form of distress. Relative to A118G homozygous A-allele carriers, G-allele carriers showed significantly increased activation of the supplementary motor area/superior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus during electrical stimulation. Increased activation of the secondary sensorimotor cortex (SII) was found during social exclusion and during negative feedback. We demonstrate that brain regions particularly related to the somatosensory component of pain processing are modulated by variations in OPRM1. Influences were evident for both physical and psychological pain processing supporting the assumption of shared neural pathways.

  5. Using Self-Study to Explore the Processes of Pedagogical Innovation in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chróinín, Déirdre Ni; Fletcher, Tim; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This collaborative self-study examined the experiences of two teacher educators who developed and implemented a pedagogical approach that prioritised learning how to facilitate meaningful physical education (PE) experiences in their physical education teacher education programs. Data sources included 33 individual planning and reflection…

  6. The Due-Able Process Could Happen to You! Physical Educators, Handicapped Students, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Susan O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article presents basic information for regular and special physical educators to help them better understand the procedural rights of parents as well as the schools, and to help them make appropriate judgments for the physical education placement and programing of students with handicaps. (IAH)

  7. Motivational Processes in Children's Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: School physical education (PE) not only offers and promotes health-related physical activity (PA), but also encompasses the promotion and development of health-related well-being such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Furthermore, assessing PA and HRQOL have become major issues in pediatric public health and also serve as a…

  8. Physical Attractiveness: Interactive Effects of Counselor and Client on Counseling Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how the physical attractiveness of counselors and clients interacted to build rapport in two experiments involving college students (N=128 and N=64). Results showed the counselor's physical attractiveness had a major impact on her perceived effectiveness and the client's expectation of success irrespective of the client's attractiveness…

  9. An overview of physical and ecological processes in the Rio de la Plata Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelo Acha, E.; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Carreto, José; Giberto, Diego; Montoya, Norma; Carignan, Mario

    2008-07-01

    The Rio de la Plata is a large-scale estuary located at 35°S on the Atlantic coast of South America. This system is one of the most important estuarine environments in the continent, being a highly productive area that sustains valuable artisanal and coastal fisheries in Uruguay and Argentina. The main goals of this paper are to summarize recent knowledge on this estuary, integrating physical, chemical and biological studies, and to explore the sources and ecological meaning of estuarine variability associated to the stratification/mixing alternateness in the estuary. We summarized unpublished data and information from several bibliographic sources. From study cases representing different stratification conditions, we draw a holistic view of physical patterns and ecological processes of the stratification/mixing alternateness. This estuary is characterized by strong vertical salinity stratification most of the time (the salt-wedge condition). The head of the estuary is characterized by a well-developed turbidity front. High turbidity constrains their photosynthesis. Immediately offshore the turbidity front, water becomes less turbid and phytoplankton peaks. As a consequence, trophic web in the estuary could be based on two sources of organic matter: phytoplankton and plant detritus. Dense plankton aggregations occur below the halocline and at the tip of the salt wedge. The mysid Neomysis americana, a key prey for juvenile fishes, occurs all along the turbidity front. A similar spatial pattern is shown by one of the most abundant benthic species, the clam Mactra isabelleana. These species could be taken advantage of the particulate organic matter and/or phytoplankton concentrated near the front. Nekton is represented by a rich fish community, with several fishes breeding inside the estuary. The most important species in terms of biomass is Micropogonias furnieri, the main target for the coastal fisheries of Argentina and Uruguay. Two processes have been identified

  10. Modulating the physical microenvironment to study regenerative processes in vitro using cells from mouse phalangeal elements.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kristen M; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2013-06-01

    Epimorphic regeneration in humans of complex multitissue structures is primarily limited to the digit tip. In a comparable mouse model, the response is level-specific in that regeneration occurs after amputation at the distal end of the terminal phalanx, but not more proximally. Recent isolation of stromal cells from CD1 murine phalangeal elements two and three (P2 and P3) allow for comparative studies of cells prevalent at the amputation plane of a more proximal region (considered nonregenerative) and a more distal region (considered regenerative), respectively. This study used adherent, suspension, and collagen gel cultures to investigate cellular processes relevant to the initial response to injury. Overall, P2 cells were both more migratory and able to compact collagen gels to a greater extent compared to P3 cells. This observed increased capacity of P2 cells to generate traction forces was likely related to the higher expression of key cytoskeletal proteins (e.g., microfilament, nonkeratin intermediate filaments, and microtubules) compared to P3 cells. In contrast, P3 cells were found to be more proliferative than P2 cells under all three culture conditions and to have higher expression of keratin proteins. In addition, when cultured in suspension rather than on adherent surfaces, P3 cells were both more proliferative and had greater gene expression for matrix proteins. Together these results add to the known inherent differences in these stromal cells by characterizing responses to the physical microenvironment. Further, while compaction by P2 cells confirm that collagen gels is a useful model to study wound healing, the response of P3 cells indicate that suspension culture, in which cell-cell interactions dominate like in the blastema, may be better suited to study regeneration. Therefore, this study can help develop clinical strategies for promoting regeneration through increased understanding in the properties of cells involved in endogenous repair as well

  11. Physical Processes of Substorm Onset and Current Disruption Observed by AMPTE/CCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1998-03-01

    A new scenario of AMPTE/CCE observation of substorm onset and current disruption and the corresponding physical processes is presented. Toward the end of the late growth phase, plasma beta increases to greater than or equal to 50 and a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption. At the current disruption onset, higher-frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field form a turbulent state. Plasma transport and heating take place to reduce plasma beta and modify the ambient plasma pressure and velocity profiles so that the ambient magnetic field recovers from a tail-like geometry to a more dipole- like geometry. To understand the excitation of the low-frequency global instability, a new theory of kinetic ballooning instability (KBI) is proposed to explain the high critical beta threshold (greater than or equal to 50) of the low-frequency global instability observed by the AMPTE/CCE. The stabilization kinetic effects of trapped electron and finite ion Larmor radii give rise to a large parallel electric field and hence a parallel current that greatly enhances the stabilizing effect of field line tension to the ballooning mode. As a result, the high critical beta threshold for excitation of KBI is greatly increased over the ideal MHD ballooning instability threshold by greater than O(10 squared). The wave-ion magnetic drift resonance effect typically reduces the high critical beta threshold by up to 20% and produces a perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution with a duskward velocity roughly equal to the average ion magnetic drift velocity as the KBI grows to a large amplitude. Higher-frequency instabilities, such as the cross-field current instability (CCI), can be excited by the additional velocity space free energy associated with the positive slope in the perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution.

  12. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  13. Investigation of physical processes limiting plasma density in high confinement mode discharges on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M. A.; Jernigan, T. C.; La Haye, R. J.; Hyatt, A. W.; Baylor, L. R.; Whyte, D. G.; Wade, M. R.; Petrie, T. W.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Leonard, A. W.; Murakami, M.; Snider, R. T.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Watkins, J. G.; West, W. P.; Wood, R. D.

    1997-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] to investigate the physical processes which limit density in high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges. The typical H-mode to low confinement mode (L-mode) transition limit at high density near the empirical Greenwald density limit [M. Greenwald et al., Nucl. Fusion 28, 2199 (1988)] was avoided by divertor pumping, which reduced divertor neutral pressure and prevented formation of a high density, intense radiation zone (MARFE) near the X-point. It was determined that the density decay time after pellet injection was independent of density relative to the Greenwald limit and increased nonlinearly with the plasma current. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in pellet-fueled plasmas was observed at all power levels, and often caused unacceptable confinement degradation, except when the neutral beam injected (NBI) power was ⩽3 MW. Formation of MARFEs on closed field lines was avoided with low safety factor (q) operation but was observed at high q, qualitatively consistent with theory. By using pellet fueling and optimizing discharge parameters to avoid each of these limits, an operational space was accessed in which density ˜1.5×Greenwald limit was achieved for 600 ms, and good H-mode confinement was maintained for 300 ms of the density flat-top. More significantly, the density was successfully increased to the limit where a central radiative collapse was observed, the most fundamental density limit in tokamaks.

  14. Physical process in OLED architectures with transparent carbon nanotube sheets as electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle Robles, Raquel

    There has been a great deal of activity in the development of organic light emitting diodes (OLED's) and polymeric light emitting diodes (PLED's). Research in OLEDs and PLEDs have been having a significant development over the last few years towards commercialization, extended life time, stability, efficiency and new fabrication processes suitable for mass production are some of the topics. The potential for commercialization is high due to their low operating voltage (typically between 2.5 to 5 volts), their high brightness and their ease to process. They are light weight and can be flexible. Furthermore, these devices can be easily color tune to produce red, green and blue colors. Research in this type of electroluminescence devices has advanced rapidly and device prototypes now meet realistic specifications for applications. By proper device engineering these devices can achieve high electroluminescence efficiencies and lifetimes. In this research project we present several methods and procedures that we developed and use to produce OLEDs and PLEDs. We have incorporated quantum dots into OLEDs as emissive dopants that contribute to the control of the spectral distribution of emitted light allowing the production of white OLEDs using both a multilayer structure with emission from multiple layers and a bilayer structure with emission from only the quantum dots. We have also produced PLED devices with a new family of novel PPV polymers achieving high bright efficient devices. OLED structures with transparent carbon nanotube sheets, obtained by dry drawing from a CVD-grown forest have been produced. The devices shown to be very bright and the MCNT sheets are efficient hole-injecting anodes for OLEDs Also, for flexible display applications, there is a need for high strength, flexible materials which can be deposited as transparent films and can act as hole injectors for organic films. By using a hybrid ITO/MWCNT anode onto flexible substrates an enhancement of the

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  16. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  17. Health-Related Intensity Profiles of Physical Education Classes at Different Phases of the Teaching/Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Kantanista, Adam; Ciekot, Monika; Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ida; Szwed, Szymon

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the intensities of three types of physical education (PE) classes corresponding to the phases of the teaching/learning process: Type 1--acquiring and developing skills, Type 2--selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional principles and Type 3--evaluating and improving performance skills. Material and methods: A…

  18. Preservice Elementary and Secondary Science Methods Teachers: Comparison of Formal Reasoning, ACT Science, Process Skill, and Physical Science Misconceptions Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitner, Betty L.

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to compare reasoning level, American College Test (ACT) science, process skills, and physical science misconceptions of preservice elementary and secondary science teachers and to investigate gender differences. The stratified randomly drawn sample (n=68) consisted of preservice elementary and…

  19. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Adiabatic Processes of an Ideal Gas: Physics Teacher Candidates' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with 46 teacher candidates taking the course of "Thermodynamics" in the Department of Physics Teaching. The purpose of the study was to determine the difficulties that teacher candidates experienced in explaining the heat, work and internal energy relationships in the processes of adiabatic compression…

  20. Demonstrating the Effects of Processing on the Structure and Physical Properties of Plastic Using Disposable PETE Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erk, Kendra A.; Rhein, Morgan; Krafcik, Matthew J.; Ydstie, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    An educational activity is described in which the structure and physical properties of disposable plastic cups were directly related to the method of processing. The mechanical properties of specimens cut from the walls of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETE) cups, oriented parallel and perpendicular to the thermoforming direction, were measured in…

  1. Preliminary Analysis of the (Process and Product) Quality of Physical Education in Flemish Secondary Schools: Implementation of IKLO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huts, K.; Van Hoecke, J.; De Knop, P.; Theeboom, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold, namely implementing a multifunctional (self-) evaluation instrument for physical education in a sample of Flemish secondary schools (N=100), while simultaneously obtaining a preliminary picture of the subjects' product and process quality. Descriptive statistics revealed that P. E. teachers' engagement…

  2. Information Processing in Bacteria: Memory, Computation, and Statistical Physics: a Key Issues Review

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use these information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g., biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network – the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links) – in sufficient details to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent insurgency of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc.) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the Hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these information to compute the

  3. Reflection processing of the large-N seismic data from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Paschall, Olivia C.

    2016-07-18

    The purpose of the SPE is to develop a more physics-based model for nuclear explosion identification to understand the development of S-waves from explosion sources in order to enhance nuclear test ban treaty monitoring.

  4. Comparison among physical process based snow models in estimating SWE and upwelling microwave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Durand, M. T.; Margulis, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Snowpack serves as a critical water resource and an important climate indicator. Accurately estimating snow water equivalent (SWE) and melt timing has both civil and scientific merits. Physical process based multi-layer land surface models (LSM) characterize snowpack by tracking the energy balance and mass balance in each layer. However, in terms of the number of layers used to model the snowpack stratigraphy, as well as the complexity of the simulated mass/energy exchanges in each single layer, significant variances exist among different LSMs. Previous work has largely focused on assessing the impact of layering and stratigraphy representation on mass and energy balance, with little attention paid to the implications of these factors on predicted microwave brightness temperature (Tb). In this paper, three LSMs with varying snow layer schemes: SSiB (3-layer), CoLM (5-layer), and SNOWPACK (N-layer), are coupled to the Microwave Emission from Multi-Layer Snowpacks (MEMLS) radiative transfer model (RTM) to simulate the snowpack mass/energy budgets and microwave signature over a full season. The simulations are performed at five in-situ gage locations in the Kern River Basin, Sierra Nevada, CA where it is known that large snow events occur that can be problematic to represent using a small number of snow layers. A particular emphasis is placed on assessment of the impact of layering scheme on the results. Preliminary results show that even for SSiB which has a relative simple empirical layering scheme, the modeled annual SWE could be highly correlated with the in-situ SWE (r¬2=0.91) if the precipitation bias is corrected, also, the comparison between the Tb simulated by SSiB+MEMLS and the downscaled AMSR-E Tb measurements shows a correlation coefficient of 0.94 during the snow accumulation season (Oct to Apr) if the grain growth parameters and the soil snow reflectivity is properly calibrated. Future work includes comparing SWE and Tb from all threemodels and

  5. Observing the Plasma-Physical Processes of Pulsar Radio Emission with Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    With their enormous densities and fields, neutron stars entail some of the most exotic physics in the cosmos. Similarly, the physical mechanisms of pulsar radio emission are no less exotic, and we are only now beginning to understand them. The talk will provide an introduction to the phenomenology of radio pulsar emission and focus on those aspects of the exquisite Arecibo observations that bear on their challenging emission physics.The commonalities of the radio beamforms of most slow pulsars (and some millisecond pulsars) argue strongly that their magnetic fields have a nearly dipolar structure at the height of their radio emission regions. These heights can often be determined by aberration/retardation analyses. Similarly, measurement of the orientation of the polarized radio emission with respect to the emitting magnetic field facilitates identification of the physical(X/O) emission modes and study of the plasma coupling to the electromagnetic radiation.While the physics of primary plasma generation above the pulsar polar cap is only beginning to be understood, it is clear that the radio pulsars we see are able to generate copious amounts of electron-positron plasma in their emission regions. Within the nearly dipolar field structure of these emission regions, the plasma density is near to that of the Goldreich-Julian model, and so the physical conditions in these regions can be accurately estimated.These conditions show that the plasma frequencies in the emission regions are much higher than the frequency of the emitted radiation, such that the plasma couples most easily to the extraordinary mode as observed. Therefore, the only surviving emission mechanism is curvature radiation from charged solitons, produced by the two-stream instability. Such soliton emission has probably been observed directly in the Crab pulsar; however, a physical theory of charged soliton radiation does not yet exist.

  6. The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1983-01-01

    In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

  7. The physical origins of the uncertainty theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-10-01

    The uncertainty principle is an important element of quantum mechanics. It deals with certain pairs of physical parameters which cannot be determined to an arbitrary level of precision at the same time. According to the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, this uncertainty is an intrinsic property of the physical world. - This paper intends to show that there are good reasons for adopting a different view. According to the author, the uncertainty is not a property of the physical world but rather a limitation of our knowledge about the actual state of a physical process. This view conforms to the quantum theory of Louis de Broglie and to Albert Einstein's interpretation.

  8. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Physical and biological processes controlling the distribution of fish larvae in the NW Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatés, A.; Olivar, M. P.; Salat, J.; Palomera, I.; Alemany, F.

    2007-08-01

    The Mediterranean is globally considered an oligotrophic sea. However, there are some places or certain seasons in which mechanisms that enhance fertility may occur. These mechanisms and related processes are especially relevant when they take place during the period of larval development. This study analyzes how environmental conditions occurring in the NW Mediterranean, at local and seasonal scales, contribute to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fish reproductive activity in the region. The structure of the bathymetry, types of bottoms, diversity of adult fish habitats, as well as mechanisms conditioning the primary production of the region determine the location of spawning, whereas physical processes (e.g., shelf-slope density front and associated current, continental water inflows, winter mixing, stratification of the water column) determine the final distribution patterns of fish eggs and larvae. High larval concentrations occur over the edge of the continental shelf in relation to the presence of the shelf-slope front and its associated convergence. However, this pattern is subject to considerable spatio-temporal variability, due to frontal mesoscale activity. High larval abundance can also be observed near the coast in zones with topographic irregularities that can greatly modify circulation favouring penetration of slope waters into the shelf. Finally, larvae of large pelagic migratory species are mainly distributed in areas under the influence of recent Atlantic Water (AW) and near the frontal system between these inflowing AW and the more saline waters of the northern basin. A pronounced seasonal variability regarding both the number of species and the number of fish larvae in the plankton can be observed throughout the year. The two dominant species, sardine and anchovy, have non-overlapping spawning periods, autumn-winter and spring-summer, respectively. The diversity of feeding patterns as well as the fact that different fish species

  10. Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

    2011-12-01

    Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in δ13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This

  11. Investigations of Physical Processes in Microgravity Relevant to Space Electrochemical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovich, Vadim F.; Green, Robert; Jakupca, Ian

    2015-01-01

    NASA has performed physical science microgravity flight experiments in the areas of combustion science, fluid physics, material science and fundamental physics research on the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The orbital conditions on the ISS provide an environment where gravity driven phenomena, such as buoyant convection, are nearly negligible. Gravity strongly affects fluid behavior by creating forces that drive motion, shape phase boundaries and compress gases. The need for a better understanding of fluid physics has created a vigorous, multidisciplinary research community whose ongoing vitality is marked by the continuous emergence of new fields in both basic and applied science. In particular, the low-gravity environment offers a unique opportunity for the study of fluid physics and transport phenomena that are very relevant to management of fluid - gas separations in fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Experiments conducted in space have yielded rich results. These results provided valuable insights into fundamental fluid and gas phase behavior that apply to space environments and could not be observed in Earth-based labs. As an example, recent capillary flow results have discovered both an unexpected sensitivity to symmetric geometries associated with fluid container shape, and identified key regime maps for design of corner or wedge-shaped passive gas-liquid phase separators. In this presentation we will also briefly review some of physical science related to flight experiments, such as boiling, that have applicability to electrochemical systems, along with ground-based (drop tower, low gravity aircraft) microgravity electrochemical research. These same buoyancy and interfacial phenomena effects will apply to electrochemical power and energy storage systems that perform two-phase separation, such as water-oxygen separation in life support electrolysis, and primary space power generation devices such as passive primary fuel cell.

  12. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  13. Image Processing, Computer Vision, and Deep Learning: new approaches to the analysis and physics interpretation of LHC events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, A.; Kagan, M.; Mackey, L.; Nachman, B.; De Oliveira, L.

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces recent developments in the application of image processing, computer vision, and deep neural networks to the analysis and interpretation of particle collision events at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The link between LHC data analysis and computer vision techniques relies on the concept of jet-images, building on the notion of a particle physics detector as a digital camera and the particles it measures as images. We show that state-of-the-art image classification techniques based on deep neural network architectures significantly improve the identification of highly boosted electroweak particles with respect to existing methods. Furthermore, we introduce new methods to visualize and interpret the high level features learned by deep neural networks that provide discrimination beyond physics- derived variables, adding a new capability to understand physics and to design more powerful classification methods at the LHC.

  14. Examining predictors of physical activity among inactive middle-aged women: an application of the health action process approach.

    PubMed

    Barg, Carolyn J; Latimer, Amy E; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Rivers, Susan E; Rench, Tara A; Prapavessis, Harry; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study tested several relationships predicted by the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in a sample of 175 generally healthy, inactive, middle-aged women (40-65 yrs old) over a 12 week period. Participants' physical activity, risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, action self-efficacy and intention were measured at baseline. Planning and maintenance self-efficacy were measured 4 weeks later. Physical activity behaviour was measured 12 weeks after baseline. The HAPA relationships were examined using a structural equation model. The data fit the model well and revealed several significant relationships. Action self-efficacy was the best predictor of intention. Maintenance self-efficacy was the best predictor of planning and behaviour. Contrary to the tenets of HAPA and to past research, planning did not predict behaviour. Overall, HAPA provides a useful framework for identifying determinants of physical activity intentions and behaviour within a group of inactive, middle-aged women.

  15. From deep sequencing to actual clones.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Sara; Kumar, Sandeep; Naranjo, Leslie; Ferrara, Fortunato; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2014-10-01

    The application of deep sequencing to in vitro display technologies has been invaluable for the straightforward analysis of enriched clones. After sequencing in vitro selected populations, clones are binned into identical or similar groups and ordered by abundance, allowing identification of those that are most enriched. However, the greatest strength of deep sequencing is also its greatest weakness: clones are easily identified by their DNA sequences, but are not physically available for testing without a laborious multistep process involving several rounds of polymerization chain reaction (PCR), assembly and cloning. Here, using the isolation of antibody genes from a phage and yeast display selection as an example, we show the power of a rapid and simple inverse PCR-based method to easily isolate clones identified by deep sequencing. Once primers have been received, clone isolation can be carried out in a single day, rather than two days. Furthermore the reduced number of PCRs required will reduce PCR mutations correspondingly. We have observed a 100% success rate in amplifying clones with an abundance as low as 0.5% in a polyclonal population. This approach allows us to obtain full-length clones even when an incomplete sequence is available, and greatly simplifies the subcloning process. Moreover, rarer, but functional clones missed by traditional screening can be easily isolated using this method, and the approach can be extended to any selected library (scFv, cDNA, libraries based on scaffold proteins) where a unique sequence signature for the desired clones of interest is available.

  16. Generalities on the physical and chemical processes in a thermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchais, P.; Bourdin, E.; Coudert, J.F.

    1983-04-01

    A review of plasma chemistry and its industrial uses is presented. A thermal plasma is defined. Physical properties and transport properties are discussed and various types of generators and furnaces are described. Existing and potential industrial uses of a plasma are reviewed.

  17. National Board Certified Physical Educators: Perceived Changes Related to the Certification Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Rhoades, Jesse Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined National Board certified physical education teachers' (NBCPETs) perceptions of change as a result of certification. Randomly selected NBCPETs (65; women = 53, men = 12) were interviewed. Analysis was done through the lens of Lawson's (1989) Model of the Interactive Factors Influencing Workplace Conditions for the…

  18. Documenting the Use of Expert Scientific Reasoning Processes by High School Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, A. Lynn; Clement, John J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these…

  19. The Role of New Technologies in the Learning Process: Moodle as a Teaching Tool in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Blas, Teresa; Serrano-Fernandez, Ana

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present an overview of the undergraduate online Physics course that we have implemented in the Moodle platform. This course has been developed as an enhancement of the face-to-face courses. The aim of this course is to create an online learning community which helps both teachers and students to have a virtual space where we can…

  20. Getting into Teams in Physical Education and Exclusion Processes among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimminger, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Although splitting up a class into teams is a consistent didactical element in physical education (PE), it is under-investigated in terms of how students handle the social dynamics in these situations. Therefore, the present study examines the strategies of exclusion as markers for non-recognition when students are split up into teams/pairs. The…

  1. A Description of a Blind Student's Science Process Skills through Health Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bülbül, M. Sahin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes an approach for blind students thought health physics about how they could set a hypothesis and test it. The participant of the study used some health materials designed for high school blind student and tested her hypothesis with the data she gathered with those materials. It was asked that she should hypothesize which could…

  2. Control of the Physical and Technical Properties of Water in Technological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopotov, V. D.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Sarkisov, Yu S.; Kulchenko, A. K.; Klopotov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The physical and technical properties of water activated by the electrochemical treatment in a two-chamber electrolizer are investigated. The regularities of changes inthe values of acidity, redox potential, ionic composition, concentration of oxygen, structural organization of catholyte and anolyte are revealed. The possibility of controlling the properties of the liquid for more efficient extraction of polymetallic minerals by flotation is described.

  3. Examination of physical processes of convective cell evolved from a MCS — Using a different model initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Vlado; Ćurić, Mladjen

    2016-06-01

    The present study is focused on examination of the physical processes of convective cell evolved from a MCS occurred on 4 November 2011 over Genoa, Italy. The Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPF) have been performed using WRF v3.6 model under different configurations and cloud permitting simulations. The results indicate underestimation of the amount of precipitation and spatial displacement of the area with a peak 24-h accumulated rainfall in (mm). Our main objective in the research is to test the cloud model ability and performance in simulation of this particular case. For that purpose a set of sensitivity experiments under different model initializations and initial data have been conducted. The results also indicate that the merging process apparently alters the physical processes through low- and middle-level forcing, increasing cloud depth, and enhancing convection. The examination of the microphysical process simulated by the model indicates that dominant production terms are the accretion of rain by graupel and snow, probabilistic freezing of rain to form graupel and dry and wet growth of graupel. Experiment under WRF v3.6 model initialization has shown some advantage in simulation of the physical processes responsible for production and initiation of heavy rainfall compared to other model runs. Most of the precipitation came from ice-phase particles-via accretion processes and the graupel melting at temperature T0 ≥ 0°C. The rainfall intensity and accumulated rainfall calculated by the model closely reflect the amount of rainfall recorded. Thus, the main benefit is to better resolve convective showers or storms which, in extreme cases, can give rise to major flooding events. In such a way, this model may become major contributor to improvements in weather analysis and small-scale atmospheric predictions and early warnings of such subscale processes.

  4. Physical processes governing summer Chl-a in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, M. M.; Gille, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a crucial role in sequestering atmospheric CO2 by exporting fixed carbon into the deep ocean through the biological pump. It is a High Nitrate Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region where phytoplankton growth is primarily Fe-limited. Several sources of Fe have been identified in the Southern Ocean, and phytoplankton blooms occur annually. Many of these blooms persist through the summer and even peak in the summer months. The mechanisms that explain spring blooms are well known, and the shoaling of the mixed-layer depth (MLD) plays a critical role in terms of light availability. A question that remains unanswered is what sustains blooms through the summer when presumably light conditions are optimal and nutrients in the mixed layer have been depleted. One source of Fe is the deep ocean, and models and observations suggest blooms in the Southern Ocean are largely driven by ocean dynamics. The evaluation of the input of Fe from subsurface waters into the euphotic zone depends in part on mixed-layer dynamics and Ekman-induced upwelling. The turbulent mixing caused by winds, along with the buoyancy forcing, prescribe the MLD and deepening of the MLD may facilitate the entrainment of Fe. The curl of the wind stress, by Ekman pumping, provides a mechanism of upwelling that can also contribute to the supply of Fe. Sea surface temperature (SST) responds to both of these processes, as well as to surface heat fluxes at the ocean-air interphase. In this work we explore the potential influence of nutrient entrainment due to MLD deepening and Ekman-induced upwelling on summer phytoplankton blooms. Using weekly satellite estimates and ocean reanalysis we correlate anomalies of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) with anomalies of physical variables such as wind speed intensity (W), Ekman pumping velocities (WEK), SST and surface heat fluxes (Qnet). Winds and SST can have strong feedbacks through Qnet and instabilities in the atmospheric boundary layer, and therefore in our

  5. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  6. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  7. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  8. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  9. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  10. PERCEIVED AUTONOMY SUPPORT AND BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: A CONDITIONAL PROCESS MODEL OF POSITIVE EMOTION AND AUTONOMOUS MOTIVATION.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin

    2015-06-01

    A variety of theoretical perspectives describe the crucial behavioral roles of motivation and emotion, but how these interact with perceptions of social contexts and behaviors is less well understood. This study examined whether autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement in physical education and whether this mediating process was moderated by positive emotion. A sample of 592 Korean middle-school students (304 boys, 288 girls; M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 0.8) completed questionnaires. Autonomous motivation partially mediated the positive association between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement. Positive emotion moderated the relationship between autonomous motivation and behavioral engagement. This indirect link was stronger as positive emotion increased. These findings suggest the importance of integrating emotion into motivational processes to understand how and when perceived autonomy support is associated with behavioral engagement in physical education.

  11. Physical Alteration of Martian Dust Grains, Its Influence on Detection of Clays and Identification of Aqueous Processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Drief, Ahmed; Dyar, Darby

    2003-01-01

    Clays, if present on Mars, have been illusive. Determining whether or not clay minerals and other aqueous alteration species are present on Mars provides key information about the extent and duration of aqueous processes on Mars. The purpose of this study is to characterize in detail changes in the mineral grains resulting from grinding and to assess the influence of physical processes on clay minerals on the surface of Mars. Physical alteration through grinding was shown to greatly affect the structure and a number of properties of antigorite and kaolinite. This project builds on an initial study and includes a combination of SEM, HRTEM, reflectance and M ssbauer spectroscopies. Grain size was found to decrease, as expected, with grinding. In addition, nanophase carbonate, Si-OH and iron oxide species were formed.

  12. Is Transferring an Educational Innovation Actually a Process of Transformation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of…

  13. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...). Selections within each priority category will be based on the Applicants' relative rankings within each such... Qualified Activities from the Baseline to the Assessment Period, and an Applicant's priority ranking. If...

  14. The impact of different physical processes on the statistics of Lyman-limit and damped Lyman α absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altay, Gabriel; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Booth, C. M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    We compute the z = 3 neutral hydrogen column density distribution function f(NHI) for 19 simulations drawn from the Overwhelmingly Large Simulations project using a post-processing correction for self-shielding calculated with full radiative transfer of the ionizing background radiation. We investigate how different physical processes and parameters affect the abundance of Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) and damped Lyman α absorbers including: (i) metal-line cooling; (ii) the efficiency of feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei; (iii) the effective equation of state for the interstellar medium; (iv) cosmological parameters; (v) the assumed star formation law and (vi) the timing of hydrogen reionization. We find that the normalization and slope, D = d log _{10} f /d log _{10} N_{H I}, of f(NHI) in the LLS regime are robust to changes in these physical processes. Among physically plausible models, f(NHI) varies by less than 0.2 dex and D varies by less than 0.18 for LLSs. This is primarily due to the fact that these uncertain physical processes mostly affect star-forming gas which contributes less than 10 per cent to f(NHI) in the LLS column density range. At higher column densities, variations in f(NHI) become larger (approximately 0.5 dex at f(NHI) = 1022 cm-2 and 1.0 dex at f(NHI) = 1022 cm-2) and molecular hydrogen formation also becomes important. Many of these changes can be explained in the context of self-regulated star formation in which the amount of star-forming gas in a galaxy will adjust such that outflows driven by feedback balance inflows due to accretion. Tools to reproduce all figures in this work can be found at the following url: https://bitbucket.org/galtay/hi-cddf-owls-1

  15. Physical and ecological processes at a moving ice edge in the Fram Strait as observed with an AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, Thorben; Bauerfeind, Eduard; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2016-09-01

    Small-scale investigations of physical and biogeochemical parameters have been carried out with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) at a moving ice edge in the Fram Strait. The AUV was equipped with various sensors to study the complex interactions between physical and ecological processes along the ice edge and the associated meltwater front. The AUV covered two cross-front sections of 9 km and recorded high resolution vertical profiles of the physical and biogeochemical properties between 0 and 50 m water depth at a horizontal station spacing of 800-1000 m. In both physical and biogeochemical terms, the measurements revealed a complex structure of the water column. The distribution of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and nutrients was highly inhomogeneous. Chlorophyll a concentrations of 5 μg l-1 were detected at the frontal interface in a small corridor just 2-4 km wide and only 5 m deep. Nutrients at the surface were depleted, yet, compared to previous studies of this region, were still present in the euphotic zone. Below the euphotic zone, nitrate concentrations of 8 μmol l-1 and oxygen saturation values of 100% resulted in a ;dome-like; pattern - suggestive of vertical transport processes. Based on these measurements, three different zones featuring individual biogeochemical characteristics were identified in the cross-front sections. Atmospheric forcing and the presence of the melt water front are assumed to be mainly responsible for the complexity of the water column. Localized vertical transport events seem to have occurred before our investigations. Furthermore, wind driven frontogenesis likely contributed to vertical water movements. All processes had an effect on the biological processes along the observed meltwater front.

  16. Influence of hydrothermal processes on changes of volcanic rocks (data of physical modelling)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, V. V.; Bychkov, A. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Due to active development of geothermal energy, in middle of the last century have begun papers devoted to experiments, directed on study of transformations of minerals [4] and rocks [1, 2, 5] under action of geothermal processes. But any researcher did not estimate thus change of their physical and physico-mechanical properties. The purpose of job - to study character and dynamics changes of volcanic rocks (to simulate conditions of geothermal transformations). Tasks: creation of the whole series of experiments in autoclavs at various temperatures, pressure and composition of solutions, preparation of samples, study of chemical and mineral composition, structure and properties of rocks and solutions before and after experiments. In 2006 the first similar experiments were begun [3]. Researched rocks basalts, hyaloclasites and obsidian, selected from Iceland and tuffs Payzhetka Geothermal Field, Southern Kamchatka, Russia. Were used autoclavs, consisting from titanic of an alloy ВТ-8, volume 116-119 мл, in each of which was located from 2 up to 4 samples of rocks of the investigated structure and properties. The heating was made in OVEN ТРМ-10 with accuracy + 1 °С, the constancy of temperature was supervised by thermocouples. 15 experiences (temperature 200, 300 and 450 °С; pressure 16, 86 and 1000 bars accordingly now are carried out; 4 solutions (1 alkaline and 3 acid); duration 14, 15, 30 and 60 days). All four groups of the investigated rocks appreciablly react under geothermal influence. The changes are observed in colour of samples (brighten in acid solutions), their microstructure, that for basalts is visible only in raster electronic microscope, and in education of new mineral phases, is especially active in a acid solution, the X-Ray analysis (has executed by Dr. Krupskaya V.V., apparatuses - DRON- UM1) has shown, that 94,2 % is smectite, 3,5 % - kaolinite, 1,2 % - crisrobalite, 1,1 % - diopside (?), in others pores fills chlorite, and in an

  17. Relation between physical time-energy cost of a quantum process and its information fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2014-08-01

    A quantum system can be described and characterized by at least two different concepts, namely, its physical and informational properties. Here, we explicitly connect these two concepts, by equating the time-energy cost which is the product of the largest energy of a Hamiltonian of quantum dynamics and the evolution time, and the entanglement fidelity which is the informational difference between an input state and the corresponding output state produced by a quantum channel characterized by the Hamiltonian. Specifically, the worst-case entanglement fidelity between the input and output states is exactly the cosine of the channel's time-energy cost (except when the fidelity is zero). The exactness of our relation makes a strong statement about the intimate connection between information and physics. Our exact result may also be regarded as a time-energy uncertainty relation for the fastest state that achieves a certain fidelity.

  18. The problem-solving process in physics as observed when engineering students at university level work in groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-07-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit backward moves to earlier stages in the problem-solving process. These earlier stages are revisited by the groups for identifying sub-problems, setting parameter values or even restating the goal. We interpret this action as coming from the fact that the students have not yet developed a knowledge base and a problem-solving scheme. Connected to the backward moves in the process are opportunities for the group members to build such a knowledge base from contributions and experiences from all group members. Problem contents that induce such moves are identified and can thus be considered by science teachers when constructing problems for group work.

  19. A comparative analysis of teacher-authored websites in high school honors and Advanced Placement physics for Web-design and NSES content and process standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persin, Ronald C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statistically significant differences existed between high school Honors Physics websites and those of Advanced Placement (AP) Physics in terms of Web-design, National Science Education Standards (NSES) Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. The procedure began with the selection of 152 sites comprising two groups with equal sample sizes of 76 for Honors Physics and for Advanced Placement Physics. The websites used in the study were accumulated using the Google(TM) search engine. To find Honors Physics websites, the search words "honors physics high school" were entered as the query into the search engine. To find sites for Advanced Placement Physics, the query, "advanced placement physics high school," was entered into the search engine. The evaluation of each website was performed using an instrument developed by the researcher based on three attributes: Web-design, NSES Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. A "1" was scored if the website was found to have each attribute, otherwise a "0" was given. This process continued until all 76 websites were evaluated for each of the two types of physics websites, Honors and Advanced Placement. Subsequently the data were processed using Excel functions and the SPSS statistical software program. The mean and standard deviation were computed individually for the three attributes under consideration. Three, 2-tailed, independent samples t tests were performed to compare the two groups of physics websites separately on the basis of Web Design, Physics Content, and Science Process. The results of the study indicated that there was only one statistically significant difference between high school Honors Physics websites and those of AP Physics. The only difference detected was in terms of National Science Education Standards Physics content. It was found that Advanced Placement Physics websites contained more NSES physics content than Honors

  20. Effects of post-processing shell surface sanitizers on egg physical quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All eggs processed under the voluntary USDA grade shield standards are required to be exposed to a post-processing sanitizing rinse of 100 – 200 ppm chlorine (Cl) or equivalents. There has been speculation as to the effectiveness of this sanitizing rinse. The current study was undertaken to determ...

  1. Physics and Chemistry of the Hydrogen Fluoride Production Process from Fluorine Containing Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, A. N.; Kraydenko, R. I.; Lesnikova, M. S.; Malyutin, L. N.; Petlin, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the aluminum industry wastes on the environment is established. The resource efficient method of aluminum industry fluorine-containing wastes processing, which includes wastes oxidizing roasting to remove carbon component and the interaction of fluorine- containing particles with sulfuric acid in order to produce hydrogen fluoride, is considered. The economic and environmental effect of the proposed processing method is substantiated.

  2. The Primary Physical Education Curriculum Process: More Complex That You Might Think!!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jess, Mike; Carse, Nicola; Keay, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the curriculum development process as a complex, iterative and integrated phenomenon. Building on the early work of Stenhouse [1975, "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development". London: Heinemann Educational], we position the teacher at the heart of this process and extend his ideas by exploring how…

  3. Physics in 1981 plus and minus 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Norman F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the state of physics in 1931, the predicted and actual states of physics in 1981, and predictions for 2031. Focuses on general conditions such as economy, energy (fossil, solar, nuclear fission, fusion), physics research, and physics publications. (JN)

  4. A Complete Physical Germanium-on-Silicon Quantum Dot Self-Assembly Process

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Amro; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Achieving quantum dot self-assembly at precise pre-defined locations is of vital interest. In this work, a novel physical method for producing germanium quantum dots on silicon using nanoindentation to pre-define nucleation sites is described. Self-assembly of ordered ~10 nm height germanium quantum dot arrays on silicon substrates is achieved. Due to the inherent simplicity and elegance of the proposed method, the results describe an attractive technique to manufacture semiconductor quantum dot structures for future quantum electronic and photonic applications. PMID:23807261

  5. Multiscale Physical and Biological Dynamics in the Philippines Archipelago: Predictions and Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    modeling  system  to  predict  and  study  multiscale   dynamics  in  the   region,  without  the  use  of  any...steep shelfbreaks. We utilize our multi-?‐resolution modeling system to predict and study multiscale dynamics in the region without the use of any...a  free  surface  hydrostatic  primitive-­‐ equation  physical  ocean   model  developed  for  multiscale  

  6. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  7. CNG process, a new approach to physical-absorption acid-gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hise, R.E.; Massey, L.G.; Adler, R.J.; Brosilow, C.B.; Gardner, N.C.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Petrik, M.

    1982-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process embodies three novel features: (1) scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide to remove all sulfurous molecules and other trace contaminants; (2) triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide to concentrate sulfurous molecules and produce pure carbon dioxide; and (3) absorption of carbon dioxide with a slurry of solid carbon dioxide in organic carrier liquid. The CNG process is discussed and contrasted with existing acid gas removal technology as represented by the Benfield, Rectisol, and Selexol acid gas removal processes.

  8. Learning to learn physics: The implementation of process-oriented instruction in the first year of higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertenten, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    Finding a way to encourage first year students to use deep processing strategies was the aim of this research. The need for an adequate method became clear after using the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) of Vermunt: almost half of the first year students turned out to have an undirected or a reproduction-directed learning style. A possible intervention is process-oriented instruction. In this type of instruction learning strategies are taught in coherence with domain specific knowledge. The emphasis is on a gradual transfer from a strongly instruction-guided regulation of the learning process towards a student-regulation. By promoting congruence and constructive frictions between instruction and learning strategies, students are challenged to improve their learning strategies. These general features of process-oriented instruction were refined by Vermunt (1992) in twelve general and specific principles. Literature was studied in which researchers reported about their experiences with interventions aimed at teaching physics knowledge, physics strategies and/or learning and thinking strategies. It became obvious that several successful interventions stressed four principles: (1) the student must experience (constructive) f&barbelow;rictions, including cognitive conflicts; (2) he must be encouraged to ṟeflect on his experiences (thinking about them and analysing them); (3) the instruction must e&barbelow;xplicate and demonstrate the necessary knowledge and strategies; and (4) the student must be given the opportunity to practice (ḏoing) with the learned knowledge and strategies. These four FRED-principles are useful for teaching both general and domain specific knowledge and strategies. They show similarities with the four stages in the learning cycle of Kolb (1984). Moreover, other elements of process-oriented instruction are also depicted by the learning cycle, which, when used in process-oriented instruction, has to start with experiencing (constructive

  9. Interpretation of planetary radar observations - The relationship between actual and inferred slope distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the distribution of surface slopes of a variety of terrestrial surfaces by field measurement, representing surfaces formed by a wide range of processes, and compared the results to planetary radar data. Slope distributions of the measured surfaces differed considerably from the distributions assumed by accepted models of radar scattering. We also used Hagfors' model of radar scattering to predict the return that would be expected from surfaces where two discrete surface types were present within the radar field of view and found that the shapes of the resulting slope distributions differed from those predicted by the Hagfors model for homogeneous surfaces. Together, these results suggest that current methods of determining surface roughness from radar may significantly underestimate the roughness of planetary surfaces and that the derived rms slope can best be used as a qualitative guide to the physical interpretation of actual surface properties.

  10. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  11. Quantum information processing, operational quantum logic, convexity, and the foundations of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard

    Quantum information science is a source of task-related axioms whose consequences can be explored in general settings encompassing quantum mechanics, classical theory, and more. Quantum states are compendia of probabilities for the outcomes of possible operations we may perform on a system: "operational states." I discuss general frameworks for "operational theories" (sets of possible operational states of a system), in which convexity plays key role. The main technical content of the paper is in a theorem that any such theory naturally gives rise to a "weak effect algebra" when outcomes having the same probability in all states are identified and in the introduction of a notion of "operation algebra" that also takes account of sequential and conditional operations. Such frameworks are appropriate for investigating what things look like from an "inside view," i.e., for describing perspectival information that one subsystem of the world can have about another. Understanding how such views can combine, and whether an overall "geometric" picture ("outside view") coordinating them all can be had, even if this picture is very different in structure from the perspectives within it, is the key to whether we may be able to achieve a unified, "objective" physical view in which quantum mechanics is the appropriate description for certain perspectives, or whether quantum mechanics is truly telling us we must go beyond this "geometric" conception of physics.

  12. A process of informed consent for student learning through peer physical examination in pelvic floor physiotherapy practice.

    PubMed

    Delany, Clare; Frawley, Helena

    2012-03-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of teaching and learning clinical skills in which students use fellow students as surrogate patients or models. PPE is recognised as useful as an experiential learning method to increase skill development for physiotherapy clinical practice. However students may feel pressured to participate despite discomfort and embarrassment when practising physical examination and treatment skills with their peers. Obtaining students' informed consent to participate in PPE is an important process to address these disadvantages of PPE. This paper proposes a three stage process for obtaining informed consent from postgraduate physiotherapy students learning pelvic floor examination and treatment skills. The process is designed to encourage educators to articulate the ethical issues that are relevant in this area of teaching; to provide information to students to enable them to understand what is involved and to choose to participate, and to offer alternatives to participation through a formalised process of informed consent. These steps mirror students' future obligations and actions when communicating with their patients.

  13. Reducing Physical Risk Factors in Construction Work Through a Participatory Intervention: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Mikkel; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Skals, Sebastian; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Madeleine, Pascal; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that reducing physical workload among workers in the construction industry is complicated. In order to address this issue, we developed a process evaluation in a formative mixed-methods design, drawing on existing knowledge of the potential barriers for implementation. Objective We present the design of a mixed-methods process evaluation of the organizational, social, and subjective practices that play roles in the intervention study, integrating technical measurements to detect excessive physical exertion measured with electromyography and accelerometers, video documentation of working tasks, and a 3-phased workshop program. Methods The evaluation is designed in an adapted process evaluation framework, addressing recruitment, reach, fidelity, satisfaction, intervention delivery, intervention received, and context of the intervention companies. Observational studies, interviews, and questionnaires among 80 construction workers organized in 20 work gangs, as well as health and safety staff, contribute to the creation of knowledge about these phenomena. Results At the time of publication, the process of participant recruitment is underway. Conclusions Intervention studies are challenging to conduct and evaluate in the construction industry, often because of narrow time frames and ever-changing contexts. The mixed-methods design presents opportunities for obtaining detailed knowledge of the practices intra-acting with the intervention, while offering the opportunity to customize parts of the intervention. PMID:27230696

  14. Scaled physical model studies of the steam drive process. First annual report, September 1977-September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Doscher, T M

    1980-12-01

    Scaling laws of the heat transport mechanism in steam displacement processes are developed based upon an integral energy balance equation. Unlike the differential approach adopted by previous workers, the above scaling laws do not necessitate the use of any empirical correction factor as has been done in previous scaling calculations. The results provide a complete and consistent scale-down of the energy transport behavior, which is the critical mechanism for the success of a steam injection process. In the course of the study, the scaling problems associated with relative permeability and capillary pressure are also discussed. A method which has often been used in scaling nonthermal displacement processes is applied to reduce errors due to scaling in relative permeability. Both dimensional and inspectional analyses are applied to illustrate their use in steam processes. Scale-up laws appeared in the literature and those used in this study are compared and numerical examples are given.

  15. The "Vsoil Platform" : a tool to integrate the various physical, chemical and biological processes contributing to the soil functioning at the local scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafolie, François; Cousin, Isabelle; Mollier, Alain; Pot, Valérie; Moitrier, Nicolas; Balesdent, Jérome; bruckler, Laurent; Moitrier, Nathalie; Nouguier, Cédric; Richard, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Models describing the soil functioning are valuable tools for addressing challenging issues related to agricultural production, soil protection or biogeochemical cycles. Coupling models that address different scientific fields is actually required in order to develop numerical tools able to simulate the complex interactions and feed-backs occurring within a soil profile in interaction with climate and human activities. We present here a component-based modelling platform named "VSoil", that aims at designing, developing, implementing and coupling numerical representation of biogeochemical and physical processes in soil, from the aggregate to the profile scales. The platform consists of four softwares, i) Vsoil_Processes dedicated to the conceptual description of processes and of their inputs and outputs, ii) Vsoil_Modules devoted to the development of numerical representation of elementary processes as modules, iii) Vsoil_Models which permits the coupling of modules to create models, iv) Vsoil_Player for the run of the model and the primary analysis of results. The platform is designed to be a collaborative tool, helping scientists to share not only their models, but also the scientific knowledge on which the models are built. The platform is based on the idea that processes of any kind can be described and characterized by their inputs (state variables required) and their outputs. The links between the processes are automatically detected by the platform softwares. For any process, several numerical representations (modules) can be developed and made available to platform users. When developing modules, the platform takes care of many aspects of the development task so that the user can focus on numerical calculations. Fortran2008 and C++ are the supported languages and existing codes can be easily incorporated into platform modules. Building a model from available modules simply requires selecting the processes being accounted for and for each process a module

  16. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  17. Introduction: SIPEX-2: A study of sea-ice physical, biogeochemical and ecosystem processes off East Antarctica during spring 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners, Klaus M.; Golden, Ken M.; Heil, Petra; Lieser, Jan L.; Massom, Rob; Meyer, Bettina; Williams, Guy D.

    2016-09-01

    This editorial introduces a suite of articles resulting from the second Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment (SIPEX-2) voyage by presenting some background information on the study area and Antarctic sea-ice conditions, and summarising the key findings from the project. Using the Australian icebreaker RV Aurora Australis, SIPEX-2 was conducted in the area between 115-125°E and 62-66°S off East Antarctica during September to November 2012. This region had been sampled during two previous experiments, i.e. ARISE in 2003 (Massom et al., 2006a) and SIPEX in 2007 (Worby et al., 2011a). The 2012 voyage combined traditional and newly developed sampling methods with satellite and other data to measure sea-ice physical properties and processes on large scales, which provided context for biogeochemical and ecological case studies. The specific goals of the SIPEX-2 project were to: (i) measure the spatial variability in sea-ice and snow-cover properties over small- to regional-length scales; (ii) improve understanding of sea-ice kinematic processes; and (iii) advance knowledge of the links between sea-ice physical characteristics, sea-ice biogeochemical cycling and ice-associated food-web dynamics. Our field-based activities were designed to inform modelling approaches and to improve our capability to assess impacts of predicted changes in Antarctic sea ice on Southern Ocean biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem function.

  18. Evaluation of a recycling process for printed circuit board by physical separation and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Ono, Hiroyuki; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Yamaguchi, Kunihiko

    2014-07-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) from discarded personal computer (PC) and hard disk drive were crushed by explosion in water or mechanical comminution in order to disintegrate the attached parts. More parts were stripped from PCB of PC, composed of epoxy resin; than from PCB of household appliance, composed of phenol resin. In an attempt to raise the copper grade of PCB by removing other components, a carbonization treatment was investigated. The crushed PCB without surface-mounted parts was carbonized under a nitrogen atmosphere at 873-1073 K. After screening, the char was classified by size into oversized pieces, undersized pieces and powder. The copper foil and glass fiber pieces were liberated and collected in undersized fraction. The copper foil was liberated easily from glass fiber by stamping treatment. As one of the mounted parts, the multi-layered ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), which contain nickel, were carbonized at 873 K. The magnetic separation is carried out at a lower magnetic field strength of 0.1T and then at 0.8 T. In the +0.5mm size fraction the nickel grade in magnetic product was increased from 0.16% to 6.7% and the nickel recovery is 74%. The other useful mounted parts are tantalum capacitors. The tantalum capacitors were collected from mounted parts. The tantalum-sintered bodies were separated from molded resins by heat treatment at 723-773 K in air atmosphere and screening of 0.5mm. Silica was removed and 70% of tantalum grade was obtained after more than 823K heating and separation. Next, the evaluation of Cu recycling in PCB is estimated. Energy consumption of new process increased and the treatment cost becomes 3 times higher comparing the conventional process, while the environmental burden of new process decreased comparing conventional process. The nickel recovery process in fine ground particles increased energy and energy cost comparing those of the conventional process. However, the environmental burden decreased than the conventional

  19. Experimental challenge to nuclear physics problems in the {nu}p-process

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Chen, A.; Cherubini, S.; Choi, S. H.; Hahn, I. S.; He, J. J.; Khiem, Le H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Wanajo, S.; and others

    2012-11-12

    Astrophysical stellar reactions at extremely high temperatures involve a variety of problems both in nuclear reactions and nuclear structures. Specifically, the problems in the {nu}pprocess were discussed in this talk based on our recent experimental results with low-energy RI beams and a simulation study. The {nu}p-process is one of the key processes for investigating the mechanism of type II supernovae, and the process could be possibly responsible for 'the excess production' of p-nuclei around mass 90-100. Alpha cluster resonances have been discovered experimentally to play a crucial role for the stellar ({alpha}, p) reactions just above the alpha threshold. Neutron induced reactions in the proton-rich nuclear regions in the {nu}p-process are also suggested to play an important role, which involve nuclear structures of high level density at high excitation energies, probably giant resonances. The discussion also covered the p-nuclei production through the {nu}p-process at around mass 100.

  20. Non-Invasive Diagnostics for Measuring Physical Properties and Processes in High Level Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Powell; David Pfund

    2005-07-17

    This research demonstrated the usefulness of tomographic techniques for determining the physical properties of slurry suspensions. Of particular interest was the measurement of the viscosity of suspensions in complex liquids and modeling these. We undertook a long rage program that used two techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Our laboratory originally developed both of these for the measurement of viscosity of complex liquids and suspensions. We have shown that the relationship between shear viscosity and shear rate can be determined over a wide range of shear rates from a single measurement. We have also demonstrated these techniques for many non-Newtonian fluids which demonstrate highly shear thinning behavior. This technique was extended to determine the yield stress with systems of interacting particles. To model complex slurries that may be found in wastes applications, we have also used complex slurries that are found in industrial applications

  1. Changes in the physical state of sucrose during dark chocolate processing.

    PubMed

    Gloria, H; Sievert, D

    2001-05-01

    Dark chocolate tablets were manufactured using 100% crystalline sucrose, 50% crystalline and 50% amorphous sucrose, and 100% amorphous sucrose. The physical state of sucrose was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. DSC scans of dark chocolate samples containing amorphous sucrose were characterized by a glass transition at 63 degrees C, a sucrose crystallization peak at 105 degrees C, and a melting endotherm at 188 degrees C. Independent of the amount of amorphous or crystalline sucrose used for the preparation of dark chocolate, all final chocolate products provided a single melting endotherm at 188 degrees C and a crystalline X-ray diffraction pattern. These results indicated that sucrose crystallized during production of dark chocolate and that no amorphous sucrose was present in the final chocolate products.

  2. Long-term influence of physical aging processes in epoxy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1981-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of (plus or minus 45 degree sub 4s) graphite/epoxy composites were found to be affected by sub T sub g annealing. Postcured specimens of Thornel 300 graphite/Narmco 5208 epoxy were sub T sub G annealed at 413 K (140 C) for ca. 10 to the first through 10 to the fifth powers min., with a prior quenching from above T sub g. The ultimate tensile strength, strain-to-break, and toughness of the composite were found to decrease as a function of sub T sub g annealing time. The time-dependent change in properties can be explained on the basis of physical aging which is related to free volume changes in the non-equilibrium glassy state of network epoxies. The results imply possible changes in composite properties with service time.

  3. Distributed processing and analysis of physics data in the D0 SAM system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Igor V. Terekhov

    2001-08-30

    SAM (Sequential Access through Meta-data) is the data access system for the D0 high energy physics (HEP) experiment at Fermilab. The system is being developed and used to handle the Petabyte-scale experiment data. The D0 applications, like virtually all HEP applications, are data-intensive, which poses special problems for the data management and job control facilities in the distributed environment. The fundamental problem is to bring the user applications and the data together, and SAM attacks the problems from both sides. First, we describe how the system moves the data through the distributed disk cache. Second, we describe how SAM interacts with the batch system to synchronize parallel user jobs with the data availability. All the design solutions herein have been implemented in a real system that handles the mission-critical data of the D0 experiment; thus, we present our work from the standpoint of real experience.

  4. Physical and chemical fractionation processes in subaerial and subaqueous pyroclastic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, J.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and physical fractionation in subaerial rocks focuses upon the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite, a series of Pleistocene high silica rhyolite lave domes and tephras the crop out in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico, USA. The Cerro Toledo Rhyolite is situated stratigraphically between the Lower Bandelier Tuff (LBT) and Upper Bandelier Tuff (UBT) and was erupted after the formation of Toledo caldera at 1.45 Ma and before that of Valles caldera at 1.12 Ma. The bulk of the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite tephra sequence exhibit progressive enrichment upsection of trace elements such as Rb, Cs, HREE, Y, Nb, Th, U and decline of Sr and K/Cs. Hf/Cs and La/Cs ratios initially decline, then level off upsection, indicating that crystallization of zicron and allanite/chevkinite was suppressed with time. Physical and chemical fractionation in subaqueous pyroclastic rocks focuses upon the current state of knowledge, lithofacies codes, and an Archean-age example from northwestern Ontario, Canada. A conceptual framework for understanding explosive subaqueous volcanism is presented comprising three essential aspects: (1) environment of the eruption, (2) orientation of the eruption, and (3) composition of the juvenile debris. A set of lithofacies codes for subaqueous volcaniclastic rocks is presented to describe deposits in the field and to make genetic and environmental interpretations. The codes may be used to distinguish between pyroclastic and epiclastic emplacement. Data collected from subaqueous volcaniclastic deposits at Confederation Lake, Ontario, reveal that the rocks are relatively primary products from explosive eruptions, probably from dome fragmentation, but that emplacement may not have occurred directly after eruption.

  5. Unveiling Physical Processes in Type Ia Supernovae with a Laue Lens Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriere, Nicolas; Boggs, S. E.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2010-03-01

    Despite their use as standard candles in cosmological studies, many fundamental aspects of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) remain uncertain, including the progenitor systems, the explosion trigger and the detailed nuclear burning physics. The most popular model involves an accreting CO white dwarf undergoing a thermonuclear runaway, converting a substantial fraction of the stellar mass to 56Ni. The radioactive decay chain 56Ni -> 56Co -> 56Fe powers both the SNIa optical light curve and produces several gamma-ray lines, including bright lines at 158 keV and 847 keV. Observations of the spectrum and light curve of any of these lines would be extremely valuable in constraining and discriminating between the currently competing models of SNIa. However, these lines are weak in flux and evolve relatively quickly by gamma-ray standards: to be able to study a handful SNIa per year, the required sensitivity is about 10-6 ph/cm2/s at 847 keV and 10-7 ph/s/cm2 at 158 keV for 3% broadened lines, and these levels must be achieved in 105 s. A Laue lens telescope offers a novel and powerful method of achieving these extremely challenging requirements. In this paper, we briefly introduce the Laue lens principle and state-of-the-art technologies, and we demonstrate how a space-borne telescope based on a Laue lens focusing on a Compton camera could bring about the long-awaited observational clues leading to a better understanding of SNIa physics.

  6. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  7. Laser process effects on physical texture and wetting in implantable Ti-alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sammer, Paul; He, Wei; Daniel, Claus; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2010-01-01

    Wetting is an important aspect for implantable biomaterials, as it affects the initial interaction with physiological fluids, which in turn dictates the protein adsorption, cell attachment, and tissue integration at the interface. In light of this in the present overview, surface engineering techniques based on laser processing of implantable titanium alloys for improved wettability and cell compatibility is discussed. Here three different laser processing techniques, laser interference patterning, continuous wave laser direct melting, and pulsed laser direct melting and the influence of each type of processing on the micro-texture evolution are studied Finally, the effect of micro-textures on the wettability and thereby its in vitro bioactivity and in vitro biocompatibility is systematically discussed.

  8. Modelling interstellar physics and chemistry: implications for surface and solid-state processes.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Viti, Serena

    2013-07-13

    We discuss several types of regions in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies in which the chemistry appears to be influenced or dominated by surface and solid-state processes occurring on or in interstellar dust grains. For some of these processes, for example, the formation of H₂ molecules, detailed experimental and theoretical approaches have provided excellent fundamental data for incorporation into astrochemical models. In other cases, there is an astrochemical requirement for much more laboratory and computational study, and we highlight these needs in our description. Nevertheless, in spite of the limitations of the data, it is possible to infer from astrochemical modelling that surface and solid-state processes play a crucial role in astronomical chemistry from early epochs of the Universe up to the present day.

  9. Physical processes controlling the evolution of ice concentration in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2011-12-01

    Several past studies have compared measured cirrus ice concentrations with calculations based on nucleation theory. However, such calculations only indicate the peak ice concentrations occurring just after nucleation events. Various cloud processes (e.g., differential sedimentation, entrainment, dispersion, and aggregation) conspire to reduce mean ice concentrations as the cloud evolves. Here, we use both a one-dimensional cloud model and a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model to evaluate the impact of these processes on the evolution of ice concentration through the lifecycle of cirrus clouds. Results are compared statistically with recent airborne measurements of ice concentration in the midlatitude and tropical uppermost troposphere. We will show that mean ice concentrations are reduced substantially by processes occurring after nucleation events, and this issue should be taken into consideration when comparing with observations that necessarily represent a range of cloud ages.

  10. Theoretical approaches to physical transformations of active pharmaceutical ingredients during manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Morris, K R; Griesser, U J; Eckhardt, C J; Stowell, J G

    2001-05-16

    Processing-induced transformations (PITs) during pharmaceutical manufacturing are well known but difficult to predict and often difficult to control. This review of the concepts of transformations is couched in terms of the issues associated with identifying rate-controlling events from the materials side and the processing side. Specifically, the approach is reconciling the characteristic time scale of the structural change(s) in the material with the time scale of the processing-induced stress. This is definitely a model (or rather a melding of a group of existing theories) in development. This overview is a 'snapshot' of the authors' attempts to identify the categories of existing theories needed to encompass all of the relevant events for each possible PIT. The ultimate goal is to establish a framework of concepts and theories for consideration, discussion, and modeling of PITs as well as to locate much of the relevant literature in the framework.

  11. Assessment of physical leaching processes of some elements in soil upon ingestion by continuous leaching and modeling.

    PubMed

    Beeston, Michael P; Pohar, Andrej; van Elteren, Johannes T; Plazl, Igor; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Veber, Marjan; Glass, Hylke J

    2010-08-15

    The physical processes controlling the desorption of some elements (B, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, and Sr) from soils in a continuous leaching system representing the human stomach are investigated here by fitting experimental leaching data to a mathematical particle diffusion model. Soil samples (50 mg) from Cornwall, UK, contained in a flow-through extraction chamber (ca. 6.5 mL) were intimately contacted with artificial gastric solution at various flow rates (0.42-1.42 mL min(-1)) for up to ca. 4 h, followed by analysis of the fractions collected with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The leaching profiles of the various elements were fitted to a mathematical model incorporating two mass transfer processes (liquid film diffusion and apparent solid phase diffusion) to determine the effective external mass transfer coefficient (beta) and the apparent intraparticle soil diffusion coefficient (D(a)). A system of partial differential equations was solved numerically with a finite difference discretization of the computational domain allowing the rate limiting physical desorption process(es) for each element to be determined. The (thermodynamic) driving force of the leaching process is defined by the distribution coefficient (K(d0)) between soil and leachant. Although the K(d0) values investigated are very similar (ca. 6-15 L kg(-1)) for the elements studied with the exception of B (ca. 2.7 L kg(-1)), the leaching profiles are very different due to diffusion-limited processes. The elements may be classified as limited by beta (B, Sr, and Cd), by D(a) (Co, and Mn) or by beta and D(a) (Ni). This results in quantifiable parameters for the liability of elements in soil upon ingestion which may be implemented in future risk assessment protocols.

  12. The nature and role of physical models in enhancing sixth grade students' mental models of groundwater and groundwater processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Debra Lynne Foster

    Through a non-experimental descriptive and comparative mixed-methods approach, this study investigated the experiences of sixth grade earth science students with groundwater physical models through an extended SE learning cycle format. The data collection was based on a series of quantitative and qualitative research tools intended to investigate students' ideas and changes in ideas rather than measure their achievement. The measures included a groundwater survey, classroom observations, and one-on-one follow-up student interviews for triangulation of data sources. The research was carried out at a K-12 independent school in eastern Virginia using two classes of sixth grade earth science students (n=30). The findings suggest that physical models help students identify the components porosity and permeability with respect to water flow in groundwater systems. Higher levels of system thinking were best demonstrated in model components that allowed students to experience groundwater pollution activities and pumping groundwater wells. However, the results also indicated that due to model constraints, students can develop misconceptions during the use of physical models, specifically more complex physical models as in the Groundwater Exploration Activity Model. A pure discovery learning format while using physical models without guidance or formative assessment probes can lead to misconceptions about groundwater processes as well as confusion between model attributes and real world groundwater systems. The implications of this study relate directly to the inclusion of groundwater in the new national science standards released in 2011; A Framework for K-12 Science Standard; Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2011). The new national standards, as in other educational reform efforts, will have the ability to affect curricular and instructional strategies in science education. From the results of this study, it was concluded that best practices for using

  13. Influence of physical parameters on residual stresses of polymer composites during the cure process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Feng, Jiemin; Guo, Zhansheng; Hu, Hongjiu; Zhang, Junqian

    2011-11-01

    A developed process model including the effects of chemical and thermal strains and the cure related elastic material behavior is established in order to simulate the cure process before cooling stage more realistically. A three-dimensional finite element method is used to analyze the effect of the curing related parameters on residual stresses in the cure progress of polymer composites. The obtained results show that the density, the specific heat, the thermal conductivity and the anisotropic chemical shrinkage have different influences on the final residual stresses before cooling stage.

  14. Influence of physical parameters on residual stresses of polymer composites during the cure process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Feng, Jiemin; Guo, Zhansheng; Hu, Hongjiu; Zhang, Junqian

    2012-04-01

    A developed process model including the effects of chemical and thermal strains and the cure related elastic material behavior is established in order to simulate the cure process before cooling stage more realistically. A three-dimensional finite element method is used to analyze the effect of the curing related parameters on residual stresses in the cure progress of polymer composites. The obtained results show that the density, the specific heat, the thermal conductivity and the anisotropic chemical shrinkage have different influences on the final residual stresses before cooling stage.

  15. Whiteheadian process and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.

    1998-08-01

    There are deep similarities between Whitehead's idea of the process by which nature unfolds and the ideas of quantum theory. Whitehead says that the world is made of ''actual occasions'', each of which arises from potentialities created by prior actual occasions. These actual occasions are happenings modeled on experiential events, each of which comes into being and then perishes, only to be replaced by a successor. It is these experience-like happenings that are the basic realities of nature, according to Whitehead, not the persisting physical particles that Newtonian physics took be the basic entities. Similarly, Heisenberg says that what is really happening in a quantum process is the emergence of an actual from potentialities created by prior actualities. In the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory the actual things to which the theory refer are increments in ''our knowledge''. These increments are experiential events. The particles of classical physics lose their fundamental status: they dissolve into diffuse clouds of possibilities. At each stage of the unfolding of nature the complete cloud of possibilities acts like the potentiality for the occurrence of a next increment in knowledge, whose occurrence can radically change the cloud of possibilities/potentialities for the still-later increments in knowledge. The fundamental difference between these ideas about nature and the classical ideas that reigned from the time of Newton until this century concerns the status of the experiential aspects of nature. These are things such as thoughts, ideas, feelings, and sensations. They are distinguished from the physical aspects of nature, which are described in terms of quantities explicitly located in tiny regions of space and time. According to the ideas of classical physics the physical world is made up exclusively of things of this latter type, and the unfolding of the physical world is determined by causal connections involving only these things

  16. Can Dual Processing Theory Explain Physics Students' Performance on the Force Concept Inventory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    According to dual processing theory there are two types, or modes, of thinking: system 1, which involves intuitive and nonreflective thinking, and system 2, which is more deliberate and requires conscious effort and thought. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a widely used and robust three item instrument that measures the tendency to override…

  17. Chemistry and Physical Properties of Melt Processed- and Solution- Cross Linked Corn Zein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn zein was cross linked with the glutaraldehyde (GDA) using glacial acetic acid (HAc) as catalyst. The objectives are to enhance the mechanical properties of poured films and to compare them with compression molded tensile bars from melt processed zein. Chemistry of the cross linking reaction w...

  18. Toward a Stress Process Model of Children's Exposure to Physical Family and Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Theoretically informed models are required to further the comprehensive understanding of children's ETV. We draw on the stress process paradigm to forward an overall conceptual model of ETV (ETV) in childhood and adolescence. Around this conceptual model, we synthesize research in four dominant areas of the literature which are detailed but often…

  19. Counseling in the Rehabilitation Process: Community Services for Mental and Physical Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Gerald L.; Martin, E. Davis, Jr.; Hardy, Richard E.

    This text provides an overview of vocational rehabilitation counseling and services. Part 1 lays the foundation. "Foundations of Rehabilitation" (Martin) describes bases of the process. "Historical Antecedents of the Rehabilitation Enterprise in America" and "Development of the Rehabilitation Enterprise in America" (Lassiter, Lassiter) describe…

  20. Kinetic Study of Adsorption Processes in Solution: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado, Julio; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information, apparatus needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for a simple kinetic method for the monitoring of adsorption processes. The method, which involved adsorption of crystal violet onto activated carbon, is suitable for classroom and/or research purposes. (JN)