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Sample records for actual plant conditions

  1. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  2. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  3. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  4. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  5. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  6. Plant Condition Remote Monitoring Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Krishen, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a radiation transfer study conducted on houseplants using controlled environmental conditions. These conditions included: (1) air and soil temperature; (2) incident and reflected radiation; and (3) soil moisture. The reflectance, transmittance, and emittance measurements were conducted in six spectral bands: microwave, red, yellow, green, violet and infrared, over a period of three years. Measurements were taken on both healthy and diseased plants. The data was collected on plants under various conditions which included: variation in plant bio-mass, diurnal variation, changes in plant pathological conditions (including changes in water content), different plant types, various disease types, and incident light wavelength or color. Analysis of this data was performed to yield an algorithm for plant disease from the remotely sensed data.

  7. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 [degrees]F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 [degrees]F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  8. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 {degrees}F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 {degrees}F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  9. The Pilot Conditioning Plant Gorleben

    SciTech Connect

    Willax, H.O.; Lahr, H.

    1995-12-31

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the feasibility of direct disposal of spent fuel elements has been examined and their safety aspects evaluated in the years between 1979 and 1985. In an assessment of the results, the Federal Government concluded that the technology of direct disposal has to be developed. According to this decision in April 1986, there was the application for the erection and operation of the Pilot Conditioning Plant (PKA) for the conditioning of spent fuel elements and other radioactive waste. Since February 1990, the PKA has been under construction and the hot commissioning will be in 1997.

  10. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  11. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    In this follow-up study, the authors compared the actual effects of the three complete ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA environmental assessments (EAs). They based their comparative evaluations on reviews and analyses of existing data and information, interviews with plant, state, and local government personnel, and site and facility inspections. They found that (1) the plants as completed differed considerably in important respects from the proposed designs considerably in important respects from the proposed designs evaluated in the EAs; (2) several key source terms provided by the applicants were inaccurate; (3) most, but significantly, not all, mitigation measures described in the EAs were implemented; (4) external environmental changes independent of the plants affected the nature and degree of some impacts; and (5) although impacts to aquatic and terrestrial resources for which data were adequate for analysis generally occurred as predicted, a few impacts not anticipated in the EAs were identified. These included adverse effects of wastewaters on a municipal treatment plant with resulting temporary effects on the receiving stream, and unforeseen habitat loss due to vegetation removal (failure to implement planned mitigation) and barge terminal construction.

  12. Do CS-US Pairings Actually Matter? A Within-Subject Comparison of Instructed Fear Conditioning with and without Actual CS-US Pairings

    PubMed Central

    Raes, An K.; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Brass, Marcel; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS+1, CS+2, CS−) and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS+1 and CS+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS+s but none of the CS+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS+1 than for CS+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24465447

  13. Optimization of CCGT power plant and performance analysis using MATLAB/Simulink with actual operational data.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Naimul; Rai, Jitendra Nath; Arora, Bharat Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    In the Modern scenario, the naturally available resources for power generation are being depleted at an alarming rate; firstly due to wastage of power at consumer end, secondly due to inefficiency of various power system components. A Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) integrates two cycles- Brayton cycle (Gas Turbine) and Rankine cycle (Steam Turbine) with the objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. This is accomplished by utilising the exhaust of Gas Turbine through a waste-heat recovery boiler to run a Steam Turbine. The efficiency of a gas turbine which ranges from 28% to 33% can hence be raised to about 60% by recovering some of the low grade thermal energy from the exhaust gas for steam turbine process. This paper is a study for the modelling of CCGT and comparing it with actual operational data. The performance model for CCGT plant was developed in MATLAB/Simulink. PMID:24936394

  14. Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles under actual on-road driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent; Miller, J. Wayne; Maldonado, Hector; Chernich, Don

    Emission measurements of five 1996-2005 heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), representing three engine certification levels, were made using a Mobile Emissions Laboratory under actual on-road driving conditions on surface streets and highways. The results show that emissions depend on the emission component, the age/certification of vehicle/engine, as well as driving condition. For NO x emissions, there was a trend of decreasing emissions in going from older to newer model years and certification standards. Some vehicles showed a tendency toward higher NO x emissions per mile for the higher speed events (⩾55 mph) as compared to the 40 mph cruise and the other surface street driving, while others did not show large differences between different types of driving. For particulate matter (PM), the three oldest trucks had the highest emissions for surface street driving, while the two newest trucks had the highest PM emissions for highway driving. For total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions, some vehicles showed a tendency for higher emissions for the surface street segments compared to the steady-state segments, while others showed a tendency for higher emissions for the 40 mph cruise segments compared to the highway cruise segments. CO emissions under steady-state driving conditions were relatively low (1-3 g mile -1).

  15. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be

  16. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10-11 ~ 10-9 molL-1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  17. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10−11 ~ 10−9 molL−1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  18. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the (137)Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of (137)Cs (10(-11) ~ 10(-9 )molL(-1) of (137)Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed "weathered biotite" (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed (137)Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of (137)Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed (137)Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima. PMID:26868138

  19. AI-related BMD variation in actual practice conditions: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Garrigos, Laia; Rodriguez-Morera, Jaime; Albanell, Joan; Martínez-García, Maria; González, Iria; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of bone mineral density (BMD) during 3 years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) therapy in actual practice conditions. This prospective, clinical cohort study of Barcelona-Aromatase induced Bone Loss in Early breast cancer (B-ABLE) assessed BMD changes during 3 years of AI treatment in women with breast cancer. Patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 or T score ≤ -2.0) and a major risk factor and/or prevalent fragility fractures were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). Of 685 women recruited, 179 (26.1%) received BP treatment. By the third year of AI therapy, this group exhibited increased BMD in the lumbar spine (LS; 2.59%) and femoral neck (FN; 2.50%), although the increase was significant only within the first year (LS: 1.99% and FN: 2.04%). Despite BP therapy, however, approximately 15% of these patients lost more than 3% of their baseline bone mass. At 3 years, patients without BP experienced BMD decreases in the LS (-3.10%) and FN (-2.79%). In this group, BMD changes occurred during the first (LS: -1.33% and FN: -1.25%), second (LS: -1.19% and FN: -0.82%), and third (LS: -0.57% and FN: -0.65%) years of AI treatment. Increased BMD (>3%) was observed in just 7.6% and 10.8% of these patients at the LS and FN, respectively. Our data confirm a clinically relevant bone loss associated with AI therapy amongst nonusers of preventative BPs. We further report on the importance of BMD monitoring as well as calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D supplementation in these patients. PMID:26911377

  20. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in more humid environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using Eddy Covariance (EC) towers a...

  1. Separating habitat invasibility by alien plants from the actual level of invasion.

    PubMed

    Chytrý, Milan; Jarosik, Vojtech; Pysek, Petr; Hájek, Ondrej; Knollová, Ilona; Tichý, Lubomír; Danihelka, Jií

    2008-06-01

    Habitats vary considerably in the level of invasion (number or proportion of alien plant species they contain), which depends on local habitat properties, propagule pressure, and climate. To determine the invasibility (susceptibility to invasions) of different habitats, it is necessary to factor out the effects of any confounding variables such as propagule pressure and climate on the level of invasion. We used 20 468 vegetation plots from 32 habitats in the Czech Republic to compare the invasibility of different habitats. Using regression trees, the proportion of alien plants, including archaeophytes (prehistoric to medieval invaders) and neophytes (recent invaders), was related to variables representing habitat properties, propagule pressure, and climate. The propagule pressure was expressed as the proportion of surrounding urban and industrial or agricultural land, human population density, distance from a river, and history of human colonization in the region. Urban and industrial land use had a positive effect on the proportion of both archaeophytes and neophytes. Agricultural land use, higher population density, and longer history of human impact positively affected the proportion of archaeophytes. Disturbed human-made habitats with herbaceous vegetation were most invaded by both groups of aliens. Neophytes were also relatively common in disturbed woody vegetation, such as broad-leaved plantations, forest clearings, and riverine scrub. These habitats also had the highest proportion of aliens after removing the effect of propagule pressure and climate, indicating that they are not only the most invaded, but also most invasible. These habitats experience recurrent disturbances and are rich, at least temporarily, in available nutrients, which supports the hypothesis that fluctuating resources are the major cause of habitat invasibility. The least invaded habitats were mires and alpine-subalpine grasslands and scrub. After removing the effect of propagule

  2. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  3. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  4. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  5. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  6. Divergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.; Tirado-Corbalá, R.; Zhang, H.; Ayars, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized reference evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem-specific vegetation coefficients are frequently used to estimate actual ET. However, equations for calculating reference ET have not been well validated in tropical environments. We measured ET (ETEC) using eddy covariance (EC) towers at two irrigated sugarcane fields on the leeward (dry) side of Maui, Hawaii, USA in contrasting climates. We calculated reference ET at the fields using the short (ET0) and tall (ETr) vegetation versions of the American Society for Civil Engineers (ASCE) equation. The ASCE equations were compared to the Priestley-Taylor ET (ETPT) and ETEC. Reference ET from the ASCE approaches exceeded ETEC during the mid-period (when vegetation coefficients suggest ETEC should exceed reference ET). At the windier tower site, cumulative ETr exceeded ETEC by 854 mm over the course of the mid-period (267 days). At the less windy site, mid-period ETr still exceeded ETEC, but the difference was smaller (443 mm). At both sites, ETPT approximated mid-period ETEC more closely than the ASCE equations ((ETPT-ETEC) < 170 mm). Analysis of applied water and precipitation, soil moisture, leaf stomatal resistance, and canopy cover suggest that the lower observed ETEC was not the result of water stress or reduced vegetation cover. Use of a custom-calibrated bulk canopy resistance improved the reference ET estimate and reduced seasonal ET discrepancy relative to ETPT and ETEC in the less windy field and had mixed performance in the windier field. These divergences suggest that modifications to reference ET equations may be warranted in some tropical regions.

  7. Experimental investigation of panel radiator heat output enhancement for efficient thermal use under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisir, Tamer; Baskaya, Senol; Onur Yazar, Hakan; Yucedag, Sinan

    2015-05-01

    In this study the heat output of a panel-convector-convector-panel radiator (PCCP) under controlled laboratory conditions under Turkish household and especially Ankara conditions was investigated experimentally. In this sense, investigations were performed for different heating water mass flow rates, water inlet temperatures and radiator inlet and outlet connection positions, which are most commonly used in Turkey. An experimental setup was built for this purpose in a test room where temperature was controlled and held constant during the experiments. Inlet and outlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were measured and heat output of the radiator was calculated. Infrared thermal camera visualizations of the steel panel radiator front surface were also performed.

  8. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the “Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products” by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese. PMID:26760945

  9. Wind Plant Capacity Credit Variations: A Comparison of Results Using Multiyear Actual and Simulated Wind-Speed Data

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.

    1997-06-01

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patters. This report calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this report finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  10. Wind plant capacity credit variations: A comparison of results using multiyear actual and simulated wind-speed data

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patterns. This paper calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this paper finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  11. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kimberley L.; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Sanchez, Jessica; Potma, Eric O.; Santos, Guaciara M.

    2015-01-01

    Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate, and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM) that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin, and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a “glass wastebasket.” Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins, and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction. PMID:26442066

  12. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kimberley L; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Sanchez, Jessica; Potma, Eric O; Santos, Guaciara M

    2015-01-01

    Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate, and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM) that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin, and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a "glass wastebasket." Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins, and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction. PMID:26442066

  13. Ontogeny of plants under various gravity condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurinavičius, R.; Švegždien≐, D.; Raklevičien≐, D.; Kenstavičien≐, P.

    2001-01-01

    The results of experiments performed under conditions of microgravity (MG) or under its simulation on the horizontal clinostat (HC) with the callus, seedlings of various species and embryogenic structures have revealed a definite role of gravity as an ecological factor in the processes of cytomorphogenesis, growth, and development. The transformation of differentiated somatic cells of arabidopsis seed into undifferentiated callus was not inhibited under MG, though modifications of the whole callus morphology and of mean cell and nucleus size were observed. The morphogenesis of polar structures such as root-hair bearing cells of Lactuca primary root has been shown to be modified in the course of differentiation under mass acceleration diminished below 0.1 g. Seed germination and seedling morphogenesis under MG follow their normal course, but a significant stimulation of shoot growth with no effect on primary root growth has been determined. A successful in vitro regeneration of Nicotiana tabacum plantlets from leaf cells and subsequent formation of shoots and roots on a continuously rotating HC as well as the formation of viable seeds during seed-to-seed growth of Arabidopsis plants under MG have indicated that gravity plays but a limited role in the processes of embryogenesis and organogenesis.

  14. Low persistence of a monocarpic invasive plant in historical sites biases our perception of its actual distribution

    PubMed Central

    Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Perglová, Irena; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Procheş, Şerban

    2012-01-01

    Aim As accurate and up-to-date distribution data for plant species are rarely available, cumulative records over long periods of time are frequently used for mapping distributions, without taking into account that species do not persist in their historical localities forever. However, persistence is highly relevant in changing modern landscapes, especially for invasive species that dynamically spread in unstable human-made habitats. We studied how an invasive species, Heracleum mantegazzianum, persists at sites once colonized and how its ability to persist affects its distribution. Location The Czech Republic. Methods We visited 521 localities of H. mantegazzianum occurrence reported in the literature and herbaria to determine whether the species still occurs at these sites. By using G-tests and classification trees, we explored the roles of various factors affecting its persistence at a site. Results Of the total number of 521 historical sites at which the species has occurred since the end of the 19th century, it persists at only 124 (23.8%). The persistence rate differs with respect to habitat type and is highest in meadows and forest margins. Analysis using classification trees indicated that the factors that best explain persistence are: type of habitat (with meadow and forest margins over-represented); urbanity (with a higher persistence outside urban areas); proximity to the place of the species’ introduction into the country; metapopulation connectivity; and distance to the nearest neighbouring population. Main conclusions The use of cumulative historical records as a measure of species distribution, which is common in invasion literature, can seriously overestimate the actual distribution of alien plant species with low persistence. In the case of alien species such as H. mantegazzanium, which is non-clonal and reproduces only by seed, estimates of distribution and spread based on historical data are informative about potentially suitable habitat but may

  15. Safeguards techniques in a pilot conditioning plant for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, E.; Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. )

    1991-01-01

    The pilot conditioning plant at Gorleben, Germany, is designed as a multi-purpose plant. Its primary task is the conditioning of spent fuel assemblies into a form suitable for final disposal. As a pilot plant, it allows furthermore for the development and testing of various conditioning techniques. In terms of international safeguards, the pilot conditioning plant is basically considered an item facility. Entire fuel assemblies enter the plant in transport casks, whereas bins filled with fuel rods or canisters containing cut fuel rods leave the facility in final disposal packages (e.g. POLLUX). Each POLLUX final disposal package content is uniquely correlated to a definite number of fuel assemblies which have entered the conditioning process. For this type of facility, containment/surveillance (C/S) should take over the major role in nuclear material safeguards. This paper discusses the safeguards at the Gorleben plant.

  16. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22022789

  17. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of life and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22428884

  18. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  19. Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

  20. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action. PMID:27089733

  1. Changes in alpine plant growth under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammig, A.; Jonas, T.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Rixen, C.

    2010-06-01

    Alpine shrub- and grasslands are shaped by extreme climatic conditions such as a long-lasting snow cover and a short vegetation period. Such ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to global environmental change. Prolonged growing seasons and shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to affect plant phenology and growth. In a unique experiment, climatology and plant growth was monitored for almost a decade at 17 snow meteorological stations in different alpine regions along the Swiss Alps. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between mean air temperature in May/June and snow melt out, onset of plant growth, and plant height. These correlations were used to project plant growth phenology for future climate conditions based on the gridded output of a set of regional climate models runs. Melt out and onset of growth were projected to occur on average 17 days earlier by the end of the century than in the control period from 1971-2000 under the future climate conditions of the low resolution climate model ensemble. Plant height and biomass production were expected to increase by 77% and 45%, respectively. The earlier melt out and onset of growth will probably cause a considerable shift towards higher growing plants and thus increased biomass. Our results represent the first quantitative and spatially explicit estimates of climate change impacts on future growing season length and the respective productivity of alpine plant communities in the Swiss Alps.

  2. Changes in alpine plant growth under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammig, A.; Jonas, T.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Rixen, C.

    2009-11-01

    Alpine shrub- and grasslands are shaped by extreme climatic conditions such as a long-lasting snow cover and a short vegetation period. Such ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to global environmental change. Prolonged growing seasons and shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to affect plant phenology and growth. In a unique experiment, climatology and plant growth was monitored for almost a decade at 17 snow meteorological stations in different alpine regions along the Swiss Alps. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between mean air temperature in May/June and snow melt-out, onset of plant growth, and plant height. These correlations were used to project plant growth phenology for future climate conditions based on the gridded output of a set of regional climate models runs. Melt-out and onset of growth were projected to occur on average 17 days earlier by the end of the century than in the control period from 1971-2000 under the future climate conditions of the low resolution climate model ensemble. Plant height and biomass production were expected to increase by 77% and 45%, respectively. The earlier melt-out and onset of growth will probably cause a considerable shift towards higher growing plants and thus increased biomass. Our results represent the first quantitative and spatially explicit estimates of climate change impacts on future growing season length and the respective productivity of alpine plant communities in the Swiss Alps.

  3. U.S. gas conditioning and processing plant survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Tannehill, C.; Echterhoff, L.; Trimble, K.

    1995-11-01

    A database of information on 1,427 natural gas conditioning and processing plants in the lower 48 states has been compiled with the assistance of over 50 operating companies and several engineering and construction firms. The database was updated in 1994 with NGL recovery plants now numbering 724. Acid gas (CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) is removed by 617 plants. Sulfur is recovered at over 100 plants. Nitrogen is rejected at 12 plants, and helium is recovered at eight plants. The plants are categorized into 12 regions with the number of plants and combined inlet capacity for each region categorized as follows: Built before 1970; Built in each year between 1970 and 1994; Removing H{sub 2}S and/or CO{sub 2}; Using direct conversion H{sub 2}S removal processes (iron sponge, ARI LO-CAT{reg_sign}, SulFerox); Using chemical solvents for acid gas removal (MEA, DEA, MDEA, DGA, Benfield, Other); Using physical solvents for acid gas removal (Sulfinol, Selexol, other); Recovering sulfur (Claus, Selectox, other); Tail gas clean-up (SCOT, CBA, MCRC, other); NGL recovery (refrigeration, cryogenic expander, refrigerated lean oil, adsorption, other); Nitrogen rejection; Helium recovery; and Shutdown plants.

  4. Plant Growth and Morphogenesis under Different Gravity Conditions: Relevance to Plant Life in Space.

    PubMed

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The growth and morphogenesis of plants are entirely dependent on the gravitational acceleration of earth. Under microgravity conditions in space, these processes are greatly modified. Recent space experiments, in combination with ground-based studies, have shown that elongation growth is stimulated and lateral expansion suppressed in various shoot organs and roots under microgravity conditions. Plant organs also show automorphogenesis in space, which consists of altered growth direction and spontaneous curvature in the dorsiventral (back and front) directions. Changes in cell wall properties are responsible for these modifications of growth and morphogenesis under microgravity conditions. Plants live in space with interesting new sizes and forms. PMID:25370193

  5. Biomechanical responses of aquatic plants to aerial conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Elena; Puijalon, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Wetlands are impacted by changes in hydrological regimes that can lead to periods of low water levels. During these periods, aquatic plants experience a drastic change in the mechanical conditions that they encounter, from low gravitational and tensile hydrodynamic forces when exposed to flow under aquatic conditions, to high gravitational and bending forces under terrestrial conditions. The objective of this study was to test the capacity of aquatic plants to produce self-supporting growth forms when growing under aerial conditions by assessing their resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions and the associated morpho-anatomical changes. Methods Plastic responses to aerial conditions were assessed by sampling Berula erecta, Hippuris vulgaris, Juncus articulatus, Lythrum salicaria, Mentha aquatica, Myosotis scorpioides, Nuphar lutea and Sparganium emersum under submerged and emergent conditions. The cross-sectional area and dry matter content (DMC) were measured in the plant organs that bear the mechanical forces, and their biomechanical properties in tension and bending were assessed. Key Results All of the species except for two had significantly higher stiffness in bending and thus an increased resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions when growing under emergent conditions. This response was determined either by an increased allocation to strengthening tissues and thus a higher DMC, or by an increased cross-sectional area. These morpho-anatomical changes also resulted in increased strength and stiffness in tension. Conclusions The capacity of the studied species to colonize this fluctuating environment can be accounted for by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in response to emersion. Further investigation is however needed to disentangle the finer mechanisms behind these responses (e.g. allometric relations, tissue make-up), their costs and adaptive value. PMID:24187030

  6. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  7. XAS and XRF investigation of an actual HAWC glass fragment obtained from the Karlsruhe vitrification plant (VEK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardenne, K.; González-Robles, E.; Rothe, J.; Müller, N.; Christill, G.; Lemmer, D.; Praetorius, R.; Kienzler, B.; Metz, V.; Roth, G.; Geckeis, H.

    2015-05-01

    Several sections of HAWC glass rods remaining at the end of glass pouring at the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) were retained during vitrification operation in 2009-2010 and transferred to the KIT-INE shielded box line for later glass product characterization. A mm sized fragment with a contact dose rate of ∼590 μSv/h was selected for pilot XAS/XRF investigations at the INE-Beamline for actinide science at the ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The experiment was aimed at elucidating the potential of direct radionuclide speciation with an emphasis on the fission products Se and Tc in highly active nuclear materials and at assessing the possible influence of the γ-radiation field surrounding highly active samples on the beamline instrumentation. While the influence of γ-radiation turned out to be negligible, initial radionuclide speciation studies by XAFS were most promising. In addition to Se and Tc speciation, the focus of these initial investigations was on the possibility for direct actinide speciation by recording corresponding L3-edge XAFS data. The registration of high quality XANES data was possible for the actinide elements U, Np, Pu and Am, as well as for Zr.

  8. Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Smith, Brennan T; Cones, Marvin; March, Patrick; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

  9. Stem sap flow in plants under low gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Ayako; Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to obtain a fundamental knowledge for plant functions in bio-regenerative life support systems in space. Stem sap flow in plants is important indicators for water transport from roots to atmosphere through leaves. In this study, stem sap flow in sweetpotato was assessed at gravity levels from 0.01 to 2 g for about 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. Stem sap flow was monitored with a heat balance method in which heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by convection with the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. Thermal images of stem surfaces near heated points were captured using infrared thermography and the internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed. In results, the sap flow in stems was suppressed more at lower gravity levels without forced air circulation. No suppression of the stem sap flow was observed with forced air circulation. Suppressed sap flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under low gravity conditions in space.

  10. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  11. Performance of high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed chromium carbide-nickel chromium coating in an actual boiler environment of a thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, T.S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R.D.

    2007-09-15

    The present study aims to evaluate the performance of a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr (chromium carbide-nickel chromium) coating on a nickel-based super-alloy in an actual industrial environment of a coal-fired boiler, with the objective to protect the boiler super-heater and reheater tubes from hot corrosion. The tests were performed in the platen super heater zone of a coal-fired boiler for 1,000 h at 900 degrees C under cyclic conditions. The Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating imparted the necessary protection to the nickel-based super alloy in the given environment. The dense and flat splat structure of the coating, and the formation of oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels, might have protected the substrate super alloy from the inward permeation of corrosive species.

  12. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): Actual Condition of Coral Reefs Associated with the Guanica and Manati Watersheds in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.; Guild, L. S.; Ortiz, J.; Setegn, S. G.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Santiago, L.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs), particularly coral reefs, have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Here we present an overview of the first year of findings of a NASA-funded project that studies human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project includes remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change of CMEs. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. This project will include imagery from Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Field data was collected through a series of phototransects at the main reefs associated with these two priority watersheds. A preliminary assessment shows a range in coral cover from 0.2-30% depending on the site (Guánica) whereas apparently healthy corals dominate the reef in the north coast (Manatí). Reefs on the southwest coast of PR (Guánica) show an apparent shift from hard corals to a more algae and soft corals dominance after decades of anthropogenic impacts (sedimentation, eutrophication, mechanical damage through poorly supervised recreational activities, etc.). Additionally preliminary results from land cover/land use changes analyses show dynamic historical shoreline changes in beaches located west of the Manatí river mouth and a degradation of water quality in Guánica possibly being one of the main factors affecting the actual condition of its CMEs.

  13. Automorphogenesis and gravitropism of plant seedlings grown under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Saiki, M.; Kamisaka, S.; Yamashita, M.

    Plant seedlings exhibit automorphogenesis on clinostats. The occurrence of automorphogenesis was confirmed under microgravity in Space Shuttle STS-95 flight. Rice coleoptiles showed an inclination toward the caryopsis in the basal region and a spontaneous curvature in the same adaxial direction in the elongating region both on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat and in space. Both rice roots and Arabidopsis hypocotyls also showed a similar morphology in space and on the 3-D clinostat. In rice coleoptiles, the mechanisms inducing such an automorphic curvature were studied. The faster-expanding convex side of rice coleoptiles showed a higher extensibility of the cell wall than the opposite side. Also, in the convex side, the cell wall thickness was smaller, the turnover of the matrix polysaccharides was more active, and the microtubules oriented more transversely than the concave side, and these differences appear to be causes of the curvature. When rice coleoptiles grown on the 3-D clinostat were placed horizontally, the gravitropic curvature was delayed as compared with control coleoptiles. In clinostatted coleoptiles, the corresponding suppression of the amyloplast development was also observed. Similar results were obtained in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Thus, the induction of automorphogenesis and a concomitant decrease in graviresponsiveness occurred in plant shoots grown under microgravity conditions.

  14. Thermostability of plants in various light conditions of cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, Elena

    2004-12-01

    At various levels of PHAR with the help of measurement of parameters of a slow induction of chlorophyll fluorescence at 682 and 734 nm in light culture conditions the thermostable estimation of cenosises of plants of wheat and radish in reply to action of the raise and damaging temperatures of air (35°C 20 hours, 45°C 7 hours) is carried out. Without dependence from a level of light exposure, the exposition of cenosises at 35°C did not result in irreversible changes of the photosynthetic device of plants. The minimal damage of cenosises of wheat and radish at influence of temperature of 45°C is observed at 150W/m2 of PHAR, and maximal - at intensities, close to a level of a compensatory point of photosynthesis of cenosises (50-70 W/m2 PHAR at a temperature of air of 24°C). The index of viability is most sensitive parameter in comparison with other parameters determined by a method of a slow induction of fluorescence at 682 and 734 nm. The character of its change in reply to action of the stress-factor coincides with changes of intensity of photosynthesis researched of cenosises.

  15. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA,...

  16. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA, ...

  17. Removal of estrogens in municipal wastewater treatment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: consequences for plant optimization.

    PubMed

    Joss, Adriano; Andersen, Henrik; Ternes, Thomas; Richle, Philip R; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2004-06-01

    The removal of estrogens (estrone E1, estradiol E2, and ethinylestradiol EE2) was studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes equipped for nutrient removal. A biological degradation model is formulated, and kinetic parameters are evaluated with batch experiments under various redox conditions. The resulting model calculations are then compared with sampling campaigns performed on differenttypes of full-scale plant: conventional activated-sludge treatment, a membrane bioreactor, and a fixed-bed reactor. The results show a > 90% removal of all estrogens in the activated sludge processes. (Due to the analytical quantification limit and low influent concentrations, however, this removal efficiency represents only an observable minimum.) The removal efficiencies of 77% and > or = 90% for E1 and E2, respectively, in the fixed-bed reactor represent a good performance in view of the short hydraulic retention time of 35 min. The first-order removal-rate constant in batch experiments observed for E2 varied from 150 to 950 d(-1) for a 1 gSS L(-1) sludge suspension. The removal efficiency of E1 and EE2 clearly depends on the redox conditions, the maximum removal rate occurring under aerobic conditions when E1 was reduced to E2. Sampling campaigns on full-scale plants indicate that the kinetic values identified in batch experiments (without substrate addition) for the natural estrogens may overestimate the actual removal rates. Although this paper does not give direct experimental evidence, it seems that the substrate present in the raw influent competitively inhibits the degradation of E1 and E2. These compounds are therefore removed mainly in activated sludge compartments with low substrate loading. Theoretical evaluation leads us to expect that diffusive mass transfer inside the floc (but not across the laminar boundary layer) appreciably influences the observed degradation rates of E1 and E2, but not of EE2. PMID:15224734

  18. [Investigation of the actual conditions of hospital nurses working on three rotating shifts: questionnaire results of shift work schedules, feelings of sleep and fatigue, and depression].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Kamata, S; Naoe, H; Mutoh, F; Chiba, S

    1996-01-01

    These studies were performed to clarify (1) the actual conditions concerning rotating shift schedules of nurses in Japanese university and college hospitals and to evaluate (2) some aspects of the physical and mental health, and (3) sleep profile of hospital nurses working on counter-clockwise shift rotation. Two questionnaire surveys and the OSA sleep inventory (OSA) were carried out. The subjects in the study (1) were a total of 80 nursing directors in university and college hospitals. The questionnaire covered 4 categories, such as the schedule most frequently adopted and reasons for using the schedule. The questionnaires were returned by 67 directors (83.8%). The subjects in the study (2) were 189 nurses working on three-shift work schedules at Asahikawa Medical College Hospital. The items in the questionnaire covered 7 categories, as follows: 1) feeling of sleep after each shift (8 items); 2) feeling of fatigue after each shift (30 items); 3) physical symptoms; 4) inter-personal problems; 5) all the items on Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS); 6) all the items on the Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire; and 7) 24 items on the Maudsley personality inventory. The questionnaires were returned by 156 nurses (82.5%), whose mean age and duration of shift-work employment were 27.2 +/- 5.1 and 5.0 +/- 4.3 years (mean +/- SD), respectively. For 152 nurses (97.4%) of those returning the questionnaire, the working schedule consisted of 2 consecutive night shifts and 2 consecutive evening shifts, following a variable number of day shifts (rapid and counterclockwise shift rotation). The subjects in the study (3) were 8 healthy nurses working on above-mentioned three rotating shifts at the psychiatric ward of Asahikawa Medical College Hospital, whose mean age was 29.4 +/- 5.8 years (mean +/- SD). All the subjects recorded their sleep-logs and underwent OSA everyday for 30 consecutive days. Of the 240 OSA data, 95 data (16 after day shift, 17 after

  19. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Herklotz, Patrick A; Gurung, Prakash; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Kinney, Chad A

    2010-03-01

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with a recirculating Hoagland's nutrient solution while the test plants were irrigated with a Hoagland's nutrient solution fortified with the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, salbutamol, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim at 232.5 microg L(-1). When plants reached maturity, nine entire plants of each species were separated into components such as roots, leaves, stems, and seedpods where applicable. An analytical method for quantifying pharmaceuticals and personal care products was developed using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) in positive and negative ion modes using single ion monitoring. The method detection limits ranged from 3.13 ng g(-1) to 29.78 ng g(-1) with recoveries ranging from 66.83% to 113.62% from plant matrices. All four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the roots and leaves of the cabbage. The maximum wet weight concentrations of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the root structure of the cabbage plants at 98.87 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 114.72 ng g(-1) salbutamol, 138.26 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, and 91.33 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. Carbamazepine and salbutamol were detected in the seedpods of the Wisconsin Fast Plants while all four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the leaf/stem/root of the Wisconsin Fast Plants. Phloroglucinol staining of root cross-sections was used to verify the existence of an intact endodermis, suggesting that pharmaceuticals found in the leaf and seedpods of the plants were transported symplastically. PMID:20096438

  20. Actual Condition Evaluation of Cogeneration System in an Urbanized Hotel, and Study of the Optimal Operation to Minimize the CO2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Kaneko, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru

    Recently, there is an important subject to reduce of the CO2 emission discharged from a building. A cogeneration system (CGS) is one of the effective facilities to reduce of the CO2 emission, but prudent consideration is required in design and operation. Because it is necessary to be matching electric demand and heat demand in order to obtain the high efficiency. In this paper, it is evaluated the power generation efficiency and heat recovery one of CGS in the actual urbanized hotel as measurement result. In addition, the optimal operation analysis is carried out in order to minimize CO2 emission in the present facility.

  1. Deciphering and prediction of plant dynamics under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Takeshi

    2015-04-01

    Elucidation of plant dynamics under fluctuating natural environments is a challenging goal in plant physiology. Recently, using a computer statistics integrating a series of transcriptome data of field-grown rice leaves during an entire crop season and several corresponding environmental data such as solar radiation and ambient temperature, most parts of transcriptome have been modeled. This reveals the detailed contributions of developmental timing, circadian clocks and each environmental factor to transcriptome dynamics in the field and can predict transcriptome dynamics under given environments. Furthermore, some traits such as flowering time in natural environments have been shown to be predicted by mathematical models based on gene-networks parameterized with data obtained in the laboratory, and phenology models refined by knowledge of molecular genetics. New molecular physiology is beginning in plant science. PMID:25706440

  2. Automated Diagnosis Of Conditions In A Plant-Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinger, Barry R.; Damiano, Alfred L.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass Production Chamber Operations Assistant software and hardware constitute expert system that diagnoses mechanical failures in controlled-environment hydroponic plant-growth chamber and recommends corrective actions to be taken by technicians. Subjects of continuing research directed toward development of highly automated closed life-support systems aboard spacecraft to process animal (including human) and plant wastes into food and oxygen. Uses Microsoft Windows interface to give technicians intuitive, efficient access to critical data. In diagnostic mode, system prompts technician for information. When expert system has enough information, it generates recovery plan.

  3. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth promoting effects...

  4. Nutrient Considerations for Plants Grown Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    2006-01-01

    We present here results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of both dicotyledonous (Haplopappus gracilis, n=75) and monocotyledonous (Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze, n=25) aseptic plants in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during the 5-day CHROMEX-01 Space Shuttle flight (March 1989, STS-29). At recovery, the medium remaining within each of the five floral foam blocks (for both the space flight and ground control experiments) was extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptic tissue culture generated plantlets or sterile seedling clones, and the design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by postflight microbial sampling). This permitted the elimination of microbial considerations in the interpretation of the data. The significance of these findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  5. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... COMMISSION Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power...

  6. Use of neural networks to identify transient operating conditions in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.; Guo, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings, which can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault or problem. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Experiment 8: Environmental Conditions in the ASTROCULTURE(trademark) Plant Chamber During the USML-2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Zhou, Weijia; Yetka, R. A.; Draeger, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    Conducting plant research to assess the impact of microgravity on plant growth and development requires a plant chamber that has the capability to control other environmental parameters involved in plant growth and development. The environmental control in a space-based plant chamber must be equivalent to that available in such facilities used for terrestrial plant research. Additionally, plants are very sensitive to a number of atmospheric gaseous materials. Thus, the atmosphere of a plant chamber must be isolated from the space vehicle atmosphere, and the plant growth unit should have the capability to remove any such deleterious materials that may impact plant growth and development. The Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison, has developed a totally enclosed controlled environment plant growth unit. The flight unit was used to support the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment conducted during the USML-2 mission. The experiment had two major objectives: 1) Provide further validation of the flight unit to control the experiment-defined environmental parameters in the plant chamber, and 2) support a plant experiment to assess the capability of potato plant material to produce tubers in microgravity. This paper describes the temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide conditions of the plant chamber during the mission, from launch to landing. Another paper will present the plant response data.

  8. [Role of micro-organisms in adapting plants to environmental stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Hirt, Heribert

    2012-01-01

    Due to their sessile nature, plants have always been confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses in their immediate environment. As a consequence, the survival of plants depended on their ability to adjust rapidly their physiology, development and growth to escape or mitigate the impacts of stress. All plants are known to perceive and respond to stress signals such as drought, heat, salinity, attacks by herbivores and pathogens. Some biochemical processes are common to all plant stress responses including the production of certain stress proteins and metabolites, as well as the modification of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Although there has been extensive research in the plant stress response field, it is not yet known which factors are responsible for conferring to some plant species the capacity to colonize extreme habitats. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of plant stress physiology, the contribution of the plant-associated microbial community in the soil, commonly called the rhizosphere, has only recently received enhanced attention. Recent studies showed that some plant species in natural habitats require microbial associations for stress tolerance and survival. Since plants have colonized land, they have evolved mechanisms to respond to changing environmental conditions and settle in extreme habitats. Although many plants lack the adaptive capability to adapt to stress conditions, the ability of a variety of plants to adapt to stress conditions appears to depend on the association with microbes, raising a number of questions: can all plants improve stress tolerance when associated with their appropriate microbial partners? Did we miss identifying the right partners for a given plant species or variety? What distinguishes the microbes and plants that are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from those living in temperate zones? Answers to these questions are likely to revolutionize plant biology

  9. Carbon dioxide exchange of lettuce plants under hypobaric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corey, K. A.; Bates, M. E.; Adams, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    Growth of plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) may involve the use of hypobaric pressures enabling lower mass requirements for atmospheres and possible enhancement of crop productivity. A controlled environment plant growth chamber with hypobaric capability designed and built at Ames Research Center was used to determine if reduced pressures influence the rates of photosynthesis (Ps) and dark respiration (DR) of hydroponically grown lettuce plants. The chamber, referred to as a plant volatiles chamber (PVC), has a growing area of about 0.2 m^2, a total gas volume of about 0.7 m^3, and a leak rate at 50 kPa of < 0.1%/day. When the pressure in the chamber was reduced from ambient to 51 kPa, the rate of net Ps increased by 25% and the rate of DR decreased by 40%. The rate of Ps increased linearly with decreasing pressure. There was a greater effect of reduced pressure at 41 Pa CO_2 than at 81 Pa CO_2. This is consistent with reports showing greater inhibition of photorespiration (Pr) in reduced O_2 at low CO_2 concentrations. When the partial pressure of O_2 was held constant but the total pressure was varied between 51 and 101 kPa, the rate of CO_2 uptake was nearly constant, suggesting that low pressure enhancement of Ps may be mainly attributable to lowered partial pressure of O_2 and the accompanying reduction in Pr. The effects of lowered partial pressure of O_2 on Ps and DR could result in substantial increases in the rates of biomass production, enabling rapid throughput of crops or allowing flexibility in the use of mass and energy resources for a CELSS.

  10. Carbon dioxide exchange of lettuce plants under hypobaric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, K. A.; Bates, M. E.; Adams, S. L.; MacElroy, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Growth of plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) may involve the use of hypobaric pressures enabling lower mass requirements for atmospheres and possible enhancement of crop productivity. A controlled environment plant growth chamber with hypobaric capability designed and built at Ames Research Center was used to determine if reduced pressures influence the rates of photosynthesis (Ps) and dark respiration (DR) of hydroponically grown lettuce plants. The chamber, referred to as a plant volatiles chamber (PVC), has a growing area of about 0.2 m2, a total gas volume of about 0.7 m3, and a leak rate at 50 kPa of <0.1%/day. When the pressure in the chamber was reduced from ambient to 51 kPa, the rate of net Ps increased by 25% and the rate of DR decreased by 40%. The rate of Ps increased linearly with decreasing pressure. There was a greater effect of reduced pressure at 41 Pa CO2 than at 81 Pa CO2. This is consistent with reports showing greater inhibition of photorespiration (Pr) in reduced O2 at low CO2 concentrations. When the partial pressure of O2 was held constant but the total pressure was varied between 51 and 101 kPa, the rate of CO2 uptake was nearly constant, suggesting that low pressure enhancement of Ps may be mainly attributable to lowered partial pressure of O2 and the accompanying reduction in Pr. The effects of lowered partial pressure of O2 on Ps and DR could result in substantial increases in the rates of biomass production, enabling rapid throughput of crops or allowing flexibility in the use of mass and energy resources for a CELSS.

  11. Carbon dioxide exchange of lettuce plants under hypobaric conditions.

    PubMed

    Corey, K A; Bates, M E; Adams, S L

    1996-01-01

    Growth of plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) may involve the use of hypobaric pressures enabling lower mass requirements for atmospheres and possible enhancement of crop productivity. A controlled environment plant growth chamber with hypobaric capability designed and built at Ames Research Center was used to determine if reduced pressures influence the rates of photosynthesis (Ps) and dark respiration (DR) of hydroponically grown lettuce plants. The chamber, referred to as a plant volatiles chamber (PVC), has a growing area of about 0.2 m2, a total gas volume of about 0.7 m3, and a leak rate at 50 kPa of <0.1%/day. When the pressure in the chamber was reduced from ambient to 51 kPa, the rate of net Ps increased by 25% and the rate of DR decreased by 40%. The rate of Ps increased linearly with decreasing pressure. There was a greater effect of reduced pressure at 41 Pa CO2 than at 81 Pa CO2. This is consistent with reports showing greater inhibition of photorespiration (Pr) in reduced O2 at low CO2 concentrations. When the partial pressure of O2 was held constant but the total pressure was varied between 51 and 101 kPa, the rate of CO2 uptake was nearly constant, suggesting that low pressure enhancement of Ps may be mainly attributable to lowered partial pressure of O2 and the accompanying reduction in Pr. The effects of lowered partial pressure of O2 on Ps and DR could result in substantial increases in the rates of biomass production, enabling rapid throughput of crops or allowing flexibility in the use of mass and energy resources for a CELSS. PMID:11538809

  12. Carbon dioxide exchange of lettuce plants under hypobaric conditions.

    PubMed

    Corey, K A; Bates, M E; Adams, S L

    1996-01-01

    Growth of plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) may involve the use of hypobaric pressures enabling lower mass requirements for atmospheres and possible enhancement of crop productivity. A controlled environment plant growth chamber with hypobaric capability designed and built at Ames Research Center was used to determine if reduced pressures influence the rates of photosynthesis (Ps) and dark respiration (DR) of hydroponically grown lettuce plants. The chamber, referred to as a plant volatiles chamber (PVC), has a growing area of about 0.2 m2, a total gas volume of about 0.7 m3, and a leak rate at 50 kPa of <0.1%/day. When the pressure in the chamber was reduced from ambient to 51 kPa, the rate of net Ps increased by 25% and the rate of DR decreased by 40%. The rate of Ps increased linearly with decreasing pressure. There was a greater effect of reduced pressure at 41 Pa CO2 than at 81 Pa CO2. This is consistent with reports showing greater inhibition of photorespiration (Pr) in reduced O2 at low CO2 concentrations. When the partial pressure of O2 was held constant but the total pressure was varied between 51 and 101 kPa, the rate of CO2 uptake was nearly constant, suggesting that low pressure enhancement of Ps may be mainly attributable to lowered partial pressure of O2 and the accompanying reduction in Pr. The effects of lowered partial pressure of O2 on Ps and DR could result in substantial increases in the rates of biomass production, enabling rapid throughput of crops or allowing flexibility in the use of mass and energy resources for a CELSS. PMID:11538976

  13. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against

  14. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms. PMID:26640049

  15. EFFECT OF A FLYASH CONDITIONING AGENT ON POWER PLANT EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study undertaken as a preliminary program to provide data on the environmental effects of a chemical flyash conditioning agent (Apollo Chemicals conditioner LPA 402A). Both the emissions due to the chemical and its effect on electrostatic precipitato...

  16. Plant nutrients do not covary with soil nutrients under changing climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wentao; Elser, James J.; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Zhengwen; Bai, Edith; Yan, Caifeng; Wang, Chao; Li, Mai-He; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Han, Xingguo; Xu, Zhuwen; Li, Hui; Wu, Yunna; Jiang, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play vital roles in plant growth and development. Yet how climate regimes and soil fertility influence plant N and P stoichiometry is not well understood, especially in the belowground plant parts. Here we investigated plant aboveground and belowground N and P concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their stoichiometry in three dominant genera along a 2200 km long climatic gradient in northern China. Results showed that temperature explained more variation of [N] and [P] in C4 plants, whereas precipitation exerted a stronger influence on [N] and [P] in C3 plants. Both plant aboveground and belowground [N] and [P] increased with decreasing precipitation, and increasing temperatures yet were negatively correlated with soil [N] and [P]. Plant N:P ratios were unrelated with all climate and soil variables. Plant aboveground and belowground [N] followed an allometric scaling relationship, but the allocation of [P] was isometric. These results imply that internal processes stabilize plant N:P ratios and hence tissue N:P ratios may not be an effective parameter for predicting plant nutrient limitation. Our results also imply that past positive relationships between plant and nutrient stocks may be challenged under changing climatic conditions. While any modeling would need to be able to replicate currently observed relationships, it is conceivable that some relationships, such as those between temperature or rainfall and carbon:nutrient ratios, should be different under changing climatic conditions.

  17. 42 CFR 485.623 - Condition of participation: Physical plant and environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical plant and environment. 485.623 Section 485.623 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of...

  18. 42 CFR 485.623 - Condition of participation: Physical plant and environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical plant and environment. 485.623 Section 485.623 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of...

  19. Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Cyr

    2009-09-29

    The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

  20. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

  1. COMETABOLISM OF TRIHALOMETHANES BY NITRIFYING BIOFILTERS UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: FP916412
    Title: Cometabolism of Trihalomethanes by Nitrifying Biofilters Under Drinking Water Treatment Plant Conditions
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): David G. Wahman
    Institution: University of Texas at Austin
    EPA ...

  2. Computer simulation of equilibrium conditions following a plant 'trip'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limb, D.

    When a process or part of a process experiences an emergency 'trip', the contained fluids redistribute themselves based upon the prevailing pressure gradients and depending upon the positions of valves at the time of the trip. Reverse flow through rotating compression machinery may occur, depending upon the locations of non-return valves. Reduction in pressure and mixing of cryogenic fluids of different compositions and/or temperatures can both lead to generation of significant volumes of vapour. This equilibration process is usually largely over in a matter of seconds rather than minutes. Key questions facing process and mechanical designers are: what is the settle-out pressure, and can we ensure relief valves do not lift following a trip? To answer these related questions it is necessary to analyse the state of the system prior to the trip, and then, based upon valve positions, etc., construct a model of the worst case probable scenarios for the qualitative redistribution of fluid inventory. At this point the simulation program may be employed to help calculate rigorously the final settle out conditions for each of the possible scenarios. This technique is particularly appropriate for cryogenic processes including refrigeration cycles. It is illustrated here with the help of a multistage hydrocarbon compressor example. Other related non-standard applications of the steady state process simulation program are identified.

  3. The Impact of Environmental Conditions on Efficiency of Host Plant DNA Barcoding for Polyphagous Beetles.

    PubMed

    Kajtoch, Łukasz; Mazur, Miłosz A

    2015-04-01

    Recently, several papers were published dealing with host plant identification for selected species of insects, including beetles. These studies took advantage of the DNA barcoding approach and generally showed that it is possible to identify diet composition from plant DNA present in insect guts. However, none of these studies considered how the impact of environmental conditions affected the likelihood of insect feeding and, therefore, the presence of host plant DNA that could be amplified and sequenced. In the present study, individuals of the polyphagous weevil Centricnemus leucogrammus (Germar, 1824) (Curculionidae: Entiminae) were used to test the hypothesis that harsh environmental conditions limited its feeding activity. The diet of 50 specimens collected during favourable conditions in the middle of the species reproductive period was compared against the diet of 50 specimens collected during harsh environmental conditions. Results clearly showed that almost no weevils fed during rainy and cold conditions and only a minority of individuals (20%) fed during the drought condition (on drought-resistant plants). It is important to consider such factors in any studies dealing with host plant identification and feeding behaviour. Results of ecological studies could lead to erroneous conclusions, e.g., underestimation of number and composition of host plants in the diet of studies species. PMID:26313186

  4. Usefulness of LANDSAT data for monitoring plant development and range conditions in California's annual grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    A network of sampling sites throughout the annual grassland region was established to correlate plant growth in stages and forage production to climatic and other environmental factors. Plant growth and range conditions were further related to geographic location and seasonal variations. A sequence of LANDSAT data was obtained covering critical periods in the growth cycle. Data were analyzed by both photointerpretation and computer aided techniques. Image characteristics and spectral reflectance data were then related to forage production, range condition, range site, and changing growth conditions.

  5. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  6. Assessment of inservice conditions of safety-related nuclear plant structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1995-06-01

    The report is a compilation from a number of sources of information related to the condition Of structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants in the United States. The most significant information came from the hands-on inspection of the six old plants (licensed prior to 1977) performed by the staff of the Civil Engineering and Geosciences Branch (ECGB) in the Division of Engineering of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. For the containment structures, most of the information related to the degraded conditions came from the licensees as part of the Licensing Event Report System (10 CFR 50.73), or as part of the requirement under limiting condition of operation of the plant-specific Technical Specifications. Most of the information related to the degradation of other Structures and civil engineering features was extracted from the industry survey, the reported incidents, and the plant visits. The report discusses the condition of the structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants and provides information that would help detect, alleviate, and correct the degraded conditions of the structures and civil engineering features.

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations of thermal conditions of household biogas plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelykh, Vasil; Furdas, Yura; Dzeryn, Oleksandra

    2016-06-01

    The construction of domestic continuous bioreactor is proposed. The modeling of thermal modes of household biogas plant using graph theory was done. The correction factor taking into account with the influence of variables on its value was determined. The system of balance equations for the desired thermal conditions in the bioreactor was presented. The graphical and analytical capabilities were represented that can be applied in the design of domestic biogas plants of organic waste recycling.

  8. Development and Implementation of a Condition Based Maintenance Program for Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Miller; Jim Eddy; Murray Grande; Shawn Bratt; Manuchehr Shirmohamadi

    2002-01-30

    This report describes the development of the RCM team, identifying plant assets and developing an asset hierarchy, the development of sample Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEAs), identifying and prioritizing plant systems and components for RCM analysis, and identifying RCM/CBM software/hardware vendors. It also includes the Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) for all Class I Systems, Maintenance Task Assignments, use of Conditioned Based Maintenance (CBM) Tools and Displays of the RCM software System Development to date.

  9. The Minitron system for growth of small plants under controlled environment conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, Carolyn P.; Akers, Stuart W.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a system is described in which small plants can be grown under controlled environment conditions. Important features of this 'Minitron' system include precise control of temperature and CO2 concentration in a flowing atmosphere. Plants can be grown either hydroponically or in solid root support medium. For either culture method, nutrient solution or water is added from an external reservoir, altering neither atmospheric composition nor temperature equilibrium within a closed Minitron chamber.

  10. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  11. Approaches in the Determination of Plant Nutrient Uptake and Distribution in Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which may impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the nuclides Ca45 and Fe59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  12. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    PubMed Central

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content. PMID:27457754

  13. Evaluation criteria and procedure for nuclear power plant temporary loads/temporary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, H.T.; Minichiello, J.C.; Olson, D.E.

    1996-12-01

    Operating nuclear power plants frequently encounter temporary loads/temporary conditions in plant normal operation and maintenance (O and M). The most obvious examples are installation of temporary shielding and scaffolding, or removal of certain supports, to facilitate plant refueling and maintenance outage activities. Short-term operability calls such as those due to snubber failures or unanticipated transients also create temporary loads/temporary conditions. These temporary situations often generate loads that are outside the original plant design basis. Consequently, separate evaluations are needed to ensure that plant structures, systems and components (SSCs) maintain their integrity and functionality while these temporary loads are active. Also, the temporary structures and components need to be evaluated to ensure their integrity during the temporary duration of use. Three types of approaches are normally adopted either individually or in combination to perform needed evaluations: relax the design allowables, use a more refined analysis model but retain the design basis acceptance criteria, or offset temporary loads by eliminating or reducing part of the design basis loads based on short duration considerations. This paper reviews temporary loading/temporary condition issues and the current industry criteria and procedures proposed in dealing with these issues. Where appropriate, regulatory positions on temporary loads/temporary conditions are discussed.

  14. Adaptive and selective seed abortion reveals complex conditional decision making in plants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katrin M; Soldaat, Leo L; Auge, Harald; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Behavior is traditionally attributed to animals only. Recently, evidence for plant behavior is accumulating, mostly from plant physiological studies. Here, we provide ecological evidence for complex plant behavior in the form of seed abortion decisions conditional on internal and external cues. We analyzed seed abortion patterns of barberry plants exposed to seed parasitism and different environmental conditions. Without abortion, parasite infestation of seeds can lead to loss of all seeds in a fruit. We statistically tested a series of null models with Monte Carlo simulations to establish selectivity and adaptiveness of the observed seed abortion patterns. Seed abortion was more frequent in parasitized fruits and fruits from dry habitats. Surprisingly, seed abortion occurred with significantly greater probability if there was a second intact seed in the fruit. This strategy provides a fitness benefit if abortion can prevent a sibling seed from coinfestation and if nonabortion of an infested but surviving single seed saves resources invested in the fruit coat. Ecological evidence for complex decision making in plants thus includes a structural memory (the second seed), simple reasoning (integration of inner and outer conditions), conditional behavior (abortion), and anticipation of future risks (seed predation). PMID:24561600

  15. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content.

  16. Responses of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plants to low temperatures under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lemos Filho, José Pires; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; da Rocha Neto, Olinto Gomes

    1993-12-01

    In this study we have examined the responses of Hevea plants to low temperatures in growth chambers simulating winter conditions in the tropics. The low temperatures increased the leaf diffusive resistance even with a rise in the leaf temperatures toward the end of day. The total chlorophyll levels were reduced by chilling, with no changes in the chlorophyll a/b ratio. Neither organic solute nor electrolyte leakage were observed at low temperatures. These results explain the low growth rate of plants and the lack of serious chilling symptoms (necrosis) in mature leaves during winter conditions near latitude 22° S in Brazil.

  17. Transient spatio-temporal dynamics of a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Wang, Lin; Watmough, James

    2016-12-01

    In many existing predator-prey or plant-herbivore models, the numerical response is assumed to be proportional to the functional response. In this paper, without such an assumption, we consider a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions. Besides stability of spatially homogeneous steady states, we also derive conditions for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation and steady-state bifurcation and provide geometrical methods to locate the bifurcation values. We numerically explore the complex transient spatio-temporal behaviours induced by these bifurcations. A large variety of different types of transient behaviours including oscillations in one or both of space and time are observed. PMID:27572052

  18. Responses of Two Invasive Plants Under Various Microclimate Conditions in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO2 concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO2) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO2) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  19. Responses of two invasive plants under various microclimate conditions in the Seoul metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO(2) concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO(2)) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO(2)) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas. PMID:22484518

  20. Reduction of noise generated by air conditioning and ventilation plants and transmitted to inhabited areas. [application of silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harastaseanu, E.; Cristescu, G.; Mercea, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fans with which the conditioning and ventilation plants of weaving and spinning mills are equipped and the conditioning devices used in certain confection and knit wear departments of the textile industry generate loud noise. Solutions are presented for reducing the noise generated by the fans of ventilation and conditioning plants and transmitted to inhabited regions down to the admissible level, as well as the results obtained by experimental application of some noise reduction solutions in the conditioning plants of a spinning mill.

  1. Usefulness of LANDSAT data for monitoring plant development and range conditions in California's annual grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    A network of sampling sites throughout the annual grassland region of California was established to correlate plant growth stages and forage production to climatic and other environmental factors. Plant growth and range conditions were further related to geographic location and seasonal variations. A sequence of LANDSAT data was obtained covering critical periods in the growth cycle. This was analyzed by both photointerpretation and computer aided techniques. Image characteristics and spectral reflectance data were then related to forage production, range condition, range site and changing growth conditions. It was determined that repeat sequences with LANDSAT color composite images do provide a means for monitoring changes in range condition. Spectral radiance data obtained from magnetic tape can be used to determine quantitatively the critical stages in the forage growth cycle. A computer ratioing technique provided a sensitive indicator of changes in growth stages and an indication of the relative differences in forage production between range sites.

  2. Proposal of a Simple Plant Growth System under Microgravity Conditions in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou

    2012-07-01

    Plant culture in space has multiple functions for human life support such as providing food and purifying air and water. It is also suggested that crew can relieve their stress by watching growing plants and by enjoying fresh vegetable food during staying for several months in the International Space Station. Under such circumstances, it is an utmost importance to develop plant culture equipment that can be handled more easily by crew. This study aims to develop an easy-to-use plant growth system with modification of commercial household plant culture equipment. The item is equipped with a peltier device for cooling air and collecting water vapor in the growth room. The study was conducted to examine the performance of the equipment under microgravity conditions that were created by the parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the temperature of the peltier device was affected under the microgravity conditions due to the absence of heat convection. When an air flow was made with an air circulation fan, the temperature of the peltier device was stable to gravity changes. The water recycling method for an automatic nutrient solution supply system in the closed plant culture equipment under microgravity is proposed. In addition, a high output white LEDs showing a good performance for growing leafy vegetables will be introduced.

  3. Proliferation of diversified clostridial species during biological soil disinfestation incorporated with plant biomass under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Mowlick, Subrata; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-09-01

    Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) involves the anaerobic decomposition of plant biomass by microbial communities leading to control of plant pathogens. We analyzed bacterial communities in soil of a model experiment of BSD, as affected by biomass incorporation under various conditions, to find out the major anaerobic bacterial groups which emerged after BSD treatments. The soil was treated with Brassica juncea plants, wheat bran, or Avena strigosa plants, irrigated at 20 or 30 % moisture content and incubated at 25-30 °C for 17 days. The population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae incorporated at the start of the experiment declined markedly for some BSD conditions and rather high concentrations of acetate and butyrate were detected from these BSD-treated soils. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis based on the V3 region of 16S rRNA gene sequences from the soil DNA revealed that bacterial profiles greatly changed according to the treatment conditions. Based on the clone library analysis, phylogenetically diverse clostridial species appeared exceedingly dominant in the bacterial community of BSD soil incorporated with Brassica plants or wheat bran, in which the pathogen was suppressed completely. Species in the class Clostridia such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium xylanovorans, Oxobacter pfennigii, Clostridium pasteurianum, Clostridium sufflavum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, etc. were commonly recognized as closely related species of the dominant clone groups from these soil samples. PMID:23132344

  4. Role of microRNAs involved in plant response to nitrogen and phosphorous limiting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giao N.; Rothstein, Steven J.; Spangenberg, German; Kant, Surya

    2015-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs which target and regulate the expression of genes involved in several growth, development, and metabolism processes. Recent researches have shown involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of uptake and utilization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and more importantly for plant adaptation to N and P limitation conditions by modifications in plant growth, phenology, and architecture and production of secondary metabolites. Developing strategies that allow for the higher efficiency of using both N and P fertilizers in crop production is important for economic and environmental benefits. Improved crop varieties with better adaptation to N and P limiting conditions could be a key approach to achieve this effectively. Furthermore, understanding on the interactions between N and P uptake and use and their regulation is important for the maintenance of nutrient homeostasis in plants. This review describes the possible functions of different miRNAs and their cross-talk relevant to the plant adaptive responses to N and P limiting conditions. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of these processes at molecular level and importance of biological adaptation for improved N and P use efficiency is discussed. PMID:26322069

  5. Conditional Facilitation of an Aphid Vector, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by the Plant Pathogen, Pea Enation Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Simon; Powell, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Plant pathogens can induce symptoms that affect the performance of insect herbivores utilizing the same host plant. Previous studies examining the effects of infection of tic bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), by pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), an important disease of legume crops, indicated there were no changes in the growth and reproductive rate of its primary vector the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments investigating how A. pisum responded to PEMV infection of a different host plant, Pisum sativum L., at different stages of symptom development. Aphid growth rate was negatively related to the age of the host plant, but when they were introduced onto older plants with well-developed PEMV symptoms they exhibited a higher growth rate compared to those developing on uninfected plants of the same age. In choice tests using leaf discs A. pisum showed a strong preference for discs from PEMV-infected peas, probably in response to visual cues from the yellowed and mottled infected leaves. When adults were crowded onto leaves using clip-cages they produced more winged progeny on PEMV-infected plants. The results indicate that PEMV produces symptoms in the host plant that can enhance the performance of A. pisum as a vector, modify the production of winged progeny and affect their spatial distribution. The findings provide further evidence that some insect vector/plant pathogen interactions could be regarded as mutualistic rather than commensal when certain conditions regarding the age, stage of infection and species of host plant are met. PMID:21067425

  6. Reclaimed wastewater: impact on soil-plant system under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, B F F; He, Z L; Silva, M S; Herpin, U; Nogueira, S F; Montes, C R; Melfi, A J

    2011-08-15

    This study investigated the ionic speciation of reclaimed urban wastewater (RWW), and the impact of increasing RWW irrigation rates on soil properties and plant nutrition under field conditions. Most RWW elements (>66%) are readily available as NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), H(3)BO(3), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+), but in imbalanced proportion for plant nutrition. Lead, Cd, Cr and Al in RWW are mostly bounded with DOM or OH(-).(.)Irrigation with RWW decreased soil acidity, which is beneficial to the acidic tropical soil. Although RWW irrigation builds exchangeable Na(+) up, the excessive Na(+) was leached out of the soil profile after a rainy summer season (>400 mm). Benefits of the disposal of RWW to the soil under tropical conditions were discussed, however, the over irrigation with RWW (>100% of crop evapotranspiration) led to a nutritional imbalance, accumulating S and leading to a plant deficiency of P and K. PMID:21616587

  7. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  8. Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-03-31

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption for online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components.

  9. CLIMATE CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE WITHIN-PLANT SPREAD OF BROAD MITES ON AZALEA.

    PubMed

    Mechant, E; Pauwels, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a major pest in potted azalea, Flanders' flagship ornamental crop of Rhododendron simsii hybrids. In addition to severe economic damage, the broad mite is dreaded for its increasing resistance to acaricides. Due to restrictions in the use of broad spectrum acaricides, Belgian azalea growers are left with only three compounds, belonging to two mode of action groups and restricted in their number of applications, for broad mite control: abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin. Although P. latus can be controlled with predatory mites, the high cost of this system makes it (not yet) feasible for integration into standard azalea pest management systems. Hence, a maximum efficacy of treatments with available compounds is essential. Because abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin are contact acaricides with limited trans laminar flow, only broad mites located on shoot tips of azalea plants will be controlled after spraying. Consequently, the efficacy of chemical treatments is influenced by the location and spread of P. latus on the plant. Unfortunately, little is known on broad mites' within-plant spread or how it is affected by climatic conditions like temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, experiments were set up to verify whether climate conditions have an effect on the location and migration of broad mites on azalea. Broad mite infected azalea plants were placed in standard growth chambers under different temperature (T:2.5-25°C) and relative humidity (RH:55-80%) treatments. Within-plant spread was determined by counting mites on the shoot tips and inner leaves of azalea plants. Results indicate that temperature and relative humidity have no significant effect on the within-plant spread of P. latus. To formulate recommendations for optimal spray conditions to maximize the efficacy of broad mite control with acaricides, further experiments on the effect of light intensity and rain are scheduled. PMID

  10. Responses of Rat Root ( Raf.) Plants to Salinity and pH Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Alejandra Equiza, María; Señorans, Jorge; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2014-03-01

    Growth and physiological parameters were examined in rat root ( Raf.) plants grown under controlled environment conditions in hydroponics and subjected to different pH and salinity treatments to determine whether these environmental factors may contribute to poor establishment of in oil sands constructed wetlands. When plants were subjected to a root zone pH ranging from 6.0 to 9.5, the plants that were growing at pH 7.0 showed the highest relative growth rates and chlorophyll concentrations compared with lower and higher pH levels. The greatest inhibition of growth occurred at pH ranging from 8.0 to 9.5. High pH also triggered significant reductions in tissue concentrations of N, P, and microelements, whereas the concentrations of Mg increased at pH >8. When NaCl (25, 50, and 100 mmol L) was added to the nutrient solution at pH 7.0 and 8.5, higher mortality and greater tissue concentrations of Na and Cl were measured in plants growing at pH 8.5 compared with pH 7.0. The results show that plants growing at the optimum pH of 7.0 can better tolerate salinity compared with plants exposed to high root zone pH. Both pH and salinity may present important environmental constraints to growth and establishment of plants in oil sands constructed wetlands. PMID:25602659

  11. Gravity-induced cellular and molecular processes in plants studied under altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagt, Nicole; Braun, Markus

    With the ability to sense gravity plants possess a powerful tool to adapt to a great variety of environmental conditions and to respond to environmental changes in a most beneficial way. Gravity is the only constant factor that provides organisms with reliable information for their orientation since billions of years. Any deviation of the genetically determined set-point angle of the plants organs from the vector of gravity is sensed by specialized cells, the statocytes of roots and shoots in higher plants. Dense particles, so-called statoliths, sediment in the direction of gravity and activate membrane-bound gravireceptors. A physiological signalling-cascade is initiated that eventually results in the gravitropic curvature response, namely, the readjust-ment of the growth direction. Experiments under microgravity conditions have significantly contributed to our understanding of plant gravity-sensing and gravitropic reorientation. For a gravity-sensing lower plant cell type, the rhizoid of the green alga Chara, and for statocytes of higher plant roots, it was shown that the interactions between statoliths and the actomyosin system consisting of the actin cytoskeleton and motor proteins (myosins) are the basis for highly efficient gravity-sensing processes. In Chara rhizoids, the actomyosin represents a guid-ing system that directs sedimenting statoliths to a specific graviperception site. Parabolic flight experiments aboard the airbus A300 Zero-G have provided evidence that lower and higher plant cells use principally the same statolith-mediated gravireceptor-activation mechanism. Graviper-ception is not dependent on mechanical pressure mediated through the weight of the sedimented statoliths, but on direct interactions between the statoliths's surface and yet unknown gravire-ceptor molecules. In contrast to Chara rhizoids, in the gravity-sensing cells of higher plants, the actin cytoskeleton is not essentially involved in the early phases of gravity sensing. Dis

  12. Quantitative Hydraulic Models Of Early Land Plants Provide Insight Into Middle Paleozoic Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil plants provide useful proxies of Earth’s climate because plants are closely connected, through physiology and morphology, to the environments in which they lived. Recent advances in quantitative hydraulic models of plant water transport provide new insight into the history of climate by allowing fossils to speak directly to environmental conditions based on preserved internal anatomy. We report results of a quantitative hydraulic model applied to one of the earliest terrestrial plants preserved in three dimensions, the ~396 million-year-old vascular plant Asteroxylon mackei. This model combines equations describing the rate of fluid flow through plant tissues with detailed observations of plant anatomy; this allows quantitative estimates of two critical aspects of plant function. First and foremost, results from these models quantify the supply of water to evaporative surfaces; second, results describe the ability of plant vascular systems to resist tensile damage from extreme environmental events, such as drought or frost. This approach permits quantitative comparisons of functional aspects of Asteroxylon with other extinct and extant plants, informs the quality of plant-based environmental proxies, and provides concrete data that can be input into climate models. Results indicate that despite their small size, water transport cells in Asteroxylon could supply a large volume of water to the plant's leaves--even greater than cells from some later-evolved seed plants. The smallest Asteroxylon tracheids have conductivities exceeding 0.015 m^2 / MPa * s, whereas Paleozoic conifer tracheids do not reach this threshold until they are three times wider. However, this increase in conductivity came at the cost of little to no adaptations for transport safety, placing the plant’s vegetative organs in jeopardy during drought events. Analysis of the thickness-to-span ratio of Asteroxylon’s tracheids suggests that environmental conditions of reduced relative

  13. Effects of contrasting wave conditions on scour and drag on pioneer tidal marsh plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silinski, Alexandra; Heuner, Maike; Troch, Peter; Puijalon, Sara; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Schoelynck, Jonas; Schröder, Uwe; Fuchs, Elmar; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-02-01

    Tidal marshes are increasingly valued for protecting shorelines against wave impact, but waves in turn may limit the initial establishment of tidal marsh pioneer plants. In estuaries, the shorelines typically experience a wide range of wave periods, varying from short period wind waves (usually of around 1-2 s in fair weather conditions) to long ship-generated waves, with secondary waves in the order of 2-7 s and primary waves with periods that can exceed 1 min. Waves are known to create sediment scour around, as well as to exert drag forces on obstacles such as seedlings and adults of establishing pioneer plant species. In intertidal systems, these two mechanisms have been identified as main causes for limiting potential colonization of bare tidal flats. In this paper, we want to assess to which extent common quantitative formulae for predicting local scour and drag forces on rigid cylindrical obstacles are valid for the estimation of scour and drag on slightly flexible plants with contrasting morphology, and hence applicable to predict plant establishment and survival under contrasting wave conditions. This has been tested in a full-scale wave flume experiment on two pioneer species (Scirpus maritimus and Scirpus tabernaemontani) and two life stages (seedlings and adults of S. maritimus) as well as on cylindrical reference sticks, which we have put under a range of wave periods (2-10 s), intended to mimic natural wind waves (short period waves) and ship-induced waves (artificial long period waves), at three water levels (5, 20, 35 cm). Our findings suggest that at very shallow water depths (5 cm) particular hydrodynamic conditions are created that lead to drag and scour that deviate from predictions. For higher water levels (20, 35 cm) scour can be well predicted for all wave conditions by an established formula for wave-induced scour around rigid cylinders. Drag forces can be relatively well predicted after introducing experimentally derived drag coefficients

  14. Condition monitoring and optimization for a 1000 MW combined-cycle plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Barking Power Ltd., an independent power producer in the southeast of England, appointed Boyce Engineering International to supply a performance condition monitoring and optimization package. The Barking Power combined-cycle plant operates five Frame 9E gas turbines manufactured by EGT in Belfort, France, and two steam turbines supplied by GEC Alsthom. The Boyce Engineering system selected by Power Ltd., is the DATM4 fully integrated condition monitoring system, which offers full diagnosis and optimization for the electrical, mechanical and thermal performance of the plant. The transient electrical analysis system will enable operating and maintenance engineers to diagnose and reduce problems caused by transient electrical impulses which may occur. All four modules will be handled on a single hardware platform using an OS/2 PC network. The Boyce system offers a number of distinct benefits to the customer, particularly in terms of maximizing profitability. Additional benefits of the system include a `what if` module, allowing engineers to troubleshoot aspects of the plant, evaluate the cost of any inefficiencies in relation to the plant`s bottom line and schedule maintenance efficiently, and the ability to ensure safe and clean operation meeting and exceeding current environmental legislative requirements.

  15. Effect of artificial electric fields on plants grown under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, G.; Gordeev, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ionic and structural hetorogeneity of cells, tissues, and organs of plants are associated with a spectrum of electric characteristics such as bioelectric potentials, electrical conductance, and bioelectric permeability. An important determinant for the plant function is electric properties of the cell membranes and organelles which maintain energy and substance exchange with the environment. Enzymes and other biologically active substances have a powerful charge at the molecular level. Finally, all molecules, including those of water, represent dipoles, and this determines their reactive capacity. A major determinant is the bioelectric polarity of a plant is genetically predetermined and cannot be modified. It is an intrinsic structural feature of the organism whose evolution advent was mediated by gravity. An illustrative presentation of polarity is the downward growth of the roots and upward growth of stems in the Earth's gravitation field. However, gravity is a critical, but not the sole determinant of the plant organism polarization. Potent polarizing effects are exerted by light, the electromagnetic field, moisture, and other factors. It is known that plant cultivation in an upturned position is associated with impairment of water and nutrient uptake, resulting in dyscoordination of physiological processes, growth and developmental retardation. These abnormalities were characteristic when early attempts were made to grow plants in weightlessness conditions.

  16. Nematodes enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake under C and N-rich conditions.

    PubMed

    Gebremikael, Mesfin T; Steel, Hanne; Buchan, David; Bert, Wim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil fauna in crucial ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling remains poorly quantified, mainly because of the overly reductionistic approach adopted in most experimental studies. Given that increasing nitrogen inputs in various ecosystems influence the structure and functioning of soil microbes and the activity of fauna, we aimed to quantify the role of the entire soil nematode community in nutrient mineralization in an experimental set-up emulating nutrient-rich field conditions and accounting for crucial interactions amongst the soil microbial communities and plants. To this end, we reconstructed a complex soil foodweb in mesocosms that comprised largely undisturbed native microflora and the entire nematode community added into defaunated soil, planted with Lolium perenne as a model plant, and amended with fresh grass-clover residues. We determined N and P availability and plant uptake, plant biomass and abundance and structure of the microbial and nematode communities during a three-month incubation. The presence of nematodes significantly increased plant biomass production (+9%), net N (+25%) and net P (+23%) availability compared to their absence, demonstrating that nematodes link below- and above-ground processes, primarily through increasing nutrient availability. The experimental set-up presented allows to realistically quantify the crucial ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. PMID:27605154

  17. Nematodes enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake under C and N-rich conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gebremikael, Mesfin T.; Steel, Hanne; Buchan, David; Bert, Wim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil fauna in crucial ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling remains poorly quantified, mainly because of the overly reductionistic approach adopted in most experimental studies. Given that increasing nitrogen inputs in various ecosystems influence the structure and functioning of soil microbes and the activity of fauna, we aimed to quantify the role of the entire soil nematode community in nutrient mineralization in an experimental set-up emulating nutrient-rich field conditions and accounting for crucial interactions amongst the soil microbial communities and plants. To this end, we reconstructed a complex soil foodweb in mesocosms that comprised largely undisturbed native microflora and the entire nematode community added into defaunated soil, planted with Lolium perenne as a model plant, and amended with fresh grass-clover residues. We determined N and P availability and plant uptake, plant biomass and abundance and structure of the microbial and nematode communities during a three-month incubation. The presence of nematodes significantly increased plant biomass production (+9%), net N (+25%) and net P (+23%) availability compared to their absence, demonstrating that nematodes link below- and above-ground processes, primarily through increasing nutrient availability. The experimental set-up presented allows to realistically quantify the crucial ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. PMID:27605154

  18. Photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiencies of a plant canopy and plant leaves under restricted air current conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Toshio; Tsuruyama, Joshin

    A fundamental study was conducted to obtain the knowledge for culturing plants and exchanging gases with plants under restricted air circulation conditions in space agriculture. The effects of air velocities less than 1.3 m s-1 on net photosynthetic rates (Pn), transpiration rates (Tr) and Pn/Tr, water use efficiencies (WUE), of a canopy of cucumber seedlings and of single leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley were assessed with assimilation chamber methods in ground based experiments. The cucumber seedling canopy, which had a LAI of 1.4 and height of 0.1 m, was set in a wind tunnel installed in a plant canopy assimilation chamber. Each of the attached single leaves was set in a leaf assimilation chamber. The Pn and Tr of the plant canopy increased to 1.2 and 2.8 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.4 times with increasing the air velocity from 0.02 to 1.3 m s-1. The Pn and Tr of the single leaves of all the species increased by 1.3-1.7 and 1.9-2.2 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.6-0.8 times as the air velocity increased from 0.05 to 0.8 m s-1. The effect of air velocity was more significant on Tr than on Pn and thus WUE decreased with increasing air velocity in both the plant canopy and the individual leaves. The leaf boundary layer resistance was approximately proportional to the minus 1/3 power of the air velocity. Stomatal resistance was almost constant during the experiment. The CO2 concentrations in the sub-stomatal cavity in leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley, respectively, were 43, 31 and 58 mmol mol-1 lower at the air velocity of 0.05 m s-1 than at the air velocity of 0.8 m s-1, while the water vapor pressure in the sub-stomatal cavity was constant. We concluded that the change in the CO2 concentration in the sub-stomatal cavity was a cause of the different effect of the air velocity on Pn and Tr, and thus on WUE. The phenomenon will be more remarkable under restricted air convection conditions at lower gravity in space.

  19. Environmental Conditions Influence the Plant Functional Diversity Effect on Potential Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Sutton-Grier, Ariana E.; Wright, Justin P.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Richardson, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait diversity (or functional diversity, (FD)) and its interactions with natural levels of variability of soil properties, on a microbial process, denitrification potential (DNP). We demonstrated that FD significantly affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may depend on environmental factors such as resource availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine how natural levels of environmental variability impact the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning. PMID:21311768

  20. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Poore, III, Willis P.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  1. Evaluation of experiments involving the study of plant orientation and growth under different gravitational conditions.

    PubMed

    Merkys, A J; Laurinavicius, R S; Svegzdiene, D V; Rakleviciene, D P; Jarosius, A V; Rupainiene, O J

    1989-01-01

    The manifestation of gravitropic reaction in plants has been considered from the phylogenetic point of view. A chart has been suggested according to which it is supposed that the first indications of the ability to identify the direction of the gravitational vector were inherent in the most ancient eukaryotes, which gave rise to green, brown, yellow-green, golden and diatomaceous algae as well as fungi. The experiments on the role of gravity in plant ontogenesis are being continued. The sum total of the data obtained in a number of experiments in space shows that under these conditions a structurally modified but normally functioning gravireceptive apparatus is formed. The data confirming the modification, under changed gravity, of the processes of integral and cellullar growth of the axial organs of seedlings as well as of the anatomo-morphological structure and developmental rates of plants during their prolonged growth in space are presented. It is assumed that this fact testifies to the presence of systems interacting with gravity during plant ontogenesis. At the same time the necessity for further experiments in order to differentiate an immediate biological effect of gravity from the ones conditioned by it indirectly due to the changes in the behavior of liquids and gases is pointed out. The methodological aspects of biological experiments in space as the main source of reliable information on the biological role of gravity are discussed. PMID:11537336

  2. 42 CFR 485.623 - Condition of participation: Physical plant and environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the amendment is available for... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical plant...

  3. 42 CFR 485.623 - Condition of participation: Physical plant and environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the amendment is available for... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical plant...

  4. 42 CFR 485.623 - Condition of participation: Physical plant and environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the amendment is available for... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical plant...

  5. Impact of power conditioning on the life of nuclear plant auxiliary system equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, B.; Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E.; Alsammarae, A.J.

    1996-06-01

    A program is presented for prolonging the useful life of major equipment used in the auxiliary distribution systems of nuclear generating plants, with a focus on power quality and power conditioning. Both reactive power compensation and control of power quality have a significant impact on the life of electrical equipment. Improvements result from reduced operating temperatures, from systematic load reduction in the distribution system, and from reductions in phase imbalances and harmonics. This paper focuses on the impact of power conditioning on the life of transformers, cables, breakers, motors, and solenoids.

  6. Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand, and negative effects of water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, François

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing plant performance and its genetic variability under a range of environmental conditions. Biomass accumulation is linked every day to available light in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) domain, multiplied by the proportion of light intercepted by plants and by the radiation use efficiency. Total biomass is cumulated over the duration of the considered phase (e.g., plant cycle or vegetative phase). These durations are essentially constant for a given genotype provided that time is corrected for temperature (thermal time). Several ways of expressing thermal time are reviewed. Two alternative equations are presented, based either on the effect of transpiration, or on yield components. Their comparative interests and drawbacks are discussed. The genetic variability of each term of considered equations affects yield under water deficit, via mechanisms at different scales of plant organization and time. The effect of any physiological mechanism on yield of stressed plants acts via one of these terms, although the link is not always straightforward. Finally, I propose practical ways to compare the productivity of genotypes in field environments, and a “minimum dataset” of environmental data and traits that should be recorded for that. PMID:23423357

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of Pollen Identifies Plant Species and Genus as Well as Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Boris; Kohler, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Background It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. Methodology The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids). Results The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities. PMID:24748390

  8. Leaf senescence under various gravity conditions: relevance to the dynamics of plant hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Yuda, T.; Shimazu, T.; Ueda, J.

    Effects of simulated microgravity and hypergravity on the senescence of oat leaf segments excised from the primary leaves of 8-d-old green seedlings were studied using a 3-dimensional (D) clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness and a centrifuge, respectively. During the incubation with water under 1-g conditions at 25 °C in the dark, the loss of chlorophyll of the segments was found dramatically immediately after leaf excision, and leaf color completely turned to yellow after 3-d to 4-d incubation. In this case kinetin (10 μM) was effective in retarding senescence. The application of simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat enhanced chlorophyll loss in the presence or absence of kinetin. The loss of chlorophyll was also enhanced by hypergravity conditions (ca. 8 to 16 g), but the effect was smaller than that of simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat. Jasmonates (JAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) promoted senescence under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat as well as under 1-g conditions. After 2-d incubation with water or 5-d incubation with kinetin, the endogenous levels of JAs and ABA of the segments kept under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat remained higher than those kept under 1-g conditions. These findings suggest that physiological processes of leaf senescence and the dynamics of endogenous plant hormone levels are substantially affected by gravity.

  9. Actualizing the Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braman, Dave

    Where conditions are right, continuing education (CE) staff working in true collaboration with campus-based credit staff can meet the learning needs of the community and improve instructional quality with greater resource efficiency. CE staff must become learning strategists who bring ideas from their marketplace experience to the instructional…

  10. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  11. Why Would Plant Species Become Extinct Locally If Growing Conditions Improve?

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Koen; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan; Hickler, Thomas; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Two assumptions underlie current models of the geographical ranges of perennial plant species: 1. current ranges are in equilibrium with the prevailing climate, and 2. changes are attributable to changes in macroclimatic factors, including tolerance of winter cold, the duration of the growing season, and water stress during the growing season, rather than to biotic interactions. These assumptions allow model parameters to be estimated from current species ranges. Deterioration of growing conditions due to climate change, e.g. more severe drought, will cause local extinction. However, for many plant species, the predicted climate change of higher minimum temperatures and longer growing seasons means, improved growing conditions. Biogeographical models may under some circumstances predict that a species will become locally extinct, despite improved growing conditions, because they are based on an assumption of equilibrium and this forces the species range to match the species-specific macroclimatic thresholds. We argue that such model predictions should be rejected unless there is evidence either that competition influences the position of the range margins or that a certain physiological mechanism associated with the apparent improvement in growing conditions negatively affects the species performance. We illustrate how a process-based vegetation model can be used to ascertain whether such a physiological cause exists. To avoid potential modelling errors of this type, we propose a method that constrains the scenario predictions of the envelope models by changing the geographical distribution of the dominant plant functional type. Consistent modelling results are very important for evaluating how changes in species areas affect local functional trait diversity and hence ecosystem functioning and resilience, and for inferring the implications for conservation management in the face of climate change. PMID:22991500

  12. Genetic architecture of adaptation to novel environmental conditions in a predominantly selfing allopolyploid plant.

    PubMed

    Volis, S; Ormanbekova, D; Yermekbayev, K; Abugalieva, S; Turuspekov, Y; Shulgina, I

    2016-06-01

    Genetic architecture of adaptation is traditionally studied in the context of local adaptation, viz. spatially varying conditions experienced by the species. However, anthropogenic changes in the natural environment pose a new context to this issue, that is, adaptation to an environment that is new for the species. In this study, we used crossbreeding to analyze genetic architecture of adaptation to conditions not currently experienced by the species but with high probability of encounter in the near future due to global climate change. We performed targeted interpopulation crossing using genotypes from two core and two peripheral Triticum dicoccoides populations and raised the parents and three generations of hybrids in a greenhouse under simulated desert conditions to analyze the genetic architecture of adaptation to these conditions and an effect of gene flow from plants having different origin. The hybrid (F1) fitness did not differ from that of the parents in crosses where both plants originated from the species core, but in crosses involving one parent from the species core and another one from the species periphery the fitness of F1 was consistently higher than that of the periphery-originated parent. Plant fitness in the next two generations (F2 and F3) did not differ from the F1, suggesting that effects of epistatic interactions between recombining and segregating alleles of genes contributing to fitness were minor or absent. The observed low importance of epistatic gene interactions in allopolyploid T. dicoccoides and low probability of hybrid breakdown appear to be the result of permanent fixation of heterozygosity and lack of intergenomic recombination in this species. At the same time, predominant but not complete selfing combined with an advantage of bivalent pairing of homologous chromosomes appears to maintain high genetic variability in T. dicoccoides, greatly enhancing its adaptive ability. PMID:26837272

  13. Impact of climatic conditions on the design of a water treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregoitia, C.; Mesa, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The abundance or scarcity of resources causes enormous problems for populations and societies. They mark the direction of the development that a society will take. Water imbalances, may distort optimal environmental and socioeconomic conditions of the food production. Water scarcity may limit food production and supply, putting pressure on food prices and increasing countries' dependence on food imports. Rising demand for food caused by growing populations and shifting diets, production shortfall in some countries, increased costs for key agricultural inputs and meat supply (driven in turn by energy costs), bioenergy-related incentives in some countries and possible financial speculation have all contributed to the steep rises in food prices. According to United Nations Over the past century world water withdrawals increased almost twice as fast as population growth and an increasing number of regions are chronically water short. Climate change has been defined as a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Different factors can shape the climate forces or mechanisms and impact the food production system such as the cattle production field. This paper considers the step by step design and implementation of a water treatment plant of a community cattle farm located in Jadacaquiva under changing climatic conditions. The byproducts of the cattle, as well as the community can also have an impact depending on the decisions taken for the plant. Keywords: water, climate change, treatment plant, food scarcity

  14. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, V. G.; Faskhiev, V. N.; Kovalenko, N. P.; Shestibratov, K. A.; Miroshnikov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014–2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity. PMID:27437143

  15. In-vitro bioactivity of Venda medicinal plants used in the treatment of respiratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Pallant, Ca; Steenkamp, V

    2008-11-01

    Infectious diseases, especially those affecting the respiratory tract, represent a critical problem to health. Crude methanol and water extracts of 10 Venda plants reported to be used ethnomedically in the treatment of respiratory conditions were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against standard strains and clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Haemophilis influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium smegmatis using the disc diffusion assay. Four of the 10 plants tested possessed antimicrobial activity, but no activity against K. pneumoniae was observed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations, as determined by the broth microdilution assay, showed three plants, Securidaca longepedunculata, Syzygium cordatum, and Tabernaemontana elegans, to possess MICs plant species with significant antimicrobial activity were identified, there is a need for further scientific evaluation regarding identification of the bioactive constituents, as well as their toxicity. PMID:19244294

  16. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  17. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Espinar, José L; García, Luis V; Clemente, Luis

    2005-07-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three salt-marsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management. PMID:21646131

  18. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espinar, J.L.; Garcia, L.V.; Clemente, L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

  19. The Performance of Plants, Molluscs, and Carabid Beetles as Indicators of Hydrological Conditions in Floodplain Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follner, Klaus; Henle, Klaus

    2006-08-01

    Floodplain systems are among the most complex ecosystems. To assess their ecological condition, several indicator systems have been developed. However, none of them quantifies environmental factors related to the dynamics of water levels, which is a major driver for the occurrence and distribution of species in floodplains. We present a new bioindicator system for the duration of inundation per year and mean depth of groundwater during the vegetation period. The new indicator system is based on carabid beetles, molluscs, and plants. The indicator system generally proved to be precise as well as temporally and spatially transferable within the same river system, the Elbe River in Germany. The indication based on plants was clearly most precise and transferable. The results are discussed in terms of application of the indicator system.

  20. Investigation of coal stockpiles of Tuncbilek thermal power plant with respect to time under atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal power plants have delayed the coal that they will use at stockpiles mandatorily. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stockyards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started itself. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research a coal stockpile at Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant which was formed in 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m height with a weight of 120 tons to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Later, internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over two layers in the stockpile. The parameters, such as air temperature, humidity, atmosphere pressure, wind speed and direction, which are effective on the stockpiles, were measured and used to obtain the graphs of stockpiles' internal temperature.

  1. Site-specific conditions influence plant naturalization: The case of alien Proteaceae in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodley, Desika; Geerts, Sjirk; Rebelo, Tony; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.

    2014-08-01

    The outcome of plant introductions is often considered in binary terms (invasive or non-invasive). However, most species experience a time lag before naturalization occurs, and many species become naturalized at some sites but not at others. It is therefore important to understand the site-specific mechanisms underlying naturalization. Proteaceae is an interesting case as some species are widespread invaders, while others, despite a long history of cultivation, show no signs of naturalization. At least 26 non-native Proteaceae species have been introduced to, and are cultivated in, South Africa. We mapped populations and examined differences between naturalized and non-naturalized populations (e.g. propagule pressure, land use and bioclimatic suitability). Of the 15 species surveyed, 6 were naturalized at one or more sites. Of these, Hakea salicifolia is most widely cultivated, but is only naturalizing in some areas (32 naturalized populations out of 62 populations that were surveyed). We found propagule pressure to be the most important determinant of naturalization for H. salicifolia. However, in suboptimal climatic conditions, naturalization only occurred if micro-site conditions were suitable, i.e. there was some disturbance and water available. For the other naturalized species there were few sites to compare, but we came to similar conclusions - Banksia integrifolia only naturalized at the site where it was planted the longest; Banksia serrata only naturalized at a site influenced by fire regimes; while Banksia formosa naturalized at sites with high propagule pressure, absence of fires and where there is no active clearing of the plants. Naturalization of Proteaceae in South Africa appears to be strongly mediated by site-specific anthropogenic activities (e.g. many planted individuals and water availability). More broadly, we argue that invasion biology needs to focus more closely on the mechanisms by which species and pathways interact to determine the

  2. Nitrosation of Nigerian medicinal plant preparations under 'chemical' and 'simulated' gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Lamorde, A G; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1995-01-01

    Preparations of some tropical plants of medicinal importance, collected from the savannah vegetational belt of Nigeria, were nitrosated and analysed for volatile N-nitrosamines formed under chemical and simulated gastric conditions. N-Nitrosamines were determined on a Thermal Energy Analyser following gas chromatographic separation. Mean concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the range of 7 to 58 ppb and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the range of 23 to 26 ppb were formed in 31 and 7%, respectively, of the preparations using artificial gastric juice (simulated gastric condition). Under chemically optimal conditions, relatively high levels of NDMA (72-2008 ppb), NDEA (23-1528 ppb) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (20-405 ppb) were formed in 100, 75 and 32% of the preparations, respectively; N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine were formed in fewer preparations. These findings suggest that the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds from precursors present in medicinal plants might be another source of human exposure to environmental carcinogens in Nigeria and other developing countries. PMID:7821876

  3. What Actually Happened.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The medical team found the patient to lack medical decisionmaking capacity. However, the team felt that the patient was still able to respond appropriately to some situations. KS had displayed a consistent refusal of all medical treatments that made her uncomfortable or caused pain. During her sister's visits, the patient would be much more receptive to eating. A meeting was planned with the patient's sister in which the ethicist explained that the patient was not able to make her own decisions. The patient's sister agreed that she would honor the patient's wishes but would let the team make any decisions outside of what she knew about the patient's preferences. The patient's sister agreed and was willing to be at the patient's bedside as much as she could to encourage her eating. If the patient's condition worsened, it was discussed that the team honor the patient's wishes and not force a feeding tube on her. The patient's code status was also addressed, and KS's sister felt comfortable in communicating to the team that the patient would not want to be resuscitated if medical treatments would not be able to improve her current quality of life. A natural passing away would be most amenable to the patient. The patient was discharged to her nursing home with a physician order for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) form signed by the sister documenting a do-not-resuscitate code status with comfort-focused treatments. PMID:26957461

  4. Assumed process of piping failure in nuclear power plants under destructive earthquake conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, H. . Inst. of Industrial Science)

    1991-05-01

    This paper deals with an assumed process of piping failure in nuclear power plants which may cause a catastrophic accident during a destructive earthquake conditions. The type of failure discussed is the so-called double-ended guillotine break, DEGB. As a safety problems, we are going to eliminate this type of failure by LBB, and we have assumed that this would then not occur by an earthquake. The author tries to clarify the possibility of failure during earthquakes. He reviews his related papers since 1973, and discusses zipping failure of snubbers and supporting devices. He shows a procedure to simulate the zipping failure of a piping system supported by snubbers.

  5. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - Technology and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bulawka, A.

    1985-01-01

    Central-Station (CS) Photovoltaic (PV) systems have the potential of economically displacing significant amounts of centrally generated electricity. However, the technical viability and, to some extent, the economic viability of central-station PV generation technology will depend upon the availability of large power conditioners that are efficient, safe, reliable, and economical. This paper is an overview of the technical and cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for central-station power plants. The paper also examines various already commercially available PCS hardware that may be suitable for use in today's central PV power stations.

  6. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions. [south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Emissive and reflective data for 10 days, and IR data for 6 nights in south Texas scenes were analyzed after procedures were developed for removing cloud-affected data. HCMM radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures on nights when air temperature approached dewpoint temperatures; significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration; and, related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures. Vegetation greenness indexes calculated from visible and reflective IR bands of NOAA-6 to -9 meteorological satellites will be useful in the AgRISTARS program for seasonal crop development, crop condition, and drought applications.

  7. Jasmonic acid interacts with abscisic acid to regulate plant responses to water stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    de Ollas, Carlos; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones are key players in signaling environmental stress conditions. Hormone profiling together with proline accumulation were studied in leaves and roots of different mutant lines of Arabidopsis. Regulation of proline accumulation in this system seems complex and JA-deficient (jar1-1) and JA-insensitive (jai1) lines accumulating high levels of proline despite their very low ABA levels seems to discard an ABA-dependent response. However, the pattern of proline accumulation in jai1 seedlings parallels that of ABA. Under stress conditions, there is an opposite pattern of ABA accumulation in roots of jar1-1/coi1-16 (in which ABA only slightly increase) and jai1 (in which ABA increase is even higher than in WT plants). This also makes JA-ABA crosstalk complex and discards any lineal pathway that could explain this hormonal interaction. PMID:26340066

  8. Jasmonic acid interacts with abscisic acid to regulate plant responses to water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones are key players in signaling environmental stress conditions. Hormone profiling together with proline accumulation were studied in leaves and roots of different mutant lines of Arabidopsis. Regulation of proline accumulation in this system seems complex and JA-deficient (jar1-1) and JA-insensitive (jai1) lines accumulating high levels of proline despite their very low ABA levels seems to discard an ABA-dependent response. However, the pattern of proline accumulation in jai1 seedlings parallels that of ABA. Under stress conditions, there is an opposite pattern of ABA accumulation in roots of jar1-1/coi1-16 (in which ABA only slightly increase) and jai1 (in which ABA increase is even higher than in WT plants). This also makes JA-ABA crosstalk complex and discards any lineal pathway that could explain this hormonal interaction. PMID:26340066

  9. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  10. Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

  11. Over-expression of bael quinolone synthase in tobacco improves plant vigor under favorable conditions, drought, or salt stress.

    PubMed

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2015-01-30

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of various medicinally important secondary metabolites in plants, but their role in growth and stress response is unclear. Here, we overexpressed quinolone synthase (QNS) from bael in tobacco. QNS-overexpressing plants showed an overall increase in growth, photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content compared to wild type plants. Second-generation (T2) transgenic plants grew to maturity, flowered early and set viable seeds under favorable conditions without yield penalty. An increased accumulation of flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids was associated with higher tolerance to drought and salinity stress in transgenic plants. Thus, bael QNS seems to function as a positive regulator of plant growth and stress response, and could be potentially used for engineering plants tolerant to abiotic stress. PMID:25555382

  12. AgRISTARS: Early warning and crop condition assessment. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator); Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Emissive (10.5 to 12.5 microns) and reflective (0.55 to 1.1 microns) data for ten day scenes and infrared data for six night scenes of southern Texas were analyzed for plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration. Heat capacity mapping mission radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures, significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration, and related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures.

  13. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  14. From microgravity to osmotic conditions: mechanical integration of plant cells in response to stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtaszek, Przemyslaw; Kasprowicz, Anna; Michalak, Michal; Janczara, Renata; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    Chemical reactions and interactions between molecules are commonly thought of as being at the basis of Life. Research of recent years, however, is more and more evidently indicating that physical forces are profoundly affecting the functioning of life at all levels of its organiza-tion. To detect and to respond to such forces, plant cells need to be integrated mechanically. Cell walls are the outermost functional zone of plant cells. They surround the individual cells, and also form a part of the apoplast. In cell suspensions, cell walls are embedded in the cul-ture medium which can be considered as a superapoplast. Through physical and chemical interactions they provide a basis for the structural and functional cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton (WMC) continuum spanning the whole cell. Here, the working of WMC contin-uum, and the participation of signalling molecules, like NO, would be presented in the context of plant responses to stress. In addition, the effects of the changing composition of WMC continuum will be considered, with particular attention paid to the modifications of the WMC components. Plant cells are normally adapted to changing osmotic conditions, resulting from variable wa-ter availability. The appearance of the osmotic stress activates adaptory mechanisms. If the strength of osmotic stress grows relatively slowly over longer period of time, the cells are able to adapt to conditions that are lethal to non-adapted cells. During stepwise adaptation of tobacco BY-2 suspension cells to the presence of various osmotically active agents, cells diverged into independent, osmoticum type-specific lines. In response to ionic agents (NaCl, KCl), the adhe-sive properties were increased and randomly dividing cells formed clumps, while cells adapted to nonionic osmotica (mannitol, sorbitol, PEG) revealed ordered pattern of precisely positioned cell divisions, resulting in the formation of long cell files. Changes in the growth patterns were accompanied by

  15. ETV REPORT - EVALUATION OF DAVIS TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL CORP. - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Evaluation of Davis Technologies International Corp. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    The Davis Technologies International Corp. (DTIC) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metalworking and ...

  16. High methylmercury production under ferruginous conditions in sediments impacted by sewage treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea G; Bouchet, Sylvain; Guédron, Stéphane; Amouroux, David; Dominik, Janusz; Zopfi, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are important point sources of mercury (Hg) to the environment. STPs are also significant sources of iron when hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) is used as a dephosphatation agent during water purification. In this study, we combined geochemical and microbiological characterization with Hg speciation and sediment amendments to evaluate the impact of STP's effluents on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production. The highest in-situ Hg methylation was found close to the discharge pipe in subsurface sediments enriched with Hg, organic matter, and iron. There, ferruginous conditions were prevailing with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(2+) and virtually no free sulfide in the porewater. Sediment incubations demonstrated that the high MMHg production close to the discharge was controlled by low demethylation yields. Inhibition of dissimilatory sulfate reduction with molybdate led to increased iron reduction rates and Hg-methylation, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may not have been the main Hg methylators under these conditions. However, Hg methylation in sediments amended with amorphous Fe(III)-oxides was only slightly higher than control conditions. Thus, in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, other non-SRB most likely contributed to Hg methylation. Overall, this study highlights that sediments impacted by STP discharges can become local hot-spots for Hg methylation due to the combined inputs of i) Hg, ii) organic matter, which fuels bacterial activities and iii) iron, which keeps porewater sulfide concentration low and hence Hg bioavailable. PMID:26005785

  17. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OFWORKING ENVIRONMENT FOR REPAIRERS OF RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK IN PLANT CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Sudeikina, N A; Kurenkova, G V

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive hygienic assessment of working environment for main occupational groups Railway Car Repair Plant in factory conditions shows that workers are exposed to the impact of factors of chemical nature in concentrations exceeding maximum allowable (lead, manganese, alkali caustic, sulphuric and nitric acids, chromium trioxide, silicon-containing dust, white corundum, diiron trioxide, silicate-organic dust, wood and carbon dusts), the high level of noise, the local vibration, insufficient levels of artificial lighting. The manual work is used, that determines the high severity of the labor process in the most of workers. There was identified the inconsistency of quality and quantitative estimation of the work conditions on chemical factor at implementation of various types of control: certification of workplaces on work conditions, productions and state control. There was given an a priori evaluation of the occupational risk in the three main workshops, there were detected 13 occupations with mild (moderate) risk, 9 occupations with average (significant) risk, 6 professions with high (intolerable) risk category and 1 occupation--with very high (intolerable) risk category. Low indices of occupational diseases according to official statistics were establishedfail to be consistent with a high probability of their occurrence in the production. PMID:26856146

  18. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  19. a Study on the SAR Data Observation Time for the Classification of Planting Condition of Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, A.; Kondo, A.; Mochizuki, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, cultivation methods of rice have been diversified due to the low cost of rice-growing techniques. For example, there is direct sowing of seed rice in paddy field in addition to the practice of usual paddy field to flooding at the time of planting. The yield of the usual paddy field and the direct sowing is different even though the same varieties are grown in the same area. It is necessary to grasp by performing classification for the usual paddy field or direct sowing for the management of agricultural crops. The main objective of this study was to select the observation time for the classification of paddy fields' planting conditions by utilizing Synthetic Aperture Radar TerraSAR-X satellite. The planting conditions included the usual planting of rice, the direct sowing of rice and the soybean. We selected the observation time by the statistical distance of the microwave backscattering in each paddy field for maximizing the planting condition classification. In addition, the satellite data observation timing considered the processing time of the analysis and the acquisition costs. The acquisition was performed 4 periods from 2 periods in the rice growing season and the planting phase. In the current study, we were able to classify the usual planting of rice, the direct sowing of rice and the soybean by TerraSAR-X data for the later planting of rice during mid-May and initial growth of rice in early June.

  20. Harvest index, a parameter conditioning responsiveness of wheat plants to elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Jauregui, Iván; Irigoyen, Juan J.; Araus, José L.; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Erice, Gorka

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the world’s population requires the development of high production agriculture. For this purpose, it is essential to identify target points conditioning crop responsiveness to predicted [CO2]. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of ear sink strength in leaf protein and metabolomic profiles and its implications in photosynthetic activity and yield of durum wheat plants exposed to elevated [CO2]. For this purpose, a genotype with high harvest index (HI) (Triticum durum var. Sula) and another with low HI (Triticum durum var. Blanqueta) were exposed to elevated [CO2] (700 µmol mol–1 versus 400 µmol mol–1 CO2) in CO2 greenhouses. The obtained data highlighted that elevated [CO2] only increased plant growth in the genotype with the largest HI; Sula. Gas exchange analyses revealed that although exposure to 700 µmol mol–1 depleted Rubisco content, Sula was capable of increasing the light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat) whereas, in Blanqueta, the carbohydrate imbalance induced the down-regulation of Asat. The specific depletion of Rubisco in both genotypes under elevated [CO2], together with the enhancement of other proteins in the Calvin cycle, revealed that there was a redistribution of N from Rubisco towards RuBP regeneration. Moreover, the down-regulation of N, NO3 –, amino acid, and organic acid content, together with the depletion of proteins involved in amino acid synthesis that was detected in Blanqueta grown at 700 µmol mol–1 CO2, revealed that inhibition of N assimilation was involved in the carbohydrate imbalance and consequently with the down-regulation of photosynthesis and growth in these plants. PMID:23564953

  1. Light to liquid fuel: theoretical and realized energy conversion efficiency of plants using crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2014-07-01

    There has been little attention paid to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mechanism for bioenergy crop tolerance to water limitation, in part, because potential yields of CAM plants have been assumed to be lower than those of most commonly studied bioenergy crops. The photochemical efficiency, water-use efficiency (WUE), biomass production, and fuel yield potentials of CAM, C3, and C4 plants that are considered or already in use for bioenergy are reviewed here. The theoretical photosynthetic efficiency of CAM plants can be similar to or greater than other photosynthetic pathways. In arid conditions, the greater WUE of CAM species results in theoretical biomass yield potentials that are 147% greater than C4 species. The realized yields of CAM plants are similar to the theoretical yields that account for water-limiting conditions. CAM plants can potentially be viable commercial bioenergy crops, but additional direct yield measurements from field trials of CAM species are still needed. PMID:24744431

  2. [Proteolytic enzymes and trypsin inhibitors of higher plants under stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Domash, V I; Sharpio, T P; Zabreĭko, S A; Sosnovskaia, T F

    2008-01-01

    The response of the components of a protease-inhibitor system of legume and cereal crops to stress factors was studied. It was found that salinization, heavy metal ions, and phytopathogenic flora inhibit the activity of neutral, acidic, and alkaline proteases at early stages of seed germination, the degree of the inhibition of the endoprotease activity being dependent on the index of tolerance of legume and cereal crops. It was shown that, in response to unfavorable conditions, accumulation of trypsin inhibitors occurs, which is accompanied by the appearance of new protein components, as indicated by electrophoresis. The results confirm the presumption that serine protease inhibitors are involved in the response of plants to stress factors. PMID:18672684

  3. The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

  4. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  5. Sediment modification by seagrass beds: Muddification and sandification induced by plant cover and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Katwijk, M. M.; Bos, A. R.; Hermus, D. C. R.; Suykerbuyk, W.

    2010-09-01

    Seagrasses are well-known ecosystem engineers. They reduce water dynamics and sediment resuspension, and trap fine sediments. However, exceptions of this paradigm have been reported. To test whether these exceptions could be related to plant cover and environmental conditions, we investigated sediment modification under influence of seagrass presence in various annual eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds with varying plant cover and sediment composition. At the relatively wave-exposed, sandy sites, dense vegetation caused muddification (increase in fine sediments and organic content) of the sediments. Sparse vegetation (<35% cover) had no effect, as such confirming the classical sediment trapping paradigm. In contrast, at the sheltered sites with muddy sediments, dense vegetation had no effect on the sediment composition, and in sparse vegetation sandification (decrease in fine sediments and organic content) was recorded. Sandification was never recorded before and was probably related to turbulence enhancement. Both, muddification and sandification are likely to provide a feedback on seagrass performance. Muddification may increase the nutrient input and, depending on the nutrient status of the system, either stimulate or reduce seagrass development. Similarly, sandification may postpone and even prevent extinction of seagrass beds when it occurs in areas that may have become too muddy for seagrass growth.

  6. Optimisation potential for a SBR plant based upon integrated modelling for dry and wet weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Rönner-Holm, S G E; Kaufmann Alves, I; Steinmetz, H; Holm, N C

    2009-01-01

    Integrated dynamic simulation analysis of a full-scale municipal sequential batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was performed using the KOSMO pollution load simulation model for the combined sewer system (CSS) and the ASM3 + EAWAG-BioP model for the WWTP. Various optimising strategies for dry and storm weather conditions were developed to raise the purification and hydraulic performance and to reduce operation costs based on simulation studies with the calibrated WWTP model. The implementation of some strategies on the plant led to lower effluent values and an average annual saving of 49,000 euro including sewage tax, which is 22% of the total running costs. Dynamic simulation analysis of CSS for an increased WWTP influent over a period of one year showed high potentials for reducing combined sewer overflow (CSO) volume by 18-27% and CSO loads for COD by 22%, NH(4)-N and P(total) by 33%. In addition, the SBR WWTP could easily handle much higher influents without exceeding the monitoring values. During the integrated simulation of representative storm events, the total emission load for COD dropped to 90%, the sewer system emitted 47% less, whereas the pollution load in the WWTP effluent increased to only 14% with 2% higher running costs. PMID:19844042

  7. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

  8. Systematic method for the condition assessment of central heating plants in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Starmack, G.J.

    1990-09-01

    Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC), facing decreasing funds and aging utility systems, needed a method to objectively rate its central heating plants. Such a rating system would be used to compare heating plants throughout the command to identify potential problem areas and prioritize major repair projects. This thesis used a Delphi questionnaire to gather opinions from heating plant experts in order to identify and prioritize components considered most critical to overall plant operation. In addition, the experts suggested measurements which could be used to evaluate component conditions. By combining expert opinions and reading from technical literature, component model rating schemes were developed for AFLC's steam and high temperature hot water plants. Based on measurements and observations of critical components in the plant, a score between 0 and 100 is assigned to each component (for example, condensate piping, deaerator, etc.), each plant subsystem (distribution system, water treatment system, etc.), and to the plant as a whole. These component model rating schemes and the resultant overall condition index scores will enable AFLC to focus their management attention and allocate needed resources to the plants in greatest need of repair.

  9. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning deactivation thermal analysis of PUREX Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.W.; Gregonis, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Thermal analysis was performed for the proposed Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant exhaust system after deactivation. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if enough condensation will occur to plug or damage the filtration components. A heat transfer and fluid flow analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal characteristics of the underground duct system, the deep-bed glass fiber filter No. 2, and the high-efficiency particulate air filters in the fourth filter building. The analysis is based on extreme variations of air temperature, relative humidity, and dew point temperature using 15 years of Hanford Site weather data as a basis. The results will be used to evaluate the need for the electric heaters proposed for the canyon exhaust to prevent condensation. Results of the analysis indicate that a condition may exist in the underground ductwork where the duct temperature can lead or lag changes in the ambient air temperature. This condition may contribute to condensation on the inside surfaces of the underground exhaust duct. A worst case conservative analysis was performed assuming that all of the water is removed from the moist air over the inside surface of the concrete duct area in the fully developed turbulent boundary layer while the moist air in the free stream will not condense. The total moisture accumulated in 24 hours is negligible. Water puddling would not be expected. The results of the analyses agree with plant operating experiences. The filters were designed to resist high humidity and direct wetting, filter plugging caused by slight condensation in the upstream duct is not a concern. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Samuel M; Allen, Edith B; Bowman, William D; Clark, Christopher M; Belnap, Jayne; Brooks, Matthew L; Cade, Brian S; Collins, Scott L; Geiser, Linda H; Gilliam, Frank S; Jovan, Sarah E; Pardo, Linda H; Schulz, Bethany K; Stevens, Carly J; Suding, Katharine N; Throop, Heather L; Waller, Donald M

    2016-04-12

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United States, to address how edaphic and climatic conditions altered vulnerability to this stressor. In our dataset, with N deposition ranging from 1 to 19 kg N⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1), we found a unimodal relationship; richness increased at low deposition levels and decreased above 8.7 and 13.4 kg N⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1) in open and closed-canopy vegetation, respectively. N deposition exceeded critical loads for loss of plant species richness in 24% of 15,136 sites examined nationwide. There were negative relationships between species richness and N deposition in 36% of 44 community gradients. Vulnerability to N deposition was consistently higher in more acidic soils whereas the moderating roles of temperature and precipitation varied across scales. We demonstrate here that negative relationships between N deposition and species richness are common, albeit not universal, and that fine-scale processes can moderate vegetation responses to N deposition. Our results highlight the importance of contingent factors when estimating ecosystem vulnerability to N deposition and suggest that N deposition is affecting species richness in forested and nonforested systems across much of the continental United States. PMID:27035943

  11. Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simkin, Samuel M.; Allen, Edith B.; Bowman, William D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Belnap, Jayne; Brooks, Matthew L.; Cade, Brian S.; Collins, Scott L.; Geiser, Linda H.; Gilliam, Frank S.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Pardo, Linda H.; Schulz, Bethany K.; Stevens, Carly J.; Suding, Katharine N.; Throop, Heather L.; Waller, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United States, to address how edaphic and climatic conditions altered vulnerability to this stressor. In our dataset, with N deposition ranging from 1 to 19 kg N⋅ha−1⋅y−1, we found a unimodal relationship; richness increased at low deposition levels and decreased above 8.7 and 13.4 kg N⋅ha−1⋅y−1 in open and closed-canopy vegetation, respectively. N deposition exceeded critical loads for loss of plant species richness in 24% of 15,136 sites examined nationwide. There were negative relationships between species richness and N deposition in 36% of 44 community gradients. Vulnerability to N deposition was consistently higher in more acidic soils whereas the moderating roles of temperature and precipitation varied across scales. We demonstrate here that negative relationships between N deposition and species richness are common, albeit not universal, and that fine-scale processes can moderate vegetation responses to N deposition. Our results highlight the importance of contingent factors when estimating ecosystem vulnerability to N deposition and suggest that N deposition is affecting species richness in forested and nonforested systems across much of the continental United States.

  12. Phenological mismatch with abiotic conditions implications for flowering in Arctic plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Helen C; Høye, Toke T; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2015-03-01

    Although many studies have examined the phenological mismatches between interacting organisms, few have addressed the potential for mismatches between phenology and seasonal weather conditions. In the Arctic, rapid phenological changes in many taxa are occurring in association with earlier snowmelt. The timing of snowmelt is jointly affected by the size of the late winter snowpack and the temperature during the spring thaw. Increased winter snowpack results in delayed snowmelt, whereas higher air temperatures and faster snowmelt advance the timing of snowmelt. Where interannual variation in snowpack is substantial, changes in the timing of snowmelt can be largely uncoupled from changes in air temperature. Using detailed, long-term data on the flowering phenology of four arctic plant species from Zackenberg, Greenland, we investigate whether there is a phenological component to the temperature conditions experienced prior to and during flowering. In particular, we assess the role of timing of flowering in determining pre-flowering exposure to freezing temperatures and to the temperatures-experienced prior to flowering. We then examine the implications of flowering phenology for flower abundance. Earlier snowmelt resulted in greater exposure to freezing conditions, suggesting an increased potential for a mismatch between the timing of flowering and seasonal weather conditions and an increased potential for negative consequences, such as freezing 'damage. We also found a parabolic relationship between the timing of flowering and the temperature experienced during flowering after taking interannual temperature effects into account. If timing of flowering advances to a cooler period of the growing season, this may moderate the effects of a general warming trend across years. Flower abundance was quadratically associated with the timing of flowering, such that both early and late flowering led to lower flower abundance than did intermediate flowering. Our results

  13. Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge at pilot plant scale. 1. Operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponti, C; Sonnleitner, B; Fiechter, A

    1995-01-15

    The aerobic thermophilic treatment process of sewage sludge was studied at different bioreactor scales in a pilot plant installation. Since, for a satisfactory sludge disinfection, the Swiss legislation requires minimal incubation times of all volume elements, the bioreactors were operated in repetitive batch mode (draw and fill). Different retention times and frequencies of the volume changes were applied in order to prove the capability of the particular operation modes in assuring high degradative potential. The main enzymatic activity involved during the aerobic treatment was proteolysis: the RQ values ranged between 0.8 and 0.9 depending on the applied operating conditions. Although not in a linear manner, the efficiency of the microflora decreased as the bioreactor scale increased, when this increase corresponded with a reduction of the specific power input. The sludge oxidation rates can be tuned by some process operating conditions such as the volume change frequency, the changed volume quantities and the retention times. It was possible to improve the microbial degradative efficiency by an increased frequency of the changes, while the mean retention time influenced in particular the ultimate product quality, described as residual organic matter content of the sludge. The microflora present was also satisfactorily active at mean hydraulic retention times of less than 10 h. The organic matter concentration of the inlet sewage sludge plays an important role: it influences the aerobic degradation process positively. PMID:7765808

  14. Microbial inoculants and organic amendment improves plant establishment and soil rehabilitation under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Mengual, Carmen; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Azcón, Rosario; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    The re-establishment of autochthonous shrub species is an essential strategy for recovering degraded soils under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. A field assay was carried out to determine the combined effects of the inoculation with native rhizobacteria (Bacillus megaterium, Enterobacter sp, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sp) and the addition of composted sugar beet (SB) residue on physicochemical soil properties and Lavandula dentata L. establishment. One year after planting, Bacillus sp. and B. megaterium + SB were the most effective treatments for increasing shoot dry biomass (by 5-fold with respect to control) and Enterobacter sp + SB was the most effective treatments for increasing dry root biomass. All the treatments evaluated significantly increased the foliar nutrient content (NPK) compared to control values (except B. thuringiensis + SB). The organic amendment had significantly increased available phosphorus content in rhizosphere soil by 29% respect to the control. Enterobacter sp combined with sugar beet residue improved total N content in soil (by 46% respect to the control) as well as microbiological and biochemical properties. The selection of the most efficient rhizobacteria strains and their combined effect with organic residue seems to be a critical point that drives the effectiveness of using these biotechnological tools for the revegetation and rehabilitation of degraded soils under semiarid conditions. PMID:24463051

  15. Starch Accumulation in the Bundle Sheaths of C3 Plants: A Possible Pre-Condition for C4 Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    C4 plants have evolved >60 times from their C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis requires a set of closely co-ordinated anatomical and biochemical characteristics. However, it is now recognized that the evolution of C4 plants requires fewer changes than had ever been considered, because of the genetic, biochemical and anatomical pre-conditions of C3 ancestors that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis. Therefore, the pre-conditions in C3 plants are now being actively investigated to clarify the evolutionary trajectory from C3 to C4 plants and to engineer C4 traits efficiently into C3 crops. In the present mini review, the anatomical characteristics of C3 and C4 plants are briefly reviewed and the importance of the bundle sheath for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is described. For example, while the bundle sheath of C3 rice plants accumulates large amounts of starch in the developing leaf blade and at the lamina joint of the mature leaf, the starch sheath function is also observed during leaf development in starch accumulator grasses regardless of photosynthetic type. The starch sheath function of C3 plants is therefore also implicated as a possible pre-condition for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. The phylogenetic relationships between the types of storage carbohydrates and of photosynthesis need to be clarified in the future. PMID:26936788

  16. Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

  17. PLANT CULTURAL SYSTEM FOR MONITORING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plant culture system incorporating the water-table root-screen method for controlling plant water status was adapted for use in open-top field exposure chambers for studying the effects of drought stress on physiological responses. The daily transpiration rates of the plants we...

  18. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  19. Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  20. Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  1. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  2. Salt marsh dieback in coastal Louisiana: survey of plant and soil conditions in Barataria and Terrebonne basins, June 2000-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Materne, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden and extensive dieback of the perennial marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), which dominates regularly flooded salt marshes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines, occurred in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The objectives of this study were to assess soil and plant conditions in dieback areas of the Barataria-Terrebonne estuarine system as well as vegetative recovery during and after this dieback event. Multiple dieback sites were examined along 100 km of shoreline from the Atchafalaya River to the Mississippi River during the period from June 2000 through September 2001. The species primarily affected was S. alterniflora; sympatric species such as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn (black mangrove) and Juncus roemerianus Scheele (needlegrass rush) showed no visible signs of stress. The pattern of marsh dieback was distinctive with greatest mortality in the marsh interior, suggesting a correlation with local patterns of soil chemistry and/or hydrology. Little or no expansion of dieback occurred subsequent to the initial event, and areas with 50 percent or less mortality in the fall of 2000 had completely recovered by April 2001. Recovery was slower in interior marshes with 90 percent or greater mortality initially. However, regenerating plants in dieback areas showing some recovery were robust, and reproductive output was high, indicating that the causative agent was no longer present and that post-dieback soil conditions were actually promoting plant growth. Stands of other species within or near some dieback sites remained largely unchanged or expanded (A. germinans) into the dead salt marsh. The cause of the dieback is currently unknown. Biotic agents and excessive soil waterlogging/high sulfide were ruled out as primary causes of this acute event, although they could have contributed to overall plant stress and/or interacted with the primary agent to cause plant mortality. Our observations over the 15 month study

  3. AN APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF RIPARIAN PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE JOHN DAY AND DESCHUTES RIVER BASINS OF EASTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian vegetation represents unique plant communities and provides a variety of ecosystem services that influence in-stream condition. This research develops methods and indicators for evaluating vegetation condition. A key indicator of riparian vegetation condition is the deg...

  4. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  5. Impact of hormonal crosstalk on plant resistance and fitness under multi-attacker conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Irene A.; Moritz, Liselotte; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The hormone salicylic acid (SA) generally induces plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. Jasmonic acid (JA) and its oxylipin derivatives together with ethylene (ET) are generally important hormonal regulators of induced plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens, whereas JAs together with abscisic acid (ABA) are implicated in induced plant defenses against herbivorous insects. Hormonal crosstalk between the different plant defense pathways has often been hypothesized to be a cost-saving strategy that has evolved as a means of the plant to reduce allocation costs by repression of unnecessary defenses, thereby minimizing trade-offs between plant defense and growth. However, proof for this hypothesis has not been demonstrated yet. In this study the impact of hormonal crosstalk on disease resistance and fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana when under multi-species attack was investigated. Induction of SA- or JA/ABA-dependent defense responses by the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae, respectively, was shown to reduce the level of induced JA/ET-dependent defense against subsequent infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. However, despite the enhanced susceptibility to this second attacker, no additional long-term negative effects were observed on plant fitness when plants had been challenged by multiple attackers. Similarly, when plants were grown in dense competition stands to enlarge fitness effects of induced defenses, treatment with a combination of SA and MeJA did not cause additional negative effects on plant fitness in comparison to the single MeJA treatment. Together, these data support the notion that hormonal crosstalk in plants during multi-attacker interactions allows plants to prioritize their defenses, while limiting the fitness costs associated with induction of defenses. PMID:26347758

  6. Ecological and evolutionary conditions for fruit abortion to regulate pollinating seed-eaters and increase plant production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Coevolved mutualisms, such as those between senita cacti, yuccas, and their respective obligate pollinators, benefit both species involved in the interaction. However, in these pollination mutualisms the pollinator's larvae impose a cost on plants through consumption of developing seeds and fruit. The effects of pollinators on benefits and costs are expected to vary with the abundance of pollinators, because large population sizes result in more eggs and larval seed-eaters. Here, we develop the hypothesis that fruit abortion, which is common in yucca, senita, and plants in general, could in some cases have the function of limiting pollinator abundance and, thereby, increasing fruit production. Using a general steady-state model of fruit production and pollinator dynamics, we demonstrate that plants involved in pollinating seed-eater mutualisms can increase their fecundity by randomly aborting fruit. We show that the ecological conditions under which fruit abortion can improve plants fecundity are not unusual. They are best met when the plant is long-lived, the population dynamics of the pollinator are much faster than those of the plant, the loss of one fruit via abortion kills a larva that would have the expectation of destroying more than one fruit through its future egg laying as an adult moth, and the effects of fruit abortion on pollinator abundance are spatially localized. We then use the approach of adaptive dynamics to find conditions under which a fruit abortion strategy based on regulating the pollinator population could feasibly evolve in this type of plant–pollinator interaction.

  7. Intra-plant Variation in Nectar Sugar Composition in Two Aquilegia Species (Ranunculaceae): Contrasting Patterns under Field and Glasshouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Azucena; Pérez, Ricardo; Medrano, Mónica; Castellanos, María Clara; Herrera, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Intra-specific variation in nectar chemistry under natural conditions has been only rarely explored, yet it is an essential aspect of our understanding of how pollinator-mediated selection might act on nectar traits. This paper examines intra-specific variation in nectar sugar composition in field and glasshouse plants of the bumblebee-pollinated perennial herbs Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. vulgaris and Aquilegia pyrenaica subsp. cazorlensis (Ranunculaceae). The aims of the study are to assess the generality of extreme intra-plant variation in nectar sugar composition recently reported for other species in the field, and gaining insight on the possible mechanisms involved. Methods The proportions of glucose, fructose and sucrose in single-nectary nectar samples collected from field and glasshouse plants were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. A hierarchical variance partition was used to dissect total variance into components due to variation among plants, flowers within plants, and nectaries within flowers. Key Results Nectar of the two species was mostly sucrose-dominated, but composition varied widely in the field, ranging from sucrose-only to fructose-dominated. Most intra-specific variance was due to differences among nectaries of the same flower, and flowers of the same plant. The high intra-plant variation in sugar composition exhibited by field plants vanished in the glasshouse, where nectar composition emerged as a remarkably constant feature across plants, flowers and nectaries. Conclusions In addition to corroborating the results of previous studies documenting extreme intra-plant variation in nectar sugar composition in the field, this study suggests that such variation may ultimately be caused by biotic factors operating on the nectar in the field but not in the glasshouse. Pollinator visitation and pollinator-borne yeasts are suggested as likely causal agents. PMID:17259227

  8. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  9. Microbial gas generation under expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Giles, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository was investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosics (various types of paper) and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, neoprene, hypalon, and leaded hypalon) was examined. The rate of gas production from cellulose biodegradation in inundated samples incubated for 1,228 days at 30 C was biphasic, with an initial rapid rate up to approximately 600 days incubation, followed by a slower rate. The rate of total gas production in anaerobic samples containing mixed inoculum was as follows: 0.002 mL/g cellulose/day without nutrients; 0.004 mL/g cellulose/day with nutrients; and 0.01 mL/g cellulose/day in the presence of excess nitrate. Carbon dioxide production proceeded at a rate of 0.009 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples without nutrients, 0.05 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of nutrients, and 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day with excess nitrate. Adding nutrients and excess nitrate stimulated denitrification, as evidenced by the accumulation of N{sub 2}O in the headspace (200 {micro}mol/g cellulose). The addition of the potential backfill bentonite increased the rate of CO{sub 2} production to 0.3 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples with excess nitrate. Analysis of the solution showed that lactic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids were produced due to cellulose degradation. Samples incubated under anaerobic humid conditions for 415 days produced CO{sub 2} at a rate of 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the absence of nutrients, and 1 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of bentonite and nutrients. There was no evidence of biodegradation of electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber.

  10. EFFECT OF ACIDIC CONDITIONS ON CADMIUM UPTAKE BY THREE AQUATIC PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidic runoff from mining and storage of mined materials creates an undesirable environmental impact on both flora and fauna. Presence of heavy metals such as Cadmium (CD) creates an additional negative factor in acidic environments. Accumulation of Cd in plant tissues of aquatic vascular plants i...

  11. Study of soil-plant transfer of 226Ra under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benesová, Dagmar; Kotyza, Jan; Vágner, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Vanek, Tomás

    2010-06-01

    A soil-plant transfer study was performed using soil from a former uranium ore processing factory in South Bohemia. We present the results from greenhouse experiments which include estimates of the time required for phytoremediation. The accumulation of (226)Ra by different plant species from a mixture of garden soil and contaminated substrate was extremely variable, ranging from 0.03 to 2.20 Bq (226)Ra/g DW. We found differences in accumulation of (226)Ra between plants from the same genus and between cultivars of the same plant species. The results of (226)Ra accumulation showed a linear relation between concentration of (226)Ra in plants and concentration of (226)Ra in soil mixtures. On the basis of these results we estimated the time required for phytoremediation, but this appears to be too long for practical purposes. PMID:18823682

  12. Fiber optic spectrophotometry monitoring of plant nutrient deficiency under hydroponic culture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S. L.; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; He, Duo-Min

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, fiber optic spectrophotometry (FOSpectr) was adapted to provide early detection of plant nutrient deficiency by measuring leaf spectral reflectance variation resulting from nutrient stress. Leaf reflectance data were obtained form a local vegetable crop, Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey), grown in nitrate-nitrogen (N)- and calcium (Ca)- deficient hydroponics nutrient solution. FOSpectr analysis showed significant differences in leaf reflectance within the first four days after subjecting plants to nutrient-deficient media. Recovery of the nutrient-stressed plants could also be detected after transferring them back to complete nutrient solution. In contrast to FOSpectr, plant response to nitrogen and calcium deficiency in terms of reduced growth and tissue elemental levels was slower and less pronounced. Thus, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using FOSpectr methodology as a non-destructive alternative to augment current methods of plant nutrient analysis.

  13. Increased nutritional quality of plants for long-duration spaceflight missions through choice of plant variety and manipulation of growth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohu, Christopher M.; Lombardi, Elizabeth; Adams, William W.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Low levels of radiation during spaceflight increase the incidence of eye damage and consumption of certain carotenoids (especially zeaxanthin), via a whole-food-based diet (rather than from supplements), is recommended to protect human vision against radiation damage. Availability of fresh leafy produce has, furthermore, been identified as desirable for morale during long spaceflight missions. We report that only trace amounts of zeaxanthin are retained post-harvest in leaves grown under conditions conducive to rapid plant growth. We show that growth of plants under cool temperatures and very high light can trigger a greater retention of zeaxanthin, while, however, simultaneously retarding plant growth. We here introduce a novel growth condition—low growth light supplemented with several short daily light pulses of higher intensity—that also triggers zeaxanthin retention, but without causing any growth retardation. Moreover, two plant varieties with different hardiness exhibited a different propensity for zeaxanthin retention. These findings demonstrate that growth light environment and plant variety can be exploited to simultaneously optimize nutritional quality (with respect to zeaxanthin and two other carotenoids important for human vision, lutein and β-carotene) as well as biomass production of leafy greens suitable as bioregenerative systems for long-duration manned spaceflight missions.

  14. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils. PMID:25492808

  15. Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

  16. [Impact of working conditions at a general mechanical rubber goods plant on dental morbidity in its workers].

    PubMed

    Dautov, F F; Filippova, M V

    2008-01-01

    The impact of working conditions on dental morbidity was studied in workers from the Kazan general mechanical rubber goods (GMRG) plant. Analysis of the results of studying the prevalence of major dental diseases in the workers of the GMRG plant showed that the number of patients with caries, noncarious lesions, as well as periodontal diseases is far in excess of those in the control group. The studies, conducted in terms of the age and length of service of the examinees, corroborate the influence of adverse industrial factors on the prevalence of major dental diseases. PMID:18507173

  17. ``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinsky, A.; Ivanova, I.; Derendyaeva, T.; Nechitailo, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  18. Accumulation of N-Acetylglucosamine Oligomers in the Plant Cell Wall Affects Plant Architecture in a Dose-Dependent and Conditional Manner1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vanholme, Bartel; Vanholme, Ruben; Turumtay, Halbay; Goeminne, Geert; Cesarino, Igor; Goubet, Florence; Morreel, Kris; Rencoret, Jorge; Bulone, Vincent; Hooijmaijers, Cortwa; De Rycke, Riet; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ralph, John; De Block, Marc; Meulewaeter, Frank; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of short N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligosaccharides on the physiology of plants, N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINYLTRANSFERASE (NodC) of Azorhizobium caulinodans was expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The corresponding enzyme catalyzes the polymerization of GlcNAc and, accordingly, β-1,4-GlcNAc oligomers accumulated in the plant. A phenotype characterized by difficulties in developing an inflorescence stem was visible when plants were grown for several weeks under short-day conditions before transfer to long-day conditions. In addition, a positive correlation between the oligomer concentration and the penetrance of the phenotype was demonstrated. Although NodC overexpression lines produced less cell wall compared with wild-type plants under nonpermissive conditions, no indications were found for changes in the amount of the major cell wall polymers. The effect on the cell wall was reflected at the transcriptome level. In addition to genes encoding cell wall-modifying enzymes, a whole set of genes encoding membrane-coupled receptor-like kinases were differentially expressed upon GlcNAc accumulation, many of which encoded proteins with an extracellular Domain of Unknown Function26. Although stress-related genes were also differentially expressed, the observed response differed from that of a classical chitin response. This is in line with the fact that the produced chitin oligomers were too small to activate the chitin receptor-mediated signal cascade. Based on our observations, we propose a model in which the oligosaccharides modify the architecture of the cell wall by acting as competitors in carbohydrate-carbohydrate or carbohydrate-protein interactions, thereby affecting noncovalent interactions in the cell wall or at the interface between the cell wall and the plasma membrane. PMID:24664205

  19. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  20. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. PMID:24239820

  1. [The effectiveness of using biohumus for growing plants under autonomous conditions].

    PubMed

    Geodakian, R O; Erofeeva, T V

    1996-01-01

    There has been investigated the possibility of prolonging the useful time of the substrate on the basis of natural salt-loaded zeolite "Balkanin" used in space greenhouses to grow plants through introduction of an organic addition, i.e. biohumus, instead of regeneration. Biohumus has been applied into the substrate in amounts of 5.0-15.0 wt%. There has been grown tropical perennial plant Basella rubra L. used for food as a salad. It is found that the periodic introduction of biohumus in substrate enables a 4-19 time increase of its useful life without regeneration within more than 4 years and assures high and stable crop yield with high quality biomass. As compared to the control, the nitrates content of the plant biomass was, on the average, 3 times lower and decreased to the point of their total absence at the end of experiment. The results obtained allow us to recommend the above-mentioned technology of plant growing in space greenhouses both when included into closed environmental systems and in independent plant growth facilities aboard spacecraft. During space flights exceeding 2 years in length, additional supplies of biohumus will be required. This will be enough to stabilize the structure and the size of microbial community in substrate and provide a high crop yield. PMID:8963292

  2. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang; Hoson, Takayuki; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days) on single cells (plant protoplasts). Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station. PMID:27135317

  3. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station-The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang; Hoson, Takayuki; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8-14 days) on single cells (plant protoplasts). Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station. PMID:27135317

  4. Propagule Pressure, Habitat Conditions and Clonal Integration Influence the Establishment and Growth of an Invasive Clonal Plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Fang, Long-Xiang; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules) may affect the establishment, growth, and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments) or low (one fragment) propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat) or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat), with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions. PMID:27200041

  5. Propagule Pressure, Habitat Conditions and Clonal Integration Influence the Establishment and Growth of an Invasive Clonal Plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    PubMed

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Fang, Long-Xiang; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules) may affect the establishment, growth, and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments) or low (one fragment) propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat) or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat), with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions. PMID:27200041

  6. Cable Polymer Aging and Condition Monitoring Research at Sandia National Laboratores Under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program

    SciTech Connect

    K. Gillen; R. Assink; R. Bernstein

    2005-12-23

    This report describes cable polymer aging and condition monitoring research performed at Sandia National Laboratories under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program from 2000 to 2005. The research results apply to low-voltage cable insulation and Program from 2000 to 2005. The research results apply to low-voltage cable insulation and jacket materials that are commonly used in U.S. nuclear power plants. The research builds upon and is liked to research performed at Sandia from 1977 through 1986, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Aged and unaged specimens from that research remained available and were subjected to further testing under the NEPO research effort.The documented results from the earlier research were complemented by subjecting the specimens to new condition monitoring tests. Additional aging regimens were applied to additional specimens to develop aging models for key cable jacket and insulation materials

  7. Acclimatization of communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to seasonal changes in optimal conditions in a coke wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mo

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between optimal conditions of ammonia oxidation rates (AORs) and communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) adapting to seasonal changes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The optimal temperature and pH of specific AORs reflected seasonal variation patterns, showing the lowest values during the cold season, while the highest values in the warm season. Throughout the study period, Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and Nitrosomonas nitrosa remained the dominant AOB, indicating resistance to the influences of a changing environment. These results show that the optimal conditions for AOR can be adjusted to accommodate changing environmental conditions, relying on the acclimatization of a stable AOB community to given conditions, without any visible shift in the AOB community. PMID:24001689

  8. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae)on four host plant species under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development, survival and reproduction of the papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) on three ornamental plants (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha sp. and Plumeria sp.) and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) were investigated. Papaya mealybug was able t...

  9. ARE INVASIVE RIPARIAN PLANTS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED BIOTIC CONDITION OF FAUNA IN WESTERN US STREAMS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yes. Records on the presence or absence of 12 invasive riparian plant taxa and observations on macroinvertebrate and vertebrate communities within streams were collected at over 1000 stream reaches. The sampled reaches were selected on a probability basis to represent the populat...

  10. The condition of browse plants at the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Ranch (TRMR)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Olson, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    As background for a more comprehensive study, we collected data in September and October 1999 from which to assess the impact of ungulates on browse plants. There were three general objectives: 1) determine the current level of browsing intensity, 2) reconstruct histories of browsing, and 3) determine the effect of browsing on rate of stem growth.

  11. Plant Response to Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Field Conditions: A Simulation.

    PubMed

    Allen, L H; Jensen, S E; Lemon, E R

    1971-07-16

    A comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere computer simulation model (SPAM) predicted up to a 45 percent increase in carbon dioxide uptake by a crop enriched with carbon dioxide at ground level. Enrichment rates of 225 and 450 kilograms of carbon dioxide per hectare per hour were used. Simulations covered a wide range of wind speed, crop height, and leaf area display. PMID:17741423

  12. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  13. Use of a Simple, Colorimetric Assay to Demonstrate Conditions for Induction of Nitrate Reductase in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrate assimilation by plants provides an excellent system for demonstrating control of gene expression in a eukaryotic organism. Describes an assay method that allows students to complete experiments designed around the measurement of nitrate reductase within a three-hour laboratory experiment. (PR)

  14. Regulation of potassium transport in plants under hostile conditions: implications for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Sergey; Pottosin, Igor

    2014-07-01

    Intracellular potassium homeostasis is a prerequisite for the optimal operation of plant metabolic machinery and plant's overall performance. It is controlled by K(+) uptake, efflux and intracellular and long-distance relocation, mediated by a large number of K(+) -selective and non-selective channels and transporters located at both plasma and vacuolar membranes. All abiotic and biotic stresses result in a significant disturbance to intracellular potassium homeostasis. In this work, we discuss molecular mechanisms and messengers mediating potassium transport and homeostasis focusing on four major environmental stresses: salinity, drought, flooding and biotic factors. We argue that cytosolic K(+) content may be considered as one of the 'master switches' enabling plant transition from the normal metabolism to 'hibernated state' during first hours after the stress exposure and then to a recovery phase. We show that all these stresses trigger substantial disturbance to K(+) homeostasis and provoke a feedback control on K(+) channels and transporters expression and post-translational regulation of their activity, optimizing K(+) absorption and usage, and, at the extreme end, assisting the programmed cell death. We discuss specific modes of regulation of the activity of K(+) channels and transporters by membrane voltage, intracellular Ca(2+) , reactive oxygen species, polyamines, phytohormones and gasotransmitters, and link this regulation with plant-adaptive responses to hostile environments. PMID:24506225

  15. Drivers of Plant-Availability of Phosphorus from Thermally Conditioned Sewage Sludge as Assessed by Isotopic Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Andriamananjara, Andry; Rabeharisoa, Lilia; Prud’homme, Loïc; Morel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Urban sewage sludge is a potential source of phosphorus (P) for agriculture and represents an alternative way to recycle P as fertilizer. However, the use of thermally conditioned sewage sludge (TCSS) required an accurate assessment of its value as P-fertilizer. This work aimed at assessing the plant-availability of P from TCSS. Uptake of P by a mixture of ryegrass and fescue from TCSS and triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers was studied using 32P-labeling technique in a greenhouse experiment. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 50 mg P kg−1.We also conducted incubation experiments considering the same treatments to assess soil microbial respiration. Applications of TCSS and TSP increased plant P uptake that is related to the root P acquisition. The P taken up by plant from soil plant-available P was lower for control compared to TSP or TCSS that was attributed to the increase of root interception of soil P. The contribution of TSP to ryegrass nutrition (Pdff%) was 55% with 22% of the applied P which was taken up by plants (CPU%). The Pdff value for TCSS was 56% with 14% of fertilizer P recovery (CPU%). Shoot biomass and total P uptake from TCSS were lower than those from TSP. As a result, the agronomic effectiveness of TCSS calculated from Pdff value (in comparison with TSP treatment) was 102%, while the AE of TCSS estimated from CPU value (in % TSP) was 64%, which is attributed to microbial activity stimulation inducing P immobilization onto soil constituents and microbial biomass during plant growth. The high C/N ratio of TCSS stimulated soil microbial biomass that competes with plant roots to acquire nutrients, such as P. As a consequence, the P taken up from either native soil or TCSS decreased in similar proportions. The AE value calculated with Pdff% took into account these interactions between soil, plant, and microbial biomass, and is less dependent on operational conditions than the AE value calculated with %Precovery. PMID:27379240

  16. Drivers of Plant-Availability of Phosphorus from Thermally Conditioned Sewage Sludge as Assessed by Isotopic Labeling.

    PubMed

    Andriamananjara, Andry; Rabeharisoa, Lilia; Prud'homme, Loïc; Morel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Urban sewage sludge is a potential source of phosphorus (P) for agriculture and represents an alternative way to recycle P as fertilizer. However, the use of thermally conditioned sewage sludge (TCSS) required an accurate assessment of its value as P-fertilizer. This work aimed at assessing the plant-availability of P from TCSS. Uptake of P by a mixture of ryegrass and fescue from TCSS and triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers was studied using (32)P-labeling technique in a greenhouse experiment. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 50 mg P kg(-1).We also conducted incubation experiments considering the same treatments to assess soil microbial respiration. Applications of TCSS and TSP increased plant P uptake that is related to the root P acquisition. The P taken up by plant from soil plant-available P was lower for control compared to TSP or TCSS that was attributed to the increase of root interception of soil P. The contribution of TSP to ryegrass nutrition (Pdff%) was 55% with 22% of the applied P which was taken up by plants (CPU%). The Pdff value for TCSS was 56% with 14% of fertilizer P recovery (CPU%). Shoot biomass and total P uptake from TCSS were lower than those from TSP. As a result, the agronomic effectiveness of TCSS calculated from Pdff value (in comparison with TSP treatment) was 102%, while the AE of TCSS estimated from CPU value (in % TSP) was 64%, which is attributed to microbial activity stimulation inducing P immobilization onto soil constituents and microbial biomass during plant growth. The high C/N ratio of TCSS stimulated soil microbial biomass that competes with plant roots to acquire nutrients, such as P. As a consequence, the P taken up from either native soil or TCSS decreased in similar proportions. The AE value calculated with Pdff% took into account these interactions between soil, plant, and microbial biomass, and is less dependent on operational conditions than the AE value calculated with %Precovery. PMID:27379240

  17. Promoting scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic Atropa belladonna plants with pmt and h6h overexpression under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qiaozhuo; Qiang, Wei; Guo, Jianjun; Lan, Xiaozhong; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhihua

    2016-09-01

    Atropa belladonna is one of the most important plant sources for producing pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, in which putrescine N-methyltransferase (EC. 2.1.1.53) from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPMT) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (EC. 1.14.11.14) from Hyoscyamus niger (HnH6H) were overexpressed, were established to investigate TA biosynthesis and distribution in ripe fruits, leaves, stems, primary roots and secondary roots under field conditions. Both NtPMT and HnH6H were detected at the transcriptional level in transgenic plants, whereas they were not detected in wild-type plants. The transgenes did not influence the root-specific expression patterns of endogenous TA biosynthetic genes in A. belladonna. All four endogenous TA biosynthetic genes (AbPMT, AbTRI, AbCYP80F1 and AbH6H) had the highest/exclusive expression levels in secondary roots, suggesting that TAs were mainly synthesized in secondary roots. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna showed an impressive scopolamine-rich chemotype that greatly improved the pharmaceutical value of A. belladonna. The higher efficiency of hyoscyamine conversion was found in aerial than in underground parts. In aerial parts of transgenic plants, hyoscyamine was totally converted to downstream alkaloids, especially scopolamine. Hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine were detected in underground parts, but scopolamine and anisodamine were more abundant than hyoscyamine. The exclusively higher levels of anisodamine in roots suggested that it might be difficult for its translocation from root to aerial organs. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, which produces scopolamine at very high levels (2.94-5.13 mg g(-1)) in field conditions, can provide more valuable plant materials for scopolamine production. PMID:27135818

  18. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Bielawski, Wieslaw

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  19. Dose-projection considerations for emergency conditions at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Poeton, R.W.; Powell, D.C.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the problems and issues associated with making environmental radiation-dose projections during emergencies at nuclear power plants. The review is divided into three areas: source-term development, characterization of atmospheric dispersion and selection of appropriate dispersion models, and development of dosimetry calculations for determining thyroid dose and whole-body dose for ground-level and elevated releases. A discussion of uncertainties associated with these areas is also provided.

  20. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua A.; Cherry, Julia A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2016-02-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2%). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical

  1. Phosphorus Concentrations in Above Ground Plant Biomass under Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, C.; Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment explores the effects of climate change on annual grasslands with different combinations of elevated or ambient levels of carbon dioxide, heat, precipitation, and nitrate deposition. The nested split-plot design allows for analysis of each variable, combinations of variables, and secondary effects. In this study, plant nutrient levels in homogenized above ground biomass are analyzed to assess the utility of this parameter as a tool to describe the response of an ecosystem to environmental changes. Total phosphorus concentrations showed considerable variability within treatment (n=8) and therefore no significant differences between treatments (n=16) is found. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in bulk above ground biomass are being analyzed to determine nitrogen and carbon ratios and further elucidate the environmental response of phosphorus levels in plants to the modified parameters. P concentrations and elemental ratios will also be related to other parameters such as soil humidity, microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and plant diversity to determine the parameters influencing P content in the biomass.

  2. Influence of nonuniform magnetic fields on orientation of plant seedlings in microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Nechitailo, G S; Mashinsky, A L; Kuznetsov, A A; Chikov, V M; Kuznetsov, O A

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on the spatial behavior of the flax (Linum usitatissimum, L.) seedlings in a nonuniform magnetic field were conducted on the orbital space stations "Salut" and "Mir". This field can displace sensory organelles (statoliths) inside receptor cells and such displacement should cause a physiological reaction of the plant-tropistic curvature. Experiments were conducted in the custom-built "Magnetogravistat" facility, where seeds were germinated and grown for 3-4 days in a magnetic field with the dynamic factor grad (H2/2) approximately equal to 10(7) Oe2/cm, then fixed on orbit and returned to Earth for analysis. It was found, that 93% of the seedlings were oriented in the field consistently with curvature in response to displacement of statoliths along the field gradient by ponderomotive magnetic forces, while control seedlings grew in the direction of the initial orientation of the seed. This suggests, that gravity receptors of plants recognized magnetic forces on statoliths as gravity, and that gravity stimulus can be substituted for plants by a force of a different physical nature. PMID:11803966

  3. Influence of nonuniform magnetic fields on orientation of plant seedlings in microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Chikov, V. M.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on the spatial behavior of the flax ( Linum usitatissimum, L.) seedlings in a nonuniform magnetic field were conducted on the orbital space stations «Salutå and «Mirå. This field can displace sensory organelles (statoliths) inside receptor cells and such displacement should cause a physiological reaction of the plant - tropistic curvature. Experiments were conducted in the custom-built «Magnetogravistatå facility, where seeds were germinated and grown for 3-4 days in a magnetic field with the dynamic factor grad(H 2/2)≈ 10 7 Oe 2/cm, then fixed on orbit and returned to Earth for analysis. It was found, that 93% of the seedlings were oriented in the field consistently with curvature in response to displacement of statoliths along the field gradient by ponderomotive magnetic forces, while control seedlings grew in the direction of the initial orientation of the seed. This suggests, that gravity receptors of plants recognized magnetic forces on statoliths as gravity, and that gravity stimulus can be substituted for plants by a force of a different physical nature.

  4. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  5. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva D; Gupta, Pooja D; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  6. Incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-Infected Plants Among Citrandarins as Rootstock and Scion Under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Boava, Leonardo Pires; Sagawa, Cíntia Helena Duarte; Cristofani-Yaly, Mariângela; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp., is currently one of the most serious diseases of citrus plants and has caused substantial economic losses. Thus far, there is no source of genetic resistance to HLB in the genus Citrus or its relatives. However, several studies have reported Poncirus trifoliata and some of its hybrids to be more tolerant to the disease. The main objective of this study was to report differences in the incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection in citrandarin plants, hybrids from Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki (Hayata) hort. ex Tanaka), and trifoliate orange Rubidoux (P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.)), after conducting an extensive survey under field conditions. These hybrid plants were established for approximately 7 years in an area with a high incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants. We selected two experimental areas (area A and area B), located approximately 10 m apart. Area A consists of Pera sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osb.) grafted onto 56 different citrandarin rootstocks. Area B consists of citrandarin scions grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb.) rootstock. Bacteria in the leaves and roots were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants was 92% in area A and 14% in area B. Because infected plants occurred in both areas, we examined whether the P. trifoliata hybrid rootstock influenced HLB development and also determined the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Citrus tree tissues. Although this survey does not present evidence regarding the resistance of P. trifoliata and its hybrids in relation to bacteria or psyllids, future investigation, mainly using the most promising hybrids for response to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', will help us to understand the probable mechanism of defense or identifying compounds in P. trifoliata and its hybrids that are very important as strategy to combat HLB. Details of these results are

  7. Regulation of UVR8 photoreceptor dimer/monomer photo-equilibrium in Arabidopsis plants grown under photoperiodic conditions.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Kirsten M W; Jenkins, Gareth I

    2016-08-01

    The UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) photoreceptor specifically mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B. Photoreception induces dissociation of dimeric UVR8 into monomers to initiate responses. However, the regulation of dimer/monomer status in plants growing under photoperiodic conditions has not been examined. Here we show that UVR8 establishes a dimer/monomer photo-equilibrium in plants growing in diurnal photoperiods in both controlled environments and natural daylight. The photo-equilibrium is determined by the relative rates of photoreception and dark-reversion to the dimer. Experiments with mutants in REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (RUP1) and RUP2 show that these proteins are crucial in regulating the photo-equilibrium because they promote reversion to the dimer. In plants growing in daylight, the UVR8 photo-equilibrium is most strongly correlated with low ambient fluence rates of UV-B (up to 1.5 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ), rather than higher fluence rates or the amount of photosynthetically active radiation. In addition, the rate of reversion of monomer to dimer is reduced at lower temperatures, promoting an increase in the relative level of monomer at approximately 8-10 °C. Thus, UVR8 does not behave like a simple UV-B switch under photoperiodic growth conditions but establishes a dimer/monomer photo-equilibrium that is regulated by UV-B and also influenced by temperature. PMID:26864532

  8. A surprising effect of extraction conditions on the mobility of some plant virus coat proteins in SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H; Borkhardt, B; Albrechtsen, M

    1994-02-01

    The coat protein from purified particles of pea seedborne mosaic potyvirus (PSbMV) moves in SDS-PAGE with an apparent molecular weight (M(r)) of 36 kDa. However, extracts of PSbMV infected plants prepared with SDS or urea contain PSbMV immunoreactive proteins with apparent M(r) 39 kDa as well as 36 kDa. The low mobility form may be generated from the apparent M(r) 36 kDa form by incubating purified PSbMV particles with healthy plant sap in the presence of denaturing agents. A similar effect is observed with bean yellow mosaic potyvirus, but not with three viruses outside the potyvirus group. Experiments suggest that a soluble plant enzyme is responsible for the conversion, which apparently takes place only in vitro under denaturing conditions. This phenomenon may lead to erroneous conclusions about the M(r) of some viral coat proteins. However, the conversion can be prevented by heat treatment of the plant tissue prior to extraction. PMID:8188819

  9. Data Mining and NIR Spectroscopy in Viticulture: Applications for Plant Phenotyping under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, Maria P

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotyping is a very important topic in agriculture. In this context, data mining strategies may be applied to agricultural data retrieved with new non-invasive devices, with the aim of yielding useful, reliable and objective information. This work presents some applications of machine learning algorithms along with in-field acquired NIR spectral data for plant phenotyping in viticulture, specifically for grapevine variety discrimination and assessment of plant water status. Support vector machine (SVM), rotation forests and M5 trees models were built using NIR spectra acquired in the field directly on the adaxial side of grapevine leaves, with a non-invasive portable spectrophotometer working in the spectral range between 1600 and 2400 nm. The ν-SVM algorithm was used for the training of a model for varietal classification. The classifiers' performance for the 10 varieties reached, for cross- and external validations, the 88.7% and 92.5% marks, respectively. For water stress assessment, the models developed using the absorbance spectra of six varieties yielded the same determination coefficient for both cross- and external validations (R² = 0.84; RMSEs of 0.164 and 0.165 MPa, respectively). Furthermore, a variety-specific model trained only with samples of Tempranillo from two different vintages yielded R² = 0.76 and RMSE of 0.16 MPa for cross-validation and R² = 0.79, RMSE of 0.17 MPa for external validation. These results show the power of the combined use of data mining and non-invasive NIR sensing for in-field grapevine phenotyping and their usefulness for the wine industry and precision viticulture implementations. PMID:26891304

  10. Data Mining and NIR Spectroscopy in Viticulture: Applications for Plant Phenotyping under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotyping is a very important topic in agriculture. In this context, data mining strategies may be applied to agricultural data retrieved with new non-invasive devices, with the aim of yielding useful, reliable and objective information. This work presents some applications of machine learning algorithms along with in-field acquired NIR spectral data for plant phenotyping in viticulture, specifically for grapevine variety discrimination and assessment of plant water status. Support vector machine (SVM), rotation forests and M5 trees models were built using NIR spectra acquired in the field directly on the adaxial side of grapevine leaves, with a non-invasive portable spectrophotometer working in the spectral range between 1600 and 2400 nm. The ν-SVM algorithm was used for the training of a model for varietal classification. The classifiers’ performance for the 10 varieties reached, for cross- and external validations, the 88.7% and 92.5% marks, respectively. For water stress assessment, the models developed using the absorbance spectra of six varieties yielded the same determination coefficient for both cross- and external validations (R2 = 0.84; RMSEs of 0.164 and 0.165 MPa, respectively). Furthermore, a variety-specific model trained only with samples of Tempranillo from two different vintages yielded R2 = 0.76 and RMSE of 0.16 MPa for cross-validation and R2 = 0.79, RMSE of 0.17 MPa for external validation. These results show the power of the combined use of data mining and non-invasive NIR sensing for in-field grapevine phenotyping and their usefulness for the wine industry and precision viticulture implementations. PMID:26891304

  11. Recent condition of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant accident in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    Japanese government pronounced that the second step had been succeeded in the cooling down of the reactors on the middle of Dec 2011 at Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. In future, government aims to take out fuels from 4 reactors and shields their units. The nuclear power plants in Japan are gradually decreasing, because the checking for them has been performed and the permission of the re-start of them are difficult to be gained. On January 1st 2012, only 7 units are operating in Japan, though the about 54 units were set before the accident. At the end of December 2011, most radiations are emitted from cesium. The radioactivity in air and land around the plant was daily reported in newspaper. Government often gave the information about some RI-contamination in foods. They were taken off from the markets. At now stage, the most important project is the decontamination of radioactive materials from houses, schools, public facilities and industries. Government will newly classify three evacuation areas from April 2012. At the end of March, evacuees under 20 mSv/year possibly can go back their homes (evacuation-free area). The environmental doses will be depressed by decontamination under 10 mSv/year. At the range of 20-50 mSv, people will be controlled to live these area, they can go back their houses temporally (evacuation area). Over 50 mSv/year, however, people can go back house until 5 years at least (prohibited area). In new radiation limitation for a risk of human health, government made 100 mSv and 20 mSv for life span for one year, respectively. The aim of decontamination was set up to 10 mSv for 1 year and 5 mSv for next stage. A target at school is under1 mSv for children. Government accepted a new severe limitation per1 Kg at four groups; milk of baby (100 Bq) and milk (100 Bq), drinking water (10 Bq) and food (100 Bq). Tokyo electric Power Company and government should pay the sufficient compensation to evacuees. In future, they should keep health

  12. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  13. The ultrastructure and genetic traits of plants under the condition of hypobaric and hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Tang, Yongkang; Wang, Shulei; Cheng, Quanyong; Zhao, Qi

    This study analyzed the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular levels, particle composition and volume changes of Indian lettuce under the conditions of hypobaric and hypoxia. Firstly, in the hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, two kinds of sample showed a decrease in the num-ber of cells, the increase in volume and the deflation in nuclear size. Secondly, Significant changes of the chloroplast ultrastructure have taken place in the two conditions. Thirdly, in the hypoxia condition, the chloroplast grana lamellae fractured and aggregated, which caused the chloroplasts to enlarge, their lamellae to reduce,become vaguer and finally to disintegrate. Fourthly, the volume change and aggregation of the chloroplasts induced mitochondria to ap-proach the chloroplasts. Fifthly, cytoskeleton immunofluorescence positioning results showed that the microtubules had decreased in number, shortened in length and gathered in the vicinity of the nucleus. In addition, total leaf DNA-sequence alignment found no rbcl gene mutation in the extreme conditions. Keywords: Chloroplast Ultrastructure Cytoskeleton rbcl gene Indian lettuce

  14. The role of plant functional groups in methane dynamics in a boreal fen under pristine and water level drawdown conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riutta, T.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Laine, J.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation and hydrology are important controlling factors in peatland methane dynamics. Vegetation structures (i.e. species composition, physiognomy, density) and productivity are strongly interlinked with moisture conditions (water table level variation), and the methane flux is a result of the vegetation-water table interaction, rather than a direct effect of water table or vegetation. Therefore, observational studies in pristine peatlands have a limited ability to separate the effects of these factors. This study aimed to experimentally quantify the role of the fen ecosystem components - sedges, dwarf shrubs, Sphagnum mosses, and the underlying peat - in methane fluxes in control and experimental water table drawdown conditions and to separate the plant-mediated effects from the effect of altered water table level on methane fluxes. We carried out the experiment in a boreal nutrient-poor fen using two treatments: a vegetation component removal treatment with four levels and a water level treatment with two levels (control and a 15 cm water level draw down). We measured methane fluxes during four growing seasons using a static chamber technique. The first year was a calibration season preceding the water level drawdown treatment. Based on the vegetation removal treatments, plant-mediated fluxes comprised 75% of the total cumulative growing season methane flux (7.8 ± 0.83 g CH4 m-2 from June to September) in the control water level conditions. Sedge and Sphagnum moss mediated fluxes accounted for 48% and 27% of the total flux, respectively. The presence of dwarf shrubs, on the other hand, had a slightly attenuating effect on the fluxes. In water level drawdown conditions, fluxes were significantly lowered (cumulative growing season flux 0.12 ± 0.10 g CH4 m-2) and the presence / absence of the plant groups had hardly any effect on the fluxes. There was a tight, positive relationship between net ecosystem production and methane flux in the control conditions but

  15. Photosynthetic flagellates as model systems for accessing the impact of space conditions on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat

    Plants are an integral part of the exploration attempts for the planned missions to Mars and Moon. Photosynthetic, motile flagellates like Euglena gracilis can serve as model systems for the better understanding of the impact of microgravity and cosmic radiation on plants. Recent parabolic flights indicate that photosynthesis is impaired by microgravity. While oxygen production decreased during the short-term microgravity phases, other photosynthetic parameters remained constant or increased (photosynthetic yield and Ft as indicated by Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorescence measurements (PAM)). Ground-based long-term measurements in static bioreactors indicate a strong circadian rhythm of the related PAM-accessible parameters including oxygen production. Besides the problem of scientific analysis of these findings, practical implications with respect to life support systems or controlled environmental systems (CES) are significant. In two FOTON missions a CES system (AQUACELLS and its successor OMEGAHAB) was flown. The detailed analysis is still ongoing. In the paper oxygen production rates are compared to reference experiments on ground. In addition, the results of an upcoming parabolic flight campaign centred around fast PAM kinetics for a closer understanding of the impaired photosynthetic parameters will be presented.

  16. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    The persistency of larvicidal effects of 13 oils (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum, and sandalwood) was examined by storage of 50-ppm solutions under different conditions (open, closed, in the light, and in the dark) for 1 month after the preparation of the solutions. The stored solutions were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae for four times during the storage period. Some oils under some conditions stayed effective until the last test, while some solutions had lost their toxicity during a short time after preparation. Thus, the mode of storage is absolutely important for the larvicidal effects. The fresh preparations were always the best. PMID:16642385

  17. Internal conductance under different light conditions along the plant profile of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Brown.).

    PubMed

    Monti, Andrea; Bezzi, Guido; Venturi, Gianpietro

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the internal conductance (g(i)) along the plant profile of Ethiopian mustard under two light conditions: (i) light from the top only (I1); (ii) light from the top integrated by supplementary lateral light along the whole plant profile (I2). Lateral light strongly increased the productivity (e.g. +104% of seed oil) and net photosynthesis (A). The latter appeared more driven by g(i) (r=0.78**) than by stomatal conductance (g(s)) (r=0.51*). Importantly, irradiance also considerably shortened the time from leaf appearance to senescence, which means that corresponding leaves in I1 and I2 had different ages. Therefore, since leaf age and irradiance have counteracting effects on g(i), I1 sometimes showed higher g(i) values than I2. With respect to irradiance, leaf age had clearly higher effects on g(i), which radically declined from the top to the basal leaves, even under constant light conditions. The internal conductance caused a significant drawdown of CO(2) from the sub-stomatal cavity (C(i)) to the site of carboxylation (C(c)) that, in turn, led to a substantial underestimation of V(cmax) calculated using the A/C(i) model. Again, the trends of g(i) and g(s) were not consistent along the plant profile, and so the ratio between stomatal and internal limitations to A changed from top to bottom leaves, accordingly. This study suggests that g(i) may be a valuable trait for increasing photosynthetic capacity and productivity; nonetheless, it suggests caution in selecting leaves for high g(i), as the latter can considerably change along the plant profile due to leaf age and irradiance effects. PMID:19237547

  18. Extended operating cycles in ethylene plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bruin, C.J. de

    1994-12-31

    Length of ethylene plant operating cycles is mainly determined by: legislative requirements for statutory inspection, need for periodic major maintenance, and fouling depending on operating conditions and plant design provisions. After consultations with local authorities the authors were led to believe that requirement and scope of inspection may be relaxed. Equipment fouling is the principal operating cause for scheduled shutdowns. Based on actual experience in the Moerdijk Lower Olefins Plants key operating and design aspects influencing equipment fouling are discussed.

  19. Solubility and Plant Availability of Nutrients as Affected by Soil Drainage Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn growth is affected due to oxygen deficiency and root death in a perched water table (PWT). The study objective was to evaluate a surface application of FGD gypsum (FGDG) and glyphosate (GLY) on nutrient uptake in corn with different drainage conditions. The experiment was conducted in greenhous...

  20. Macroelemental composition of cadmium stressed lettuce plants grown under conditions of intensive sulphur nutrition.

    PubMed

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława

    2016-09-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is moderately sensitive to cadmium (Cd) and shows high accumulation of this metal. Thus, this species is considered to be a good model for both identifying determinants controlling Cd accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting the accumulation of this metal in edible tissues. Simultaneously, lettuce is characterised by medium requirements for sulphur (S) - a macronutrient whose role is associated not only with proper growth and development, but also with stress tolerance. The common use of NPK fertilizers without sulphates (S-SO4) together with the progressive process of reducing emissions of S compounds to the natural environment may lead to deficiency of this element in plants. The present study evaluated the changes in macronutrient content and accumulation in Cd-stressed lettuce 'Justyna' supplied with different S doses. Four concentrations of Cd (0, 0.0002, 0.02 or 0.04 mM) and three levels of S applied in the form of S-SO4 (2, 6 or 9 mM S) were used. Cd exposure impaired the macronutrient balance and accumulation in lettuce. Intensive S nutrition to some extent alleviated Cd-induced toxicity. High S doses, especially 6 mM S, partially improved macronutrient status and restored the macronutrient balance. In Cd-stressed plants supplemented with additional S, an increase in root and shoot biomass and in the content of N, K and Mg was found, without significant changes in the Ca content. Simultaneously, the P and S contents in the biomass of both above- and underground organs remained unchanged. In the leaves, as opposite to the roots, intensive S nutrition reduced the accumulation of Cd. However, the foliar Cd concentration still exceeded the acceptable limits established for consumption. All the obtained results concerning the content of macronutrients and their ratios were referred, inter alia, to the standards i.e. the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms. PMID

  1. Malate as a key carbon source of leaf dark-respired CO2 across different environmental conditions in potato plants

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Marco M.; Rinne, Katja T.; Blessing, Carola; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Buchmann, Nina; Werner, Roland A.

    2015-01-01

    Dissimilation of carbon sources during plant respiration in support of metabolic processes results in the continuous release of CO2. The carbon isotopic composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 (i.e. δ 13 C R) shows daily enrichments up to 14.8‰ under different environmental conditions. However, the reasons for this 13C enrichment in leaf dark-respired CO2 are not fully understood, since daily changes in δ13C of putative leaf respiratory carbon sources (δ 13 C RS) are not yet clear. Thus, we exposed potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to different temperature and soil moisture treatments. We determined δ 13 C R with an in-tube incubation technique and δ 13 C RS with compound-specific isotope analysis during a daily cycle. The highest δ 13 C RS values were found in the organic acid malate under different environmental conditions, showing less negative values compared to δ 13 C R (up to 5.2‰) and compared to δ 13 C RS of soluble carbohydrates, citrate and starch (up to 8.8‰). Moreover, linear relationships between δ 13 C R and δ 13 C RS among different putative carbon sources were strongest for malate during daytime (r2=0.69, P≤0.001) and nighttime (r2=0.36, P≤0.001) under all environmental conditions. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed δ 13 C RS of malate as the most important carbon source influencing δ 13 C R. Thus, our results strongly indicate malate as a key carbon source of 13C enriched dark-respired CO2 in potato plants, probably driven by an anapleurotic flux replenishing intermediates of the Krebs cycle. PMID:26139821

  2. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K.; Flowers, Tim J.; Seal, Charlotte E.; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S

  3. [Promising technique of mineral supply organization for plants in the condition of microgravity].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Krivobok, A S; Krivobok, N M; Smolianina, S O

    2014-01-01

    The proposed system of automated nutrient solution preparation for plant cultivation in microgravity consists of an ion-exchange fabric artificial soil (AS) as a root-inhabited medium, a pack with slow release fertilizer as the main source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and a cartridge with a granular mineral-rich ionite as a source of calcium, magnesium, sulphur and iron. Experiments proved that fabric AS BIONA-V3 is capable to stabilize pH of the substrate solution within the range of 6.0 to 6.6 favorable to the majority of vegetable cultures. The experimental data attested suitability of this technique of water forcing through mineral-containing packs to automate nutrient solution preparation for crops cultivated in space greenhouses, and to minimize the stock of fabric AS onboard the space vehicle. PMID:25163340

  4. Model Based Optimal Sensor Network Design for Condition Monitoring in an IGCC Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeeva; Kumar, Aditya; Dai, Dan; Seenumani, Gayathri; Down, John; Lopez, Rodrigo

    2012-12-31

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a general model-based sensor network design methodology and tools to address key issues in the design of an optimal sensor network configuration: the type, location and number of sensors used in a network, for online condition monitoring. In particular, the focus in this work is to develop software tools for optimal sensor placement (OSP) and use these tools to design optimal sensor network configuration for online condition monitoring of gasifier refractory wear and radiant syngas cooler (RSC) fouling. The methodology developed will be applicable to sensing system design for online condition monitoring for broad range of applications. The overall approach consists of (i) defining condition monitoring requirement in terms of OSP and mapping these requirements in mathematical terms for OSP algorithm, (ii) analyzing trade-off of alternate OSP algorithms, down selecting the most relevant ones and developing them for IGCC applications (iii) enhancing the gasifier and RSC models as required by OSP algorithms, (iv) applying the developed OSP algorithm to design the optimal sensor network required for the condition monitoring of an IGCC gasifier refractory and RSC fouling. Two key requirements for OSP for condition monitoring are desired precision for the monitoring variables (e.g. refractory wear) and reliability of the proposed sensor network in the presence of expected sensor failures. The OSP problem is naturally posed within a Kalman filtering approach as an integer programming problem where the key requirements of precision and reliability are imposed as constraints. The optimization is performed over the overall network cost. Based on extensive literature survey two formulations were identified as being relevant to OSP for condition monitoring; one based on LMI formulation and the other being standard INLP formulation. Various algorithms to solve

  5. Characteristics of a MHD generator operating away from its nominal conditions: The R1 channel in the U-25 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Batenin, V.M.; Bityurin, V.A.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Medin, S.A.; Satanovskii, V.R.

    1985-07-01

    The characteristics of the R1 frame MHD channel are considered. The analysis is based on combining the data obtained with the u-25 plant with simulation data. The results describe the MHD characteristic over a wide range of working conditions and for various degrees of electrode-wall degradation. To obtain additional information on the local parameters, use has been made of the differential voltage-current characteristics, which have been used in analyzing the effects of various factors on the calculated electrodynamic parameters.

  6. Moisture Absorption of Plant Fiber under Annealed, Bleached and Mercerized Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Dip

    2010-06-01

    The water absorptions behaviors of the okra fibers, which are available in north east India, were studied under ambient, annealed, bleached and mercerized conditions by using ordinary gravimetric absorption method. The gains in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption as well as their capillarity at constant relative humidity were measured as a function of exposure time. In order to ascertain the environment factor of utility of the fibers, the moisture regain of the fibers were determined at different relative air humidity. The water yielding capacity of okra fibers was also determined in order to understand their drying properties. The diffusion coefficients of the sorption process of the fibers under ambient, annealed, bleached and mercerized conditions were estimated.

  7. Moisture Absorption of Plant Fiber under Annealed, Bleached and Mercerized Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, Dip

    2010-06-29

    The water absorptions behaviors of the okra fibers, which are available in north east India, were studied under ambient, annealed, bleached and mercerized conditions by using ordinary gravimetric absorption method. The gains in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption as well as their capillarity at constant relative humidity were measured as a function of exposure time. In order to ascertain the environment factor of utility of the fibers, the moisture regain of the fibers were determined at different relative air humidity. The water yielding capacity of okra fibers was also determined in order to understand their drying properties. The diffusion coefficients of the sorption process of the fibers under ambient, annealed, bleached and mercerized conditions were estimated.

  8. Positive effects of temperature and growth conditions on enzymatic and antioxidant status in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Boo, Hee-Ock; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Chon, Sang-Uk

    2011-10-01

    The contents of two bioactive compounds (polyphenols and flavonoids) and their antioxidant and enzyme activities were determined in the leaves of six lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) cultivars subjected to 4 different day/night temperatures for 6 weeks. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents and the corresponding antioxidant activities were the highest at 13/10°C and 20/13°C, followed by 25/20°C and 30/25°C. The enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were also the highest at low day/night temperatures, but the peroxidase (POD) activity was decreased at low day/night temperatures and increased at high day/night temperatures. The most significant positive correlation existed between anthocyanin content and PPO activity, total polyphenols and their antioxidant activities. The results showed that at relatively low temperatures, lettuce plants have a high antioxidant and enzymatic status. These results provide additional information for the lettuce growers. PMID:21889055

  9. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  10. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  11. Impacts of alien invasive plants on soil nutrients are correlated with initial site conditions in NW Europe.

    PubMed

    Dassonville, Nicolas; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Vanparys, Valérie; Hayez, Mathieu; Gruber, Wolf; Meerts, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Alien invasive plants are capable of modifying ecosystem function. However, it is difficult to make generalisations because impacts often appear to be species- and site-specific. In this study, we examined the impacts of seven highly invasive plant species in NW Europe (Fallopia japonica, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Impatiens glandulifera, Prunus serotina, Rosa rugosa, Senecio inaequidens, Solidago gigantea) on nutrient pools in the topsoil and the standing biomass. We tested if the impacts follow predictable patterns, across species and sites or, alternatively, if they are entirely idiosyncratic. To that end, we compared invaded and adjacent uninvaded plots in a total of 36 sites with widely divergent soil chemistry and vegetation composition. For all species, invaded plots had increased aboveground biomass and nutrient stocks in standing biomass compared to uninvaded vegetation. This suggests that enhanced nutrient uptake may be a key trait of highly invasive plant species. The magnitude and direction of the impact on topsoil chemical properties were strongly site-specific. A striking finding is that the direction of change in soil properties followed a predictable pattern. Thus, strong positive impacts (higher topsoil nutrient concentrations in invaded plots compared to uninvaded ones) were most often found in sites with initially low nutrient concentrations in the topsoil, while negative impacts were generally found under the opposite conditions. This pattern was significant for potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese and nitrogen. The particular site-specific pattern in the impacts that we observed provides the first evidence that alien invasive species may contribute to a homogenisation of soil conditions in invaded landscapes. PMID:18491146

  12. Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Fujii, R.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in two re-established wetlands in the Sacramento San-Joaquin River Delta, California for 9 years after flooding to determine how relatively small differences in water depth affect carbon storage rates over time. To estimate annual carbon inputs, plant species cover, standing above- and below-ground plant biomass, and annual biomass turnover rates were measured, and allometric biomass models for Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) acutus and Typha spp., the emergent marsh dominants, were developed. As the wetlands developed, environmental factors, including water temperature, depth, and pH were measured. Emergent marsh vegetation colonized the shallow wetland more rapidly than the deeper wetland. This is important to potential carbon storage because emergent marsh vegetation is more productive, and less labile, than submerged and floating vegetation. Primary production of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 kg of carbon per square meter annually; and, mid-season standing live biomass represented about half of the annual primary production. Changes in species composition occurred in both submerged and emergent plant communities as the wetlands matured. Water depth, temperature, and pH were lower in areas with emergent marsh vegetation compared to submerged vegetation, all of which, in turn, can affect carbon cycling and storage rates. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  13. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia. PMID:24891831

  14. Assessment of actual transpiration rate in olive tree field combining sap-flow, leaf area index and scintillometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, C.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Models to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) in sparse vegetation area can be fundamental for agricultural water managements, especially when water availability is a limiting factor. Models validation must be carried out by considering in situ measurements referred to the field scale, which is the relevant scale of the modelled variables. Moreover, a particular relevance assumes to consider separately the components of plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), because only the first is actually related to the crop stress conditions. Objective of the paper was to assess a procedure aimed to estimate olive trees actual transpiration by combining sap flow measurements with the scintillometer technique at field scale. The study area, located in Western Sicily (Italy), is mainly cultivated with olive crop and is characterized by typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Measurements of sap flow and crop actual evapotranspiration rate were carried out during 2008 irrigation season. Crop transpiration fluxes, measured on some plants by means of sap flow sensors, were upscaled considering the leaf area index (LAI). The comparison between evapotranspiration values, derived by displaced-beam small-aperture scintillometer (DBSAS-SLS20, Scintec AG), with the transpiration fluxes obtained by the sap flow sensors, also allowed to evaluate the contribute of soil evaporation in an area characterized by low vegetation coverage.

  15. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  16. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  17. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  18. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  19. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  20. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 14: plants of conservation concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Ann; Das, Adrian; Wenk, Rebecca; Haultain, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Database (CNDDB 2010a). There are an additional 66 taxa not formally listed by CNDDB that are recognized as having special status because their distribution is restricted to the Sierra Nevada. Special status plants are distributed throughout the two parks and inhabit a wide range of environments along the length of the elevation gradient that characterizes these parks. Ideally, we would assess the condition (status and trends) of each of the taxa on the SEKI special status plant list, documenting current population sizes, demographic rates and demographic trends. We would also hope to quantify the effects of individual stressors on each species based on existing monitoring and research. However, no data are available for most of the species on the special status plant list. For those few species (12 herbaceous species and two tree species) for which we possess some change over time information, the data are not adequate to make a competent assessment. Note that we have not explored the tree demographic information in any detail, as is covered in the NRCA Intact Forest/Five Needle Pines and Sequoia chapters. In general, we are unable to present an ‗integrity‘ metric for special status species in the parks, since the data to quantify the condition of each species in such a manner is not available. In contrast, the park does possess substantial data describing biodiversity in the parks. Therefore, our analysis focuses on describing the distribution and rarity of special status plants within the parks, with a particular focus on assessing the spatial distribution of species richness. We hope that such information will prove useful to park managers in determining which areas in the parks merit the most attention (for example in developing monitoring protocols). We also assess potential vulnerability of special status species to the stressors chosen by the NRCA working group, using both park data and available literature. As a first step, we spent considerable effort

  1. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  2. Responses of plants to simulated saline drift as affected by species and conditions of exposure.

    PubMed

    McCune, D C; Silberman, D H

    1991-01-01

    In exposures to simulated saline drift generated from a 0.6% (w/w) chloride (Cl)-solution, under controlled environmental conditions, the median effective doses for the occurrence of any salt-induced foliar injury (expressed as microgCl cm(-2) deposited in six hours) were: 2.9 for Canada hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carr.); 10.3 for white flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.); 43.5 for potato (Solanum tubersum L. cv Superior); 44.2 for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.); 65.1 for sweet corn (Zea mays L. cv Golden Cross Bantam); and, 123 for bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Pinto). Response of bean was a function of total deposition and independent of its rate with multiple (one per day) 6-h exposures but not with exposures less than 6 h where toxicity (per mass of Cl) increased with an increase in the rate of deposition. Toxicity of particles increased with an increase in the concentration of Cl in the solution (1.6 or 5.0% w/w) from which they were generated with bush bean but not with hemlock. Post-exposure periods that cycled between 50 and 855% relative humidity (RH) produced a greater incidence of salt-induced foliar injury than did a regime of constant 85% RH. PMID:15092146

  3. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  4. Fine-scale spatial variation in plant species richness and its relationship to environmental conditions in coastal marshlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.E.; Meche, G.C.; Cardona-Olarte, P.P.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Chiasson, R.L.; Geddes, N.A.; Schile, L.M.; Wang, H.G.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Grace, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that variations in environmental conditions play a major role in explaining variations in plant species richness at community and landscape scales. In this study, we considered the degree to which fine-scale spatial variations in richness could be related to fine-scale variations in abiotic and biotic factors. To examine spatial variation in richness, grids of 1 m(2) plots were laid out at five sites within a coastal riverine wetland landscape. At each site, a 5 x 7 array of plots was established adjacent to the river's edge with plots one meter apart. In addition to the estimation of species richness, environmental measurements included sediment salinity, plot microelevation, percent of plot recently disturbed, and estimated community biomass. Our analysis strategy was to combine the use of structural equation modeling (path modeling) with an assessment of spatial association. Mantel's tests revealed significant spatial autocorrelation in species richness at four of the five sites sampled, indicating that richness in a plot correlated with the richness of nearby plots. We subsequently considered the degree to which spatial autocorrelations in richness could be explained by spatial autocorrelations in environmental conditions. Once data were corrected for environmental correlations, spatial autocorrelation in residual species richness could not be detected at any site. Based on these results, we conclude that in this coastal wetland, there appears to be a fine-scale mapping of diversity to microgradients in environmental conditions.

  5. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  6. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. Application of Condition-Based Monitoring Techniques for Remote Monitoring of a Simulated Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Henkel, James J; Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research into the adaptation of monitoring techniques from maintainability and reliability (M&R) engineering for remote unattended monitoring of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) for international safeguards. Two categories of techniques are discussed: the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for diagnostic monitoring, and sequential Monte Carlo (SMC or, more commonly, particle filtering ) for prognostic monitoring. Development and testing of the application of condition-based monitoring (CBM) techniques was performed on the Oak Ridge Mock Feed and Withdrawal (F&W) facility as a proof of principle. CBM techniques have been extensively developed for M&R assessment of physical processes, such as manufacturing and power plants. These techniques are normally used to locate and diagnose the effects of mechanical degradation of equipment to aid in planning of maintenance and repair cycles. In a safeguards environment, however, the goal is not to identify mechanical deterioration, but to detect and diagnose (and potentially predict) attempts to circumvent normal, declared facility operations, such as through protracted diversion of enriched material. The CBM techniques are first explained from the traditional perspective of maintenance and reliability engineering. The adaptation of CBM techniques to inspector monitoring is then discussed, focusing on the unique challenges of decision-based effects rather than equipment degradation effects. These techniques are then applied to the Oak Ridge Mock F&W facility a water-based physical simulation of a material feed and withdrawal process used at enrichment plants that is used to develop and test online monitoring techniques for fully information-driven safeguards of GCEPs. Advantages and limitations of the CBM approach to online monitoring are discussed, as well as the potential challenges of adapting CBM concepts to safeguards applications.

  8. Purification of plant complex protein extracts in non-denaturing conditions by in-solution isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R A; Martins-Dias, S

    2016-09-15

    An alternative approach for plant complex protein extracts pre-purification by in-solution isoelectric focusing in non-denaturing conditions is presented. The separation of biologically active proteins, in narrow ranges of isoelectric point (pI) was obtained by a modified OFFGEL electrophoresis. Two different water-soluble protein extracts from Phragmites leaves were fractionated into 24 fractions within a 3-10 pI range at 10 °C in the absence of denaturing/reducing agents. One-dimensional electrophoretic analysis revealed different protein distribution patterns and the effective fractionation of both protein extracts. Peroxidase activity of each fraction confirmed that proteins remained active and pre-purification occurred. Biological triplicates assured the needed reproducibility. PMID:27396497

  9. Plant response to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios under saline conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This research was undertaken to more clearly determine plant response to saline-sodic waters. In the first experiment, the response of wheat and sorghum to different K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios at different osmotic potentials was investigated. The plants were grown in outdoor solution culture tanks containing polyethylene glycol and/or NaCl as osmoticum with 1/2 strength Hoagland as the base nutrient solution. The mass of the root system for both wheat and sorghum was determined primarily by the osmotic potential. However, root elongation was controlled primarily by the Na/sup +/ concentration. Sorghum root elongation rates decreased with increasing Na/sup +/ while those for wheat increased. Sodium was not translocated out of the sorghum root system until a critical Na/sup +/ root saturation level of .6 moles/kg was obtained. The second experiment was designed to investigate the water, nutrient and growth responses of the second crop of wheat in a wheat-sorghum-wheat rotation to zonal saline-sodic conditions.

  10. Steviol glycosides targeted analysis in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from plants cultivated under chilling stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Soufi, Sihem; D'Urso, Gilda; Pizza, Cosimo; Rezgui, Salah; Bettaieb, Taoufik; Montoro, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is an important agricultural crop for the production of a high-potency natural sweetener, sensitive to low temperature during the developmental stage. Stimulation of chilling stress with a pre-treatment with endogenous signalling components and in particular with salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) could induce tolerance to chilling and could constitute a suitable way to maintain quality and quantity of steviol glycosides under controlled artificial environment. In the present work the effects of different putative signalling molecules on the morpho-physiological parameters were evaluated, and a specific method for the quali-quantitative analysis of steviol glycosides in S. rebaudiana plants cultivated under controlled conditions was developed, by using LC-ESI-FT (Orbitrap) MS, LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS and multivariate data analysis. This approach underlined that the pre-treatment has influence on the production of secondary metabolites. In particular Stevia plants characterised by higher contents of rebaudioside A and stevioside, were identified. PMID:26213012

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D’Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry. PMID:23924942

  12. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  13. Management of insect-transmitted plant pathogens: defining conditions for successful roguing with a spatially-explicit simulation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roguing (the replacement of infected plants with healthy plants) is commonly used to manage the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens. Roguing has two potential benefits. First, removing an infected plant eliminates a source of inoculum, potentially slowing pathogen spread. Second, as infe...

  14. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  15. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  16. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  17. Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230{degrees}C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Evidence for an adaptive response to radiation damage in plant cells conditioned with X-rays or incorporated tritium.

    PubMed

    Cortés, F; Domínguez, I; Mateos, S; Piñero, J; Mateos, J C

    1990-03-01

    Allium cepa root-tip cells were first exposed to low 'conditioning' doses of ionizing radiation: to X-rays (0.06 or 0.26 Gy) or to incorporated tritium (1.8 x 10(4) or 7.2 x 10(4) Bq/ml; specific activity: 740.0 GBq/mmol) and subsequently given a 'challenge' dose of 1.5 Gy of X-rays. A reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage was brought about by prior exposure to 0.26 Gy of X-rays, while cells receiving the lower conditioning dose (0.06 Gy of X-rays) did not show any significant reduction. In cells grown in the presence of [3H]TdR on the other hand, the adaptive response was evident after both doses given. The results are essentially in agreement with those published by Wolff's group for human lymphocytes in showing that plant cells in vivo can become 'adapted' by exposure to low-level irradiation so that they become more resistant to the clastogenic effects of X-rays delivered subsequently. PMID:1968946

  19. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Riegger, Ulrike; Borovec, Jakub; Mattusch, Jürgen; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Matoušková, Šárka; Dickinson, Bryan; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light-acclimated PSII activity ΦPSII , and total Chl). Trimers of the PSII light-harvesting complexes (LHCIIs) decreased more than LHC monomers and detection of Cd in the monomers suggested replacement of magnesium (Mg) by Cd in the Chl molecules. As a consequence of dysfunctional photosynthesis and energy dissipation, reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) appeared. Cadmium had negative effects on macrophytes at much lower concentrations than reported previously, emphasizing the importance of studies applying environmentally relevant conditions. A chain of inhibition events could be established. PMID:26840406

  20. New insights into pioneer root xylem development: evidence obtained from Populus trichocarpa plants grown under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Smoliński, Dariusz J.; Stelmasik, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Effective programmed xylogenesis is critical to the structural framework of the plant root system and its central role in the acquisition and long-distance transport of water and nutrients. The process of xylem differentiation in pioneer roots under field conditions is poorly understood. In this study it is hypothesized that xylogenesis, an example of developmental programmed cell death (PCD), in the roots of woody plants demonstrates a clearly defined sequence of events resulting in cell death. A comprehensive analysis was therefore undertaken to identify the stages of xylogenesis in pioneer roots from procambial cells to fully functional vessels with lignified cell walls and secondary cell wall thickenings. Methods Xylem differentiation was monitored in the pioneer roots of Populus trichocarpa at the cytological level using rhizotrons under field conditions. Detection and localization of the signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was undertaken and a detailed examination of nuclear changes during xylogenesis was conducted. In addition, analyses of the expression of genes involved in secondary cell wall synthesis were performed in situ. Key Results The primary event in initially differentiating tracheary elements (TEs) was a burst of NO in thin-walled cells, followed by H2O2 synthesis and the appearance of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling)-positive nuclei. The first changes in nuclear structure were observed in the early stages of xylogenesis of pioneer roots, prior to lignification; however, the nucleus was detectable under transmission electron microscopy in differentiating cells until the stage at which vacuole integrity was maintained, indicating that their degradation was slow and prolonged. The subsequent sequence of events involved secondary cell wall formation and autophagy. Potential gene markers from the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene family that were

  1. RNA-Seq effectively monitors gene expression in Eutrema salsugineum plants growing in an extreme natural habitat and in controlled growth cabinet conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The investigation of extremophile plant species growing in their natural environment offers certain advantages, chiefly that plants adapted to severe habitats have a repertoire of stress tolerance genes that are regulated to maximize plant performance under physiologically challenging conditions. Accordingly, transcriptome sequencing offers a powerful approach to address questions concerning the influence of natural habitat on the physiology of an organism. We used RNA sequencing of Eutrema salsugineum, an extremophile relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the extent to which genetic variation and controlled versus natural environments contribute to differences between transcript profiles. Results Using 10 million cDNA reads, we compared transcriptomes from two natural Eutrema accessions (originating from Yukon Territory, Canada and Shandong Province, China) grown under controlled conditions in cabinets and those from Yukon plants collected at a Yukon field site. We assessed the genetic heterogeneity between individuals using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the expression patterns of 27,016 genes. Over 39,000 SNPs distinguish the Yukon from the Shandong accessions but only 4,475 SNPs differentiated transcriptomes of Yukon field plants from an inbred Yukon line. We found 2,989 genes that were differentially expressed between the three sample groups and multivariate statistical analyses showed that transcriptomes of individual plants from a Yukon field site were as reproducible as those from inbred plants grown under controlled conditions. Predicted functions based upon gene ontology classifications show that the transcriptomes of field plants were enriched by the differential expression of light- and stress-related genes, an observation consistent with the habitat where the plants were found. Conclusion Our expectation that comparative RNA-Seq analysis of transcriptomes from plants originating in natural habitats would be confounded

  2. Uptake of cyantraniliprole into tomato fruit and foliage under hydroponic conditions: application to calibration of a plant/soil uptake model.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey J; Bookhart, S Wingard; Clark, Jonathan M; Jernberg, Kathryn M; Kingston, Coleen K; Snyder, Nathan; Wallick, Kevin; Watson, Lawrence J

    2013-09-25

    Measured uptake of cyantraniliprole (3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-N-[4-cyano-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide) into tomatoes following hydroponic exposure allowed calibration of a novel soil uptake model. The total mass of plant parts in treated plants was derived from the weights of successively harvested control plants (no cyantraniliprole provided) over 18 days following the first sampling of ripe tomatoes. Transpired water measured during plant growth was coupled with the calculated increase in plant mass to determine a transpiration coefficient constant (L/kg plant fresh weight) for use in the model. Cyantraniliprole concentrations in mature fruit, fresh foliage, and plant uptake solutions were used as the basis for a nonlinear least-squares optimization that consistently resolved to values that were empirically valid compared to metabolism studies in whole plants. This calibrated reference model adequately described uptake from soil pore water into plant fruit, and served as the basis for describing residues in fruit following commercial greenhouse growing conditions. PMID:24000775

  3. Ethylenediurea (EDU): a research tool for assessment and verification of the effects of ground level ozone on plants under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Manning, William J; Paoletti, Elena; Sandermann, Heinrich; Ernst, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely used to prevent ozone (O(3)) injury and crop losses in crop plants and growth reductions in forest trees. Successful use requires establishing a dose/response curve for EDU and the proposed plant in the absence of O(3) and in the presence of O(3) before initiating multiple applications to prevent O(3) injury. EDU can be used to verify foliar O(3) symptoms in the field, and to screen plants for sensitivity to O(3) under ambient conditions. Despite considerable research, the mode of action of EDU remains elusive. Additional research on the mode of action of EDU in suppressing O(3) injury in plants may also be helpful in understanding the mode of action of O(3) in causing injury in plants. PMID:21831492

  4. Effect of planting time and density on yield and quality of peppermint (mentha piperita L.) under su-tropical condition.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P C; Kanjilal, P B

    1999-01-01

    A field trial was conducted at the research farm of RRL, Jorhat during 1995 and 1996 to study the performance of Mentha Piperita under varying dates of planting and row spacings, maximum herbage and oil yield were obtained from January plants crops. Yield deceased when planting was delayed planting at a closer row spacing of 45 cm recorded the maximum herbage yield of 61'92 q/a while the yield was reduced with wider row spacing of 360 cm or 75cm. However, the quality of oil as measured by the menthol content (71'0 - 72'3% was not affected by planting time as well as spacings. PMID:22556906

  5. Observed and simulated effect of plant physiology and structure on land surface energy fluxes and soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yen-Sen; Rihani, Jehan; Langensiepen, Matthias; Simmer, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    The parameterization of stomatal conductance and leaf area index (LAI) in land surface models largely influence simulated terrestrial system states. While stomatal conductance mainly controls transpiration, latent heat flux, and root-water-uptake, LAI impacts additionally the radiative energy exchange. Thus both affect canopy evaporation and transpiration and land surface energy and water fluxes as a whole. Common parameterizations of stomatal conductance follow either semi-mechanistic forms based on photosynthesis (Ball-Berry Type (BB)) or forms which consider environmental factors such as impact of light, temperature, humidity and soil moisture (Jarvis-Stewart Type (JS)). Both approaches differ also in the interpretation of humidity effects and light-use efficiency. While soil moisture plays an important role for root-water-uptake there is no clear conclusion yet about how soil moisture interacts with stomata activity. Values for LAI can be obtained from field measurements, satellite estimates or modelling and are used as an essential model input. While field measurements are very time consuming and only represent single points, satellite estimates may have biases caused by variable albedo and sensor limitations. Representing LAI within land surface models requires complex schemes in order to represent all processes contributing to plant growth. We use the Terrestrial System Modelling Platform (TerrSysMP) over the Rur watershed in Germany for studying the influence of plant physiology and structure on the state of the terrestrial system. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center 32 (TR32) extensively monitors this catchment for almost a decade. The land surface (CLM3.5) and the subsurface (ParFlow) modules of TerrSysMP are conditioned based on satellite-retrieved land cover and the soil map from FAO and forced with a high-resolution reanalysis by DWD. For studying the effect of plant physiology, the Ball-Berry-Leuning, and Jarvis-Stewart stomatal

  6. Effects of meteorological conditions and plant growth stage on the accumulation of carvacrol and its precursors in Thymus pulegioides.

    PubMed

    Vaičiulytė, Vaida; Butkienė, Rita; Ložienė, Kristina

    2016-08-01

    The effects of meteorological conditions (temperature, rainfall, photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and sunshine duration) and plant growth stages on the quantitative composition of a secondary metabolite - essential oil and its main compounds, in the carvacrol chemotype of Thymus pulegioides L. (Lamiaceae) cultivated in open ground were studied under the same micro-edaphoclimatic environmental conditions for six years. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, the analysis of monoterpenic phenol carvacrol and the biogenetic precursors (monoterpene hydrocarbons p-cymene and γ-terpinene) were carried out annually using GC-FID and GC-MS. In the carvacrol chemotype investigated in this study, the yield of essential oil varied from 0.72% to 0.98% (CV = 12%) at full flowering stage. Regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship between the amount of essential oil and both temperature and rainfall during T. pulegioides flowering (July) and the period from April (beginning of vegetation) to July, but a strong positive relationship with photosynthetically active solar radiation during April-July (beta = 0.658, p < 0.05). The percentage of carvacrol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene ranged between 16.88 and 29.29% (CV = 18%), 5.54-11.33% (CV = 23%) and 20.60-24.43% (CV = 6%) respectively. Regression analysis showed the significant positive relationship between the percentage of carvacrol and sunshine duration at the flowering stage (in July) (beta = 0.699, p < 0.05); while the negative relationship was established between the percentages of precursors of carvacrol and photosynthetically active solar radiation and sunshine duration. The accumulation of p-cymene, the percentage of which varied most strongly from all investigated chemical compounds, showed significant positive relationships with temperature and rainfall during the period April-July and temperature in July (beta = 0.617, beta = 0.439 and beta = 0

  7. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for Nitrogen Fixation and its Application to Improve Plant Growth under Nitrogen-Deficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Setten, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Fox, Ana Romina; Lisi, Christian; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Díaz-Paleo, Antonio; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops. PMID:23675499

  8. Effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on the conditions in the root zone in orchards planted on clayey soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, S.

    2013-12-01

    With increasing water scarcity, treated wastewater (TW) appears as an attractive alternative source of water for irrigation, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where freshwater is naturally scarce. However, it seems that long-term use of TW for irrigation of orchards planted on heavy soils cause to yield reduction and crop damages. In terms of water quality, TW are characterized by higher concentrations of sodium and dissolved organic content that affect soil exchangeable sodium percentage on one hand and soil wettability, on the other hand. The working hypothesis of this study is that long-term use of TW for irrigation of clayey soils causes significant changes in the soil hydraulic properties, thus impacting on the conditions in the root zone. Experimental data show a significant effect of TW application on the main flow processes, infiltration and evaporation, on soil swelling intensity, and on spatial distribution of soil chemical attributes. All these reflect the impact of water quality on soil hydraulic properties. Continuous monitoring of oxygen concentration in the soil profile revealed that the air regime in the root zone is also significantly affected by irrigation water quality, with consequent implications on root respiration and microbial activity.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and lower-layer plants of the southern shrub tundra under technogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, E. V.; Gabov, D. N.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Kondratenok, B. M.

    2014-06-01

    In soils and plants of the southern shrub tundra, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Polyarenes in emissions, soil organic horizons, and plants mainly include low-molecular-weight PAHs: naphthalene, fluorine, and pyrene. The contents of the total PAHs in soils and plants exceed the background levels by 3-5 times. The distribution of polyarenes among the organs of the studied plants is nonuniform and depends on the plant species and technogenic load on the area. The studied plants include both hyperaccumulators of polyarenes ( Pleurozium schreberi) and indicators of PAHs in the soil ( Polytrichum commune). Pleurozium schreberi is the most abundant species in the areas under study, and it accumulates the largest mass fraction of PAHs. The differences in the accumulation of PAHs by the plants of the tundra and taiga zones have been revealed.

  10. Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve limited conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming

  11. Plant virus emergence and evolution: origins, new encounter scenarios, factors driving emergence, effects of changing world conditions, and prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roger A C

    2009-05-01

    This review focuses on virus-plant pathosystems at the interface between managed and natural vegetation, and describes how rapid expansion in human activity and climate change are likely to impact on plants, vectors and viruses causing increasing instability. It starts by considering virus invasion of cultivated plants from their wild ancestors in the centres of plant domestication in different parts of the world and subsequent long distance movement away from these centres to other continents. It then describes the diverse virus-plant pathosystem scenarios possible at the interface between managed and natural vegetation and gives examples that illustrate situations where indigenous viruses emerge to damage introduced cultivated plants and newly introduced viruses become potential threats to biodiversity. These examples demonstrate how human activities increasingly facilitate damaging new encounters between plants and viruses worldwide. The likely effects of climate change on virus emergence are emphasised, and the major factors driving virus emergence, evolution and greater epidemic severity at the interface are analysed and explained. Finally, the kinds of challenges posed by rapidly changing world conditions to achieving effective control of epidemics of emerging plant viruses, and the approaches needed to address them, are described. PMID:19159652

  12. Nematode community shifts in response to experimental warming and canopy conditions are associated with plant community changes in the temperate-boreal forest ecotone.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Reich, Peter B; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Stefanski, Artur; Cesarz, Simone; Dobies, Tomasz; Rich, Roy L; Hobbie, Sarah E; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Global climate warming is one of the key forces driving plant community shifts, such as range shifts of temperate species into boreal forests. As plant community shifts are slow to observe, ecotones, boundaries between two ecosystems, are target areas for providing early evidence of ecological responses to warming. The role of soil fauna is poorly explored in ecotones, although their positive and negative effects on plant species can influence plant community structure. We studied nematode communities in response to experimental warming (ambient, +1.7, +3.4 °C) in soils of closed and open canopy forest in the temperate-boreal ecotone of Minnesota, USA and calculated various established nematode indices. We estimated species-specific coverage of understory herbaceous and shrub plant species from the same experimental plots and tested if changes in the nematode community are associated with plant cover and composition. Individual nematode trophic groups did not differ among warming treatments, but the ratio between microbial-feeding and plant-feeding nematodes increased significantly and consistently with warming in both closed and open canopy areas and at both experimental field sites. The increase in this ratio was positively correlated with total cover of understory plant species, perhaps due to increased predation pressure on soil microorganisms causing higher nutrient availability for plants. Multivariate analyses revealed that temperature treatment, canopy conditions and nematode density consistently shaped understory plant communities across experimental sites. Our findings suggest that warming-induced changes in nematode community structure are associated with shifts in plant community composition and productivity in the temperate-boreal forest ecotones. PMID:24668014

  13. Effects of mineral nutrition conditions on heat tolerance of chufa (Сyperus esculentus L.) plant communities to super optimal air temperatures in the BTLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklavtsova, E. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2014-09-01

    The use of mineralized human wastes as a basis for nutrient solutions will increase the degree of material closure of bio-technical human life support systems. As stress tolerance of plants is determined, among other factors, by the conditions under which they have been grown before exposure to a stressor, the purpose of the study is to investigate the level of tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plant communities grown in solutions based on mineralized human wastes to a damaging air temperature, 45 °C. Experiments were performed with 30-day-old chufa plant communities grown hydroponically, on expanded clay aggregate, under artificial light, at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR and at a temperature of 25 °C. Plants were grown in Knop’s solution and solutions based on human wastes mineralized according to Yu.A. Kudenko’s method, which contained nitrogen either as ammonium and urea or as nitrates. The heat shock treatment lasted 20 h at 690 and 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR. Chufa heat tolerance was evaluated based on parameters of CO2 gas exchange, the state of its photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), and intensity of peroxidation of leaf lipids. Chufa plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that contained ammonium and urea had lower heat tolerance than plants grown in standard mineral solutions. Heat tolerance of the plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that mainly contained nitrate nitrogen was insignificantly different from the heat tolerance of the plants grown in standard mineral solutions. A PAR intensity increase from 690 μmol m-2 s-1 to 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 enhanced heat tolerance of chufa plant communities, irrespective of the conditions of mineral nutrition under which they had been grown.

  14. Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampa, M. H. O.; Duarte, C. L.; Rela, P. R.; Somessari, E. S. R.; Silveira, C. G.; Azevedo, A. L.

    1998-06-01

    Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not effecient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater pilot plant to study organic compounds degradation. The samples were irradiated with and without air mixture by different doses. Irradiation treatment efficiency was evaluated by the Cromatography Gas Analyses of the samples before and after irradiation. The studied organic compounds were: phenol, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, benzene, toluene and xilene. A degradation superior to 80% was achieved for the majority of the compounds with air addition and 2kGy delivered dose condition. For the samples that were irradiated without air addition the degradation was higher.

  15. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Tang, Hui; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Qi-Sheng; Li, Shi-Gui; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant survival and growth. Excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer has generated serious environment pollution and increased production cost in agriculture. To deal with this problem, tremendous efforts have been invested worldwide to increase the nitrogen use ability of crops. However, only limited success has been achieved to date. Here we report that NLP7 (NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 7) is a potential candidate to improve plant nitrogen use ability. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, NLP7 increases plant biomass under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions with better-developed root system and reduced shoot/root ratio. NLP7-overexpressing plants show a significant increase in key nitrogen metabolites, nitrogen uptake, total nitrogen content, and expression levels of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and signalling. More importantly, overexpression of NLP7 also enhances photosynthesis rate and carbon assimilation, whereas knockout of NLP7 impaired both nitrogen and carbon assimilation. In addition, NLP7 improves plant growth and nitrogen use in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results demonstrate that NLP7 significantly improves plant growth under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions by coordinately enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation and sheds light on crop improvement. PMID:27293103

  16. The long-term variation of Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by Noccaea spp and Arabidopsis halleri plants in both pot and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Tlustoš, Pavel; Břendová, Kateřina; Száková, Jiřina; Najmanová, Jana; Koubová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Three Cd and Zn hyperaccumulating plant species Noccaea caerulescens Noccaea praecox and Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicacceae) were cultivated in seven subsequent vegetation seasons in both pot and field conditions in soil highly contaminated with Cd, Pb, and Zn. The results confirmed the hyperaccumulation ability of both plant species, although A. halleri showed lower Cd uptake compared to N. caerulescens. Conversely, Pb phytoextraction was negligible for both species in this case. Because of the high variability in plant yield and element contents in the aboveground biomass of plants, great variation in Cd and Zn accumulation was observed during the experiment. The extraction ability in field conditions varied in the case of Cd from 0.2 to 2.9 kg ha(-1) (N. caerulescens) and up to 0.15 kg ha(-1) (A. halleri), and in the case of Zn from 0.2 to 6.4 kg ha(-1) (N. caerulescens) and up to 13.8 kg.ha(-1) (A. halleri). Taking into account the 20 cm root zone of the soil, the plants were able to extract up to 4.1% Cd and 0.2% Zn in one season. However, cropping measures should be optimized to improve and stabilize the long-term phytoextraction potential of these plants. PMID:26280307

  17. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Tang, Hui; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Qi-Sheng; Li, Shi-Gui; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant survival and growth. Excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer has generated serious environment pollution and increased production cost in agriculture. To deal with this problem, tremendous efforts have been invested worldwide to increase the nitrogen use ability of crops. However, only limited success has been achieved to date. Here we report that NLP7 (NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 7) is a potential candidate to improve plant nitrogen use ability. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, NLP7 increases plant biomass under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions with better-developed root system and reduced shoot/root ratio. NLP7–overexpressing plants show a significant increase in key nitrogen metabolites, nitrogen uptake, total nitrogen content, and expression levels of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and signalling. More importantly, overexpression of NLP7 also enhances photosynthesis rate and carbon assimilation, whereas knockout of NLP7 impaired both nitrogen and carbon assimilation. In addition, NLP7 improves plant growth and nitrogen use in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results demonstrate that NLP7 significantly improves plant growth under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions by coordinately enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation and sheds light on crop improvement. PMID:27293103

  18. Fate of NDMA precursors through an MBR-NF pilot plant for urban wastewater reclamation and the effect of changing aeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Julian; Insa, Sara; Monclús, Hèctor; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim; Barceló, Damià; Farré, Maria José

    2016-10-01

    The removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential through a membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled to a nanofiltration (NF) pilot plant that treats urban wastewater is investigated. The results are compared to the fate of the individual NDMA precursors detected: azithromycin, citalopram, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ranitidine, venlafaxine and its metabolite o-desmethylvenlafaxine. Specifically, the effect of dissolved oxygen in the aerobic chamber of the MBR pilot plant on the removal of NDMA formation potential (FP) and individual precursors is studied. During normal aerobic operation, implying a fully nitrifying system, the MBR was able to reduce NDMA precursors above 94%, however this removal percentage was reduced to values as low as 72% when changing the conditions to minimize nitrification. Removal decreased also for azithromycin (68-59%), citalopram (31-17%), venlafaxine (35-15%) and erythromycin (61-16%) on average during nitrifying versus non-nitrifying conditions. The removal of clarithromycin, o-desmethylvenlafaxine and ranitidine could not be correlated with the nitrification inhibition, as it varied greatly during the experiment time. The MBR pilot plant is coupled to a nanofiltration (NF) system and the results on the rejection of both, NDMA FP and individual precursors, through this system was above 90%. Finally, results obtained for the MBR pilot plant are compared to the percentage of removal by a conventional full scale biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fed with the same influent. During aerobic operation, the removal of NDMA FP by the MBR pilot plant was similar to the full scale WWTP. PMID:27393963

  19. Uranium Immobilization in an Iron-Rich Rhizosphere of a Native Wetland Plant from the Savannah River Site under Reducing Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaque formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted usin...

  20. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases relative apoplastic water flow in roots of the host plant under both well-watered and drought stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Paz, José Antonio; Chaumont, François; Martinez-Ballesta, Mari Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The movement of water through mycorrhizal fungal tissues and between the fungus and roots is little understood. It has been demonstrated that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis regulates root hydraulic properties, including root hydraulic conductivity. However, it is not clear whether this effect is due to a regulation of root aquaporins (cell-to-cell pathway) or to enhanced apoplastic water flow. Here we measured the relative contributions of the apoplastic versus the cell-to-cell pathway for water movement in roots of AM and non-AM plants. Methods We used a combination of two experiments using the apoplastic tracer dye light green SF yellowish and sodium azide as an inhibitor of aquaporin activity. Plant water and physiological status, root hydraulic conductivity and apoplastic water flow were measured. Key Results Roots of AM plants enhanced significantly relative apoplastic water flow as compared with non-AM plants and this increase was evident under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. The presence of the AM fungus in the roots of the host plants was able to modulate the switching between apoplastic and cell-to-cell water transport pathways. Conclusions The ability of AM plants to switch between water transport pathways could allow a higher flexibility in the response of these plants to water shortage according to the demand from the shoot. PMID:22294476

  2. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-01-01

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition. PMID:26179843

  3. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-01-01

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition. PMID:26179843

  4. Differential activity of autochthonous bacteria in controlling drought stress in native Lavandula and Salvia plants species under drought conditions in natural arid soil.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities. PMID:24337805

  5. Metabolomic profiling from leaves and roots of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.) plants grown under nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium-deficient condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are essential macronutrients that are required in large quantities by growing plants. Deficiency of N, P or K can strongly affect metabolites in plant tissues. However, specific metabolic network responses to nutrient deficiencies are not well-defined. ...

  6. Do Facilities with Distant Headquarters Pollute More? How Civic Engagement Conditions the Environmental Performance of Absentee Managed Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Don; Jones, Andrew W.; Trautner, Mary Nell

    2004-01-01

    Scholars agree that due to advances in transportation and communication technologies, firms can extend their reach and more easily externalize their pollution by setting up plants in far-flung, less regulated areas. They also concur that absentee managed plants or facilities with remote headquarters are rapidly becoming the modal type of…

  7. EFFECT OF PLANTING TIME AND DENSITY ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF PEPPERMINT (MENTHA PIPERITA L.) UNDER SU-TROPICAL CONDITION

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, P.C; Kanjilal, P.B

    1999-01-01

    A field trial was conducted at the research farm of RRL, Jorhat during 1995 and 1996 to study the performance of Mentha Piperita under varying dates of planting and row spacings, maximum herbage and oil yield were obtained from January plants crops. Yield deceased when planting was delayed planting at a closer row spacing of 45 cm recorded the maximum herbage yield of 61’92 q/a while the yield was reduced with wider row spacing of 360 cm or 75cm. However, the quality of oil as measured by the menthol content (71’0 – 72’3% was not affected by planting time as well as spacings. PMID:22556906

  8. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters stomatal conductance of host plants more under drought than under amply watered conditions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Saxton, Arnold M

    2015-01-01

    Stomata regulate rates of carbon assimilation and water loss. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses often modify stomatal behavior and therefore play pivotal roles in plant productivity. The size of the AM effect on stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s ) has varied widely, has not always been apparent, and is unpredictable. We conducted a meta-analysis of 460 studies to determine the size of the AM effect under ample watering and drought and to examine how experimental conditions have influenced the AM effect. Across all host and symbiont combinations under all soil moisture conditions, AM plants have shown 24 % higher g s than nonmycorrhizal (NM) controls. The promotion of g s has been over twice as great during moderate drought than under amply watered conditions. The AM influence on g s has been even more pronounced under severe drought, with over four times the promotion observed with ample water. Members of the Claroideoglomeraceae, Glomeraceae, and other AM families stimulated g s by about the same average amount. Colonization by native AM fungi has produced the largest promotion. Among single-AM symbionts, Glomus deserticola, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, and Funneliformis mosseae have had the largest average effects on g s across studies. Dicotyledonous hosts, especially legumes, have been slightly more responsive to AM symbiosis than monocotyledonous hosts, and C3 plants have shown over twice the AM-induced promotion of C4 plants. The extent of root colonization is important, with heavily colonized plants showing ×10 the g s promotion of lightly colonized plants. AM promotion of g s has been larger in growth chambers and in the field than in greenhouse studies, almost ×3 as large when plants were grown under high light than low light, and ×2.5 as large in purely mineral soils than in soils having an organic component. When AM plants have been compared with NM controls given NM pot culture, they have shown only half the promotion of g s as NM plants

  10. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  11. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  12. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  13. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  14. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  15. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  16. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  17. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  18. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  19. Comparison of Projections to Actual Performance in the DOE-EPRI Wind Turbine Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, H.; VandenBosche, J.; McCoy, T.; Compton, A.; Smith, B.

    2000-09-11

    As part of the US Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE-EPRI) Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), Global Energy Concepts (GEC) worked with participating utilities to develop a set of performance projections for their projects based on historical site atmospheric conditions, turbine performance data, operation and maintenance (O and M) strategies, and assumptions about various energy losses. After a preliminary operation period at each project, GEC compared the actual performance to projections and evaluated the accuracy of the data and assumptions that formed the performance projections. This paper presents a comparison of 1999 power output, turbine availability, and other performance characteristics to the projections for TVP projects in Texas, Vermont, Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Alaska. Factors that were overestimated or underestimated are quantified. Actual wind speeds are compared to projections based on long-term historical measurements. Turbine power curve measurements are compared with data provided by the manufacturers, and loss assumptions are evaluated for accuracy. Overall, the projects performed well, particularly new commercial turbines in the first few years of operation. However, some sites experienced below average wind resources and greater than expected losses. The TVP project owners successfully developed and constructed wind power plants that are now in full commercial operation, serving a total of approximately 12,000 households.

  20. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant-1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant-1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated with

  1. Correlates of Counselor Self-Actualization and Client-Perceived Facilitativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfridge, Fred F.; Vander Kolk, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Client ratings of the abilities of 33 school counselors to communicate the core facilitative conditions of empathy, regard, congruence, and trust are compared to the counselors' scores on a measure of self-actualization. Results support the contention that there exists a strong relationship between self-actualization and counselor effectiveness as…

  2. Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) final report on aging and condition monitoring of low-voltage cable materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, Roger Alan; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes results generated on a 5-year cable-aging program that constituted part of the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) program, an effort cosponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The NEPO cable-aging effort concentrated on two important issues involving the development of better lifetime prediction methods as well as the development and testing of novel cable condition-monitoring (CM) techniques. To address improved life prediction methods, we first describe the use of time-temperature superposition principles, indicating how this approach improves the testing of the Arrhenius model by utilizing all of the experimentally generated data instead of a few selected and processed data points. Although reasonable superposition is often found, we show several cases where non-superposition is evident, a situation that violates the constant acceleration assumption normally used in accelerated aging studies. Long-term aging results over extended temperature ranges allow us to show that curvature in Arrhenius plots for elongation is a common occurrence. In all cases the curvature results in a lowering of the Arrhenius activation energy at lower temperatures implying that typical extrapolation of high temperature results over-estimates material lifetimes. The long-term results also allow us to test the significance of extrapolating through the crystalline melting point of semi-crystalline materials. By utilizing ultrasensitive oxygen consumption (UOC) measurements, we show that it is possible to probe the low temperature extrapolation region normally inaccessible to conventional accelerated aging studies. This allows the quantitative testing of the often-used Arrhenius extrapolation assumption. Such testing indicates that many materials again show evidence of ''downward'' curvature (E{sub a} values drop as the aging temperature is lowered) consistent with the limited elongation results and

  3. Evaluation of the magnitude and effects of bundle duct interaction in fuel assemblies at developmental plant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Serell, D.C.; Kaplan, S.

    1980-09-01

    Purpose of this evaluation is to estimate the magnitude and effects of irradiation and creep induced fuel bundle deformations in the developmental plant. This report focuses on the trends of the results and the ability of present models to evaluate the assembly temperatures in the presence of bundle deformation. Although this analysis focuses on the developmental plant, the conclusions are applicable to LMFBR fuel assemblies in general if they have wire spacers.

  4. [Growth and development of plants in a row of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Sychev, V. N.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Signalova, O. B.; Podol'skii, I. G.; Avdeev, S. V.; Bingheim, G. E.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Results of the experiment aimed at harvesting a second space generation of wheat var. Apogee in Mir greenhouse Svet (experiment GREENHOUSE-5) are presented. In space flight, germination rate of space seeds from the first crop made up 89% against 100% of the ground seeds. The full biological ripeness was observed in 20 plants grown from the ground seeds and one plant grown from the space seeds following 80- to 90-d vegetation. The plant of the second space generation was morphologically different neither from the species in the first space crop nor from the ground controls. To study the biological characteristics of Apogee seeds gathered in the first and second crops in spaceflight experiment GREENHOUSE-5, the seeds were planted on their return to the laboratory. Morphometric analysis showed that they were essentially similar to the controls. Hence, the space experiments in Mir greenhouse Svet performed during 1998-1999 gave proof that plants cultivated in microgravity can pass the ontogenetic cycle more than once. However, initial results of the investigations into growth and development of plants through several generations are still in-sufficient to speak of possible delayed effects of the spaceflight factors (microgravity, multicomponent radiation, harmful trace contaminants etc.).

  5. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant−1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant−1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated

  7. Differential regulation of two types of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase in membrane lipid remodeling under phosphate-limited conditions in sesame plants

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Mie; Watanabe, Takahide; Madoka, Yuka; Koizumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Masayuki P.; Masuda, Kyojiro; Yamada, Kyoji; Masuda, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes drastic lipid remodeling in plant membranes. Glycolipids substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded, thereby supplying Pi needed for essential biological processes. Two major types of remodeling of membrane lipids occur in higher plants: whereas one involves an increase in the concentration of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in plastids to compensate for a decreased concentration of phosphatidylglycerol, the other involves digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) synthesis in plastids and the export of DGDG to extraplastidial membranes to compensate for reduced abundances of phospholipids. Lipid remodeling depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which is a substrate that supports the elevated rate of DGDG synthesis that is induced by low Pi availability. Regulation of MGDG synthesis has been analyzed most extensively using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, although orthologous genes that encode putative MGDG synthases exist in photosynthetic organisms from bacteria to higher plants. We recently hypothesized that two types of MGDG synthase diverged after the appearance of seed plants. This divergence might have both enabled plants to adapt to a wide range of Pi availability in soils and contributed to the diversity of seed plants. In the work presented here, we found that membrane lipid remodeling also takes place in sesame, which is one of the most common traditional crops grown in Asia. We identified two types of MGDG synthase from sesame (encoded by SeMGD1 and SeMGD2) and analyzed their enzymatic properties. Our results show that both genes correspond to the Arabidopsis type-A and -B isoforms of MGDG synthase. Notably, whereas Pi limitation up-regulates only the gene encoding the type-B isoform of Arabidopsis, low Pi availability up-regulates the expression of both SeMGD1 and SeMGD2. We discuss the significance of the different responses to low Pi availability in sesame and Arabidopsis. PMID

  8. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  9. [Growth and development of plants in a sequence of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Sychev, V. N.; Signalova, O. B.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Podol'skii, I. G.; Masgreiv, M. E.; Bingheim, G. E.; Musgrave, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose was to study characteristic features of growth and development of several plant generations in space flight in experiment GREENHOUSE-3 as a part of the Russian-US space research program MIR/NASA in 1997. The experiment consisted of cultivation of Brassica rapa L. in board greenhouse Svet. Two vegetative cycles were fully completed and the third vegetation was terminated on day 13 on the phase of budding. The total duration of the space experiment was 122 days, i.e. same as in the ground controls. In the experiment with Brassica rapa L. viable seeds produced by the first crop were planted in space flight and yielded next crop. Crops raised from the ground and space seeds were found to differ in height and number of buds. Both parameters were lowered in the plants grown from the space seeds. The prime course for smaller size and reduced organogenic potential of plantTs reproductive system seems to be a less content of nutrients in seeds that had matured in the space flight. Experiment GREENHOUSE-3 demonstrated principle feasibility of plant reproduction in space greenhouse from seeds developed in microgravity.

  10. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brygadyrenko, Viktor V.; Nazimov, Sergii S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761) – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours), Euphorbia virgata (3.45), Solanum nigrum (3.32), Centauria scabiosa (2.47), Lamium album (2.41), Aristolochia clematitis (1.76), Chenopodium album (1.73), Arctium lappa (1.51), Asperula odorata (1.20). A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours), Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75), Tropaeolum majus (3.29), Nicotiana tabacum (2.66), Rumex acetosa (1.96), Beta vulgaris (1.27). Opatrum sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched. PMID:25685032

  11. Simulation of the plant uptake of organophosphates and other emerging pollutants for greenhouse experiments and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Stefan; Eggen, Trine

    2013-06-01

    The uptake of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), the insect repellant N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), and the plasticizer n-butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS) into plants was studied in greenhouse experiments and simulated with a dynamic physiological plant uptake model. The calibrated model was coupled to a tipping buckets soil transport model and a field scenario with sewage sludge application was simulated. High uptake of the polar, low-volatile compounds TCEP, TCPP, and DEET into plants was found, with highest concentrations in straw (leaves and stem). Uptake into carrot roots was high for TCPP and TBP. NBBS showed no high uptake but was rapidly degraded. Uptake into barley seeds was small. The pattern and levels of uptake could be reproduced by the model simulations, which indicates mainly passive uptake and transport (i.e., by the transpiration stream, with the water) into and within the plants. Also the field simulations predicted a high uptake from soil into plants of TCEP, TCPP, and DEET, while TBP is more likely taken up from air. The BCF values measured and calculated in the greenhouse study are in most cases comparable to the calculated values of the field scenario, which demonstrates that greenhouse studies can be suitable for predicting the behavior of chemicals in the field. Organophosphates have a high potential for bioaccumulation in crops and reach agricultural fields both via sewage sludge and by atmospheric deposition. PMID:23212267

  12. [Growth and development of plants in a sequence of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-3)].

    PubMed

    Levinskikh, M A; Sychev, V N; Signalova, O B; Derendiaeva, T A; Podol'skiĭ, I G; Masgreĭv, M E; Bingheim, G E

    2001-01-01

    The purpose was to study characteristic features of growth and development of several plant generations in space flight in experiment GREENHOUSE-3 as a part of the Russian-US space research program MIR/NASA in 1997. The experiment consisted of cultivation of Brassica rapa L. in board greenhouse Svet. Two vegetative cycles were fully completed and the third vegetation was terminated on day 13 on the phase of budding. The total duration of the space experiment was 122 days, i.e. same as in the ground controls. In the experiment with Brassica rapa L. viable seeds produced by the first crop were planted in space flight and yielded next crop. Crops raised from the ground and space seeds were found to differ in height and number of buds. Both parameters were lowered in the plants grown from the space seeds. The prime course for smaller size and reduced organogenic potential of plantTs reproductive system seems to be a less content of nutrients in seeds that had matured in the space flight. Experiment GREENHOUSE-3 demonstrated principle feasibility of plant reproduction in space greenhouse from seeds developed in microgravity. PMID:11589157

  13. An improved, low-cost, hydroponic system for growing Arabidopsis and other plant species under aseptic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydroponics is a plant growth system that provides a more precise control of growth media composition. Several hydroponic systems have been reported for Arabidopsis and other model plants. The ease of system set up, cost of the growth system and flexibility to characterize and harvest plant material are features continually improved in new hydroponic system reported. Results We developed a hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis and other model plants. This low cost, proficient, and novel system is based on recyclable and sterilizable plastic containers, which are readily available from local suppliers. Our system allows a large-scale manipulation of seedlings. It adapts to different growing treatments and has an extended growth window until adult plants are established. The novel seed-holder also facilitates the transfer and harvest of seedlings. Here we report the use of our hydroponic system to analyze transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to nutriment availability and plant/pathogen interactions. Conclusions The efficiency and functionality of our proposed hydroponic system is demonstrated in nutrient deficiency and pathogenesis experiments. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings under long-time inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency showed typical changes in root architecture and high expression of marker genes involved in signaling and Pi recycling. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of gene expression of Arabidopsis roots depleted of Pi by short time periods indicates that genes related to general stress are up-regulated before those specific to Pi signaling and metabolism. Our hydroponic system also proved useful for conducting pathogenesis essays, revealing early transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes. PMID:24649917

  14. Indicated and actual mass inventory measurements for an inverted U-tube steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Plessinger, M.P.; Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of actual versus indicated secondary liquid level in a steam generator at steaming conditions are presented. The experimental investigation was performed in two different small scale U-tube-in-shell steam generators at typical pressurized water reactor operating conditions (5-7 MPa; saturated) in the Semiscale facility. During steaming conditions, the indicated secondary liquid level was found to vary considerably from the actual ''bottled-up'' liquid level. These difference between indicated and actual liquid level are related to the frictional pressure drop associated with the two-phase steaming condition in the riser. Data from a series of bottle-up experiments (Simultaneously, the primary heat source and secondary feed and steam are terminated) are tabulated and the actual liquid level is correlated to the indicated liquid level.

  15. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources

    PubMed Central

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article “A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources” (Scardigno et al., 2015) [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces. PMID:27054172

  16. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources.

    PubMed

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article "A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources" (Scardigno et al., 2015) [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces. PMID:27054172

  17. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Liddycoat, Scott M; Greenberg, Bruce M; Wolyn, David J

    2009-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can have positive effects on vigour and productivity, especially under stress conditions. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) field culture, seeds are planted in high-density nurseries, and 1-year-old crowns are transplanted to production fields. Performance can be negatively affected by water stress, transplant shock, and disease pressure on wounded roots. PGPR inoculation has the potential to alleviate some of the stresses incurred in the production system. In this study, the effects of PGPR (Pseudomonas spp.) treatment were determined on 3-week-old greenhouse-grown seedlings and germinating seeds of 2 asparagus cultivars. The pots were irrigated to a predetermined level that resulted in optimum growth or the plants were subjected to drought or flooding stress for 8 weeks. The cultivars responded differently to PGPR: single inoculations of seedlings enhanced growth of 'Guelph Millennium' under optimum conditions and 'Jersey Giant' seedlings under drought stress. Seed inoculations with PGPR resulted in a positive response only for 'Guelph Millennium', for which both single or multiple inoculations enhanced plant growth under drought stress. PMID:19396238

  18. Elemental distribution in tissue components of N2-fixing nodules of Psoralea pinnata plants growing naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanu, Sheku A; Barnabas, Alban D; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Dakora, Felix D

    2014-07-01

    There is little information on in situ distribution of nutrient elements in N2-fixing nodules. The aim of this study was to quantify elemental distribution in tissue components of N2-fixing nodules harvested from Psoralea pinnata plants grown naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos. The data obtained from particle-induced X-ray emission revealed the occurrence of 20 elements (Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo and Ba) in nodule components. Although, in upland plants, the concentrations of S, Fe, Si, Mn and Cu showed a steady increase from the middle cortex to the medulla region of P. pinnata nodules, in wetland plants, only S, Fe and Mn showed an increase in concentration from the middle cortex to the bacteria-infected medulla of P. pinnata nodules. By contrast, the concentrations of Cl, K, Ca, Zn and Sr decreased from middle cortex to nodule medulla. The alkaline earth, alkali and transition elements Rb, Sr, Y and Zr, never before reported in N2-fixing nodules, were found to occur in root nodules of P. pinnata plants grown in both wetland and upland conditions. PMID:24366571

  19. Actual evapotranspiration and deficit: Biologically meaningful correlates of vegetation distribution across spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Correlative approaches to understanding the climatic controls of vegetation distribution have exhibited at least two important weaknesses: they have been conceptually divorced across spatial scales, and their climatic parameters have not necessarily represented aspects of climate of broad physiological importance to plants. Using examples from the literature and from the Sierra Nevada of California, I argue that two water balance parameters-actual evapotranspiration (AET) and deficit (D)-are biologically meaningful, are well correlated with the distribution of vegetation types, and exhibit these qualities over several orders of magnitude of spatial scale (continental to local). I reach four additional conclusions. (1) Some pairs of climatic parameters presently in use are functionally similar to AET and D; however, AET and D may be easier to interpret biologically. (2) Several well-known climatic parameters are biologically less meaningful or less important than AET and D, and consequently are poorer correlates of the distribution of vegetation types. Of particular interest, AET is a much better correlate of the distributions of coniferous and deciduous forests than minimum temperature. (3) The effects of evaporative demand and water availability on a site's water balance are intrinsically different. For example, the 'dry' experienced by plants on sunward slopes (high evaporative demand) is not comparable to the 'dry' experienced by plants on soils with low water-holding capacities (low water availability), and these differences are reflected in vegetation patterns. (4) Many traditional topographic moisture scalars-those that additively combine measures related to evaporative demand and water availability are not necessarily meaningful for describing site conditions as sensed by plants; the same holds for measured soil moisture. However, using AET and D in place of moisture scalars and measured soil moisture can solve these problems.

  20. The Plant Cell Wall: A Complex and Dynamic Structure As Revealed by the Responses of Genes under Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Houston, Kelly; Tucker, Matthew R; Chowdhury, Jamil; Shirley, Neil; Little, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The plant cell wall has a diversity of functions. It provides a structural framework to support plant growth and acts as the first line of defense when the plant encounters pathogens. The cell wall must also retain some flexibility, such that when subjected to developmental, biotic, or abiotic stimuli it can be rapidly remodeled in response. Genes encoding enzymes capable of synthesizing or hydrolyzing components of the plant cell wall show differential expression when subjected to different stresses, suggesting they may facilitate stress tolerance through changes in cell wall composition. In this review we summarize recent genetic and transcriptomic data from the literature supporting a role for specific cell wall-related genes in stress responses, in both dicot and monocot systems. These studies highlight that the molecular signatures of cell wall modification are often complex and dynamic, with multiple genes appearing to respond to a given stimulus. Despite this, comparisons between publically available datasets indicate that in many instances cell wall-related genes respond similarly to different pathogens and abiotic stresses, even across the monocot-dicot boundary. We propose that the emerging picture of cell wall remodeling during stress is one that utilizes a common toolkit of cell wall-related genes, multiple modifications to cell wall structure, and a defined set of stress-responsive transcription factors that regulate them. PMID:27559336

  1. The Plant Cell Wall: A Complex and Dynamic Structure As Revealed by the Responses of Genes under Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Kelly; Tucker, Matthew R.; Chowdhury, Jamil; Shirley, Neil; Little, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The plant cell wall has a diversity of functions. It provides a structural framework to support plant growth and acts as the first line of defense when the plant encounters pathogens. The cell wall must also retain some flexibility, such that when subjected to developmental, biotic, or abiotic stimuli it can be rapidly remodeled in response. Genes encoding enzymes capable of synthesizing or hydrolyzing components of the plant cell wall show differential expression when subjected to different stresses, suggesting they may facilitate stress tolerance through changes in cell wall composition. In this review we summarize recent genetic and transcriptomic data from the literature supporting a role for specific cell wall-related genes in stress responses, in both dicot and monocot systems. These studies highlight that the molecular signatures of cell wall modification are often complex and dynamic, with multiple genes appearing to respond to a given stimulus. Despite this, comparisons between publically available datasets indicate that in many instances cell wall-related genes respond similarly to different pathogens and abiotic stresses, even across the monocot-dicot boundary. We propose that the emerging picture of cell wall remodeling during stress is one that utilizes a common toolkit of cell wall-related genes, multiple modifications to cell wall structure, and a defined set of stress-responsive transcription factors that regulate them. PMID:27559336

  2. Fruit yield of virus-resistant transgenic summer squash in simulated commercial plantings under conditions of high disease pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit yield of transgenic crookneck summer squash ZW-20 resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and of a susceptible nontransgenic lineage of the same genotype was compared over two consecutive years. Field trials relied on small-scale plantings that refle...

  3. Accumulation of arsenic by aquatic plants in large-scale field conditions: opportunities for phytoremediation and bioindication.

    PubMed

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Prasad, M N V

    2012-09-01

    This work focuses on the potential of aquatic plants for bioindication and/or phytofiltration of arsenic from contaminated water. More than 71 species of aquatic plants were collected at 200 sampling points in running waters. The results for the 18 most representative plant species are presented here. The species Ranunculus trichophyllus, Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius, Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and the leaves of Juncus effusus showed a very highly significant (P<0.001) positive correlation with the presence of arsenic in the water. These species may serve as arsenic indicators. The highest concentration of arsenic was found in Callitriche lusitanica (2346 mg/kg DW), Callitriche brutia (523 mg/kg DW), L. minor (430 mg/kg DW), A. caroliniana (397 mg/kg DW), R. trichophyllus (354 mg/kg DW), Callitriche stagnalis (354 mg/kg DW) and Fontinalis antipyretica (346 mg/kg DW). These results indicate the potential application of these species for phytofiltration of arsenic through constructed treatment wetlands or introduction of these plant species into natural water bodies. PMID:22820614

  4. Distribution of bacterial endophytes in peanut seeds obtained from axenic and control plant material under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since endophytic bacteria may play a role in the defense mechanism of peanut from fungal invasion, the internal bacterial colonization of peanut seeds was investigated. Bacteria-free young peanut plants from seed embryos were successfully grown to maturity in the field. Mature seeds from these pla...

  5. PLANT PROTECTIVE RESPONSE TO ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: LEAF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of Vicia faba were grown in the field during early to midsummer while receiving two levels of supplemental UV-B radiation. Light-saturated photosynthesis and stomatal diffusive conductance of intact leaves did not show any indications of UV-radiation damage. Supplemental U...

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of Haemonchus contortus exposed to tannin-rich plants under in vivo and in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortíz-de-Montellano, C; Arroyo-López, C; Fourquaux, I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H

    2013-03-01

    The structural changes induced in adult Haemonchus contortus after in vitro and in vivo contact with a tannin-rich (TR) plant, either tzalam (Lysiloma latisiliquum) or sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the worms used in the study were adult females. The Haemonchus adult worms were obtained from the abomasum of infected donor goats. Adult H. contortus were kept in contact with the extracts of TR plants for 24h for the in vitro assays and were compared to worms maintained in PBS (control). For the in vivo studies, the adult H. contortus parasites were obtained from artificially infected goats. All the goats were fed a tannin-free diet until D27 post-infection when infection was patent. On D28 some goats were fed fodder of one of the TR plants for seven consecutive days. Thus, their H. contortus were in contact with TR fodder within the gastrointestinal tract. The control worms were obtained from goats fed only a tannin-free diet. In the in vitro assays and in vivo studies, the SEM observations revealed structural alterations in the worms after contact with TR plants when compared to the control worms (i.e.: longitudinal and transversal folds and thicker cuticular ridges, material aggregates around the buccal capsule and/or vulva or anus). The main changes concerned the cuticle and the buccal area. The structural changes found in the worms exposed to TR plants might affect their motility and nutrition with possible consequences on their reproduction, as suggested by previous in vivo trials. PMID:23246590

  7. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  8. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  9. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  10. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and [Formula: see text] compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes

  11. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and O2− compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes to advances

  12. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on the Disease Severity of Rocket Plants Caused by Fusarium Wilt under Phytotron Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chitarra, Walter; Siciliano, Ilenia; Ferrocino, Ilario; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The severity of F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans on rocket plants grown under simulated climate change conditions has been studied. The rocket plants were cultivated on an infested substrate (4 log CFU g-1) and a non-infested substrate over three cycles. Pots were placed in six phytotrons in order to simulate different environmental conditions: 1) 400–450 ppm CO2, 18–22°C; 2) 800–850 ppm CO2, 18–22°C; 3) 400–450 ppm CO2, 22–26°C, 4) 800–850 ppm CO2, 22–26°C, 5) 400–450 ppm CO2, 26–30°C; 6) 800–850 ppm CO2, 26–30°C. Substrates from the infested and control samples were collected from each phytotron at 0, 60 and 120 days after transplanting. The disease index, microbial abundance, leaf physiological performances, root exudates and variability in the fungal profiles were monitored. The disease index was found to be significantly influenced by higher levels of temperature and CO2. Plate counts showed that fungal and bacterial development was not affected by the different CO2 and temperature levels, but a significant decreasing trend was observed from 0 up to 120 days. Conversely, the F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans plate counts did not show any significantly decrease from 0 up to 120 days. The fungal profiles, evaluated by means of polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), showed a relationship to temperature and CO2 on fungal diversity profiles. Different exudation patterns were observed when the controls and infested plants were compared, and it was found that both CO2 and temperature can influence the release of compounds from the roots of rocket plants. In short, the results show that global climate changes could influence disease incidence, probably through plant-mediated effects, caused by soilborne pathogens. PMID:26469870

  13. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on the Disease Severity of Rocket Plants Caused by Fusarium Wilt under Phytotron Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chitarra, Walter; Siciliano, Ilenia; Ferrocino, Ilario; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The severity of F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans on rocket plants grown under simulated climate change conditions has been studied. The rocket plants were cultivated on an infested substrate (4 log CFU g-1) and a non-infested substrate over three cycles. Pots were placed in six phytotrons in order to simulate different environmental conditions: 1) 400-450 ppm CO2, 18-22°C; 2) 800-850 ppm CO2, 18-22°C; 3) 400-450 ppm CO2, 22-26°C, 4) 800-850 ppm CO2, 22-26°C, 5) 400-450 ppm CO2, 26-30°C; 6) 800-850 ppm CO2, 26-30°C. Substrates from the infested and control samples were collected from each phytotron at 0, 60 and 120 days after transplanting. The disease index, microbial abundance, leaf physiological performances, root exudates and variability in the fungal profiles were monitored. The disease index was found to be significantly influenced by higher levels of temperature and CO2. Plate counts showed that fungal and bacterial development was not affected by the different CO2 and temperature levels, but a significant decreasing trend was observed from 0 up to 120 days. Conversely, the F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans plate counts did not show any significantly decrease from 0 up to 120 days. The fungal profiles, evaluated by means of polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), showed a relationship to temperature and CO2 on fungal diversity profiles. Different exudation patterns were observed when the controls and infested plants were compared, and it was found that both CO2 and temperature can influence the release of compounds from the roots of rocket plants. In short, the results show that global climate changes could influence disease incidence, probably through plant-mediated effects, caused by soilborne pathogens. PMID:26469870

  14. Nitrogen availability impacts oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant water status and proline production efficiency under water-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Faes, Pascal; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Leport, Laurent; Bouchereau, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are used in the production of oilseed rape. However, as low-input methods of crop management are introduced crops will need to withstand temporary N deficiency. In temperate areas, oilseed rape will also be affected by frequent drought periods. Here we evaluated the physiological and metabolic impact of nitrate limitation on the oilseed rape response to water deprivation. Different amounts of N fertilizer were applied to plants at the vegetative stage, which were then deprived of water and rehydrated. Both water and N depletion accelerated leaf senescence and reduced leaf development. N-deprived plants exhibited less pronounced symptoms of wilting during drought, probably because leaves were smaller and stomata were partially closed. Efficiency of proline production, a major stress-induced diversion of nitrogen metabolism, was assessed at different positions along the whole plant axis and related to leaf developmental stage and water status indices. Proline accumulation, preferentially in younger leaves, accounted for 25-85% of the free amino acid pool. This was mainly due to a better capacity for proline synthesis in fully N-supplied plants whether they were subjected to drought or not, as deduced from the expression patterns of the proline metabolism BnP5CS and BnPDH genes. Although less proline accumulated in the oldest leaves, a significant amount was transported from senescing to emerging leaves. Moreover, during rehydration proline was readily recycled. Our results therefore suggest that proline plays a significant role in leaf N remobilization and in N use efficiency in oilseed rape. PMID:22526495

  15. MYB and bHLH transcription factor transgenes increase anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia and lisianthus plants, and the petunia phenotypes are strongly enhanced under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Boase, Murray R; Bradley, J Marie; Lewis, David H; Deroles, Simon C; Martin, Cathie R; Davies, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida)] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus) plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor [TF; ROSEA1 (ROS1)] that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related basic helix-loop-helix TF transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC), which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high-light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1 × 35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple pigmentation. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1 × 35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants. PMID:25414715

  16. MYB and bHLH transcription factor transgenes increase anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia and lisianthus plants, and the petunia phenotypes are strongly enhanced under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Boase, Murray R.; Bradley, J. Marie; Lewis, David H.; Deroles, Simon C.; Martin, Cathie R.; Davies, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida)] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus) plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor [TF; ROSEA1 (ROS1)] that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related basic helix-loop-helix TF transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC), which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high-light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1 × 35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple pigmentation. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1 × 35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants. PMID:25414715

  17. Influence of Tunisian aromatic plants on the prevention of oxidation in soybean oil under heating and frying conditions.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Silva, Sandra Diniz; Hamdi, Moktar; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil by using aromatic plants. Soybean oil flavored with rosemary (ROS) and soybean oil flavored with thyme (THY) were subjected to heating for 24h at 180°C. The samples were analyzed every 6h for their total polar compounds, anisidine values, oxidative stability and polyphenols content. The tocopherols content was determined and volatile compounds were also analyzed. After 24h of heating, the incorporation of these plants using a maceration process reduced the polar compounds by 69% and 71% respectively, in ROS and THY compared to the control. Until 6h of heating, the ROS kept the greatest oxidative stability. The use of the two extracts preserves approximately 50% of the total tocopherols content until 18h for the rosemary and 24h for the thyme flavored oils. Volatile compounds known for their antioxidant activity were also detected in the formulated oils. Aromatic plants added to the soybean oil improved the overall acceptability of potato crisps (p<0.05) until the fifteenth frying. PMID:27374561

  18. Root-shoot interactions explain the reduction of leaf mineral content in Arabidopsis plants grown under elevated [CO2 ] conditions.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Ivan; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M; Avila, Concepción; Cañas, Rafael; Sakalauskiene, Sandra; Aranjuelo, Iker

    2016-09-01

    Although shoot N depletion in plants exposed to elevated [CO2 ] has already been reported on several occasions, some uncertainty remains about the mechanisms involved. This study illustrates (1) the importance of characterizing root-shoot interactions and (2) the physiological, biochemical and gene expression mechanisms adopted by nitrate-fed Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under elevated [CO2 ]. Elevated [CO2 ] increases biomass and photosynthetic rates; nevertheless, the decline in total soluble protein, Rubisco and leaf N concentrations revealed a general decrease in leaf N availability. A transcriptomic approach (conducted at the root and shoot level) revealed that exposure to 800 ppm [CO2 ] induced the expression of genes involved in the transport of nitrate and mineral elements. Leaf N and mineral status revealed that N assimilation into proteins was constrained under elevated [CO2 ]. Moreover, this study also highlights how elevated [CO2 ] induced the reorganization of nitrate assimilation between tissues; root nitrogen assimilation was favored over leaf assimilation to offset the decline in nitrogen metabolism in the leaves of plants exposed to elevated [CO2 ]. PMID:26801348

  19. [A protector effect of cytokinin preparations on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat plants under water deficiency conditions].

    PubMed

    Monakhova, O F; Cherniad'ev, I I

    2007-01-01

    The protective effects of the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine and the compounds thidiazuron and kartolin, displaying a cytokinin activity, on the photosynthetic apparatus of young seedlings and leaves of adult plants of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Mironovskaya 808 (more drought tolerant) and Lutescens 758 (less tolerant to water stress), were compared on the background of an increasing water deficiency. At the stages of drought and subsequent rehydration, cartolin preparations were the most efficient protectors, enhancing a less pronounced decrease in the intensity of photosynthesis, carboxylating activity of the key enzyme of carbon metabolism--ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39)-and the activity of NADP-glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase--the enzyme complex comprising phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13). This effect also included an increase in the leaf specific density and plant productivity. The negative influence of water stress on the photosynthetic apparatus was more pronounced in a less tolerant cultivar Lutescens 758 and in the seedlings as compared with the adult plants. PMID:18173117

  20. CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE RESULTED FROM THE TREATMENT OF LIQUID WASTE FROM THE ROMANIAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    ARSENE, CARMEN; ANDREI, VERONICA; NEGOIU, DUMITRU

    2003-02-27

    For the conditioning of spent resins contaminated with radionuclides, such as: 137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co, 58Co, 57Co, 54Mn, etc., techniques of direct immobilization in cement, bitumen and organic polymers have been tested. The selected process was the bituminization using industrial bitumen, I 60-70, made in Romania, which had very good characteristics. The paper presents stages of the research project, technical conditions for the process and advantages of the bituminization of spent resins.

  1. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. PMID:25078471

  2. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

    PubMed

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  3. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments. PMID:25758141

  4. Proposed criteria for identifying GE crop plants that pose a low or negligible risk to the environment under conditions of low-level presence in seed.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew; Finardi-Filho, Flavio; Hegde, Subray; Kiekebusch, Juan; Klimpel, Gonzalo; Krieger, Mark; Lema, Martin A; Macdonald, Philip; Nari, Claudia; Rubinstein, Clara; Slutsky, Bernice; Vicien, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    The low-level presence (LLP) of genetically engineered (GE) seeds that have been approved in the country of origin but not the country of import presents challenges for regulators in both seed importing and exporting countries, as well as for the international seed trade and the farmers who rely on it. In addition to legal, financial and regulatory challenges, such LLP situations in seed may also require an environmental risk assessment by the country of import. Such assessments have typically been informed by the national framework established to support decisions related to wide scale cultivation, and frequently do not take into account the low environmental exposure and prior regulatory history of the GE plant. In addition, such assessment processes may not be well suited to the decision-making timeframe that is necessary when dealing with an LLP situation in imported seed. In order to facilitate regulatory decision making, this paper proposes a set of scientific criteria for identifying GE crop plants that are expected to pose a low or negligible risk to the environment under LLP conditions in seed. Regulatory decision makers in some importing countries may decide to use these criteria to assist in risk analysis associated with LLP situations they are experiencing or could experience in the future, and might choose to proactively apply the criteria to identify existing GE plants with regulatory approvals in other countries that would be expected to pose low risk under conditions of LLP in seed. PMID:26264890

  5. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone. PMID:25046756

  6. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. Exchange of atmospheric formic and acetic acids with trees and crop plants under controlled chamber and purified air conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Gerlach, C.; Jork, E.-M.

    We investigated the exchange of formic and acetic acids between the atmosphere and various tree species such as beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior L.), spruce ( Picea abies L.) Karst, holm oak ( Quercus ilex L.), and birch ( Betula pendula L.). and some crop-plant species such as corn ( Zea mays, var. Banjo), pea ( Pisum sativum, var. Solara), barley ( Hordeum vulgare, var. Igri) and oat (Avena sativa, var. Wiesel). All experiments were done with dynamic enclosures flushed with purified oxidant-free air, containing only low or controlled amounts of the two acids. Significant and light-triggered emission of both acids from all tree species was observed. For one tree species (ash) a seasonal large increase in fall due to early leaf decomposition was found. The standard emission factors (30°C and PAR=1000 μmol m 2 s -1) given as (nmol m -2 min -1) for acetic and formic acids, respectively, were 8.1 and 29.7 (ash, autumn), 1.0 and 3.3 (ash, summer), 0.9 and 1.4 (beech), 0.7 and 1.45 (spruce), 1.9 and 2.4 (Holm oak) and 1.7 and 6.7 (birch). Rough estimation of global annual emissions range between 20 and 130 Gmol formic acid and 10 and 33 Gmol acetic acid. These numbers reflect a 15-30% contribution by forest emissions to the continental organic acid budget. As compared to the global total NMHC emissions low molecular weight organic acids are of minor importance. In contrast to the trees, none of the crop-plant species investigated showed an emission, but always a clear deposition of both acids. Both emission from trees as well as uptake by the agricultural plants could be related to transpiration rates and leaf conductances.

  12. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  13. What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; MacDougall, Hamish Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS. PMID:22833733

  14. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon’s response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  17. A highly stable minimally processed plant-derived recombinant acetylcholinesterase for nerve agent detection in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J; Walker, Jeremy; Jiang, Xiaoming; Donahue, Scott; Robosky, Jason; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan; Urban, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although recent innovations in transient plant systems have enabled gram quantities of proteins in 1-2 weeks, very few have been translated into applications due to technical challenges and high downstream processing costs. Here we report high-level production, using a Nicotiana benthamiana/p19 system, of an engineered recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rAChE) that is highly stable in a minimally processed leaf extract. Lyophylized clarified extracts withstand prolonged storage at 70 °C and, upon reconstitution, can be used in several devices to detect organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides on surfaces ranging from 0 °C to 50 °C. The recent use of sarin in Syria highlights the urgent need for nerve agent detection and countermeasures necessary for preparedness and emergency responses. Bypassing cumbersome and expensive downstream processes has enabled us to fully exploit the speed, low cost and scalability of transient production systems resulting in the first successful implementation of plant-produced rAChE into a commercial biotechnology product. PMID:26268538

  18. Comparison of different conditions, substrates and operation modes by dynamic simulation of a full-scale anaerobic SBR plant.

    PubMed

    Rönner-Holm, S G E; Zak, A; Holm, N C

    2012-01-01

    Simulation studies for a full-scale anaerobic unit of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were performed using the anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1). The anaerobic full-scale plant consists of one mesophilic and one thermophilic digester, operated in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (ASBR) mode, and sludge enrichment reactors (SER) for each digester. The digesters are fed with a mixture of vegetable waste and process wastewater from the food factory. Characteristics such as COD(total), N(total) and NH(4)-N concentrations in the influent and effluent of the digester and SERs were measured and used for input fractionation. Parameters such as level, pH, biogas amount and composition in the digester were measured online and used for calibration. For simulation studies, different temperatures and operation modes with varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) input loads corresponding to feedstocks such as fruits, vegetables and grain were analysed and compared. Higher gas production and digestion efficiency in the thermophilic reactor and in shorter cycles were found and confirmed at full scale. Serial operation mode increased the gas production, but pH inhibition occurred earlier. Feeding only biosolids into digester I and the effluent of digester I together with process water into digester II further improved gas production in serial operation mode. PMID:22258689

  19. A highly stable minimally processed plant-derived recombinant acetylcholinesterase for nerve agent detection in adverse conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J.; Walker, Jeremy; Jiang, Xiaoming; Donahue, Scott; Robosky, Jason; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan; Urban, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although recent innovations in transient plant systems have enabled gram quantities of proteins in 1–2 weeks, very few have been translated into applications due to technical challenges and high downstream processing costs. Here we report high-level production, using a Nicotiana benthamiana/p19 system, of an engineered recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rAChE) that is highly stable in a minimally processed leaf extract. Lyophylized clarified extracts withstand prolonged storage at 70 °C and, upon reconstitution, can be used in several devices to detect organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides on surfaces ranging from 0 °C to 50 °C. The recent use of sarin in Syria highlights the urgent need for nerve agent detection and countermeasures necessary for preparedness and emergency responses. Bypassing cumbersome and expensive downstream processes has enabled us to fully exploit the speed, low cost and scalability of transient production systems resulting in the first successful implementation of plant-produced rAChE into a commercial biotechnology product. PMID:26268538

  20. 30 CFR 206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When MMS conducts reviews and audits, we will examine whether the contract reflects more than the...-contract situation are subject to monitoring, review, audit, and adjustment. You must submit the actual... processing plant. (i) Allowable operating expenses include operations supervision and engineering,...

  1. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  2. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.

  3. Chemical characterization of biogenic SOA generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic VOC profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate, a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. VOCs emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS), respectively. The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+) m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, methyl jasmonate, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O:C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3-0.47. The O:C of standard methyl jasmonate SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient datasets collected in forest environments.

  4. Chemical characterization of biogenic SOA generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic VOC profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate, a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six differentmore » coniferous plant types. VOCs emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS), respectively. The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+) m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, methyl jasmonate, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O:C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3–0.47. The O:C of standard methyl jasmonate SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient datasets collected in forest environments.« less

  5. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- andmore » post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.« less

  6. Influence of Habitat and Climate Variables on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Community Distribution, as Revealed by a Case Study of Facultative Plant Epiphytism under Semiarid Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, E.; Torres, P.; Querejeta, J. I.; Roldán, A.

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats. PMID:24038687

  7. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  8. Using Mesoscale Weather Model Output as Boundary Conditions for Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulations and Wind-Plant Aerodynamic Simulations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.

  9. Uranium immobilization in an iron-rich rhizosphere of a native wetland plant from the Savannah River Site under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-shik; Buettner, Shea W; Seaman, John C; Jaffé, Peter R; van Groos, Paul G Koster; Li, Dien; Peacock, Aaron D; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2014-08-19

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaques formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted using native plants (Sparganium americanum) from a wetland located on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. After iron plaques were established during a 73-day period by using an anoxic Fe(II)-rich nutrient solution, a U(VI) amended nutrient solution was added to the system for an additional two months. Compared to plant-free control microcosms, microcosms containing iron plaques successfully stimulated the growth of targeted iron reducing bacteria, Geobacter spp. Their population continuously increased after the introduction of the U(VI) nutrient solution. The reduction of some of the U(VI) to U(IV) by iron reducing bacteria was deduced based on the observations that the aqueous Fe(II) concentrations increased while the U(VI) concentrations decreased. The Fe(II) produced by the iron reducing bacteria was assumed to be reoxidized by the oxygen released from the roots. Advanced spectroscopic analyses revealed that a significant fraction of the U(VI) had been reduced to U(IV) and they were commonly deposited in association with phosphorus on the iron plaque. PMID:25051143

  10. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - State-of-the-art and advanced technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical and near-term cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for large-scale, central photovoltaic power stations. Various commercially available PCS hardware suitable for use in today's central photovoltaic power stations are also surveyed. Federal and industrial activities in the research and development of advanced PCSs that will contribute to the attainment of fully competitive, large-scale photovoltaic power stations are reviewed. The status of the DOE central station PCS program is discussed.

  11. Land use and habitat conditions across the southwestern Wyoming sagebrush steppe: development impacts, management effectiveness and the distribution of invasive plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manier, Daniel J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick; Chong, Geneva; Homer, Collin G.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Schell, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    For the past several years, USGS has taken a multi-faceted approach to investigating the condition and trends in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This recent effort builds upon decades of work in semi-arid ecosystems providing a specific, applied focus on the cumulative impacts of expanding human activities across these landscapes. Here, we discuss several on-going projects contributing to these efforts: (1) mapping and monitoring the distribution and condition of shrub steppe communities with local detail at a regional scale, (2) assessing the relationships between specific, land-use features (for example, roads, transmission lines, industrial pads) and invasive plants, including their potential (environmentally defined) distribution across the region, and (3) monitoring the effects of habitat treatments on the ecosystem, including wildlife use and invasive plant abundance. This research is focused on the northern sagebrush steppe, primarily in Wyoming, but also extending into Montana, Colorado, Utah and Idaho. The study area includes a range of sagebrush types (including, Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata, Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia nova) and other semi-arid shrubland types (for example, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex gardneri), impacted by extensive interface between steppe ecosystems and industrial energy activities resulting in a revealing multiple-variable analysis. We use a combination of remote sensing (AWiFS (1 Any reference to platforms, data sources, equipment, software, patented or trade-marked methods is for information purposes only. It does not represent endorsement of the U.S.D.I., U.S.G.S. or the authors), Landsat and Quickbird platforms), Geographic Information System (GIS) design and data management, and field-based, replicated sampling to generate multiple scales of data representing the distribution of shrub communities for the habitat inventory. Invasive plant

  12. Real-time condition monitoring of thermal power plants feed-pumps by rolling bearings supports vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Tarasov, E. V.

    2012-05-01

    The report addresses the real-time condition monitoring of technical state and automatic diagnosis of auxiliary equipment for bearings supports vibration, for example, control of the feed-pump operating modes of thermal power stations. The causes that lead to premature birth and development of defects in rolling bearings are identified and the development of activities ensuring safe and continuous operation of the auxiliary equipment of thermal power stations is carried out. Collection and analysis of vibration parameters of pumping units during their operation at the operating modes of the technological process are realized by means of real-time technical condition monitoring. Spectral analysis of vibration parameters of one of the pumps showed the presence of frequency components, which mark violations in the operating practices of the pump, the imbalance development and, as a consequence, the development of defects in the bearings by long-term operation of the unit. Timely warning of the personnel on the operation of the unit with the "INTOLERABLE" technical state and automatic warning issuance of the need to change the technological process allowed to recover the estimated pump operation mode in due time and prevent further development of defects in equipment.

  13. Mathematical simulation of the operating emergency conditions for the purpose of energy efficiency increase of thermal power plants management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazizova, O. V.; Malafeyev, A. V.; Kondrashova, Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    The regulations of the energy saving policy, being implemented at present, require an enhanced reliability of the power supply systems and operations of the motive loading, actuating machines and mechanisms, for the purpose of reduction of power inputs under operating emergency conditions. The development of industrial units of the distributed generation enables putting the generators, equipped with motors of the comparable power, into the operation, which is non-parallel to a power system. To provide static stability under such conditions the complex approach is required since it allows estimating the stability of the generators and the load during parallel and non-parallel operations with the power system and a complex circuit configuration. The mathematical models of units of the distributed generation and motive loading considering the character of the given mechanism are developed. They are implemented in the software package allowing the operative-dispatch personnel of the industrial power stations to forecast similar modes and develop special measures to provide a stable operation of electrical machines.

  14. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  15. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  16. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  17. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    PubMed

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  18. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  19. Increased resistance of Bt aspens to Phratora vitellinae (Coleoptera) leads to increased plant growth under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E Petter; Whitham, Thomas G; LeRoy, Carri J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Wennström, Anders; Pilate, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    One main aim with genetic modification (GM) of trees is to produce plants that are resistant to various types of pests. The effectiveness of GM-introduced toxins against specific pest species on trees has been shown in the laboratory. However, few attempts have been made to determine if the production of these toxins and reduced herbivory will translate into increased tree productivity. We established an experiment with two lines of potted aspens (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) which express Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) toxins and the isogenic wildtype (Wt) in the lab. The goal was to explore how experimentally controlled levels of a targeted leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) influenced leaf damage severity, leaf beetle performance and the growth of aspen. Four patterns emerged. Firstly, we found clear evidence that Bt toxins reduce leaf damage. The damage on the Bt lines was significantly lower than for the Wt line in high and low herbivory treatment, respectively. Secondly, Bt toxins had a significant negative effect on leaf beetle survival. Thirdly, the significant decrease in height of the Wt line with increasing herbivory and the relative increase in height of one of the Bt lines compared with the Wt line in the presence of herbivores suggest that this also might translate into increased biomass production of Bt trees. This realized benefit was context-dependent and is likely to be manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. However, these herbivore induced patterns did not translate into significant affect on biomass, instead one Bt line overall produced less biomass than the Wt. Fourthly, compiled results suggest that the growth reduction in one Bt line as indicated here is likely due to events in the transformation process and that a hypothesized cost of producing Bt toxins is of subordinate significance. PMID:22292004

  20. Plant lipid composition changes as a function of burning conditions and can be used as molecular proxy for the assessment of burning environments in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenberg, Guido

    2010-05-01

    of complex organic remains in soil, where with increasing temperature burning gets more complete leaving less burning residues. Recent investigations indicate a structural re-arrangement of lipidic components in burned plant biomass not only as a function of temperature, duration of thermal degradation, and oxygen availability, but also as a function of the initial plant biomass composition. Molecular marker might be useful to trace not only fire in recent and ancient soils, but also the burning conditions and the initial biomass. In this study it will be demonstrated how total lipid contents and distribution patterns are modified during thermal degradation and how molecular markers can be used to trace burning conditions in recent and ancient soils and sediments. Cited references 1. G.L.B. Wiesenberg, E. Lehndorff and L. Schwark, Org. Geochem., 40 (2009) 167. 2. J.A. Baldock and R.J. Smernik, Org. Geochem, 33 (2002) 1093. 3. M. Schneider, M. Hilf and M.W.I. Schmidt, Geophy. Res. Abstr., 10 (2008) EGU2008-A-00350.

  1. Tolerance of salinized floodplain conditions in a naturally occurring Eucalyptus hybrid related to lowered plant water potential.

    PubMed

    Zubrinich, T M; Loveys, B; Gallasch, S; Seekamp, J V; Tyerman, S D

    2000-08-01

    Rising saline groundwater and reduced flooding frequency are causing dieback of Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell. along the Murray River in Australia. A green-leaved variant of E. largiflorens, which is probably a hybrid with a local mallee species (E. gracilis F. Muell.), tolerates saline conditions better than the more common grey-leaved variant. The green variant exhibited more negative water potentials than the grey variant, and comparison with soil water potential profiles indicated that the green variant extracted water from slightly higher up the soil profile where the salt content was lower but the soil was drier. However, the stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) in the xylem did not differ significantly between paired green and grey trees, suggesting that both variants used the same water source. The green variant may be able to extract water for a longer period from a given point in the soil profile and tolerate a higher salt concentration around its roots than the grey variant. Predawn leaf water potentials of both variants decreased with increasing salinity of groundwater and decreasing depth to the groundwater, probably because the roots were being progressively confined to soil with lower matric potential as groundwater discharge through transpiration progressively salinized soil up the profile. The green variant had a lower assimilation rate and stomatal conductance than the grey variant, although the differences were not statistically significant during most of the year. Discrimination of 13C indicated that the green variant had a higher leaf internal CO2 concentration than the grey variant, indicative of a greater biochemical limitation on photosynthesis, perhaps resulting from the effects of operating at lower water potentials. The green variant had significantly lower stem hydraulic conductivity than the grey variant, probably because of its smaller xylem vessel diameter and higher degree of embolism. The more conservative water use of the green

  2. Physiological Strategies to Improve the Performance of Spring Maize (Zea mays L.) Planted under Early and Optimum Sowing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtavar, Muhammad Amir; Afzal, Irfan; Basra, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Ahmad, Azraf-ul-Haq; Noor, Mehmood Ali

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature at stand establishment and high temperature at reproductive stage are involved in reduction of grain yield of spring maize. A field study was therefore conducted to evaluate different physiological strategies for improving performance of spring maize under temperature extremes. Seed priming and foliar spray with 3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) and 100 mg L-1 kinetin solution alone or in all possible combinations with each other at three growth stages (knee height, tasseling and grain filling stage) and hydropriming was compared with control. Seed priming plus foliar spray of MLE and kinetin significantly improved stand establishment especially under early sown crop as indicated by reduced mean emergence time (MET), improved emergence index (EI) and final emergence percentage (FEP). Similarly increased chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, leaf area index, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, relative water content and decreased membrane permeability were recorded in both early and optimum sowing conditions in MLE priming plus foliar spray treatment. All these improvements were harvested in the form of increased yield and harvest index compared with control treatment. Overall crop sown at optimum time performed best but exogenous application of MLE through seed priming and foliar spray maximally improved the performance of early sown maize crop which is attributed more likely due to improved stand establishment, chlorophyll and phenolic contents, increased leaf area duration and grain filling period. It can be concluded that seed priming with MLE along with its foliar spray could increase production of maize under temperature extremes. PMID:25928295

  3. Reactor performance of a 750 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant: varied substrate input conditions impacting methanogenic community.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Malin, Cornelia; Lins, Philipp; Gstraunthaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2014-10-01

    A 750 m(3) anaerobic digester was studied over a half year period including a shift from good reactor performance to a reduced one. Various abiotic parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA) (formic-, acetic-, propionic-, (iso-)butyric-, (iso-)valeric-, lactic acid), total C, total N, NH4 -N, and total proteins, as well as the organic matter content and dry mass were determined. In addition several process parameters such as temperature, pH, retention time and input of substrate and the concentrations of CH4, H2, CO2 and H2S within the reactor were monitored continuously. The present study aimed at the investigation of the abundance of acetogens and total cell numbers and the microbial methanogenic community as derived from PCR-dHPLC analysis in order to put it into context with the determined abiotic parameters. An influence of substrate quantity on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process was found as well as a shift from a hydrogenotrophic in times of good reactor performance towards an acetoclastic dominated methanogenic community in times of reduced reactor performance. After the change in substrate conditions it took the methano-archaeal community about 5-6 weeks to be affected but then changes occurred quickly. PMID:24727280

  4. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Sörgel, Matthias; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace-gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. Compared with a single-cuvette system, the twin-cuvette system is insensitive to disturbing background effects such as wall deposition. In combination with a climate chamber, we can perform flux measurements under constant and controllable environmental conditions. With an Automatic Temperature Regulated Air Humidification System (ATRAHS), we are able to regulate the relative humidity inside both cuvettes between 40 and 90 % with a high precision of 0.3 %. Thus, we could demonstrate that for a cuvette system operated with a high flow rate (> 20 L min-1), a temperature-regulated humidification system such as ATRAHS is an accurate method for air humidification of the flushing air. Furthermore, the fully automatic progressive fill-up of ATRAHS based on a floating valve improved the performance of the entire measurement system and prevented data gaps. Two reactive gas species, ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were used to demonstrate the quality and performance of the twin-cuvette system. O3 and PAN exchange with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32 and 105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100 and 350 ppt, a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH) of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors

  5. Variability of Root Exudate δ13C and Fluxes in Relation to Environmental Conditions and Plant Characteristics in a Bottomland Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gougherty, S. W.; Bauer, J. E.; Pohlman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Plant root exudation of organic carbon (OC) is thought to be an important, yet poorly quantified and highly variable component of net primary productivity that influences soil biogeochemistry and ecology. In situ measurements of plant root OC exudation are relatively rare, and δ13C measurements of root exudates are generally lacking. Understanding both exudate fluxes and δ13C relative to other plant components, root characteristics and environmental parameters (e.g., vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture) will lead to better quantitative understanding of atmosphere—plant—soil linkages. We used a field based collection system to obtain root exudates from fine roots (diameter <5mm) over five sampling periods in a ~20 year old bottomland forest in central Ohio, USA. Exudates were analyzed for dissolved OC concentration and δ13C signatures. Exudate flux estimates were made at both the individual root level and also scaled to the entire sampling area. Preliminary data analysis suggests the mean root exudation rate was 26 µmol C g root -1 day-1 and when scaled to the 5600 m2 sampling area represents a mean flux of 4,200 µmol C m-2 day-1 from tree roots. The flux estimates presented here suggest root exudation may account for as much as 6% of net ecosystem production at the field location. Available data also suggests that exudate δ13C is enriched by 1-2 ‰ compared the root material from which exudates were collected. We will also assess the relationship between exudate, root and leaf δ13C, environmental parameters, and C fluxes at the site. If root exudation rate or δ13C varies as a function of environmental conditions this may suggest that heterotrophic remineralization of root exudates is one potential driver of correlations between soil δ13C-CO2 and environmental parameters.

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Disturbed conditions

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; BEAN,J.E.; ECONOMY,K.; GARNER,J.W.; MACKINNON,ROBERT J.; MILLER,JOEL D.; SCHREIBER,J.D.; VAUGHN,PALMER

    2000-05-22

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository under disturbed conditions resulting from drilling intrusions. Techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and rank transformations are used to investigate brine inflow, gas generation repository pressure, brine saturation and brine and gas outflow. Of the variables under study, repository pressure and brine flow from the repository to the Culebra Dolomite are potentially the most important in PA for the WIPP. Subsequent to a drilling intrusion repository pressure was dominated by borehole permeability and generally below the level (i.e., 8 MPa) that could potentially produce spallings and direct brine releases. Brine flow from the repository to the Culebra Dolomite tended to be small or nonexistent with its occurrence and size also dominated by borehole permeability.

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Undisturbed conditions

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; BEAN,J.E.; ECONOMY,K.; GARNER,J.W.; MACKINNON,ROBERT J.; MILLER,JOEL D.; SCHREIBER,JAMES D.; VAUGHN,PALMER

    2000-05-19

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented for two-phase flow the vicinity of the repository under undisturbed conditions. Techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and rank transformation are used to investigate brine inflow, gas generation repository pressure, brine saturation and brine and gas outflow. Of the variables under study, repository pressure is potentially the most important due to its influence on spallings and direct brine releases, with the uncertainty in its value being dominated by the extent to which the microbial degradation of cellulose takes place, the rate at which the corrosion of steel takes place, and the amount of brine that drains from the surrounding disturbed rock zone into the repository.

  8. Thioredoxin f1 and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Have Overlapping Functions in Regulating Photosynthetic Metabolism and Plant Growth in Response to Varying Light Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thormählen, Ina; Meitzel, Tobias; Groysman, Julia; Öchsner, Alexandra Bianca; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Naranjo, Belén; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Geigenberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Two different thiol redox systems exist in plant chloroplasts, the ferredoxin-thioredoxin (Trx) system, which depends on ferredoxin reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain and, thus, on light, and the NADPH-dependent Trx reductase C (NTRC) system, which relies on NADPH and thus may be linked to sugar metabolism in the dark. Previous studies suggested, therefore, that the two different systems may have different functions in plants. We now report that there is a previously unrecognized functional redundancy of Trx f1 and NTRC in regulating photosynthetic metabolism and growth. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, combined, but not single, deficiencies of Trx f1 and NTRC led to severe growth inhibition and perturbed light acclimation, accompanied by strong impairments of Calvin-Benson cycle activity and starch accumulation. Light activation of key enzymes of these pathways, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, was almost completely abolished. The subsequent increase in NADPH-NADP+ and ATP-ADP ratios led to increased nitrogen assimilation, NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation, and light vulnerability of photosystem I core proteins. In an additional approach, reporter studies show that Trx f1 and NTRC proteins are both colocalized in the same chloroplast substructure. Results provide genetic evidence that light- and NADPH-dependent thiol redox systems interact at the level of Trx f1 and NTRC to coordinately participate in the regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch metabolism, and growth in response to varying light conditions. PMID:26338951

  9. Thioredoxin f1 and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Have Overlapping Functions in Regulating Photosynthetic Metabolism and Plant Growth in Response to Varying Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Thormählen, Ina; Meitzel, Tobias; Groysman, Julia; Öchsner, Alexandra Bianca; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Naranjo, Belén; Cejudo, Francisco J; Geigenberger, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Two different thiol redox systems exist in plant chloroplasts, the ferredoxin-thioredoxin (Trx) system, which depends on ferredoxin reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain and, thus, on light, and the NADPH-dependent Trx reductase C (NTRC) system, which relies on NADPH and thus may be linked to sugar metabolism in the dark. Previous studies suggested, therefore, that the two different systems may have different functions in plants. We now report that there is a previously unrecognized functional redundancy of Trx f1 and NTRC in regulating photosynthetic metabolism and growth. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, combined, but not single, deficiencies of Trx f1 and NTRC led to severe growth inhibition and perturbed light acclimation, accompanied by strong impairments of Calvin-Benson cycle activity and starch accumulation. Light activation of key enzymes of these pathways, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, was almost completely abolished. The subsequent increase in NADPH-NADP(+) and ATP-ADP ratios led to increased nitrogen assimilation, NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation, and light vulnerability of photosystem I core proteins. In an additional approach, reporter studies show that Trx f1 and NTRC proteins are both colocalized in the same chloroplast substructure. Results provide genetic evidence that light- and NADPH-dependent thiol redox systems interact at the level of Trx f1 and NTRC to coordinately participate in the regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch metabolism, and growth in response to varying light conditions. PMID:26338951

  10. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice.

    PubMed

    Umezu, Toyoshi

    2012-06-01

    Although plant-derived essential oils (EOs) have been used to treat various mental disorders, their central nervous system (CNS) acting effects have not been clarified. The present study compared the effects of 20 kinds of EOs with the effects of already-known CNS acting drugs to examine whether the EOs exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects, CNS depressant-like effects, or neither. All agents were tested using a discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance task in mice. Essential oils of peppermint and chamomile exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects; that is, they increased the response rate (number of shuttlings/min) of the avoidance response. Linden also increased the response rate, however, the effect was not dose-dependent. In contrast, EOs of orange, grapefruit, and cypress exhibited CNS depressant-like effects; that is, they decreased the response rate of the avoidance response. Essential oils of eucalyptus and rose decreased the avoidance rate (number of avoidance responses/number of avoidance trials) without affecting the response rate, indicating that they may exhibit some CNS acting effects. Essential oils of 12 other plants, including juniper, patchouli, geranium, jasmine, clary sage, neroli, lavender, lemon, ylang-ylang, niaouli, vetivert and frankincense had no effect on the avoidance response in mice. PMID:22086772

  11. Discomfort Glare: What Do We Actually Know?

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert D.

    2012-04-19

    We reviewed glare models with an eye for missing conditions or inconsistencies. We found ambiguities as to when to use small source versus large source models, and as to what constitutes a glare source in a complex scene. We also found surprisingly little information validating the assumed independence of the factors driving glare. A barrier to progress in glare research is the lack of a standardized dependent measure of glare. We inverted the glare models to predict luminance, and compared model predictions against the 1949 Luckiesh and Guth data that form the basis of many of them. The models perform surprisingly poorly, particularly with regards to the luminance-size relationship and additivity. Evaluating glare in complex scenes may require fundamental changes to form of the glare models.

  12. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  13. Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The chronic "unloading" of the neuromuscular system during spaceflight has detrimental functional and morphological effects. Changes in the metabolic and mechanical properties of the musculature can be attributed largely to the loss of muscle protein and the alteration in the relative proportion of the proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in the muscles that have an antigravity function under normal loading conditions. These adaptations could result in decrements in the performance of routine or specialized motor tasks, both of which may be critical for survival in an altered gravitational field, i.e., during spaceflight and during return to 1 G. For example, the loss in extensor muscle mass requires a higher percentage of recruitment of the motor pools for any specific motor task. Thus, a faster rate of fatigue will occur in the activated muscles. These consequences emphasize the importance of developing techniques for minimizing muscle loss during spaceflight, at least in preparation for the return to 1 G after spaceflight. New insights into the complexity and the interactive elements that contribute to the neuromuscular adaptations to space have been gained from studies of the role of exercise and/or growth factors as countermeasures of atrophy. The present chapter illustrates the inevitable interactive effects of neural and muscular systems in adapting to space. It also describes the considerable progress that has been made toward the goal of minimizing the functional impact of the stimuli that induce the neuromuscular adaptations to space.

  14. Autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis from a degraded Mediterranean area can be used to improve physiological traits and performance of a plant of agronomic interest under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Azcón, Rosario; López-Castillo, Olga M; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that some microorganisms autochthonous from stressful environments are beneficial when used with autochthonous plants, but these microorganisms rarely have been tested with allochthonous plants of agronomic interest. This study investigates the effectiveness of drought-adapted autochthonous microorganisms [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi] from a degraded Mediterranean area to improve plant growth and physiology in Zea mays under drought stress. Maize plants were inoculated or not with B. thuringiensis, a consortium of AM fungi or a combination of both microorganisms. Plants were cultivated under well-watered conditions or subjected to drought stress. Several physiological parameters were measured, including among others, plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, nutrients content, oxidative damage to lipids, accumulation of proline and antioxidant compounds, root hydraulic conductivity and the expression of plant aquaporin genes. Under drought conditions, the inoculation of Bt increased significantly the accumulation of nutrients. The combined inoculation of both microorganisms decreased the oxidative damage to lipids and accumulation of proline induced by drought. Several maize aquaporins able to transport water, CO2 and other compounds were regulated by the microbial inoculants. The impact of these microorganisms on plant drought tolerance was complementary, since Bt increased mainly plant nutrition and AM fungi were more active improving stress tolerance/homeostatic mechanisms, including regulation of plant aquaporins with several putative physiological functions. Thus, the use of autochthonous beneficial microorganisms from a degraded Mediterranean area is useful to protect not only native plants against drought, but also an agronomically important plant such as maize. PMID:25813343

  15. A possible mechanism of biological silicification in plants

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plants are significant exponents of biological silicification. While not all plants are generally considered as biosilicifiers the extent to which all plants deposit biogenic silica is largely unknown. There are plants which are known as silica accumulators though even in these plants the extent and degree to which their tissues are silicified is neither appreciated nor understood. An elucidation of the mechanism of silicification in biota is complicated by a lack of known bio-organic chemistry of silicic acid, the starting point in this process. Herein I argue the case that biological silicification is an entirely passive process. It is passive from the point of view that its underlying mechanisms and processes do not require us to invoke any as yet undiscovered silicon biochemistry. It is also passive in that although silicification confers clear biological/ecological advantages under certain conditions, it is actually non-essential in all plants and potentially, at least, toxic in some. PMID:26500676

  16. A possible mechanism of biological silicification in plants.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plants are significant exponents of biological silicification. While not all plants are generally considered as biosilicifiers the extent to which all plants deposit biogenic silica is largely unknown. There are plants which are known as silica accumulators though even in these plants the extent and degree to which their tissues are silicified is neither appreciated nor understood. An elucidation of the mechanism of silicification in biota is complicated by a lack of known bio-organic chemistry of silicic acid, the starting point in this process. Herein I argue the case that biological silicification is an entirely passive process. It is passive from the point of view that its underlying mechanisms and processes do not require us to invoke any as yet undiscovered silicon biochemistry. It is also passive in that although silicification confers clear biological/ecological advantages under certain conditions, it is actually non-essential in all plants and potentially, at least, toxic in some. PMID:26500676

  17. Modelling the impact of climatic conditions and plant species on the nitrogen release from mulch of legumes at the soil surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudinat, Germain; Lorin, Mathieu; Valantin-morison, Muriel; Garnier, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Cover crops provide multiple services to the agro ecosystem. Among them, the use of legumes as cover crop is one of the solutions for limiting the use of herbicides, mineral fertilizers, and insecticides. However, the dynamic of mineralization is difficult to understand because of the difficulty of measuring nitrogen release from mulch in field. Indeed, residues are degraded at the soil surface as mulch, while the nitrogen uptake by the main crop occurred simultaneously in the soil. This work aims to study the dynamics of nitrogen mineralization from legume residues through i) the use of a model able to describe the physical and biological dynamic of mulch and ii) a data set from a field experiment of intercropping systems "oilseed rape-legumes" from different species (grass pea, lentil, Berseem clover, field pea, vetch). The objective of the simulations is to identify the variations of expected quantities of nitrogen from different legumes. The soil-plant model of mulch decomposition PASTIS-Mulch was used to determine the nitrogen supply from mulch available for rapeseed. These simulation results were compared to the data collected in the experimental field of Grignon (France). We performed analyzes of biochemical and physical characteristics of legume residues and monitored the evolution of mulches (moisture, density, cover surface, biomass) in fields. PASTIS simulations of soil temperature, soil moisture, mulch humidity and mulch decomposition were close to the experimental results. The PASTIS model was suitable to simulate the dynamic of legume mulches in the case of "rape - legume" associations. The model simulated nitrogen restitution of aerial and root parts. We found a more rapid nitrogen release by grass pea than other species. Vetch released less nitrogen than the other species. The scenarios for climate conditions were : i) a freezing in December that causes the destruction of plants, or a destruction by herbicide in March, ii) a strong or a weak rainy

  18. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jason; Bernstein, Robert; White, II, Gregory Von; Glover, Steven F.; Neely, Jason C.; Pena, Gary; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Zutavern, Fred J.; Gelbard, Fred

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  19. Effects of azadirachtin, abamectin, and spinosad on sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions in the humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prabhat; Poehling, H M

    2007-04-01

    Direct and residual toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S (azadirachtin), Success (spinosad), and abamectin was tested against different life stages of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), under air-conditioned laboratory conditions and in a tropical net greenhouse. NeemAzal-T/S and abamectin deterred the settling of adults on tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (Solanaceae), plants and consequently reduced egg deposition. No such effect was detected for Success. All three pesticides influenced egg hatch. Effects of NeemAzal-T/ S were significantly altered if applied to different-aged eggs (1, 3, and 5 d old). In contrast, abamectin-treated eggs failed to hatch at any given age class. All three products caused heavy mortality of the three nymphal stages of B. tabaci, with the first instars being most susceptible, abamectin-treated nymphs died within 24 h postapplication. In contrast, 100% nymphal mortality with NeemAzal-T/S and Success was reached 6-9 d postapplication. abamectin caused 100% immature mortality at all residue ages (1, 5, 10, and 15 d) in the laboratory and greenhouse as well. Persistence of Success was comparably high in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse a faster decline of activity was evident by increased egg deposition, egg hatch, and reduced rates of immature mortality. Toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S however gradually declined under greenhouse conditions with time (5 d) postapplication. The findings are discussed within the context of integrated management of whitefly under protected cultivation in the humid tropics. PMID:17461066

  20. Experimental Challenges and Successes in Measuring Aerosol Concentrations at Prototypic Spray Conditions Encountered at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13327

    SciTech Connect

    Bontha, J.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Adkins, H.E.; Enderlin, C.W.; Blanchard, J.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C.; Schonewill, P.P.; Mahoney, L.A.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Boeringa, G.; Jenks, J.

    2013-07-01

    To date, majority of the work done on measuring aerosol releases from failure of process piping was done using simple Newtonian fluids and small engineered-nozzles that do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches postulated during accident analysis at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). In addition, the majority of the work conducted in this area relies on in-spray measurements that neglect the effect of splatter and do not yield any information regarding aerosol generation rates from this additional mechanism. In order to estimate aerosol generation rates as well as reduce the uncertainties in estimating the aerosol release fractions over a broad range of breaches, fluid properties and operating conditions encountered at the WTP, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has designed, commissioned, and tested two experimental test stands. The first test stand, referred to as the large-scale test stand, was designed specifically to measure aerosol concentrations and release fractions under prototypic conditions of flow and pressure for a range of breaches postulated in the hazard analysis for 0.076 m (3-inch) process pipes. However, the size of the large-scale test stand, anticipated fluid loss during a breach, experimental risks, and costs associated with hazardous chemical simulant testing limited the large-scale test stand utility to water and a few non-hazardous physical simulants that did not fully span the particle size and rheological properties of the fluids encountered at the WTP. Overcoming these limitations and extending the range of simulants used, required designing and building a smaller test stand, which was installed and operated in a fume hood. This paper presents some of the features of both test stands, the experimental challenges encountered, and successes in measuring aerosol concentration in both test stands over a range of test conditions. (authors)

  1. Passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) monitoring of SO2 in smokestack plumes: a comparison of remote passive spectra of an actual hot plume with emission spectra collected with a heatable cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Charles T., Jr.; Marshall, Timothy L.; Combs, Roger J.; Knapp, Robert B.; Kroutil, Robert T.; Fateley, William G.; Hammaker, Robert M.

    1995-05-01

    In the interest of developing practical methodologies for remote passive FT-IR analysis of sulfur dioxide in heated smoke stack plumes, IR spectra have been collected in a number of relevant experiments. Field data includes passive remote FT-IR spectra collected at a coal-burning power plant for which plume conditions were characterized by in-stack continuous emission monitors (CEMs), spectra collected of a controlled plume from a model spectrometer, into which controlled levels of sulfur dioxide could be introduced while the spectrometer viewed sky backgrounds similar to those behind the actual power plant plume. An extensive spectral data set has also been collected in the laboratory under controlled target and background conditions using a heated cell. Typical spectra are presented and the potential for characterizing many of the important factors involved in remote passive FT-IR analyses through controlled- condition experiments such as these is discussed.

  2. Transcriptome analysis reveals the role of the root hairs as environmental sensors to maintain plant functions under water-deficiency conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Janiak, Agnieszka; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Nowakowska, Urszula; Sablok, Gaurav; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    An important part of the root system is the root hairs, which play a role in mineral and water uptake. Here, we present an analysis of the transcriptomic response to water deficiency of the wild-type (WT) barley cultivar 'Karat' and its root-hairless mutant rhl1.a. A comparison of the transcriptional changes induced by water stress resulted in the identification of genes whose expression was specifically affected in each genotype. At the onset of water stress, more genes were modulated by water shortage in the roots of the WT plants than in the roots of rhl1.a. The roots of the WT plants, but not of rhl1.a, specifically responded with the induction of genes that are related to the abscisic acid biosynthesis, stomatal closure, and cell wall biogenesis, thus indicating the specific activation of processes that are related to water-stress signalling and protection. On the other hand, the processes involved in the further response to abiotic stimuli, including hydrogen peroxide, heat, and high light intensity, were specifically up-regulated in the leaves of rhl1.a. An extended period of severe stress caused more drastic transcriptome changes in the roots and leaves of the rhl1.a mutant than in those of the WT. These results are in agreement with the much stronger damage to photosystem II in the rhl1.a mutant than in its parent cultivar after 10 d of water stress. Taking into account the putative stress sensing and signalling features of the root hair transcriptome, we discuss the role of root hairs as sensors of environmental conditions. PMID:26585228

  3. Plant water availability in dynamic vegetation models applied to Amazonia: The role of root water uptake functions under contemporary and simulated drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, B. J.; Levine, N. M.; Powell, T.; Galbraith, D.; Harper, A. B.; Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Rowland, L.; Brando, P. M.; Almeida, S.; da Costa, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Meir, P.; Costa, M. H.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The potential importance of deep soil moisture reserves for maintaining evergreen canopies across the seasonally wet Amazon has been recognized for some time, but only until recently has the modeling community explored how to incorporate moisture reserves into land surface models (LSMs) that couple to the atmosphere. Mechanisms employed by models for increasing plant-available water include rechargable aquifers, deep soil columns, root hydraulic redistribution, and deep root function. Recent LSM intercomparison work has demonstrated a large divergence in evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes as well as the relative importance of demand (solar radiation) versus supply (soil moisture) limitation. However, identifying the mechanisms for such differences is convoluted by the various hydrological parameterizations and boundary conditions used by the models. To better address this challenge, we selected a subset of ecosystem land surface models (ED2, IBIS, JULES, CLM3.5, SiB3, SPA) demonstrating a range of complexity in root water uptake functions (from root fraction-dependent uptake to gradient-driven soil-root-leaf hydraulics), ran these models at a handful of sites in the Amazon using site-specific control and simulated drought meterological forcing, and standardized these models with regard to belowground hydrological physics and site-specific soil properties. Using this approach, we were able to 1) conclude that model physical standardization was effective at eliminating non-biological differences in simulated soil moisture dynamics/stress in the models; 2) conduct data-model intercomparison with particular emphasis on how biological and ecological hypotheses employed by models control the seasonality of ET fluxes; and 3) assess the synergy between complexity and accuracy of root water uptake functions using a combination of site-specific soil moisture data and inverse hydrological modeling. This analysis highlights the belowground plant-water interface as an equally

  4. Transcriptome analysis reveals the role of the root hairs as environmental sensors to maintain plant functions under water-deficiency conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Janiak, Agnieszka; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Nowakowska, Urszula; Sablok, Gaurav; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    An important part of the root system is the root hairs, which play a role in mineral and water uptake. Here, we present an analysis of the transcriptomic response to water deficiency of the wild-type (WT) barley cultivar ‘Karat’ and its root-hairless mutant rhl1.a. A comparison of the transcriptional changes induced by water stress resulted in the identification of genes whose expression was specifically affected in each genotype. At the onset of water stress, more genes were modulated by water shortage in the roots of the WT plants than in the roots of rhl1.a. The roots of the WT plants, but not of rhl1.a, specifically responded with the induction of genes that are related to the abscisic acid biosynthesis, stomatal closure, and cell wall biogenesis, thus indicating the specific activation of processes that are related to water-stress signalling and protection. On the other hand, the processes involved in the further response to abiotic stimuli, including hydrogen peroxide, heat, and high light intensity, were specifically up-regulated in the leaves of rhl1.a. An extended period of severe stress caused more drastic transcriptome changes in the roots and leaves of the rhl1.a mutant than in those of the WT. These results are in agreement with the much stronger damage to photosystem II in the rhl1.a mutant than in its parent cultivar after 10 d of water stress. Taking into account the putative stress sensing and signalling features of the root hair transcriptome, we discuss the role of root hairs as sensors of environmental conditions. PMID:26585228

  5. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  6. Development of the Conceptual Models for Chemical Conditions and Hydrology Used in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    LARSON, KURT W

    2000-05-24

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify that the DOE must demonstrate on a sound basis that the WIPP disposal system will effectively contain long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides within its boundaries for 10,000 years following closure. In 1996, the DOE submitted the ''40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' (CCA) to the EPA. The CCA proposed that the WIPP site complies with EPA's regulatory requirements. Contained within the CCA are descriptions of the scientific research conducted to characterize the properties of the WIPP site and the probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted to predict the containment properties of the WIPP disposal system. In May 1998, the EPA certified that the TRU waste disposal at the WIPP complies with its regulations. Waste disposal operations at WIPP commenced on March 28, 1999. The 1996 WIPP PA model of the disposal system included conceptual and mathematical representations of key hydrologic and geochemical processes. These key processes were identified over a 22-year period involving data collection, data interpretation, computer models, and sensitivity studies to evaluate the importance of uncertainty and of processes that were difficult to evaluate by other means. Key developments in the area of geochemistry were the evaluation of gas generation mechanisms in the repository; development of a model of chemical conditions in the repository and actinide concentrations in brine; selecting MgO backfill and demonstrating its effects experimentally; and determining the chemical retardation capability of the Culebra. Key developments in the area of hydrology were evacuating the potential for groundwater to dissolve the Salado Formation (the repository host formation), development of a regional model for

  7. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  8. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists...

  10. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  11. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  12. From Self-Awareness to Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Englander, Meryl R.

    1974-01-01

    Highest priority of education is to help students utilize as much of their talent as is possible. Third Force psychologists would interpret this as becoming self-actualized. Self-awareness is required for psychological growth. Without self-awareness there can be no growth, no mental hygiene, and no self-actualization. (Author)

  13. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  14. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  15. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  16. Perceived and Actual Student Support Needs in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Lya; Visser, Yusra Laila

    2000-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic, affective, and administrative support expectations of distance education students, and to compare actual expectations of distance education students with the instructor's perceptions of such expectations. Results demonstrated divergence between perceived and actual expectations of student support in…

  17. Gebrauchstexte im Fremdsprachenunterricht ("Actual" Texts in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Presents for analysis actual texts and texts specially written for teaching, arriving at a basis for a typology of actual texts. Defines teaching aims using such texts, and develops, from a TV program, a teaching unit used in a Karlsruhe school. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.

    1997-01-01

    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  19. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  20. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  1. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  2. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  3. Does Decrease in Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase by Antisense RbcS Lead to a Higher N-Use Efficiency of Photosynthesis under Conditions of Saturating CO2 and Light in Rice Plants?

    PubMed

    Makino, A.; Shimada, T.; Takumi, S.; Kaneko, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Shimamoto, K.; Nakano, H.; Miyao-Tokutomi, M.; Mae, T.; Yamamoto, N.

    1997-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants with decreased ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) were obtained by transformation with the rice rbcS antisense gene under the control of the rice rbcS promoter. The primary transformants were screened for the Rubisco to leaf N ratio, and the transformant with 65% wild-type Rubisco was selected as a plant set with optimal Rubisco content at saturating CO2 partial pressures for photosynthesis under conditions of high irradiance and 25[deg]C. This optimal Rubisco content was estimated from the amounts and kinetic constants of Rubisco and the gas-exchange data. The R1 selfed progeny of the selected transformant were grown hydroponically with different N concentrations. Rubisco content in the R1 population was distributed into two groups: 56 plants had about 65% wild-type Rubisco, whereas 23 plants were very similar to the wild type. Although the plants with decreased Rubisco showed 20% lower rates of light-saturated photosynthesis in normal air (36 Pa CO2), they had 5 to 15% higher rates of photosynthesis in elevated partial pressures of CO2, (100-115 Pa CO2) than the wild-type plants for a given leaf N content. We conclude that the rice plants with 65% wild-type Rubisco show a higher N-use efficiency of photosynthesis under conditions of saturating CO2 and high irradiance. PMID:12223722

  4. The potential leaching and mobilization of trace elements from FGD-gypsum of a coal-fired power plant under water re-circulation conditions.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Patricia; Castro, Iria; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Experimental and geochemical modelling studies were carried out to identify mineral and solid phases containing major, minor, and trace elements and the mechanism of the retention of these elements in Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD)-gypsum samples from a coal-fired power plant under filtered water recirculation to the scrubber and forced oxidation conditions. The role of the pH and related environmental factors on the mobility of Li, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Mo, and U from FGD-gypsums for a comprehensive assessment of element leaching behaviour were also carried out. Results show that the extraction rate of the studied elements generally increases with decreasing the pH value of the FGD-gypsum leachates. The increase of the mobility of elements such as U, Se, and As in the FGD-gypsum entails the modification of their aqueous speciation in the leachates; UO2SO4, H2Se, and HAsO2 are the aqueous complexes with the highest activities under acidic conditions. The speciation of Zn, Li, and Ni is not affected in spite of pH changes; these elements occur as free cations and associated to SO4(2) in the FGD-gypsum leachates. The mobility of Cu and Mo decreases by decreasing the pH of the FGD-gypsum leachates, which might be associated to the precipitation of CuSe2 and MoSe2, respectively. Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry of the solid phase combined with geochemical modelling of the aqueous phase has proved useful in understanding the mobility and geochemical behaviour of elements and their partitioning into FGD-gypsum samples. PMID:26040733

  5. Optimal Thermolysis Conditions for Soil Carbon Storage on Plant Residue Burning: Modeling the Trade-Off between Thermal Decomposition and Subsequent Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Masako; Wagai, Rota; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Field burning of plant biomass is a widespread practice that provides charred materials to soils. Its impact on soil C sequestration remains unclear due to the heterogeneity of burning products and difficulty in monitoring the material's biodegradation in fields. Basic information is needed on the relationship between burning conditions and the resulting quantity/quality of residue-derived C altered by thermal decomposition and biodegradation. In this study, we thermolyzed residues (rice straw and husk) at different temperatures (200-600°C) under two oxygen availability conditions and measured thermal mass loss, C compositional change by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy, and biodegradability of the thermally altered residues by laboratory aerobic incubation. A trade-off existed between thermal and microbial decomposition: when burned at higher temperatures, residues experience a greater mass loss but become more recalcitrant via carbonization. When an empirical model accounting for the observed trade-off was projected over 10 to 10 yr, we identified the threshold temperature range (330-400°C) above and below which remaining residue C is strongly reduced. This temperature range corresponded to the major loss of O-alkyl C and increase in aromatic C. The O/C molar ratios of the resultant residues decreased to 0.2 to 0.4, comparable to those of chars in fire-prone field soils reported previously. Although the negative impacts of biomass burning need to be accounted for, the observed relationship may help to assess the long-term fate of burning-derived C and to enhance soil C sequestration. PMID:25602338

  6. Insecticidal activity of cerrado plant extracts on Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André A M; de Paula, José E; Espíndola, Laila S

    2006-01-01

    Chagas' disease is chiefly transmitted by feces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae) that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or animals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of triatomines. Insecticidal activity of 24 Cerrado plant extracts belonging to five species of four families were assayed on fourth instar nymphs of Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions. For the extract application on triatomines, 50 microg of the extract were topically applied in duplicate on dorsal tergites of ten insects. Insects topically treated with acetone, ethanol, as well as insects with no treatment were used as controls. Triatomines were observed over a 28-day period. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts of Simarouba versicolor, Guarea kunthiana, Guarea guidonia and Talauma ovata caused mortality between 20% and 95% of R. milesi in comparison with the controls, which showed no insect mortality. These preliminary data suggest that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of S. versicolor and the hexanic extract of the root of G. guidonia, responsible for a 95% and 75% insect mortality, respectively, should be chemically investigated and monitored through biological assays in order to determine their insecticidal components, that could be used as a molecular model or as biorational compounds for use in insect control programmes. PMID:17352079

  7. Metabolomic profiling from leaves and roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium-deficient condition.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jwakyung; Lee, Suyeon; Lee, Yejin; Ha, Sangkeun; Song, Beomheon; Kim, Taewan; Waters, Brian M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-12-01

    Specific metabolic network responses to mineral deficiencies are not well-defined. Here, we conducted a detailed broad-scale identification of metabolic responses of tomato leaves and roots to N, P or K deficiency. Tomato plants were grown hydroponically under optimal (5mM N, 0.5mM P, or 5mM K) and deficient (0.5mM N, 0.05mM P, or 0.5mM K) conditions and metabolites were measured by LC-MS and GC-MS. Based on these results, deficiency of any of these three minerals affected energy production and amino acid metabolism. N deficiency generally led to decreased amino acids and organic acids, and increased soluble sugars. P deficiency resulted in increased amino acids and organic acids in roots, and decreased soluble sugars. K deficiency caused accumulation of soluble sugars and amino acids in roots, and decreased organic acids and amino acids in leaves. Notable metabolic pathway alterations included; (1) increased levels of α-ketoglutarate and raffinose family oligosaccharides in N, P or K-deficient tomato roots, and (2) increased putrescine in K-deficient roots. These findings provide new knowledge of metabolic changes in response to mineral deficiencies. PMID:26706058

  8. Effects of PAR and UV-B radiation on herbal yield, bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity of some medicinal plants under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation are among the main environmental factors acting on herbal yield and biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of biologically effective UV-B light (280-315 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm) on herbal yield, content and composition, as well as antioxidant capacity of essential oils and polyphenols of lemon catmint (Nepeta cataria L. f. citriodora), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) under controlled greenhouse cultivation. Intensive UV-B radiation (2.5 kJ m(-2)  d(-1) ) influenced positively the herbal yield. The essential oil content and composition of studied herbs were mainly affected by PAR and UV-B radiation. In general, additional low-dose UV-B radiation (1 kJ m(-2) d(-1) ) was most effective for biosynthesis of polyphenols in herbs. Analysis of major polyphenolic compounds provided differences in sensitivity of main polyphenols to PAR and UV-B radiation. Essential oils and polyphenol-rich extracts of radiated herbs showed essential differences in antioxidant capacity by the ABTS system. Information from this study can be useful for herbal biomass and secondary metabolite production with superior quality under controlled environment conditions. PMID:22989229

  9. Efficient conversion of brown grease produced by municipal wastewater treatment plant into biofuel using aluminium chloride hexahydrate under very mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carlo; Lopez, Antonio; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Wastes produced by oil/water separation at the wastewater treatment plant of Bari West (Southern Italy) were taken, characterized and converted. About 12% of this material was composed of greases, mainly made of free fatty acids (50%) and soaps (34%), and was easily separable by the aqueous phase through a hot centrifugation. After chemical activation of this fatty fraction, a direct esterification was carried out under very mild conditions (320K and atmospheric pressure), converting more than 90% of the original free fatty acids into the respective methyl esters in less than 4h, by using AlCl3·6H2O. The activation energy correlated to the use of this catalyst was also calculated (Eaest=43.9kJmol(-1)). The very low cost of the biodiesel produced (0.45€L(-1)) and the associated relevant specific energy (5.02MJ kgFAMEs(-1)) make such a process a really sustainable and effective example of valorization of a waste. PMID:24434702

  10. Screening Mammography: Test Set Data Can Reasonably Describe Actual Clinical Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Warwick; McEntee, Mark F.; Kench, Peter L.; Reed, Warren M.; Heard, Rob; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the extent to which test set reading can represent actual clinical reporting in screening mammography. Materials and Methods: Institutional ethics approval was granted, and informed consent was obtained from each participating screen reader. The need for informed consent with respect to the use of patient materials was waived. Two hundred mammographic examinations were selected from examinations reported by 10 individual expert screen readers, resulting in 10 reader-specific test sets. Data generated from actual clinical reports were compared with three test set conditions: clinical test set reading with prior images, laboratory test set reading with prior images, and laboratory test set reading without prior images. A further set of five expert screen readers was asked to interpret a common set of images in two identical test set conditions to establish a baseline for intraobserver variability. Confidence scores (from 1 to 4) were assigned to the respective decisions made by readers. Region-of-interest (ROI) figures of merit (FOMs) and side-specific sensitivity and specificity were described for the actual clinical reporting of each reader-specific test set and were compared with those for the three test set conditions. Agreement between pairs of readings was performed by using the Kendall coefficient of concordance. Results: Moderate or acceptable levels of agreement were evident (W = 0.69–0.73, P < .01) when describing group performance between actual clinical reporting and test set conditions that were reasonably close to the established baseline (W = 0.77, P < .01) and were lowest when prior images were excluded. Higher median values for ROI FOMs were demonstrated for the test set conditions than for the actual clinical reporting values; this was possibly linked to changes in sensitivity. Conclusion: Reasonable levels of agreement between actual clinical reporting and test set conditions can be achieved, although inflated sensitivity

  11. Before the Roof Caves in: A Predictive Model for Physical Plant Renewal--Part II. APPA Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Robert E.; Biedenweg, Frederick M.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of the use of a mathematical model to evaluate the future renewal and replacement, or maintenance requirements, of the college physical plant are provided. The model, which was developed at Stanford University, simulates actual conditions at a specific location and allows resource allocation to be based on a definable quantitative base.…

  12. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  13. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  14. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  15. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  16. HVAC [Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning] subsystem design description: 4 x 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR [High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    The HVAC system is a subsystem within the Mechanical Services Group (MSG). The HVAC system for the 4 x 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR Plant presently consists of ten, nonsafety-related subsystems located in the Nuclear Island (NI) and Energy Conversion Area (ECA) of the plant.

  17. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hiroyo; Shioji, Norio; Hamasaki, Akihiro

    1995-12-31

    To mitigate CO{sub 2} discharged from thermal power plants, studies on CO{sub 2} fixation by the photosynthesis of microalgae using actual exhaust gas have been carried out. The results are as follows: (1) A method is proposed for evaluating the maximum photosynthesis rate in the raceway cultivator using only the algal physical properties; (2) Outdoor cultivation tests taking actual flue gas were performed with no trouble or break throughout 1 yr using the strain collected in the test; (3) The produced microalgae is effective as solid fuel; and (4) The feasibility studies of this system were performed. The system required large land area, but the area is smaller than that required for other biomass systems, such as tree farms.

  18. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  19. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  20. Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

  1. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  2. [The actual conditions and problems of terminal home nursing care at our hospital].

    PubMed

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kawashiri, Hiroaki; Hirakata, Makoto; Yamasaki, Misaki; Sato, Mariko; Miura, Hiroshi; Murata, Tsuneari; Takagi, Hiroaki

    2009-12-01

    In 2006, we reconfirmed Suwachuo hospital slogan as "When there is a need of community, we will do our best to meet it" and the department of home nursing care is officially established in our hospital next spring. A death rate at home is generally used to evaluate a home nursing care, and this rate at our department was 60.8% in 2008. However, community needs various options in addition to death at home. Keeping an eye on community opinions is of great importance. PMID:20443392

  3. [Conditions of actual nutrition and immunological reactivity of women students in different seasons].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, I P; Nasolodin, V V; Kononov, O V; Karasev, Iu P

    2000-01-01

    On investigating of 60 healthy female students with use of a questionnaire method, it was found out what amount of basic nutrients, such as: proteins (especially those of animal origin), animal fats, hydrocarbons, vitamins (C, B1, B2, B6) mineral elements (calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus) in students nourishment was lower in the spring than in the fall. Both in the spring and in the fall this amount was not appropriate for recommended physiological nourishment standards. On investigating of immunological reactivity of these students season's fluctuations for some indexes of cellular and humoral immunity were found. Lowering of T-lymphocytes lever together with lowering of blood immunoglobulines (especially those of G-calss) and lowering of lever of immunological complexes, circulating in the blood in spring comparing to the fall combinated with growth of B-lymphocytes lever. PMID:11452376

  4. Orthogonal-state-based deterministic secure quantum communication without actual transmission of the message qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-09-01

    Recently, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of direct quantum communication without actual transmission of particles is proposed by Salih et al. (Phys Rev Lett 110:170502, 2013) using chained quantum Zeno effect. The counterfactual condition (claim) of Salih et al. is weakened here to the extent that transmission of particles is allowed, but transmission of the message qubits (the qubits on which the secret information is encoded) is not allowed. Remaining within this weaker (non-counterfactual) condition, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of deterministic secure quantum communication is proposed using entanglement swapping, where actual transmission of the message qubits is not required. Further, it is shown that there exists a large class of quantum states that can be used to implement the proposed protocol. The security of the proposed protocol originates from monogamy of entanglement. As the protocol can be implemented without using conjugate coding, its security is independent of non-commutativity.

  5. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  6. Bio-preparates support the productivity of potato plants grown under desert farming conditions of north Sinai: Five years of field trials.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Mohammed T; Hamza, Mervat A; Youssef, Hanan H; Youssef, Gehan H; Fayez, Mohamed; Monib, Mohamed; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture as well as good agricultural practices (GAPs) intrigues the concern of both consumers and producers of agricultural commodities. Bio-preparates of various rhizospheric microorganisms (RMOs) are potential sources of biological inputs supporting plant nutrition and health. The response of open-field potatoes to the application of RMO bio-preparates, the biofertilizer "Biofertile" and the bioagent "Biocontrol", were experimented over 5 successive years under N-hunger of north Sinai desert soils. Both vegetative and tuber yields of a number of tested cultivars were significantly improved due to rhizobacterial treatments. In the majority of cases, the biofertilizer "Biofertile" did successfully supply ca. 50% of plant N requirements, as the yield of full N-fertilized plants was comparable to those received 50% N simultaneously with bio-preparates treatment. The magnitude of inoculation was cultivar-dependent; cvs. Valor and Oceania were among the most responsive ones. Bio-preparate introduction to the plant-soil system was successful via soaking of tubers and/or spraying the plant canopy. The "Biocontrol" formulation was supportive in controlling plant pathogens and significantly increased the fruit yields. The cumulative effect of both bio-preparates resulted in tuber yield increases of ca. 25% over control. PMID:25685470

  7. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. PMID:26126174

  8. Pu speciation in actual and simulated aged wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lezama-pacheco, Juan S; Conradson, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (XAFS) at the Pu L{sub II/III} edge was used to determine the speciation of this element in (1) Hanford Z-9 Pu crib samples, (2) deteriorated waste resins from a chloride process ion-exchange purification line, and (3) the sediments from two Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Liter Scale simulant brine systems. The Pu speciation in all of these samples except one is within the range previously displayed by PuO{sub 2+x-2y}(OH){sub y}{center_dot}zH{sub 2}O compounds, which is expected based on the putative thermodynamic stability of this system for Pu equilibrated with excess H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} under environmental conditions. The primary exception was a near neutral brine experiment that displayed evidence for partial substitution of the normal O-based ligands with Cl{sup -} and a concomitant expansion of the Pu-Pu distance relative to the much more highly ordered Pu near neighbor shell in PuO{sub 2}. However, although the Pu speciation was not necessarily unusual, the Pu chemistry identified via the history of these samples did exhibit unexpected patterns, the most significant of which may be that the presence of the Pu(V)-oxo species may decrease rather than increase the overall solubility of these compounds. Several additional aspects of the Pu speciation have also not been previously observed in laboratory-based samples. The molecular environmental chemistry of Pu is therefore likely to be more complicated than would be predicted based solely on the behavior of PuO{sub 2} under laboratory conditions.

  9. A Flawed Argument Against Actual Infinity in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Laraudogoitia, Jon

    2010-12-01

    In “Nonconservation of Energy and loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set” (2010) Atkinson and Johnson argue in favour of the idea that an actual infinity should be excluded from physics, at least in the sense that physical systems involving an actual infinity of component elements should not be admitted. In this paper I show that the argument Atkinson and Johnson use is erroneous and that an analysis of the situation considered by them is possible without requiring any type of rejection of the idea of infinity.

  10. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  11. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  12. Tissue free water tritium and organically bound tritium in the rice plant acutely exposed to atmospheric HTO vapor under semi-outdoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Lim, K M; Lee, W Y; Diabaté, S; Strack, S

    2002-01-01

    Potted rice plants were exposed to atmospheric HTO in a box outdoors for 1 h at 9 different times from booting to yellow-ripe stages. It is indicated that the leaf TFWT concentration may reach equilibrium within 1 h in clear weather. The plant TFWT concentration decreased at a rapid rate for the first several hours and at a much slower rate thereafter. The decrease till harvest was by factors of 600-95,000 depending on the plant parts and exposure times. The time course of the ear OBT concentration was characterized by the exposure time. After exposure at the booting to heading stages, the leaf OBT concentration decreased rapidly for the first several hours and then very slowly. The plant OBT concentration was initially about 2 orders of magnitude lower, but at harvest an order of magnitude higher, than the TFWT concentration. The OBT concentration in hulled seeds at harvest varied with exposure times by a factor of 70, being highest in the exposure performed at the earlier stage of rapid grain growth. Also in this exposure, the plant total OBT was greatest due to the seed OBT. PMID:11763104

  13. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  14. 26 CFR 513.8 - Addressee not actual owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.8 Addressee not actual owner. (a) If any person with an address in Ireland who receives a dividend from a United States corporation with respect to which United... such reduced rate of 15 percent, such recipient in Ireland will withhold an additional amount of...

  15. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  16. Self Actualization of Females in an Experimental Orientation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Wilt, Robert B.; Klocke, Ronald A.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional orientation program was developed that forced students to consider their physical and psychological outer limits. Students were confronted in a new and unique way that contributed to the self actualization process of the female portion of the group. (Author/BY)

  17. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  18. Research into Students' Perceptions of Preferred and Actual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A.; And Others

    Measures of both preferred and actual classroom and school environment were administered to 1,675 secondary school students in New South Wales (Australia). Shortened versions of the My Class Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, and Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire, as well as the Quality of School Life questionnaire were…

  19. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  20. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The designated representative of a combustion source shall submit...

  1. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  2. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  3. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  4. Involvement of Hormone- and ROS-Signaling Pathways in the Beneficial Action of Humic Substances on Plants Growing under Normal and Stressing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrés Calderín; Olaetxea, Maite; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Mora, Verónica; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Garcia-Mina, José María

    2016-01-01

    The importance of soil humus in soil fertility has been well established many years ago. However, the knowledge about the whole mechanisms by which humic molecules in the rhizosphere improve plant growth remains partial and rather fragmentary. In this review we discuss the relationships between two main signaling pathway families that are affected by humic substances within the plant: one directly related to hormonal action and the other related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this sense, our aims are to try the integration of all these events in a more comprehensive model and underline some points in the model that remain unclear and deserve further research. PMID:27366744

  5. Involvement of Hormone- and ROS-Signaling Pathways in the Beneficial Action of Humic Substances on Plants Growing under Normal and Stressing Conditions.

    PubMed

    García, Andrés Calderín; Olaetxea, Maite; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Mora, Verónica; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Garcia-Mina, José María

    2016-01-01

    The importance of soil humus in soil fertility has been well established many years ago. However, the knowledge about the whole mechanisms by which humic molecules in the rhizosphere improve plant growth remains partial and rather fragmentary. In this review we discuss the relationships between two main signaling pathway families that are affected by humic substances within the plant: one directly related to hormonal action and the other related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this sense, our aims are to try the integration of all these events in a more comprehensive model and underline some points in the model that remain unclear and deserve further research. PMID:27366744

  6. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil.

    PubMed

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K

    2014-03-01

    Contamination of fresh produce could represent a public health concern because no terminal kill step is applied during harvest or at the processing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants during the postharvest processing step. The objective of the current study was to determine the potential internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into spinach roots and subsequent transfer to the edible parts. Because curli are involved in biofilm formation, we investigated whether their presence influence the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach. Further, the effect of the spinach cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was evaluated. Spinach plants were grown in contaminated soil as well as hydroponically to prevent mechanical wounding of the roots and inadvertent transfer of pathogens from the contamination source to the non-exposed plant surfaces. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 could internalize into hydroponically grown intact spinach plants through the root system and move to the stem and leaf level. The incidence of internalization was significantly higher in hydroponically grown plants when roots were exposed to 7 log CFU/mL compared to those exposed to 5 log CFU/mL. The effect of cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was not significant (P>0.05) for the analyzed spinach varieties, internalization incidences showing almost equal distribution between Space and Waitiki, 49.06% and 50.94% respectively. Wounding of the root system in hydroponically grown spinach increased the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 internalization and translocation to the edible portions of the plant. Experimental contamination of the plants grown in soil resulted in a greater number of internalization events then in those grown hydroponically, suggesting that E. coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil

  7. Transcriptome Profiling and Functional Analysis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Reveals a General Conserved Response to Acidic Conditions (pH 5.5) and a Complex Acid-Mediated Signaling Involved in Agrobacterium-Plant Interactions▿

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ze-Chun; Liu, Pu; Saenkham, Panatda; Kerr, Kathleen; Nester, Eugene W.

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer requires that the virulence genes (vir regulon) on the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid be induced by plant phenolic signals in an acidic environment. Using transcriptome analysis, we found that these acidic conditions elicit two distinct responses: (i) a general and conserved response through which Agrobacterium modulates gene expression patterns to adapt to environmental acidification and (ii) a highly specialized acid-mediated signaling response involved in Agrobacterium-plant interactions. Overall, 78 genes were induced and 74 genes were repressed significantly under acidic conditions (pH 5.5) compared to neutral conditions (pH 7.0). Microarray analysis not only confirmed previously identified acid-inducible genes but also uncovered many new acid-induced genes which may be directly involved in Agrobacterium-plant interactions. These genes include virE0, virE1, virH1, and virH2. Further, the chvG-chvI two-component system, previously shown to be critical for virulence, was also induced under acid conditions. Interestingly, acidic conditions induced a type VI secretion system and a putative nonheme catalase. We provide evidence suggesting that acid-induced gene expression was independent of the VirA-VirG two-component system. Our results, together with previous data, support the hypothesis that there is three-step sequential activation of the vir regulon. This process involves a cascade regulation and hierarchical signaling pathway featuring initial direct activation of the VirA-VirG system by the acid-activated ChvG-ChvI system. Our data strengthen the notion that Agrobacterium has evolved a mechanism to perceive and subvert the acidic conditions of the rhizosphere to an important signal that initiates and directs the early virulence program, culminating in T-DNA transfer. PMID:17993523

  8. Effect of processing of rapeseed under defined conditions in a pilot plant on chemical composition and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in rapeseed meal for pigs.

    PubMed

    Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Schöne, F; Messerschmidt, U; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2015-06-01

    Five rapeseed meals (RSM) were produced from a single batch of rapeseed in a large-scale pilot plant under standardized conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effect of residence time in the desolventizer/toaster (DT) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in RSM. Four RSM, with 48, 64, 76, and 93 min residence time and using unsaturated steam in the DT, referred to as RSM48, RSM64, RSM76, and RSM93, respectively, and 1 low-glucosinolate RSM, which was subjected to sequential treatment with unsaturated steam, saturated steam, and dry heat in the DT, referred to as low-GSL RSM, were assayed. Six barrows (average initial BW = 22 ± 1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to a 5 × 6 row × column design with 5 diets and 5 periods. The 5 RSM were included in a cornstarch-casein-based basal diet. In addition, basal ileal endogenous losses and SID of AA originating from casein were determined at the conclusion of the experiment in 2 additional periods by means of the regression method and using 3 graded levels of casein. The SID of AA in the 5 RSM was determined in difference to SID of AA originating from casein. The glucosinolates (GSL) were efficiently reduced, whereas NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents increased and reactive Lys (rLys) and Lys:CP ratio decreased as the residence time in the DT was increased from 48 to 93 min. The SID of most AA in RSM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) as the residence time in the DT increased from 48 to 93 min. Moreover, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in SID of AA with increasing NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents in these RSM, whereas SID of AA linearly decreased (P < 0.05) with decreasing levels of GSL and rLys and a decreasing Lys:CP ratio. The decrease (P < 0.05) in SID of AA amounted from 3 up to 6 (percentage units) for most AA, except for SID of Cys and Lys, which decreased by 10 and 11%-units (P < 0.05), respectively, as the residence time

  9. Volatile organic compounds as non-invasive markers for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Niederbacher, B; Winkler, J B; Schnitzler, J P

    2015-09-01

    Plants emit a great variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can actively participate in plant growth and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. VOC emissions are strongly dependent on environmental conditions; the greatest ambiguity is whether or not the predicted change in climate will influence and modify plant-pest interactions that are mediated by VOCs. The constitutive and induced emission patterns between plant genotypes, species, and taxa are highly variable and can be used as pheno(chemo)typic markers to distinguish between different origins and provenances. In recent years significant progress has been made in molecular and genetic plant breeding. However, there is actually a lack of knowledge in functionally linking genotypes and phenotypes, particularly in analyses of plant-environment interactions. Plant phenotyping, the assessment of complex plant traits such as growth, development, tolerance, resistance, etc., has become a major bottleneck, and quantitative information on genotype-environment relationships is the key to addressing major future challenges. With increasing demand to support and accelerate progress in breeding for novel traits, the plant research community faces the need to measure accurately increasingly large numbers of plants and plant traits. In this review article, we focus on the promising outlook of VOC phenotyping as a fast and non-invasive measure of phenotypic dynamics. The basic principle is to define plant phenotypes according to their disease resistance and stress tolerance, which in turn will help in improving the performance and yield of economically relevant plants. PMID:25969554

  10. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  11. Two years of the operation of a domestic MBR wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikorová, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The paper evaluates the results of data obtained from two years of observing an actual domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an immersed membrane module. The domestic MBR (membrane bioreactor) WWTP was linked to a dwelling with four residents. Two different commercial flat sheet membrane modules were investigated. The membrane modules, as well as the whole WWTP, were tested with different fluxes as well as the response of the membrane and activated sludge to different conditions, such as actual peak wastewater flows, extremes temperatures (a winter below 5 °C), and high pH values.

  12. Actualization of the Hydrogeological Model of the Ojos Negros VALLEY\\'{ }s Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Gaytan, J.; Vazquez Gonzalez, R.

    2002-12-01

    A regional groundwater flow model is actualized in order to study the water table behavior in the zone of the Ojos Negros valley, which is located in the state of Baja California, Mexico. In the actualization process of the Ojos Negros valley's hydrogeological model, is used all the information proportionate for the National Commission of Water, as well as that information obtained from academic and research works achieved in the study zone, about the hydrogeological conditions that present the Ojos Negros and Real del Castillo aquifers. In addition, a groundwater flow simulator is modified and improved from the numerical point of view. The actualized simulator solves numerically the Boussinesq equation, using centrals finite-differences techniques, the "fully implicit" approximation for the temporary variation, and the iterative method of successive over relaxation. Also it counts with the structure to considering the temporary variation of the different variables and geohydrologics conditions that has influence upon the groundwater system, and with programming subroutines in MATLAB (2000) for the graphic display of results. The simulation results are appropriate for determining the phreatic surface and the flow directions in different time intervals. The phreatic surface information can be used for studying the behavior (temporary evolution) of water table in the aquifers.

  13. Influence of Light Conditions on Biology and Chemistry in the Peanut Plant: Flavonoids and Spermidines from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flowers and Studies of the Photoisomerization of Spermidine Conjugates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  14. Two volatile organic compounds trigger plant self-defense against a bacterial pathogen and a sucking insect in cucumber under open field conditions.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  15. Effect of different ecological conditions on secondary metabolite production and gene expression in two mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium species: F. verticillioides and F. equiseti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Fusarium includes many species that are plant pathogens and many produce harmful secondary metabolites including fumonisins and trichothecenes. These mycotoxins can cause disease in animals and have been associated with cancers and birth defects in humans. Many factors influence the produc...

  16. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  17. The Influence of 1-Triacontanol on the Growth, Flowering, and Quality of Potted Bougainvillea Plants (Bougainvillea glabra var. “Elizabeth Angus”) under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Faruq, Golam; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2013-01-01

    Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored at the vegetative and reproductive growth stages in potted Bougainvillea plants treated with five different concentrations of TRIA. Advanced flowering, flower bud number, and blooming rate increased significantly with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Similarly, photosynthetic rate, pigment content, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance increased significantly with 2.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Higher levels of N, P, and K, as well as increased total soluble solids (TSS) and higher sugar and protein contents, were recorded in treated plants. Furthermore, 46% more flowers, a 1.5-fold increase in bract weight, increased longevity, and 40% less leaf abscission were recorded following 2.5 mg/L TRIA treatment. Phenol and flavonoid contents, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and antioxidant activities were also markedly increased with 2.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. However, ethylene production was significantly lower in the treated plants. Positive correlations were observed between leaf TSS and flowering time and flower number, between leaf sugar content and bract weight, and between net photosynthesis and bract growth and dry matter production. It can be concluded that the foliar spray of TRIA stimulates growth, enhances flowering, and improves the quality of potted Bougainvillea plants. PMID:23970832

  18. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  19. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  20. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling